Science.gov

Sample records for variable pitch propellers

  1. Variable Pitch Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1920-01-01

    In this report are described four different types of propellers which appeared at widely separated dates, but which were exhibited together at the last Salon de l'Aeronautique. The four propellers are the Chaviere variable pitch propeller, the variable pitch propeller used on the Clement Bayard dirigible, the variable pitch propeller used on Italian dirigibles, and the Levasseur variable pitch propeller.

  2. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that its...

  3. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that its...

  4. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that its...

  5. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that its...

  6. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that its...

  7. Adaptive control of a jet turboshaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller using multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Narjes; Khosravi, Alireza; Sarhadi, Pouria

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a multiple model adaptive control (MMAC) method is proposed for a gas turbine engine. The model of a twin spool turbo-shaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller includes various operating points. Variations in fuel flow and propeller pitch inputs produce different operating conditions which force the controller to be adopted rapidly. Important operating points are three idle, cruise and full thrust cases for the entire flight envelope. A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) version of second level adaptation using multiple models is developed. Also, stability analysis using Lyapunov method is presented. The proposed method is compared with two conventional first level adaptation and model reference adaptive control techniques. Simulation results for JetCat SPT5 turbo-shaft engine demonstrate the performance and fidelity of the proposed method.

  8. Propeller/fan-pitch feathering apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, Jan C. (Inventor); Adamson, Arthur P. (Inventor); Bathori, Julius (Inventor); Walker, Neil (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pitch feathering system for a gas turbine driven aircraft propeller having multiple variable pitch blades utilizes a counter-weight linked to the blades. The weight is constrained to move, when effecting a pitch change, only in a radial plane and about an axis which rotates about the propeller axis. The system includes a linkage allowing the weight to move through a larger angle than the associated pitch change of the blade.

  9. Low-order nonlinear dynamic model of IC engine-variable pitch propeller system for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Jacques C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine coupled to a variable pitch propeller. The low-order, nonlinear time-dependent model is useful for simulating the propulsion system of general aviation single-engine light aircraft. This model is suitable for investigating engine diagnostics and monitoring and for control design and development. Furthermore, the model may be extended to provide a tool for the study of engine emissions, fuel economy, component effects, alternative fuels, alternative engine cycles, flight simulators, sensors, and actuators. Results show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the propulsion system dynamics from zero to 10 Hertz.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and at...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and at...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate...

  15. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine r.p...

  16. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine r.p...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready synchronization...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready synchronization...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready synchronization...

  20. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used to limit the low pitch position of the propeller blades must be set so that the engine does not... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits...

  1. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used to limit the low pitch position of the propeller blades must be set so that the engine does not... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits...

  2. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... used to limit the low pitch position of the propeller blades must be set so that the engine does not... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits...

  3. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure— (1) Safe operation...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of each...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of each...

  6. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure- (1) Safe operation...

  7. Development of a Passively Varying Pitch Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzen, Stearns Beamon

    Small general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial systems are often equipped with sophisticated navigation, control, and other avionics, but retain propulsion systems consisting of retrofitted radio control and ultralight equipment. Consequently, new high performance airframes often rely on relatively primitive propulsive technology. This trend is beginning to shift with recent advances in small turboprop engines, fuel injected reciprocating engines, and improved electric technologies. Although these systems are technologically advanced, they are often paired with standard fixed pitch propellers. To fully realize the potential of these aircraft and the new generation of engines, small propellers which can efficiently transmit power over wide flight envelopes and a variety of power settings must be developed. This work demonstrates a propeller which passively adjusts to incoming airflow at a low penalty to aircraft weight and complexity. This allows the propeller to operate in an efficient configuration over a wide flight envelope, and can prevent blade stall in low-velocity / highly-loaded thrust cases and over-speeding at high flight speeds. The propeller incorporates blades which pivot freely on a radial axis and are aerodynamically tailored to attain and maintain a pitch angle yielding favorable local blade angles of attack, matched to changing inflow conditions. This blade angle is achieved through the use of reflexed airfoils designed for a positive pitching moment, comparable to those used on many tailless flying wings. By setting the axis of rotation at a point forward of the blade aerodynamic center, the blades will naturally adjust to a predetermined positive lift 'trim' condition. Then, as inflow conditions change, the blade angle will automatically pivot to maintain the same angle with respect to incoming air. Computational, wind tunnel, and flight test results indicate that the extent of efficient propeller operation can be increased dramatically as

  8. EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF A CONTROLLABLE-PITCH SUPERCAVITATING PROPELLER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Studies were made of cavitation performance and open-water characteristics of a controllable-pitch supercavitating propeller with two, three, and...By means of several numerical examples, the feasibility of using a controllable-pitch supercavitating propeller is demonstrated. A practical application to a hydrofoil boat is also presented. (Author)

  9. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine r.p... approved overspeed, a means to limit the maximum engine and propeller speed to not more than the maximum... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33...

  10. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine r.p... approved overspeed, a means to limit the maximum engine and propeller speed to not more than the maximum... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33...

  11. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine r.p... approved overspeed, a means to limit the maximum engine and propeller speed to not more than the maximum... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight regime must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight regime must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight regime must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight regime must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight regime must...

  17. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  18. Impact absorbing blade mounts for variable pitch blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravenhall, R.; Salemme, C. T.; Adamson, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A variable pitch blade and blade mount are reported that are suitable for propellers, fans and the like and which have improved impact resistance. Composite fan blades and blade mounting arrangements permit the blades to pivot relative to a turbine hub about an axis generally parallel to the centerline of the engine upon impact of a large foreign object, such as a bird. Centrifugal force recovery becomes the principal energy absorbing mechanism and a blade having improved impact strength is obtained.

  19. Numerical study on the influence of boss cap fins on efficiency of controllable-pitch propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Zhanzhi; Qi, Wanjiang

    2013-03-01

    Numerical simulation is investigated to disclose how propeller boss cap fins (PBCF) operate utilizing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method. In addition, exploration of the influencing mechanism of PBCF on the open water efficiency of one controllable-pitch propeller is analyzed through the open water characteristic curves, blade surface pressure distribution and hub streamline distribution. On this basis, the influence of parameters including airfoil profile, diameter, axial position of installation and circumferential installation angle on the open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller is investigated. Numerical results show: for the controllable-pitch propeller, the thrust generated is at the optimum when the radius of boss cap fins is 1.5 times of propeller hub with an optimal installation position in the axial direction, and its optimal circumferential installation position is the midpoint of the extension line of the front and back ends of two adjacent propeller roots in the front of fin root. Under these optimal parameters, the gain of open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller with different advance velocity coefficients is greater than 0.01, which accounts for approximately an increase of 1%-5% of open water efficiency.

  20. Pitch variable liquid lens array using electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooKwang; Lee, Jin Su; Kim, Junoh; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-02-01

    These days micro lens array is used in various fields such as fiber coupling, laser collimation, imaging and sensor system and beam homogenizer, etc. One of important thing in using micro lens array is, choice of its pitch. Especially imaging systems like integral imaging or light-field camera, pitch of micro lens array defines the system property and thus it could limit the variability of the system. There are already researches about lens array using liquid, and droplet control by electrowetting. This paper reports the result of combining them, the liquid lens array that could vary its pitch by electrowetting. Since lens array is a repeated system, realization of a small part of lens array is enough to show its property. The lens array is composed of nine (3 by 3) liquid droplets on flat surface. On substrate, 11 line electrodes are patterned along vertical and horizontal direction respectively. The width of line electrodes is 300um and interval is 200um. Each droplet is positioned to contain three electrode lines for both of vertical and horizontal direction. So there is one remaining electrode line in each of outermost side for both direction. In original state the voltage is applied to inner electrodes. When voltage of outermost electrodes are turned on, eight outermost droplets move to outer side, thereby increasing pitch of lens array. The original pitch was 1.5mm and it increased to 2.5mm after electrodes of voltage applied is changed.

  1. Development of Static Balance Measurement and Correction Compound Platform for Single Blade of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zhang; Shijie, Su; Yilin, Yang; Guofu, Wang; Chao, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at the static balance of the controllable pitch propeller (CPP), a high efficiency static balance method based on the double-layer structure of the measuring table and gantry robot is adopted to realize the integration of torque measurement and corrected polish for controllable pitch propeller blade. The control system was developed by Microsoft Visual Studio 2015, and a composite platform prototype was developed. Through this prototype, conduct an experiment on the complete process of torque measurement and corrected polish based on a 300kg class controllable pitch propeller blade. The results show that the composite platform can correct the static balance of blade with a correct, efficient and labor-saving operation, and can replace the traditional method on static balance of the blade.

  2. Dual output variable pitch turbofan actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, R. H., Jr.; Broman, C. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved actuating mechanism was provided for a gas turbine engine incorporating fan blades of the variable pitch variety, the actuator adapted to rotate the individual fan blades within apertures in an associated fan disc. The actuator included means such as a pair of synchronizing ring gears, one on each side of the blade shanks, and adapted to engage pinions disposed thereon. Means were provided to impart rotation to the ring gears in opposite directions to effect rotation of the blade shanks in response to a predetermined input signal. In the event of system failure, a run-away actuator was prevented by an improved braking device which arrests the mechanism.

  3. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations, each...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations, each...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations, each...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations, each...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations, each...

  8. Measurement of the Differential and Total Thrust and Torque of Six Full-Scale Adjustable-Pitch Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W

    1933-01-01

    Force measurements giving total thrust and torque, and propeller slip stream surveys giving differential thrust and torque were simultaneously made on each of six full-scale propellers in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They were adjustable-pitch metal propellers 9.5 feet in diameter; three had modified Clark Y blade sections and three had modified RAF-6 blade sections. This report gives the differential thrust and torque and the variation caused by changing the propeller tip speed and the pitch setting. The total thrust and torque obtained from integration of the thrust and torque distribution curves are compared with those obtained by direct force measurements.

  9. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  10. Manufacture of threads with variable pitch by using noncircular gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slătineanu, L.; Dodun, O.; Coteață, M.; Coman, I.; Nagîț, G.; Beșliu, I.

    2016-08-01

    There are mechanical equipments in which shafts threaded with variable pitch are included. Such a shaft could be met in the case of worm specific to the double enveloping worm gearing. Over the years, the researchers investigated some possibilities to geometrically define and manufacture the shaft zones characterized by a variable pitch. One of the methods able to facilitate the manufacture of threads with variable pitch is based on the use of noncircular gears in the threading kinematic chain for threading by cutting. In order to design the noncircular gears, the mathematical law of pitch variation has to be known. An analysis of pitch variation based on geometrical considerations was developed in the case of a double enveloping globoid worm. Subsequently, on the bases of a proper situation, a numerical model was determined. In this way, an approximately law of pitch variation was determined and it could be taken into consideration when designing the noncircular gears included in the kinematic chain of the cutting machine tool.

  11. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    PubMed

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate only shall give each variable pitch propeller an...

  13. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate must give each variable pitch propeller an acceptable...

  14. Fracture Gap Reduction With Variable-Pitch Headless Screws.

    PubMed

    Roebke, Austin J; Roebke, Logan J; Goyal, Kanu S

    2018-04-01

    Fully threaded, variable-pitch, headless screws are used in many settings in surgery and have been extensively studied in this context, especially in regard to scaphoid fractures. However, it is not well understood how screw parameters such as diameter, length, and pitch variation, as well as technique parameters such as depth of drilling, affect gap closure. Acutrak 2 fully threaded variable-pitch headless screws of various diameters (Standard, Mini, and Micro) and lengths (16-28 mm) were inserted into polyurethane blocks of "normal" and "osteoporotic" bone model densities using a custom jig. Three drilling techniques (drill only through first block, 4 mm into second block, or completely through both blocks) were used. During screw insertion, fluoroscopic images were taken and later analyzed to measure gap reduction. The effect of backing the screw out after compression was evaluated. Drilling at least 4 mm past the fracture site reduces distal fragment push-off compared with drilling only through the proximal fragment. There were no significant differences in gap closure in the normal versus the osteoporotic model. The Micro screw had a smaller gap closure than both the Standard and the Mini screws. After block contact and compression with 2 subsequent full forward turns, backing the screw out by only 1 full turn resulted in gapping between the blocks. Intuitively, fully threaded headless variable-pitch screws can obtain compression between bone fragments only if the initial gap is less than the gap closed. Gap closure may be affected by drilling technique, screw size, and screw length. Fragment compression may be immediately lost if the screw is reversed. We describe characteristics of variable-pitch headless screws that may assist the surgeon in screw choice and method of use. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perseus B Parked on Ramp - Close-up of Controllable-Pitch Pusher Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A large, controllable-pitch pusher propeller at the rear is a distinctive feature of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  16. Propulsive performance of pitching foils with variable chordwise flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team

    2017-11-01

    Many swimming and flying animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural stiffness varies along their chord and span. Here we seek to evaluate the effect stiffness profile on the propulsive performance of pitching foils. Stiffness profile characterizes the variation in the local fin stiffness along the chord. To this aim, we developed a low order model of a functionally-graded material where the chordwise flexibility is modeled by two torsional springs along the chordline and the stiffness and location of the springs can be varied arbitrarily. The torsional spring structural model is then strongly coupled to a boundary element fluid model to simulate the fluid-structure interactions. Keeping the leading edge kinematics unchanged, we alter the stiffness profile of the foil and allow it to swim freely in response to the resulting hydrodynamic forces. We then detail the dependency of the hydrodynamic performance and the wake structure to the variations in the local structural properties of the foil.

  17. Negative Thrust and Torque Characteristics of an Adjustable-Pitch Metal Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the results of a series of negative thrust and torque measurements made with a 4 foot diameter model of a conventional aluminum-alloy propeller. The tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results show that the negative thrust is considerably affected by the shape and size of the body behind the propeller, that the maximum negative thrust increases with decrease in blade-angle setting, and that the drag of a locked propeller may be greatly reduced by feathering it into the wind. Several examples of possible applications of the data are given.

  18. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  19. Efficiency enhancement of a self-propelled pitching profile using non-sinusoidal trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekadem, M.; Chihani, E.; Oualli, H.; Hanchi, S.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2017-11-01

    A symmetrical profile is subjected to non-sinusoidal pitching motion. The airfoil has a chord length c = 0.006 m and a semi-circular leading edge with a diameter of D = 0.001 m. The extrados and intrados are two straight lines that intersect at a tapered trailing edge, and the pitching pivot point is positioned at the leading edge. The pitching frequency is in the range of 1 <= f <= 190 Hz, while the tangential amplitude of the flapping trailing edge varies from 18% to 114% of the foil cord. To improve the airfoil propulsive performance, two-dimensional numerical simulations are implemented on FLUENT. The Reynolds number based upon the maximum profile thickness D varies in the range of 35 <= Re <= 210 , which matches insect's Reynolds numbers. The foil movement is executed using the dynamic mesh technique and a user defined function (UDF). The adopted mesh has 70,445 nodes with 5,1960 quadrilateral cells. The results are in good agreement with prior experiments, and, compared to sinusoidal oscillations, show that non-sinusoidal flapping trajectories lead to advancing velocity increase of 550%. Additionally, if improved propulsive efficiency is sought, non-sinusoidal flapping lead to better thrust.

  20. Studies of Blade Shank Form and Pitch Distribution for Constant-Speed Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-01-01

    Federal »OTernaent wh(> hare a lajH.iaa.te int*r»et therein, and to United *t»*«a clliiena. jit tai*wr. llfc_ altj.and UlecreHon .who if miiilu...the latter —_ effect is ascribed to the stalling characteristics of tha.. _ _ thin profiles. It was also found that objectionable discozi...ofr- propellers, special_attention is given to the effects of overloading, RESTRICTED - — ( NACA TN No. 947 INTRODUCTION The necessity of

  1. Music therapy for chronic tinnitus: variability of tinnitus pitch in the course of therapy.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Elisabeth; Grapp, Miriam; Argstatter, Heike; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2014-04-01

    In general, tinnitus pitch has been observed to be variable across time for most patients experiencing tinnitus. Some tinnitus therapies relate to the dominant tinnitus pitch in order to adjust therapeutic interventions. As studies focusing on tinnitus pitch rarely conduct consecutive pitch matching in therapeutic settings, little is known about the course and variability of tinnitus pitch during therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability and development of tinnitus pitch in the course of therapeutic interventions. Tinnitus pitch was suspected to be highly variable. The researchers conducted a descriptive, retrospective analysis of data. A total of 175 adult patients experiencing chronic tinnitus served as participants. All patients had received a neuro-music therapy according to the "Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus." During therapeutic interventions lasting for 5 consecutive days, the individual tinnitus frequency was assessed daily by means of a tinnitus pitch-matching procedure. The extent of variability in tinnitus pitch was calculated by mean ratios of frequencies between subsequent tinnitus measurements. Analysis of variance of repeated measures and post hoc paired samples t-tests were used for comparison of means in tinnitus frequencies, and the test-retest reliability of measurements was obtained by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Tinnitus pitch displayed a variability of approximately 3/5 to 4/5 octaves per day. Overall, the mean frequency declined in the course of the therapy. Detailed analysis revealed three groups of patients with diverging tinnitus progression. The test-retest reliability between assessments turned out to be robust (r = 0.74 or higher). Considerable variation in tinnitus pitch was found. Consequently, a frequent rechecking of tinnitus frequency is suggested during frequency-specific acoustic stimulation in order to train appropriate frequency bands

  2. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbine based on a disturbance observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun; Lei, Xin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode controller based on disturbance observer (DOB) to optimize the efficiency of variable speed variable pitch (VSVP) wind turbine is developed and analyzed. Due to the highly nonlinearity of the VSVP system, the model is linearly processed to obtain the state space model of the system. Then, a conventional sliding mode controller is designed and a DOB is added to estimate wind speed. The proposed control strategy can successfully deal with the random nature of wind speed, the nonlinearity of VSVP system, the uncertainty of parameters and external disturbance. Via adding the observer to the sliding mode controller, it can greatly reduce the chattering produced by the sliding mode switching gain. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has the effectiveness and robustness.

  5. Acoustic and aerodynamic testing of a scale model variable pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.; Kazin, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    A fully reversible pitch scale model fan with variable pitch rotor blades was tested to determine its aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics. The single-stage fan has a design tip speed of 1160 ft/sec (353.568 m/sec) at a bypass pressure ratio of 1.5. Three operating lines were investigated. Test results show that the blade pitch for minimum noise also resulted in the highest efficiency for all three operating lines at all thrust levels. The minimum perceived noise on a 200-ft (60.96 m) sideline was obtained with the nominal nozzle. At 44% of takeoff thrust, the PNL reduction between blade pitch and minimum noise blade pitch is 1.8 PNdB for the nominal nozzle and decreases with increasing thrust. The small nozzle (6% undersized) has the highest efficiency at all part thrust conditions for the minimum noise blade pitch setting; although, the noise is about 1.0 PNdB higher for the small nozzle at the minimum noise blade pitch position.

  6. Circulation control propellers for general aviation, including a BASIC computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Braslow, A. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing variable pitch propeller mechanisms with circulation control (Coanada effect) propellers on general aviation airplanes was examined. The study used a specially developed computer program written in BASIC which could compare the aerodynamic performance of circulation control propellers with conventional propellers. The comparison of aerodynamic performance for circulation control, fixed pitch and variable pitch propellers is based upon the requirements for a 1600 kg (3600 lb) single engine general aviation aircraft. A circulation control propeller using a supercritical airfoil was shown feasible over a representative range of design conditions. At a design condition for high speed cruise, all three types of propellers showed approximately the same performance. At low speed, the performance of the circulation control propeller exceeded the performance for a fixed pitch propeller, but did not match the performance available from a variable pitch propeller. It appears feasible to consider circulation control propellers for single engine aircraft or multiengine aircraft which have their propellers on a common axis (tractor pusher). The economics of the replacement requires a study for each specific airplane application.

  7. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  8. Application of variable teeth pitch face mill as chatter suppression method for non-rigid technological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svinin, V. M.; Savilov, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the results of experimental studies on the effects of variation type for variable teeth pitches on low-rigidity workpiece chatter suppression efficiency in a feed direction and in a direction of the normal to the machined surface. Mill operation performance was identified by comparing the amplitudes of dominant chatter harmonics using constant and variable teeth pitches. The following variable pitch formation variants were studied: alternative, linear rising, and linear rising falling. The angle difference of adjacent teeth pitches ranged from 0 to 10°, from 5 to 8° and from 5 to 10° with interval of 1°. The experiments showed that for all variants, machining dynamics performance resulted from the difference of adjacent pitches corresponding to a half the chatter wavelength along the cutting surface. The alternative nature of a variable teeth pitch is most efficient as it almost completely suppresses the chatters. Theoretical explanations of the results are presented

  9. Kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine with a variable pitch angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Mateusz; Starosta, Roman; Fritzkowski, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    A computational model for the kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented. A H-type rotor turbine with a controlled pitch angle is considered. The aim of this solution is to improve the VAWT productivity. The discussed method is related to a narrow computational branch based on the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM theory). The paper can be regarded as a theoretical basis and an introduction to further studies with the application of BEM. The obtained torque values show the main advantage of using the variable pitch angle.

  10. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

  11. The sound intensity and characteristics of variable-pitch pulse oximeters.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hiroo; Haruna, Junichi; Mashimo, Takashi; Akita, Takeshi; Kinouchi, Keiko

    2008-06-01

    Various studies worldwide have found that sound levels in hospitals significantly exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and that this noise is associated with audible signals from various medical devices. The pulse oximeter is now widely used in health care; however the health effects associated with the noise from this equipment remain largely unclarified. Here, we analyzed the sounds of variable-pitch pulse oximeters, and discussed the possible associated risk of sleep disturbance, annoyance, and hearing loss. The Nellcor N 595 and Masimo SET Radical pulse oximeters were measured for equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (L(Aeq)), loudness levels, and loudness. Pulse beep pitches were also identified using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis and compared with musical pitches as controls. Almost all alarm sounds and pulse beeps from the instruments tested exceeded 30 dBA, a level that may induce sleep disturbance and annoyance. Several alarm sounds emitted by the pulse oximeters exceeded 70 dBA, which is known to induce hearing loss. The loudness of the alarm sound of each pulse oximeter did not change in proportion to the sound volume level. The pitch of each pulse beep did not correspond to musical pitch levels. The results indicate that sounds from pulse oximeters pose a potential risk of not only sleep disturbance and annoyance but also hearing loss, and that these sounds are unnatural for human auditory perception.

  12. Dynamics of high-bypass-engine thrust reversal using a variable-pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Sagerser, D. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The test program demonstrated that successful and rapid forward-to reverse-thrust transients can be performed without any significant engine operational limitations for fan blade pitch changes through either feather pitch or flat pitch. For through-feather-pitch operation with a flight inlet, fan stall problems were encountered, and a fan blade overshoot technique was used to establish reverse thrust.

  13. PI-line-based image reconstruction in helical cone-beam computed tomography with a variable pitch.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Pan, Xiaochuan; Xia, Dan; Wang, Ge

    2005-08-01

    Current applications of helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT) involve primarily a constant pitch where the translating speed of the table and the rotation speed of the source-detector remain constant. However, situations do exist where it may be more desirable to use a helical scan with a variable translating speed of the table, leading a variable pitch. One of such applications could arise in helical cone-beam CT fluoroscopy for the determination of vascular structures through real-time imaging of contrast bolus arrival. Most of the existing reconstruction algorithms have been developed only for helical cone-beam CT with constant pitch, including the backprojection-filtration (BPF) and filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithms that we proposed previously. It is possible to generalize some of these algorithms to reconstruct images exactly for helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. In this work, we generalize our BPF and FBP algorithms to reconstruct images directly from data acquired in helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. We have also performed a preliminary numerical study to demonstrate and verify the generalization of the two algorithms. The results of the study confirm that our generalized BPF and FBP algorithms can yield exact reconstruction in helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. It should be pointed out that our generalized BPF algorithm is the only algorithm that is capable of reconstructing exactly region-of-interest image from data containing transverse truncations.

  14. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  15. Power maximization of variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines using passive adaptive neural fault tolerant control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Hamed; Rahimi Nohooji, Hamed; Howard, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Power maximization has always been a practical consideration in wind turbines. The question of how to address optimal power capture, especially when the system dynamics are nonlinear and the actuators are subject to unknown faults, is significant. This paper studies the control methodology for variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines including the effects of uncertain nonlinear dynamics, system fault uncertainties, and unknown external disturbances. The nonlinear model of the wind turbine is presented, and the problem of maximizing extracted energy is formulated by designing the optimal desired states. With the known system, a model-based nonlinear controller is designed; then, to handle uncertainties, the unknown nonlinearities of the wind turbine are estimated by utilizing radial basis function neural networks. The adaptive neural fault tolerant control is designed passively to be robust on model uncertainties, disturbances including wind speed and model noises, and completely unknown actuator faults including generator torque and pitch actuator torque. The Lyapunov direct method is employed to prove that the closed-loop system is uniformly bounded. Simulation studies are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Performance and noise of a low pressure ratio variable pitch fan designed for general aviation applications. [Langley 30 x 60 Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    A limited study has been conducted to establish the performance and noise characteristics of a low design tip speed (168 m/s, 550 ft/sec) low pressure ratio (1.04) variable pitch fan which was tested in the Langley 30 X 60 tunnel. This fan was designed for minimum noise when installed in the tail mount location of a twin engine aircraft which normally has both nose and tail mounted propulsors. Measurements showed the fan noise to be very close to predictions made during the design of the fan and extremely low in level (65 dBA at 1000 ft) with no acoustic treatment. This is about 8 dB lower than the unshrouded 2 blade propeller normally used in this installation. On the basis of tests conducted during this program, it appears that this level could be further reduced by 2 dBA if optimized acoustic treatments were installed in the fan duct. Even the best of the shrouded propellers tested previously were 7 dB higher in level than the Q-Fan without acoustic treatment. It was found that the cruise performance of this fan was within 5% of the predicted efficiency of 72%. Evaluation of the performance data indicated that disturbances in the inflow to the fan were the probable cause of the reduced performance.

  17. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  18. Propeller blade retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Simon, III, Victor H. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns the mounting of propeller blades to a ring-shaped rotor. The blades are of the variable pitch type, and the shank of each blade extends through a respective hole in the rotor. Each hole contains an annular shelf which is fastened to the wall of the hole and surrounds each shank. Each shank bears a pair of bearing races which sandwich the annular shelf in order to connect the blade to the rotor. Bearing rollers are positioned between the annular shelf and the bearing races.

  19. The methodology of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by jet-propulsion engines of a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, management of propellant fuel consumption on board of a spacecraft is only associated with the operation of jet-propulsion engines (JPE) that are actuator devices of motion control systems (MCS). The efficiency of propellant fuel consumption depends not only on the operation of the MCS, but also, to one extent or another, on all systems functioning on board of a spacecraft, and on processes that occur in them and involve conversion of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by JPEs as a constituent part of the control of the complex process of spacecraft flight.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics study of the variable-pitch split-blade fan concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, C. E.; Elmquist, A. R.; Davis, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the variable-pitch split-blade supersonic fan concept. This fan configuration was conceived as a means to enable a supersonic fan to switch from the supersonic through-flow type of operation at high speeds to a conventional fan with subsonic inflow and outflow at low speeds. During this off-design, low-speed mode of operation, the fan would operate with a substantial static pressure rise across the blade row like a conventional transonic fan; the front (variable-pitch) blade would be aligned with the incoming flow, and the aft blade would remain fixed in the position set by the supersonic design conditions. Because of these geometrical features, this low speed configuration would inherently have a large amount of turning and, thereby, would have the potential for a large total pressure increase in a single stage. Such a high-turning blade configuration is prone to flow separation; it was hoped that the channeling of the flow between the blades would act like a slotted wing and help alleviate this problem. A total of 20 blade configurations representing various supersonic and transonic configurations were evaluated using a Navier Stokes CFD program called ADAPTNS because of its adaptive grid features. The flow fields generated by this computational procedure were processed by another data reduction program which calculated average flow properties and simulated fan performance. These results were employed to make quantitative comparisons and evaluations of blade performance. The supersonic split-blade configurations generated performance comparable to a single-blade supersonic, through-flow fan configuration. Simulated rotor total pressure ratios of the order of 2.5 or better were achieved for Mach 2.0 inflow conditions. The corresponding fan efficiencies were approximately 75 percent or better. The transonic split-blade configurations having large amounts of turning were able to

  1. Performance assessment of dynamic spiral scan modes with variable pitch for quantitative perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Ulrike; Klotz, Ernst; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2010-07-01

    Perfusion computed tomography is increasingly being used in diagnostic radiology. Axial coverage of the traditional approach is limited to the width of the detector. Using continuous periodic table movement coverage can be increased beyond this limit. In this study, we compared tissue flow values determined from scans with a periodic spiral implementation with variable pitch with ones determined from standard dynamic scan modes. A flow phantom (preserved porcine kidney) was scanned with 2 settings of a periodic spiral (Adaptive 4D Spiral) with a range of 100 and 148 mm and a temporal sampling of 1.5 seconds. Additionally, the whole phantom was scanned with the standard dynamic mode (detector width 38.4 mm, temporal sampling 1.0 seconds) at various overlapping positions as a reference. Scan parameters (80 kV, 140 mAs, 40s scan time) were selected similar to a typical brain perfusion study. All scans were repeated 5 times. Tissue flow was calculated with a dedicated deconvolution algorithm. In a center slice and 3 additional slices at various off center positions flow values were recorded in a total of 126 regions of interest (ROI). Reproducibility was determined from the variation of the repeat scans. Agreement between periodic spirals and standard mode was determined by Bland Altman plots and correlation analysis. The reproducibility of the tissue flow determination ranged from 2.7 to 4.4 mL/100 mL/min and was similar for all scan modes. The coefficient of variation ranged from 3.9% to 6.1%. Mean tissue flow in the 126 ROIs ranged from 35 to 121 mL/100 mL/min. There was excellent correlation between both periodic spiral ranges and the standard dynamic mode with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.97. The regression slope (intercept 0) for the 100 mm range was 1.01, for the 148 mm range it was 0.97. The absolute differences per ROI varied between 1.5 and 4.1 mL/100 mL/min, the relative differences between 1.9% and 6.5%. Differences did not depend on the slice

  2. Relationship between grip, pinch strengths and anthropometric variables, types of pitch throwing among Japanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high

  3. Adaptive robust control of a class of non-affine variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines with unmodeled dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Pedram; Sun, Qiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a novel synthesis of Nussbaum-type functions, and an adaptive radial-basis function neural network is proposed to design controllers for variable-speed, variable-pitch wind turbines. Dynamic equations of the wind turbine are highly nonlinear, uncertain, and affected by unknown disturbance sources. Furthermore, the dynamic equations are non-affine with respect to the pitch angle, which is a control input. To address these problems, a Nussbaum-type function, along with a dynamic control law are adopted to resolve the non-affine nature of the equations. Moreover, an adaptive radial-basis function neural network is designed to approximate non-parametric uncertainties. Further, the closed-loop system is made robust to unknown disturbance sources, where no prior knowledge of disturbance bound is assumed in advance. Finally, the Lyapunov stability analysis is conducted to show the stability of the entire closed-loop system. In order to verify analytical results, a simulation is presented and the results are compared to both a PI and an existing adaptive controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Hamilton Standard cam/harmonic drive variable pitch fan actuation system detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A variable pitch fan actuation system was designed which incorporates a remote nacelle-mounted blade angle regulator. The regulator drives a rotating fan-mounted mechanical actuator through a flexible shaft and differential gear train. The actuator incorporates a high ratio harmonic drive attached to a multitrack spherical cam which changes blade pitch through individual cam follower arms attached to each blade trunnion. Detail design parameters of the actuation system are presented. These include the following: design philosophies, operating limits, mechanical, hydraulic and thermal characteristics, mechanical efficiencies, materials, weights, lubrication, stress analyses, reliability and failure analyses.

  6. The Effect of Propellant Variables on Slag in Subscale Spin Motors. Part 1; Design and Qualification of a Slag Discrimination Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, F. M.; Beus, R. W.; May, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    The formation, collection, and expulsion of aluminum oxide slag is known to affect the performance of many solid rocket motor systems. Slag expulsion, in particular, is believed to be capable of causing pressure and thrust perturbations. Propellant combustion studies, performed and documented by many investigators, have shown that variations in propellant raw materials and processing affect the nature of alumina droplets at the burning propellant surface, and hence, may affect the quantity of slag retained in the motor chamber, available for expulsion. Thiokol has completed an experimental and analytical evaluation to determine the effects of several material and process variables on Space SHuttle propellant and its propensity to 'slag'. This paper describes the test article, a small scale spin motor with special nozzle, designed and qualified as a slag discriminating tool for use in the evaluation.

  7. Seeking an Anchorage. Stability and Variability in Tonal Alignment of Rising Prenuclear Pitch Accents in Cypriot Greek.

    PubMed

    Themistocleous, Charalambos

    2016-12-01

    Although tonal alignment constitutes a quintessential property of pitch accents, its exact characteristics remain unclear. This study, by exploring the timing of the Cypriot Greek L*+H prenuclear pitch accent, examines the predictions of three hypotheses about tonal alignment: the invariance hypothesis, the segmental anchoring hypothesis, and the segmental anchorage hypothesis. The study reports on two experiments: the first of which manipulates the syllable patterns of the stressed syllable, and the second of which modifies the distance of the L*+H from the following pitch accent. The findings on the alignment of the low tone (L) are illustrative of the segmental anchoring hypothesis predictions: the L persistently aligns inside the onset consonant, a few milliseconds before the stressed vowel. However, the findings on the alignment of the high tone (H) are both intriguing and unexpected: the alignment of the H depends on the number of unstressed syllables that follow the prenuclear pitch accent. The 'wandering' of the H over multiple syllables is extremely rare among languages, and casts doubt on the invariance hypothesis and the segmental anchoring hypothesis, as well as indicating the need for a modified version of the segmental anchorage hypothesis. To address the alignment of the H, we suggest that it aligns within a segmental anchorage-the area that follows the prenuclear pitch accent-in such a way as to protect the paradigmatic contrast between the L*+H prenuclear pitch accent and the L+H* nuclear pitch accent.

  8. The Characteristics of Two Model Six-blade Counterrotating Pusher Propellers of Conventional and Improved Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Edward; McHugh, James G.

    1942-01-01

    Two airfoil plans were used for propeller blades. One is modified Clark Y section designed for structural reliability and the second an NACA 16 airfoil section designed to produce minimum aerodynamic losses. At low air speeds, the propeller designed for aerodynamic effects showed a gain of from 1.5 to 4.0 percent in propulsive efficiency over the conventional type depending on the pitch. Because of the numerous variables involved, the effect of each one on the aerodynamic characteristics of the propellers could not be isolated.

  9. Design and dynamic simulation of a fixed pitch 56 kW wind turbine drive train with a continuously variable transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, C.; Kasuba, R.; Pintz, A.; Spring, J.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of a horizontal axis fixed pitch wind turbine generator (WTG) rated at 56 kW is discussed. A mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) was incorporated in the drive train to provide variable speed operation capability. One goal of the dynamic analysis was to determine if variable speed operation, by means of a mechanical CVT, is capable of capturing the transient power in the WTG/wind environment. Another goal was to determine the extent of power regulation possible with CVT operation.

  10. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  11. Performance Demands in Softball Pitching: A Comprehensive Muscle Fatigue Study.

    PubMed

    Corben, Jeffrey S; Cerrone, Sara A; Soviero, Julie E; Kwiecien, Susan Y; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring pitch count is standard practice in minor league baseball but not in softball because of the perception that fast-pitch softball pitching is a less stressful motion. To examine muscle fatigue after fast-pitch softball performances to provide an assessment of performance demand. Descriptive laboratory study. Bilateral strength measurements (handheld dynamometer) were made on 19 female softball pitchers (mean age [±SD], 15.2 ± 1.2 years) before and after pitching a game (mean number of pitches, 99 ± 21; mean innings pitched, 5 ± 1). A total of 20 tests were performed on the dominant and nondominant sides: forearm (grip, wrist flexion/extension, pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension), shoulder (flexion, abduction/adduction, external/internal rotation, empty can test), scapula (middle/lower trapezius, rhomboid), and hip (hip flexion/extension, abduction/adduction). Fatigue (percentage strength loss) was categorized based on bilateral versus unilateral presentation using paired t tests: bilateral symmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant and not different between sides), bilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant but significantly greater on dominant), unilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant only and significantly greater than nondominant), or unilateral equivocal (significant on dominant only but not different from nondominant). Bilateral symmetric fatigue was evident for all hip (dominant, 19.3%; nondominant, 15.2%) and scapular tests (dominant, 19.2%; nondominant, 19.3%). In general, shoulder tests exhibited bilateral asymmetric fatigue (dominant, 16.9%; nondominant, 11.6%). Forearm tests were more variable, with bilateral symmetric fatigue in the elbow flexors (dominant, 22.5%; nondominant, 19.2%), and wrist flexors (dominant, 21.6%; nondominant, 19.0%), bilateral asymmetric fatigue in the supinators (dominant, 21.8%; nondominant, 15.5%), unilateral asymmetric fatigue in the elbow extensors (dominant, 22

  12. 14 CFR 25.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 25.907... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a...

  13. 14 CFR 25.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 25.907... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a...

  14. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... based on direct testing of the propeller on the airplane and engine installation for which approval is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood...

  15. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... based on direct testing of the propeller on the airplane and engine installation for which approval is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood...

  16. Dose equations for shift-variant CT acquisition modes using variable pitch, tube current, and aperture, and the meaning of their associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L., E-mail: rdixon@wfubmc.edu; Boone, John M.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: With the increasing clinical use of shift-variant CT protocols involving tube current modulation (TCM), variable pitch or pitch modulation (PM), and variable aperture a(t), the interpretation of the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} is called into question. This was addressed for TCM in their previous paper published by Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013)] and is extended to PM and concurrent TCM/PM as well as variable aperture in this work. Methods: Rigorous convolution equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM, PM, and concurrent TCM/PM. A comparison with scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} formulae clearly identifies themore » source of their differences with the traditional CTDI{sub vol}. Dose distribution simulations using the convolution are provided for a variety of TCM and PM scenarios including a helical shuttle used for perfusion studies (as well as constant mA)—all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}. These new convolution simulations for TCM are validated by comparison with their previous discrete summations. Results: These equations show that PM is equivalent to TCM if the pitch variation p(z) is proportional to 1/i(z), where i(z) is the local tube current. The simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) or local pitch p(z) due to scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” or “CTDI{sub vol} per slice” do not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) or p(z). The CTDI-paradigm does not apply to shift-variant techniques and the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for the same lacks physical significance and relevance. Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant tube current and pitch conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} for shift-variant techniques (TCM or PM) conveys no useful information about the associated dose

  17. Experimental Research on Air Propellers III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1920-01-01

    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.

  18. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a variable-pitch 1.83-meter-(6-ft) diameter 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Far field noise data and related aerodynamic performance are presented for a variable pitch fan stage having characteristics suitable for low noise, STOL engine application. However, no acoustic suppression material was used in the flow passages. The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Tests were made at several forward thrust rotor blade pitch angles and one for reverse thrust. Fan speed was varied from 60 to 120 percent of takeoff (design) speed, and exhaust nozzles having areas 92 to 105 percent of design were tested. The fan noise level was at a minimum at the design rotor blade pitch angles of 64 deg for takeoff thrust and at 57 deg for approach (50 percent takeoff thrust). Perceived noise along a 152.4-m sideline reached 100.1 PNdb for the takeoff (design) configuration for a stage pressure ratio of 1.17 and thrust of 57,600 N. For reverse thrust the PNL values were 4 to 5 PNdb above the takeoff values at comparable fan speeds.

  19. Acoustic performance of a 50.8-cm (20-inch) diameter variable-pitch fan and inlet. Volume 2: Acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilwakesh, K. R.; Clemons, A.; Stimpert, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results from acoustic tests on a 50.8 cm (20 inch) QCSEE Under-the-Wing (UTW) engine, variable pitch fan and inlet simulator are tabulated. Tests were run in both forward and reverse thrust mdoes with a bellmouth inlet, five accelerating inlets (one hardwall and four treated), and four low Mach number inlets (one hardwall and three treated). The 1/3 octave-band acoustic data are presented for the model size on the measured 5.2 m (17.0 ft) arc and also data scaled to full QCSEE size 71:20 on a 152.4 m (500 ft) sideline.

  20. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  1. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  2. Energy and pitch angle-dispersed auroral electrons suggesting a time-variable, inverted-V potential structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Lynch, K. A.; Austin, J. B.; Kintner, P. M.

    1999-10-01

    High temporal resolution electron detectors aboard the PHAZE II rocket flight have shown that the energy-dispersed, field-aligned bursts (FABs) are time coincident with pitch angle-dispersed electrons having energies at the maximum voltage of the inverted-V potential. This modulation of the energetic inverted-V electrons is superimposed upon an energy-diffused background resulting in a peak-to-valley ratio of ~2 for the pitch angle-dispersed electrons. Since the characteristic energy of the FABs, the order of an eV, is considerably less than that of the plasma sheet electrons (the order of a keV) presumably falling through the inverted-V potential to create the discrete aurora, the modulation mechanism has to be independent of the electron temperature. The mechanism must accelerate the cold electrons over a range of energies from the inverted-V energy down to a few tens of eV. It must do this at the same time it is creating a population of hot, pitch angle-dispersed electrons at the inverted-V energy. Both the energy dispersion of the FABs and the pitch angle dispersion of the inverted-V electrons can be used to determine a source height assuming both populations start from the same source region at the same time. These calculations give source heights between 3500 and 5300 km for various events and disagreement between the two methods the order of 20%, which is within the rather substantial error limits of both calculations. A simple mechanism of providing a common start time for both populations of electrons would be a turning on/off of a spatially limited (vertically), inverted-V potential. The energy-dispersed FABs can be reconstructed at rocket altitudes if one assumes that cold electrons are accelerated to an energy determined by how much of the inverted-V potential they fall through when it is turned on. Similarly, the pitch angle-dispersed, inverted-V electrons can be modeled at rocket altitudes if one assumes that the plasma sheet electrons falling through

  3. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401... indicators and alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated... propeller shall be equipped with— (a) A pitch indicator in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b...

  4. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401... indicators and alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated... propeller shall be equipped with— (a) A pitch indicator in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b...

  5. Measurement of noise and its correlation to performance and geometry of small aircraft propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štorch, Vít; Nožička, Jiří; Brada, Martin; Gemperle, Jiří; Suchý, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    A set of small model and UAV propellers is measured both in terms of aerodynamic performance and acoustic noise under static conditions. Apart from obvious correlation of noise to tip speed and propeller diameter the influence of blade pitch, blade pitch distribution, efficiency and shape of the blade is sought. Using the measured performance data a computational model for calculation of aerodynamic noise of propellers will be validated. The range of selected propellers include both propellers designed for nearly static conditions and propellers that are running at highly offdesign conditions, which allows to investigate i.e. the effect of blade stall on both noise level and performance results.

  6. A method of calculating the performance of controllable propellers with sample computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1934-01-01

    This paper contains a series of calculations showing how the performance of controllable propellers may be derived from data on fixed-pitch propellers given in N.A.C.A. Technical Report No. 350, or from similar data. Sample calculations are given which compare the performance of airplanes with fixed-pitch and with controllable propellers. The gain in performance with controllable propellers is shown to be largely due to the increased power available, rather than to an increase in efficiency. Controllable propellers are of particular advantage when used with geared and with supercharged engines. A controllable propeller reduces the take-off run, increases the rate of climb and the ceiling, but does not increase the high speed, except when operating above the design altitude of the previously used fixed-pitch propeller or when that propeller was designed for other than high speed.

  7. Variable polarisation and Doppler tomography of PSR J1023+0038 - Evidence for the magnetic propeller during flaring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Pasi; Kajava, Jari J. E.

    2018-03-01

    Transitional millisecond pulsars are systems that alternate between an accreting low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) state and a non-accreting radio pulsar state. When at the LMXB state, their X-ray and optical light curves show rapid flares and dips, the origin of which is not well understood. We present results from our optical and NIR observing campaign of PSR J1023+0038, a transitional millisecond pulsar observed in an accretion state. Our wide-band optical photopolarimetry indicates that the system shows intrinsic linear polarisation, the degree of which is anticorrelated with optical emission, i.e. the polarisation could be diluted during the flares. However, the change in position angle during the flares suggests an additional emerging polarised component during the flares. We also find, based on our H α spectroscopy and Doppler tomography, that there is indication for change in the accretion disc structure/emission during the flares, possibly due to a change in accretion flow. This, together with changing polarisation during the flares, could mark the existence of magnetic propeller mass ejection process in the system. Furthermore, our analysis of flare profiles in both optical and NIR shows that NIR flares are at least as powerful as the optical ones and both can exhibit transition time-scales less than 3 s. The optical/NIR flares therefore seem to originate from a separate, polarised transient component, which might be due to Thomson scattering from propeller ejected matter.

  8. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  9. Sunlit Propeller

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-08

    A propeller-shaped structure created by an unseen moon is brightly illuminated on the sunlit side of Saturn rings in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The moon, which is too small to be seen, is marked with a red arrow.

  10. Viscoelastic propellant effects on Space Shuttle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.

    1981-01-01

    The program of solid propellant research performed in support of the space shuttle dynamics modeling effort is described. Stiffness, damping, and compressibility of the propellant and the effects of many variables on these properties are discussed. The relationship between the propellant and solid rocket booster dynamics during liftoff and boost flight conditions and the effects of booster vibration and propellant stiffness on free free solid rocket booster modes are described. Coupled modes of the shuttle system and the effect of propellant stiffness on the interfaces of the booster and the external tank are described. A finite shell model of the solid rocket booster was developed.

  11. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  12. Lone Propeller

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    This view of Saturn's A ring features a lone "propeller" -- one of many such features created by small moonlets embedded in the rings as they attempt, unsuccessfully, to open gaps in the ring material. The image was taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Sept. 13, 2017. It is among the last images Cassini sent back to Earth. The view was taken in visible light using the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera at a distance of 420,000 miles (676,000 kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 2.3 miles (3.7 kilometers). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21894

  13. On Older Listeners' Ability to Perceive Dynamic Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jing; Wright, Richard; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Natural speech comes with variation in pitch, which serves as an important cue for speech recognition. The present study investigated older listeners' dynamic pitch perception with a focus on interindividual variability. In particular, we asked whether some of the older listeners' inability to perceive dynamic pitch stems from the higher…

  14. Self-propulsion of a pitching foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anil; Shukla, Ratnesh; Govardhan, Raghuraman

    2017-11-01

    Undulatory motions serve as a fundamental mechanism for bio-locomotion at moderate and high Reynolds numbers. An understanding of the interactions between self-propelling undulatory motions and the surrounding fluid, not only provides insight into the efficiency of bio-locomotion, but also yields valuable pointers for the design of autonomous under-water and micro-aerial vehicles. Here, we investigate a simplified model of a self-propelling pitching foil that undergoes time-periodic oscillations about its quarter chord. We consider two-dimensional configurations in which the foil is free to propel along only longitudinal and both transverse and longitudinal directions. In both the configurations, the time-averaged self-propelling velocity increases monotonically with the Reynolds number Re (based on trailing edge speed and chord as the characteristic velocity and length). The rate of increase is particularly pronounced in the low Re regime (Re <400) over which the closely-spaced wake vortices dissipate within a few chord lengths. At moderate and high Re, the wake exhibits increasingly complex structure in both the configurations. For a fixed Re, the foil with a single translational degree of freedom propels at a higher speed for a higher input power requirement. Differences between the two configurations will be discussed within the context of undulatory self-propulsion observed in nature.

  15. Characterizing optical polishing pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshneya, Rupal; DeGroote, Jessica E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Characterization data for five experimental optical polishing pitch products were compared to those for corresponding standard commercial optical polishing pitches. The experimental pitches were tested for three physical properties: hardness, viscosity at 90°C, and softening point. A Shore A Durometer test was used to measure hardness. Viscosity data were collected using a Stony Brook Scientific falling needle viscometer. Softening point was determined using the ASTM D3104-97 method. Results demonstrate that the softest and the hardest batches of the experimental grades of optical pitch are comparable to the industry-accepted standards, while the other grades of pitch are not. The experimental methodology followed in this research may allow opticians to rapidly compare different brands of pitch to help identify batch-to-batch differences and control pitch quality before use.

  16. Characterizing optical polishing pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshneya, Rupal

    2003-05-01

    Characterization data for five experimental optical polishing pitch products were compared to those for corresponding standard commercial optical polishing pitches. The experimental pitches were tested for three physical properties: hardness, viscosity at 90°C, and softening point. A Shore A Durometerl test was used to measure hardness. Viscosity data were collected using a Stony Brook Scientific' falling needle viscometer. Softening point was determined using the ASTM D3104-97 method. Results demonstrate that the softest and the hardest batches of the experimental grades of optical pitch are comparable to the industry-accepted standards, while the other grades of pitch are not. The experimental methodology followed in this research may allow opticians to rapidly compare different brands of pitch to help identify batch- to- batch differences and control pitch quality before use.

  17. Disk-Anchored Magnetic Propellers - A Cure for the SW Sex Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    In AE Aqr, magnetic fields transfer energy and angular momentum from a rapidly-spinning white dwarf to material in the gas stream from the companion star, with the effect of spinning down the white dwarf while flinging the gas stream material out of the binary system. This magnetic propeller produces a host of observable signatures, chief among which are broad, single-peaked, flaring emission lines with phase-shifted orbital kinematics. SW Sex stars have accretion disks, but also broad, single-peaked, phase-shifted emission lines similar to those seen in AE Aqr. We propose that a magnetic propeller similar to that which operates in AE Aqr is also at work in SW Sex stars - and to some extent in all nova-like systems. The propeller is anchored in the inner accretion disk, rather than, or in addition to, the white dwarf. Energy and angular momentum are thereby extracted from the inner disk and transferred to gas-stream material flowing above the disk, which is consequently pitched out of the system. This provides a non-local, dissipationless angular-momentum-extraction mechanism, which should result in cool inner disks with temperature profiles flatter than T propto R^{-3/4}, as observed in eclipse mapping studies of nova-like variables. The disk-anchored magnetic propeller model appears to explain qualitatively most if not all of the peculiar features of the SW Sex syndrome.

  18. Materials characterization of propellants using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Propellant characteristics for solid rocket motors were not completely determined for its use as a processing variable in today's production facilities. A major effort to determine propellant characteristics obtainable through ultrasonic measurement techniques was performed in this task. The information obtained was then used to determine the uniformity of manufacturing methods and/or the ability to determine non-uniformity in processes.

  19. Comparison of Full-Scale Propellers Having R.A.F.-6 and Clark Y Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Hugh B

    1932-01-01

    In this report the efficiencies of two series of propellers having two types of blade sections are compared. Six full-scale propellers were used, three having R. A. F.-6 and three Clark Y airfoil sections with thickness/chord ratios of 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10. The propellers were tested at five pitch setting, which covered the range ordinarily used in practice. The propellers having the Clark Y sections gave the highest peak efficiency at the low pitch settings. At the high pitch settings, the propellers with R. A. F.-6 sections gave about the same maximum efficiency as the Clark Y propellers and were more efficient for the conditions of climb and take-off.

  20. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  1. Perfect pitch reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Calum

    2014-10-01

    Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  2. Youth Baseball Pitching Mechanics: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Samuel F; Guess, Trent M; Plackis, Andreas C; Sherman, Seth L; Gray, Aaron D

    Pitching injuries in youth baseball are increasing in incidence. Poor pitching mechanics in young throwers have not been sufficiently evaluated due to the lack of a basic biomechanical understanding of the "normal" youth pitching motion. To provide a greater understanding of the kinetics and kinematics of the youth baseball pitching motion. PubMed, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from database inception through February 2017. A total of 10 biomechanical studies describing youth pitching mechanics were included. Systematic review. Level 3. Manual extraction and compilation of demographic, methodology, kinetic, and kinematic variables from the included studies were completed. In studies of healthy youth baseball pitchers, progressive external rotation of the shoulder occurs throughout the start of the pitching motion, reaching a maximum of 166° to 178.2°, before internally rotating throughout the remainder of the cycle, reaching a minimum of 13.2° to 17°. Elbow valgus torque reaches the highest level (18 ± 4 N·m) just prior to maximum shoulder external rotation and decreases throughout the remainder of the pitch cycle. Stride length is 66% to 85% of pitcher height. In comparison with a fastball, a curveball demonstrates less elbow varus torque (31.6 ± 15.3 vs 34.8 ± 15.4 N·m). Multiple studies show that maximum elbow valgus torque occurs just prior to maximum shoulder external rotation. Forces on the elbow and shoulder are greater for the fastball than the curveball.

  3. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  4. Cam-Operated Pitch-Change Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, P. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A pitch-change apparatus for a ducted thrust fan having a plurality of variable pitch blades employs a camming ring mounted coaxially at the hub at an axially fixed station along the hub axis for rotation about the hub axis both with the blades and relative to the blades. The ring has a generally spherical outer periphery and a plurality of helical camming grooves extending in a generally spherical plane on the periphery. Each of the variable pitch blades is connected to a pitch-change horn having a cam follower mounted on its outer end, and the camming ring and the horns are so arranged about the hub axis that the plurality of followers on the horns engage respectively the plurality of helical camming grooves. Rotary drive means rotates the camming ring relative to the blades to cause blade pitch to be changed through the cooperative operation of the camming grooves on the ring and the cam followers on the pitch-change horns.

  5. Propeller from Unlit Side

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-08

    A propeller-shaped structure created by an unseen moon appears dark in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft of the unilluminated side of Saturn rings. The propeller is marked with a red arrow in the top left.

  6. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  7. Temperature variation of pitch in a pitch pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Stefan; Klinger, Charles

    2007-05-01

    Opticians have for years kept polishing pitch in electrified containers called "pitch pots" that keeps it in at an elevated temperature. The temperature is adjusted to achieve the desired pitch viscosity. When pitch is desired, the optician will remove the cover, reach into the pot and scoop out a glob of pitch with his hand. However, without thinking, most opticians will "fold over" or "push aside" the top layer of pitch to select pitch from deeper in the pot. This paper documents the change in temperature as the distance from the top surface increases. It also shows the effect of insulating the top cover.

  8. Cortical encoding of pitch: Recent results and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Kerry M.M.; Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that the key predictor of the pitch of a sound is its periodicity. Neural structures which support pitch perception must therefore be able to reflect the repetition rate of a sound, but this alone is not sufficient. Since pitch is a psychoacoustic property, a putative cortical code for pitch must also be able to account for the relationship between the amount to which a sound is periodic (i.e. its temporal regularity) and the perceived pitch salience, as well as limits in our ability to detect pitch changes or to discriminate rising from falling pitch. Pitch codes must also be robust in the presence of nuisance variables such as loudness or timbre. Here, we review a large body of work on the cortical basis of pitch perception, which illustrates that the distribution of cortical processes that give rise to pitch perception is likely to depend on both the acoustical features and functional relevance of a sound. While previous studies have greatly advanced our understanding, we highlight several open questions regarding the neural basis of pitch perception. These questions can begin to be addressed through a cooperation of investigative efforts across species and experimental techniques, and, critically, by examining the responses of single neurons in behaving animals. PMID:20457240

  9. Rheology of composite solid propellants during motor casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. J.; Smith, P. L.; Klager, K.

    1978-01-01

    In a study conducted to evaluate flow parameters of uncured solid composite propellants during motor casting, two motors (1.8M-lb grain wt) were cast with a PBAN propellant exhibiting good flow characteristics in a 260-in. dia solid rocket motor. Attention is given to the effects of propellant compositional and processing variables on apparent viscosity as they pertain to rheological behavior and grain defect formation during casting. It is noted that optimized flow behavior is impaired with solid propellant loading. Non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow is observed, which is dependent upon applied shear stress and the age of the uncured propellant.

  10. LES of propeller crashback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2014-11-01

    Crashback is an operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle, where the propeller is rotated in the reverse direction to yield a negative thrust. In crashback, the freestream interacts with the strong reverse flow from the propeller leading to massive flow separation and highly unsteady loads. We have used Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in recent years to accurately simulate the flowfield in crashback around a stand-alone open propeller, hull-attached (posterior alone) open propeller and a ducted propeller with stator blades. This talk will discuss our work towards LES of crashback inclusive of the entire hull. The results will be compared to available experimental data, and the flow physics will be discussed. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  11. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed. Comparisons are made to the more conventional pitch control mechanisms.

  12. Considerations on propeller efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1928-01-01

    The propeller cannot be considered alone, but the mutual interference between propeller and airplane must be considered. These difficulties are so great when the joint action of propeller and airplane is considered, that the aerodynamic laboratory at Gottingen originally abandoned the idea of applying the efficiency conception of the test results. These difficulties and the methods by which they are overcome are outlined in this report.

  13. Propeller flow visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Paulovich, F. J.; Greissing, J. P.; Walker, E. D.

    1982-01-01

    Propeller flow visualization techniques were tested. The actual operating blade shape as it determines the actual propeller performance and noise was established. The ability to photographically determine the advanced propeller blade tip deflections, local flow field conditions, and gain insight into aeroelastic instability is demonstrated. The analytical prediction methods which are being developed can be compared with experimental data. These comparisons contribute to the verification of these improved methods and give improved capability for designing future advanced propellers with enhanced performance and noise characteristics.

  14. 78 FR 41283 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... service information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington... Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine and Propeller Directorate, 12 New England... Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine and Propeller Directorate, 12 New England...

  15. 78 FR 9005 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For..., Aerospace Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine and Propeller Directorate, 12 New... Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine and Propeller Directorate, 12 New England...

  16. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  17. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  18. A Simple Interactive Program to Design Supercavitating Propeller Blades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Torque coefficient CT - Thrust-load coefficient c - Blade chord length D - Propeller diameter, assumed Dopt - Propeller diameter, optimum F - Blade force...2 ci) (10) where: C = drag to lift ratio A. W ideal advance ratio. At this point, solutions can be made for the radial pitch, ( D x ir XX), and the...t/ D )0 .7 x D ൏ 1C (13) 0.7 C where: C Ia coefficient of lift fora finite foil. Reference 2 states that the optimum value for C . is 0.16 and that

  19. Advanced propeller aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bober, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical approaches as well as the capabilities of three advanced analyses for predicting propeller aerodynamic performance are presented. It is shown that two of these analyses use a lifting line representation for the propeller blades, and the third uses a lifting surface representation.

  20. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  1. Erosivity of LOVA Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ant was a mixture of RDX with a KRATON binder. Two propellants (80% RDX-PU and 80% HMX- CTBN ) had heat inputs greater than the M735 projectile with a...LOVA propellants [80% RDX-PU and 80% HMX.- CTBN ) would require a wear-reducing additive to keep wear comparable to M735 and M774. The other LOVA

  2. Return of the propeller

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Resurrecting the propeller-driven airplane could help save fuel if there is another oil crisis like in the 1970s. This article discusses the new propeller engine, propfans, which are being developed for commercial airplanes. It discusses the three types of propfan engines and the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also tells about the propfan airplanes several companies are developing.

  3. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  4. Propeller Belts of Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-10

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft is the sharpest ever taken of belts of the features called propellers in the middle part of Saturn's A ring. The propellers are the small, bright features that look like double dashes, visible on both sides of the wave pattern that crosses the image diagonally from top to bottom. The original discovery of propellers in this region in Saturn's rings was made using several images taken from very close to the rings during Cassini's 2004 arrival at Saturn. Those discovery images were of low resolution and were difficult to interpret, and there were few clues as to how the small propellers seen in those images were related to the larger propellers Cassini observed later in the mission. This image, for the first time, shows swarms of propellers of a wide range of sizes, putting the ones Cassini observed in its Saturn arrival images in context. Scientists will use this information to derive a "particle size distribution" for propeller moons, which is an important clue to their origins. The image was taken using the Cassini spacecraft's narrow-angle camera on April 19. The view was has an image scale of 0.24 mile (385 meters) per pixel, and was taken at a sun-ring-spacecraft angle, or phase angle, of 108 degrees. The view looks toward a point approximately 80,000 miles (129,000 kilometers) from Saturn's center. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21448

  5. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model is derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. A computer program is developed to solve the time-dependent equations, and is applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. In the case of nitramine propellants the cratering of the burning surface associated with combustion above break-point pressures augments the effective burning rate as deduced from the closed vessel experiment. Low pressure combustion is significantly affected by the ignition process and, in the case of nitramine propellants, by the developing and changing surface structure. Thus, burning rates deduced from the closed vessel experiment may or may not agree with those measured in the equilibrium strand burner. Series of T burner experiments are performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP)propellants. Although ash produced by more fuel rich propellants could have provided mechanical suppression, results from clean-burning propellants permit the conclusion that HMX reduces the acoustic driving.

  6. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  7. Turboprop: improved PROPELLER imaging.

    PubMed

    Pipe, James G; Zwart, Nicholas

    2006-02-01

    A variant of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) MRI, called turboprop, is introduced. This method employs an oscillating readout gradient during each spin echo of the echo train to collect more lines of data per echo train, which reduces the minimum scan time, motion-related artifact, and specific absorption rate (SAR) while increasing sampling efficiency. It can be applied to conventional fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging; however, this article emphasizes its application in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The method is described and compared with conventional PROPELLER imaging, and clinical images collected with this PROPELLER variant are shown. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Rheology of composite solid propellants during motor casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klager, K.; Rogers, C. J.; Smith, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of casting studies are reviewed so as to define the viscosity criteria insuring the fabrication of defect-free grains. The rheology of uncured propellants is analyzed showing that a realistic assessment of a propellant's flow properties must include measurement of viscosity as a function of shear stress and time after curing agent. Methods for measuring propellant viscosity are discussed, with particular attention given to the Haake-Rotovisko rotational viscometer. The effects of propellant compositional and processing variables on apparent viscosity are examined, as are results relating rheological behavior to grain defect formation during casting.

  9. Separating pitch chroma and pitch height in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J. D.; Uppenkamp, S.; Patterson, R. D.; Griffiths, T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Musicians recognize pitch as having two dimensions. On the keyboard, these are illustrated by the octave and the cycle of notes within the octave. In perception, these dimensions are referred to as pitch height and pitch chroma, respectively. Pitch chroma provides a basis for presenting acoustic patterns (melodies) that do not depend on the particular sound source. In contrast, pitch height provides a basis for segregation of notes into streams to separate sound sources. This paper reports a functional magnetic resonance experiment designed to search for distinct mappings of these two types of pitch change in the human brain. The results show that chroma change is specifically represented anterior to primary auditory cortex, whereas height change is specifically represented posterior to primary auditory cortex. We propose that tracking of acoustic information streams occurs in anterior auditory areas, whereas the segregation of sound objects (a crucial aspect of auditory scene analysis) depends on posterior areas. PMID:12909719

  10. Separating pitch chroma and pitch height in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Warren, J D; Uppenkamp, S; Patterson, R D; Griffiths, T D

    2003-08-19

    Musicians recognize pitch as having two dimensions. On the keyboard, these are illustrated by the octave and the cycle of notes within the octave. In perception, these dimensions are referred to as pitch height and pitch chroma, respectively. Pitch chroma provides a basis for presenting acoustic patterns (melodies) that do not depend on the particular sound source. In contrast, pitch height provides a basis for segregation of notes into streams to separate sound sources. This paper reports a functional magnetic resonance experiment designed to search for distinct mappings of these two types of pitch change in the human brain. The results show that chroma change is specifically represented anterior to primary auditory cortex, whereas height change is specifically represented posterior to primary auditory cortex. We propose that tracking of acoustic information streams occurs in anterior auditory areas, whereas the segregation of sound objects (a crucial aspect of auditory scene analysis) depends on posterior areas.

  11. The Effect of Reduction Gearing on Propeller-body Interference as Shown by Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of full-scale tests made on a 10-foot 5-inch propeller on a geared J-5 engine and also on a similar 8-foot 11-inch propeller on a direct-drive J-5 engine. Each propeller was tested at two different pitch settings, and with a large and a small fuselage. The investigation was made in such a manner that the propeller-body interference factors were isolated, and it was found that, considering this interference only, the geared propellers had an appreciable advantage in propulsive efficiency, partially due to the larger diameter of the propellers with respect to the bodies, and partially because the geared propellers were located farther ahead of the engines and bodies.

  12. NASA propeller noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, G. C.

    1980-01-01

    The research in propeller noise prediction, noise/performance optimization, and interior reduction is described. Selected results are presented to illustrate the status of the technology and the direction of future research.

  13. Propeller, Light and Dark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    NASA Cassini spacecraft has been monitoring propeller features such as Bleriot since their discovery. The bright dash-like features are regions where a small moonlet has caused ring particles to cluster together more densely than normal.

  14. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model was derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. The model incorporates the nitramine combustion mechanisms. A computer program was developed to solve the time dependent equations, and was applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. It is found that the rate of pressurization in the closed vessel is insufficient at pressures of interest to augment the burning rate by time dependent processes. Series of T-burner experiments were performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellants. It is found that the inclusion of HMX consistently renders the propellant more stable.

  15. Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Zohar; Schupak, Asi; Gotler, Alex; Marks, Lawrence E

    2014-01-01

    Experiments using diverse paradigms, including speeded discrimination, indicate that pitch and visually-perceived size interact perceptually, and that higher pitch is congruent with smaller size. While nearly all of these studies used static stimuli, here we examine the interaction of dynamic pitch and dynamic size, using Garner's speeded discrimination paradigm. Experiment 1 examined the interaction of continuous rise/fall in pitch and increase/decrease in object size. Experiment 2 examined the interaction of static pitch and size (steady high/low pitches and large/small visual objects), using an identical procedure. Results indicate that static and dynamic auditory and visual stimuli interact in opposite ways. While for static stimuli (Experiment 2), higher pitch is congruent with smaller size (as suggested by earlier work), for dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1), ascending pitch is congruent with growing size, and descending pitch with shrinking size. In addition, while static stimuli (Experiment 2) exhibit both congruence and Garner effects, dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1) present congruence effects without Garner interference, a pattern that is not consistent with prevalent interpretations of Garner's paradigm. Our interpretation of these results focuses on effects of within-trial changes on processing in dynamic tasks and on the association of changes in apparent size with implied changes in distance. Results suggest that static and dynamic stimuli can differ substantially in their cross-modal mappings, and may rely on different processing mechanisms.

  16. Binaural Pitch Fusion in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Lina A J; Fowler, Jennifer R; Hartling, Curtis L; Oh, Yonghee

    Binaural pitch fusion is the fusion of stimuli that evoke different pitches between the ears into a single auditory image. Individuals who use hearing aids or bimodal cochlear implants (CIs) experience abnormally broad binaural pitch fusion, such that sounds differing in pitch by as much as 3-4 octaves are fused across ears, leading to spectral averaging and speech perception interference. The goal of this study was to determine if adult bilateral CI users also experience broad binaural pitch fusion. Stimuli were pulse trains delivered to individual electrodes. Fusion ranges were measured using simultaneous, dichotic presentation of reference and comparison stimuli in opposite ears, and varying the comparison stimulus to find the range that fused with the reference stimulus. Bilateral CI listeners had binaural pitch fusion ranges varying from 0 to 12 mm (average 6.1 ± 3.9 mm), where 12 mm indicates fusion over all electrodes in the array. No significant correlations of fusion range were observed with any subject factors related to age, hearing loss history, or hearing device history, or with any electrode factors including interaural electrode pitch mismatch, pitch match bandwidth, or within-ear electrode discrimination abilities. Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.

  17. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-13

    propellant includes an oxi- dizer (hydroxylammoniuin nitrate), a fuel (triethanolammonium nitrate), and water . In an- ticipation of widespread (both...are also included. 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT ’." OF ABMTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIF.CATICIN IUNCLASSIFIEDIUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. 0 OTIC...trieth- anolammoiur nitrate), anG water . In anticipation of widespread (both conti- nental U.S. and abroac) use of the propellant, USATHAMA began a

  18. Strength of Screw Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-07

    development depends not, only on the ability of the material to resist hydraulic impacts in cavitation, but also on the correct design of the propeller. Study...9) z where k - correction of Goldstein-Prandtl, which takes into considera- tion the effect of the finite number of propeller blades on the amount... correction of Goldztcin-Prwxidtl is deteri~inedi by graphs in Fig. 10. An example of the calculation of hydrodynamic forces distribu- tion along a

  19. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    Dr. Michael Gazarik, Associate Administrator, NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate, answers a reporter's question at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    U.S. Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) speaks at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    Roger Myers, Executive Director, Aerojet Rocketdyne speaks at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Kirsten-boeing Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, H

    1926-01-01

    The advantages of the Kirsten-Boeing propeller consist essentially in the adjustability of the thrust in any desired direction, in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the system, and in its high efficiency. The propeller, which greatly resembles the paddle wheels used on river steamers, differs fundamentally from the latter, in that all the blades work simultaneously in the fluid medium (air or water).

  3. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  4. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~<500m in size) have been indirectly identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring. In this paper we present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B

  5. Propellant Readiness Level: A Methodological Approach to Propellant Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John A.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2010-01-01

    A methodological approach to defining propellant characterization is presented. The method is based on the well-established Technology Readiness Level nomenclature. This approach establishes the Propellant Readiness Level as a metric for ascertaining the readiness of a propellant or a propellant combination by evaluating the following set of propellant characteristics: thermodynamic data, toxicity, applications, combustion data, heat transfer data, material compatibility, analytical prediction modeling, injector/chamber geometry, pressurization, ignition, combustion stability, system storability, qualification testing, and flight capability. The methodology is meant to be applicable to all propellants or propellant combinations; liquid, solid, and gaseous propellants as well as monopropellants and propellant combinations are equally served. The functionality of the proposed approach is tested through the evaluation and comparison of an example set of hydrocarbon fuels.

  6. Spiral model of pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James D.

    2003-10-01

    A spiral model of pitch interrelates tone chroma, tone height, equal temperament scales, and a cochlear map. Donkin suggested in 1870 that the pitch of tones could be well represented by an equiangular spiral. More recently, the cylindrical helix has been popular for representing tone chroma and tone height. Here it is shown that tone chroma, tone height, and cochlear position can be conveniently related to tone frequency via a planar spiral. For this ``equal-temperament spiral,'' (ET Spiral) tone chroma is conceived as a circular array with semitones at 30° intervals. The frequency of sound on the cent scale (re 16.351 Hz) is represented by the radius of the spiral defined by r=(1200/2π)θr, where θr is in radians. By these definitions, one revolution represents one octave, 1200 cents, 30° represents a semitone, the radius relates θ to cents in accordance with equal temperament (ET) tuning, and the arclength of the spiral matches the mapping of sound frequency to the basilar membrane. Thus, the ET Spiral gives tone chroma as θ, tone height as the cent scale, and the cochlear map as the arclength. The possible implications and directions for further work are discussed.

  7. Inductance Calculations of Variable Pitch Helical Inductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    8217 ’ Integral solution using Simpson’s Rule ’ Dim i As Integer Dim Pi As Double, uo As Double, kc As Double Dim a As Double, amax As Double, da As...Double Dim steps As Integer Dim func1a As Double, func1b As Double ’ On Error GoTo err_TorisV1 steps = 1000 Pi = 3.14159 uo = 4 * Pi * 0.0000001...As Double ’ ’ Integral solution using Simpson’s Rule ’ Dim i As Integer Dim Pi As Double, uo As Double, kc As Double Dim a As Double, amax As

  8. TDAP: Island versus propeller.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Artero, Guillermo; Escudero, Ezequiel; Khouri, Roger K

    2016-04-01

    Thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) island flap is a safe and reliable method for breast reconstruction. TDAP propeller flap has been described as a modification of the conventional island technique that saves time and does not require microsurgical skills. However, a substantial portion of the propeller flap remains under the axilla and is not used for breast augmentation. The aim of this study is to identify the differences in the reaching distances between the propeller and island TDAP flaps. In five cadaveric specimens and 10 breast reconstruction patients, an initial propeller flap was harvested and rotated to the anterior thorax; the distance from the tip of the flap to the anterior midline was recorded as the "midline-reaching deficit;" the flap was then converted into a conventional island flap, and the new midline-reaching deficit was recorded. Differences between groups were compared with paired two-tailed t-tests (α = 0.05). In the cadaveric specimens, the mean midline-reaching deficit was 4.8 ± 2.4 cm with the propeller TDAP and -0.6 ± 2.0 cm with the conventional island TDAP (P < 0.001). In the clinical cases, the mean midline-reaching deficit was 8.1 ± 1.0 cm with the propeller TDAP and -0.3 ± 1.1 cm with the island TDAP (P < 0.000000001). We observed that the midline-reaching deficit could be reduced by 7-9 cm with the conventional island TDAP in comparison to the propeller TDAP. This should be considered when reconstructing the medial inner part of the breast. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  10. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of an advanced eight-bladed propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Dunham, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a research program on advanced turboprop aircraft aerodynamics, a low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to document the basic performance and force and moment characteristics of an advanced eight-bladed propeller. The results show that in addition to the normal force and pitching moment produced by the propeller/nacelle combination at angle of attack, a significant side force and yawing moment are also produced. Furthermore, it is shown that for test conditions wherein compressibility effects can be ignored, accurate simulation of propeller performance and flow fields can be achieved by matching the nondimensional power loading of the model propeller to that of the full-scale propeller.

  11. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  12. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  13. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  14. Propellers in yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S

    1945-01-01

    It was realized as early as 1909 that a propeller in yaw develops a side force like that of a fin. In 1917, R. G. Harris expressed this force in terms of the torque coefficient for the unyawed propeller. Of several attempts to express the side force directly in terms of the shape of the blades, however, none has been completely satisfactory. An analysis that incorporates induction effects not adequately covered in previous work and that gives good agreement with experiment over a wide range of operating conditions is presented. The present analysis shows that the fin analogy may be extended to the form of the side-force expression and that the effective fin area may be taken as the projected side area of the propeller.

  15. An examination of slo-pitch pitching trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom; Gervais, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many slo-pitch coaches and players believe that generating spin on a ball can affect its trajectory. The influence of air resistance on a ball that is thrown at a moderate speed and spin is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of spin on the ball's trajectory in slo-pitch pitching using both experimental results and ball flight simulations. Fourteen pitchers participated in the study, each of whom threw five backspin and topspin pitches each. Data were collected using standard three-dimensional videography. The horizontal velocity, vertical velocity, angular velocity, release height, and horizontal displacement of the backspin pitches were significantly higher than those of the topspin pitches. The ball flight simulations were developed to examine the influence of the ball spin, and it was concluded that the spin of the ball had a significant effect on the ball's vertical and horizontal displacements. Furthermore, our results suggest that a backspin pitch that reaches the maximum height allowable and lands in the front edge of the strike zone has the steepest slope. The present results add to our understanding of projectile motion and aerodynamics.

  16. Motorboat propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, N; Di Nunno, C

    2000-07-01

    The authors analyze the case of an Albanian refugee who was killed by the propellers of the outboard engine of a rubber dinghy while illegally attempting to reach Italy. The finding of multiple parallel, deep clear-cut injuries is uncommon, but highly characteristic of the object producing the lesions. These are typical and cannot be mistaken with those produced by sharp objects or shark bites. The description of the injuries is vital for establishing the position of the victim with regard to the propeller that struck him.

  17. Kinematics and kinetics of elite windmill softball pitching.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sherry L; Jones, Deryk G; Guido, John A; Brunet, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    A significant number of time-loss injuries to the upper extremity in elite windmill softball pitchers has been documented. The number of outings and pitches thrown in 1 week for a softball pitcher is typically far in excess of those seen in baseball pitchers. Shoulder stress in professional baseball pitching has been reported to be high and has been linked to pitching injuries. Shoulder distraction has not been studied in an elite softball pitching population. The stresses on the throwing shoulder of elite windmill pitchers are similar to those found for professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional, high-speed (120 Hz) video data were collected on rise balls from 24 elite softball pitchers during the 1996 Olympic Games. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing shoulder were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate shoulder stress and pitching mechanics. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 80% of body weight for the Olympic pitchers. Sixty-nine percent of the variability in shoulder distraction can be explained by a combination of 7 parameters related to pitching mechanics. Excessive distraction stress at the throwing shoulder is similar to that found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries. Normative information regarding upper extremity kinematics and kinetics for elite softball pitchers has been established.

  18. Active synchrophasing of propeller unbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaptein, Dick

    1992-01-01

    The results of a survey are presented to reduce the inflight propeller unbalance vibrations in the cabin of the Fokker 50 airplanes. Several approaches have been investigated. Active synchrophasing of the unbalance vibrations of both propellers appears to be successful.

  19. Optical measurement of propeller blade deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1988-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measurement of propeller blade deflections is described and evaluated. It does not depend on the reflectivity of the blade surface but only on its opaqueness. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained using a single light beam generated by a low-power helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured deflections from a static and a high-speed test are compared with available predicted deflections which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  20. Transient processes in the combustion of nitramine propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    A transient combustion model of nitramine propellants is combined with an isentropic compression shock formation model to determine the role of nitramine propellant combustion in DDT, excluding effects associated with propellant structural properties or mechanical behavior. The model is derived to represent the closed pipe experiment that is widely used to characterize explosives, except that the combustible material is a monolithic charge rather than compressed powder. Computations reveal that the transient combustion process cannot by itself produce DDT by this model. Compressibility of the solid at high pressure is the key factor limiting pressure buildups created by the combustion. On the other hand, combustion mechanisms which promote pressure buildups are identified and related to propellant formulation variables. Additional combustion instability data for nitramine propellants are presented. Although measured combustion response continues to be low, more data are required to distinguish HMX and active binder component contributions. A design for a closed vessel apparatus for experimental studies of high pressure combustion is discussed.

  1. Navy LOVA propellant development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreatt, W. H.; Mitchell, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The progress realized on evaluation of inert binder, nitramine formulations is considered with respect to their development for use as low vulnerability ammunition (LOVA) propellants. Burning rate, plasticizers, crosslink agents, physical property and vulnerability studies are discussed and some preliminary conclusions presented.

  2. SNTP propellant management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippetts, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the following are presented: (1) space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) propellant management system; (2) SNTP cycle selection; (3) NTP system components unique design constraints; (4) bleed cycle unique design requirement for turbopump; (5) bleed cycle turbopump; (6) SNTP carbon-carbon turbine wheel; and (7) turbine development program.

  3. A-ring Propeller

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-26

    A propeller-shaped structure, created by an unseen moon, can be seen in Saturn A ring and looks like a small, dark line interrupting the bright surrounding ring material in the upper left of this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  4. Speedboat Propeller Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sleight, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    Six patients are reported who were severely injured by high-speed boat propellers. With reasonable precautions such accidents need never occur, and people should be more aware of these and ensure that safety measures are enforced. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4835301

  5. Propeller Tip Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    The present report is limited to a case of tip flutter recognized by experience as being important. It is the case where outside interferences force vibrations upon the propeller. Such interferences may be set up by the engine, or they may be the result of an unsymmetrical field of flow.

  6. Analyzing pitch chroma and pitch height in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jason D; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Patterson, Roy D; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-11-01

    The perceptual pitch dimensions of chroma and height have distinct representations in the human brain: chroma is represented in cortical areas anterior to primary auditory cortex, whereas height is represented posterior to primary auditory cortex.

  7. New Propellants and Cryofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  8. Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

  9. Propeller torque load and propeller shaft torque response correlation during ice-propeller interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polić, Dražen; Ehlers, Sören; Æsøy, Vilmar

    2017-03-01

    Ships use propulsion machinery systems to create directional thrust. Sailing in ice-covered waters involves the breaking of ice pieces and their submergence as the ship hull advances. Sometimes, submerged ice pieces interact with the propeller and cause irregular fluctuations of the torque load. As a result, the propeller and engine dynamics become imbalanced, and energy propagates through the propulsion machinery system until equilibrium is reached. In such imbalanced situations, the measured propeller shaft torque response is not equal to the propeller torque. Therefore, in this work, the overall system response is simulated under the ice-related torque load using the Bond graph model. The energy difference between the propeller and propeller shaft is estimated and related to their corresponding mechanical energy. Additionally, the mechanical energy is distributed among modes. Based on the distribution, kinetic and potential energy are important for the correlation between propeller torque and propeller shaft response.

  10. Unsteady combustion of solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T. J.; Kim, P. K.

    The oscillatory motions of all field variables (pressure, temperature, velocity, density, and fuel fractions) in the flame zone of solid propellant rocket motors are calculated using the finite element method. The Arrhenius law with a single step forward chemical reaction is used. Effects of radiative heat transfer, impressed arbitrary acoustic wave incidence, and idealized mean flow velocities are also investigated. Boundary conditions are derived at the solid-gas interfaces and at the flame edges which are implemented via Lagrange multipliers. Perturbation expansions of all governing conservation equations up to and including the second order are carried out so that nonlinear oscillations may be accommodated. All excited frequencies are calculated by means of eigenvalue analyses, and the combustion response functions corresponding to these frequencies are determined. It is shown that the use of isoparametric finite elements, Gaussian quadrature integration, and the Lagrange multiplier boundary matrix scheme offers a convenient approach to two-dimensional calculations.

  11. Nitramine Propellant Erosivity - III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Commanld c r AFTN. I. Busut t i I US A rmy M i ,, i I (ommiiad W ., Awst in ATTN: R ( IUN1I -YI. R . Mont 1,ol11v rv Red st ollAc enaIAl~~ .iIington .1 .Sant...A-D-A96 878 ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCHRAN4D EVELOPMENTUCOMMAND ABERO--ETC F/G 19/1 NITRAM INE PROPELLANT EROSII TY_ II.( ) DEC 80 R GEENE, B GROLLMAN, A...NIILER A RYE UNCLASSIFIED ARBRL - R -02278 SBIE D-E430 574 N11hEEE~EEn~hh~~E EohEEEohhEE... LEVEL TECHNICAL REPORT ARBRL-TR-02278 NITRAMINE PROPELLANT

  12. The screw propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1980-07-01

    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  13. Noise of a simulated installed model counterrotation propeller at angle-of-attack and takeoff/approach conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Two modern high-speed advanced counterrotation propellers, F7/A7 and F7/A3 were tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel at simulated takeoff/approach conditions of 0.2 Mach. Both rotors were of similar diameter on the F7/A7 propeller, while the aft diameter of the F7/A3 propeller was 85 percent of the forward propeller to reduce tip vortex-aft rotor interaction. The two propellers were designed for similar performance. The propellers were tested in both the baseline configuration and installed configuration consisting of a simulated upstream nacelle support pylon and fuselage section. Acoustic measurements were made with a polar microphone probe which recorded sideline directivities at various azimuthal locations. Aerodynamic measurements were also made to establish propeller operating conditions. The propellers were run at initial blade setting angles adjusted to achieve equal forward/aft torque ratios at angle of attack with the pylon and fuselage simulation in place. Data are presented for propeller operation at 80 and 90 percent of design speed (the forward rotor design tip speed was 238 m/sec (780 ft/sec). Both propellers were tested at the maximum rotor-rotor spacing of 14.99 cm (5.90 in.) based on the pitch change axis separation.

  14. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Aerodynamic and aeromechanical performance of a 50.8 cm (20 inch) diameter 1.34 PR variable pitch fan with core flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Mcfalls, R. A.; Beacher, B. F.

    1977-01-01

    The fan aerodynamic and aeromechanical performance tests of the quiet clean short haul experimental engine under the wing fan and inlet with a simulated core flow are described. Overall forward mode fan performance is presented at each rotor pitch angle setting with conventional flow pressure ratio efficiency fan maps, distinguishing the performance characteristics of the fan bypass and fan core regions. Effects of off design bypass ratio, hybrid inlet geometry, and tip radial inlet distortion on fan performance are determined. The nonaxisymmetric bypass OGV and pylon configuration is assessed relative to both total pressure loss and induced circumferential flow distortion. Reverse mode performance, obtained by resetting the rotor blades through both the stall pitch and flat pitch directions, is discussed in terms of the conventional flow pressure ratio relationship and its implications upon achievable reverse thrust. Core performance in reverse mode operation is presented in terms of overall recovery levels and radial profiles existing at the simulated core inlet plane. Observations of the starting phenomena associated with the initiation of stable rotor flow during acceleration in the reverse mode are briefly discussed. Aeromechanical response characteristics of the fan blades are presented as a separate appendix, along with a description of the vehicle instrumentation and method of data reduction.

  15. Animal Pitch Perception: Melodies and Harmonies

    PubMed Central

    Hoeschele, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Pitch is a percept of sound that is based in part on fundamental frequency. Although pitch can be defined in a way that is clearly separable from other aspects of musical sounds, such as timbre, the perception of pitch is not a simple topic. Despite this, studying pitch separately from other aspects of sound has led to some interesting conclusions about how humans and other animals process acoustic signals. It turns out that pitch perception in humans is based on an assessment of pitch height, pitch chroma, relative pitch, and grouping principles. How pitch is broken down depends largely on the context. Most, if not all, of these principles appear to also be used by other species, but when and how accurately they are used varies across species and context. Studying how other animals compare to humans in their pitch abilities is partially a reevaluation of what we know about humans by considering ourselves in a biological context. PMID:28649291

  16. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  17. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  18. Optimum acoustic design of free-running low speed propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Woan, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is conducted concerning the effect of blade loading on the noise output of a free-running propeller in axial motion. The minimization of the mean square sound pressure at a point in space is considered, taking into account constraints on propeller thrust and torque. Attention is given to aerodynamic equations, acoustic equations, the expansion of the aerodynamic variables, and the nonlinear programming formulation.

  19. MEMS-Based Solid Propellant Rocket Array Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Hosokawa, Ryuichiro; Tokudome, Shin-Ichiro; Hori, Keiichi; Saito, Hirobumi; Watanabe, Masashi; Esashi, Masayoshi

    The prototype of a solid propellant rocket array thruster for simple attitude control of a 10 kg class micro-spacecraft was completed and tested. The prototype has 10×10 φ0.8 mm solid propellant micro-rockets arrayed at a pitch of 1.2 mm on a 20×22 mm substrate. To realize such a dense array of micro-rockets, each ignition heater is powered from the backside of the thruster through an electrical feedthrough which passes along a propellant cylinder wall. Boron/potassium nitrate propellant (NAB) is used with/without lead rhodanide/potassium chlorate/nitrocellulose ignition aid (RK). Impulse thrust was measured by a pendulum method in air. Ignition required electric power of at least 3 4 W with RK and 4 6 W without RK. Measured impulse thrusts were from 2×10-5 Ns to 3×10-4 Ns after the calculation of compensation for air dumping.

  20. Performance optimization of marine propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Sup; Choi, Young-Dal; Ahn, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Myoung-Sup; Jang, Hyun-Gil

    2010-12-01

    Recently a Wide Chord Tip (WCT) propeller has been developed and applied to a commercial ship by STX Offshore & Shipbuilding. It is reported that the WCT propeller significantly reduces pressure fluctuations and also ship's noise and vibration. On the sea trial, vibration magnitude in the accommodations at NCR was measured at 0.9mm/sec which is only 10% of international allowable magnitude of vibration (9mm/sec). In this paper, a design method for increasing performance of the marine propellers including the WCT propeller is suggested. It is described to maximize the performance of the propeller by adjusting expanded areas of the propeller blade. Results show that efficiency can be increased up to over 2% through the suggested design method.

  1. Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 Airplane with Windmilling Propellers as Obtained from Flight of 0.133-Scale Rocket-Propelled Model at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Earl C.; Mitcham, Grady L.

    1954-01-01

    A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane with windmilling propellers for the Mach number range between 0.70 and 1.13. The variation of lift-curve slope C(sub L(sub alpha) with Mach number was gradual with a maximum value of 0.074 occurring at a Mach number of 0.97. Propellers had little effect upon the values of lift-curve slope or the linearity of lift coefficient with angle of attack. At lift coefficients between approximately 0.25 and 0.45 with an elevon angle of approximately -l0 deg, there was a region of neutral longitudinal stability at Mach numbers below 0.93 introduced by the addition of windmilling propellers. Below a lift coefficient of 0.10 and above a lift coefficient of 0.45, the model was longitudinally stable throughout the Mach number range of the test. There was a forward shift in the aerodynamic center of about 3-percent mean aerodynamic chord introduced by the addition of propellers. The aerodynamic center as determined at low lift moved gradually from a value of 28.5-percent mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 0.75 to a value of 47-percent mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 1.10. There was an abrupt decrease in pitch damping between Mach numbers of 0.88 and 0.99 followed by a rapid increase in damping to a Mach number of 1.06. The propellers had little effect upon the pitch damping characteristics . The transonic trim change was a large pitching-down tendency with and without windmilling propellers. The elevons were effective pitch controls throughout the speed range; however, their effectiveness was reduced about 50 percent at supersonic speeds. The propellers had no appreciable effect upon the control effectiveness.

  2. Thrust Deduction in Contrarotating Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    nuder gavc At = 0.056 Design CR propellers (Table 2) At = 0.029 Single Screw. Stromn-Tejsen 14 Very good agreement between the experimental and... design experimental points do not lie on the theoretical curve. This is believed to be due to either experimental test accuracy. or tile rudder effect, or...propellers. Con trarotating propellers operating at off- design loading and spacing as well as the contribution of a rudder were investigated. Theli

  3. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    applicability of CARS in studies of the combustion of propellants and other reactive systems. Broadband CARS spectra were obtained from both the reaction zone...ref 12). When ienited vith a flame, propellant burned in air with a luainous flame. A-e Ignittou with i hot wire resulted in flameless burning (fizz...ester). Current models of nitramine propellant combustion are essentially models of HMX (cyclotetranithylene tetranitramine) and RDX deflagration. The

  4. Propellant Reuse/Recovery Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    viscosity of the nitrocellulose (NC) determine the solvent/solvent and solvent/propellant ratios required to properly resolvate the propellant. It was also...plasticization. An 11-min drying cycle was required to remove the excess solvent from the over-solvated propellant. To improve plasticization using...solvent, and (4) 15-min mix cycle. To eliminate the drying cycle and determine that a 15-min mix cycle will resolvate the propellart, an additional 1 h

  5. Modeling of pulsed propellant reorientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patag, A. E.; Hochstein, J. I.; Chato, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization of the propellant reorientation process can provide increased payload capability and extend the service life of spacecraft. The use of pulsed propellant reorientation to optimize the reorientation process is proposed. The ECLIPSE code was validated for modeling the reorientation process and is used to study pulsed reorientation in small-scale and full-scale propellant tanks. A dimensional analysis of the process is performed and the resulting dimensionless groups are used to present and correlate the computational predictions for reorientation performance.

  6. The perception of complex pitch in cochlear implants: A comparison of monopolar and tripolar stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Claire A; Kluk, Karolina; Boyle, Patrick J; McKay, Colette M

    2015-10-01

    Cochlear implant listeners typically perform poorly in tasks of complex pitch perception (e.g., musical pitch and voice pitch). One explanation is that wide current spread during implant activation creates channel interactions that may interfere with perception of temporal fundamental frequency information contained in the amplitude modulations within channels. Current focusing using a tripolar mode of stimulation has been proposed as a way of reducing channel interactions, minimising spread of excitation and potentially improving place and temporal pitch cues. The present study evaluated the effect of mode in a group of cochlear implant listeners on a pitch ranking task using male and female singing voices separated by either a half or a quarter octave. Results were variable across participants, but on average, pitch ranking was at chance level when the pitches were a quarter octave apart and improved when the difference was a half octave. No advantage was observed for tripolar over monopolar mode at either pitch interval, suggesting that previously published psychophysical advantages for focused modes may not translate into improvements in complex pitch ranking. Evaluation of the spectral centroid of the stimulation pattern, plus a lack of significant difference between male and female voices, suggested that participants may have had difficulty in accessing temporal pitch cues in either mode.

  7. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational... tests, that the propeller is capable of continuous safe operation. (h) All engine cowling, access doors... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905...

  8. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational... tests, that the propeller is capable of continuous safe operation. (h) All engine cowling, access doors... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905...

  9. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational... tests, that the propeller is capable of continuous safe operation. (h) All engine cowling, access doors... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905...

  10. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational... tests, that the propeller is capable of continuous safe operation. (h) All engine cowling, access doors... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905...

  11. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational... tests, that the propeller is capable of continuous safe operation. (h) All engine cowling, access doors... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905...

  12. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  13. SOLID PROPELLANT COMBUSTION MECHANISM STUDIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANTS, BURNING RATE), LOW PRESSURE, COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, QUENCHING, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, KINETIC THEORY, SURFACE PROPERTIES, PHASE STUDIES, SOLIDS, GASES, PYROLYSIS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  14. The Pitch-Matching Ability of High School Choral Students: A Justification for Continued Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle, Aaron M.; Gerrity, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch-matching ability of high school choral students. Years of piano experience, middle school performance experience, and model were considered as variables that might affect pitch-matching ability. Gender of participants was also considered when identifying the effectiveness of each model.…

  15. Promoting Increased Pitch Variation in Oral Presentations with Transient Visual Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hincks, Rebecca; Edlund, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learner response to a novel kind of intonation feedback generated from speech analysis. Instead of displays of pitch curves, our feedback is flashing lights that show how much pitch variation the speaker has produced. The variable used to generate the feedback is the standard deviation of fundamental frequency as measured…

  16. Brief Report: Discrimination of Foreign Speech Pitch and Autistic Traits in Non-Clinical Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Wippich, Anna; Lam, Yu Hin

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are widely suggested to show enhanced perceptual discrimination but inconsistent findings have been reported for pitch discrimination. Given the high variability in ASC, this study investigated whether ASC traits were correlated with pitch discrimination in an undergraduate sample when musical and…

  17. 78 FR 18255 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... engine oil leak. This proposed AD would require replacement of the propeller hydraulic bladder diaphragm. We are proposing this AD to prevent propeller hydraulic bladder diaphragm rupture, loss of engine oil, damage to the engine, and loss of the airplane. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by...

  18. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) pitch change actuator and control design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Carvalho, P.; Cutler, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the high inherent efficiency previously demonstrated by low speed turboprop propulsion systems may now be extended to today's higher speed aircraft if advanced high-speed propeller blades having thin airfoils and aerodynamic sweep are utilized. Hamilton Standard has designed a 9-foot diameter single-rotation Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) which will be tested on a static test stand, in a high speed wind tunnel and on a research aircraft. The major objective of this testing is to establish the structural integrity of large-scale Prop-Fans of advanced construction in addition to the evaluation of aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic design. This report describes the operation, design features and actual hardware of the (LAP) Prop-Fan pitch control system. The pitch control system which controls blade angle and propeller speed consists of two separate assemblies. The first is the control unit which provides the hydraulic supply, speed governing and feather function for the system. The second unit is the hydro-mechanical pitch change actuator which directly changes blade angle (pitch) as scheduled by the control.

  19. Observations of tip vortex cavitation inception from a model marine propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodha, R. K.; Arakeri, V. H.

    1984-01-01

    Cavitation inception characteristics of a model marine propeller having three blades, developed area ratio of 0.34 and at three different pitch to diameter ratios of 0.62, 0.83 and 1.0 are reported. The dominant type of cavitation observed at inception was the tip vortex type. The measured magnitude of inception index is found to agree well with a proposed correlation due to Strasberg. Performance calculations of the propeller based on combined vortex and blade element theory are also presented.

  20. Clinical assessment of pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Vaerenberg, Bart; Pascu, Alexandru; Del Bo, Luca; Schauwers, Karen; De Ceulaer, Geert; Daemers, Kristin; Coene, Martine; Govaerts, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    The perception of pitch has recently gained attention. At present, clinical audiologic tests to assess this are hardly available. This article reports on the development of a clinical test using harmonic intonation (HI) and disharmonic intonation (DI). Prospective collection of normative data and pilot study in hearing-impaired subjects. Tertiary referral center. Normative data were collected from 90 normal-hearing subjects recruited from 3 different language backgrounds. The pilot study was conducted on 18 hearing-impaired individuals who were selected into 3 pathologic groups: high-frequency hearing loss (HF), low-frequency hearing loss (LF), and cochlear implant users (CI). Normative data collection and exploratory diagnostics by means of the newly constructed HI/DI tests using intonation patterns to find the just noticeable difference (JND) for pitch discrimination in low-frequency harmonic complex sounds presented in a same-different task. JND for pitch discrimination using HI/DI tests in the hearing population and pathologic groups. Normative data are presented in 5 parameter statistics and box-and-whisker plots showing median JNDs of 2 (HI) and 3 Hz (DI). The results on both tests are statistically abnormal in LF and CI subjects, whereas they are not significantly abnormal in the HF group. The HI and DI tests allow the clinical assessment of low-frequency pitch perception. The data obtained in this study define the normal zone for both tests. Preliminary results indicate possible abnormal TFS perception in some hearing-impaired subjects.

  1. A Different Pitch to Slope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbert, William

    2017-01-01

    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  2. Recent Advancements in Propellant Densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Next-generation launch vehicles demand several technological improvements to achieve lower cost and more reliable access to space. One technology area whose performance gains may far exceed others is densified propellants. The ideal rocket engine propellant is characterized by high specific impulse, high density, and low vapor pressure. A propellant combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) is one of the highest performance propellants, but LH2 stored at standard conditions has a relatively low density and high vapor pressure. Propellant densification can significantly improve this propellant's properties relative to vehicle design and engine performance. Vehicle performance calculations based on an average of existing launch vehicles indicate that densified propellants may allow an increase in payload mass of up to 5 percent. Since the NASA Lewis Research Center became involved with the National Aerospace Plane program in the 1980's, it has been leading the way in making densified propellants a viable fuel for next-generation launch vehicles. Lewis researchers have been working to provide a method and critical data for continuous production of densified hydrogen and oxygen.

  3. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  4. A Novel Degradation Identification Method for Wind Turbine Pitch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hui-Dong

    2018-04-01

    It’s difficult for traditional threshold value method to identify degradation of operating equipment accurately. An novel degradation evaluation method suitable for wind turbine condition maintenance strategy implementation was proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of typical variable-speed pitch-to-feather control principle and monitoring parameters for pitch system, a multi input multi output (MIMO) regression model was applied to pitch system, where wind speed, power generation regarding as input parameters, wheel rotation speed, pitch angle and motor driving currency for three blades as output parameters. Then, the difference between the on-line measurement and the calculated value from the MIMO regression model applying least square support vector machines (LSSVM) method was defined as the Observed Vector of the system. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was applied to fitting the distribution of the multi dimension Observed Vectors. Applying the model established, the Degradation Index was calculated using the SCADA data of a wind turbine damaged its pitch bearing retainer and rolling body, which illustrated the feasibility of the provided method.

  5. Method of casting pitch based foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

  6. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  7. Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, causes diseases of pines in the United States, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and South Africa. Pitch canker was first reported in Virginia pine in North Carolina in 1946. Although the disease was reported in Haitian pine in 1953, pitch canker was generally considered a...

  8. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) ball spline pitch-change mechanism whirligig test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The component testing of a ball spline variable pitch mechanism is described including a whirligig test. The variable pitch actuator successfully completed all planned whirligig tests including a fifty cycle endurance test at actuation rates up to 125 deg per second at up to 102 percent fan speed (3400 rpm).

  9. Tethered orbital propellant depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, D. A.; Rudolph, L. K.; Kiefel, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A planned function of the Space Station is to refurbish and refuel an advanced space-based LO2/LH2 orbit transfer vehicle. An alternative to propellant storage at the station is to use a remote facility tied to the station with a log tether. Preliminary design of such a facility is described with emphasis on fluid transfer and storage requirements. Using tether lengths of at least 300 ft, gravity gradient forces will dominate surface tension in such a system. Although gravity given transfer is difficult because of line pressure drops, fluid settling over the tank outlet greatly alleviates acquisition concerns and will facilitate vented tank fills. The major concern with a tethered orbital refueling facility is its considerable operational complexity including transport of the OTV to and from the facility.

  10. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  11. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  12. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Neil M.; Marco, David J. T.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information. PMID:24961624

  13. Environmentally compatible solid rocket propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacox, James L.; Bradford, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Hercules' clean propellant development research is exploring three major types of clean propellant: (1) chloride-free formulations (no chlorine containing ingredients), being developed on the Clean Propellant Development and Demonstration (CPDD) contract sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) low HCl scavenged formulations (HCl-scavenger added to propellant oxidized with ammonium perchlorate (AP)); and (3) low HCl formulations oxidized with a combination of AN and AP (with or without an HCl scavenger) to provide a significant reduction (relative to current solid rocket boosters) in exhaust HCl. These propellants provide performance approaching that of current systems, with less than 2 percent HCl in the exhaust, a significant reduction (greater than or equal to 70 percent) in exhaust HCl levels. Excellent processing, safety, and mechanical properties were achieved using only readily available, low cost ingredients. Two formulations, a sodium nitrate (NaNO3) scavenged HTPB and a chloride-free hydroxy terminated polyether (HTPE) propellant, were characterized for ballistic, mechanical, and rheological properties. In addition, the hazards properties were demonstrated to provide two families of class 1.3, 'zero-card' propellants. Further characterization is planned which includes demonstration of ballistic tailorability in subscale (one to 70 pound) motors over the range of burn rates required for retrofit into current Hercules space booster designs (Titan 4 SRMU and Delta 2 GEM).

  14. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Ball spline pitch change mechanism design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Detailed design parameters are presented for a variable-pitch change mechanism. The mechanism is a mechanical system containing a ball screw/spline driving two counteracting master bevel gears meshing pinion gears attached to each of 18 fan blades.

  15. Development of a solid propellant viscoelastic dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufferd, W. L.; Fitzgerald, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study to develop a dynamic response model for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant are presented. An extensive literature survey was conducted, from which it was concluded that the only significant variables affecting the dynamic response of the SRM propellant are temperature and frequency. Based on this study, and experimental data on propellants related to the SRM propellant, a dynamic constitutive model was developed in the form of a simple power law with temperature incorporated in the form of a modified power law. A computer program was generated which performs a least-squares curve-fit of laboratory data to determine the model parameters and it calculates dynamic moduli at any desired temperature and frequency. Additional studies investigated dynamic scaling laws and the extent of coupling between the SRM propellant and motor cases. It was found, in agreement with other investigations, that the propellant provides all of the mass and damping characteristics whereas the case provides all of the stiffness.

  16. The decay of pitch memory during rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Kaernbach, Christian; Schlemmer, Kathrin

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigates the decay of pitch memory over time. In a delayed pitch comparison paradigm, participants had to memorize the pitch of a Shepard tone, with silent, overt, or without any rehearsal. During overt rehearsal, recordings of the rehearsing were effectuated. Performance was best for silent rehearsal and worst for overt rehearsal. The differences, although partially significant, were not marked. The voice pitch during overt rehearsal was compatible with a random walk model, providing a possible explanation of why rehearsal does not improve the retention of the pitch trace.

  17. Space storable propellant acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegart, J. R.; Uney, P. E.; Anderson, J. E.; Fester, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Surface tension propellant acquisition concepts for an advanced spacecraft propulsion system having a 10-year mission capability were investigated. Surface tension systems were specified because they were shown to be the best propellant acquisition technique for various interplanetery spacecraft in a prior study. A variety of surface tension concepts for accomplishing propellant acquisition were formulated for the baseline space storable propulsion module and Jupiter Orbiter mission. Analyses and evaluations were then conducted on each candidate concept to assess fabricability, performance capability, and spacecraft compatibility. A comparative evaluation of the results showed the Fruhof-class of low-g surface tension systems to be preferred for these interplanetary applications.

  18. On the relation between pitch and level.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Brette, Romain

    2017-05-01

    Pitch is the perceptual dimension along which musical notes are ordered from low to high. It is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound's waveform. Previous reports have shown that pitch can depend slightly on sound level. We wanted to verify that these observations reflect genuine changes in perceived pitch, and were not due to procedural factors or confusion between dimensions of pitch and level. We first conducted a systematic pitch matching task and confirmed that the pitch of low frequency pure tones, but not complex tones, decreases by an amount equivalent to a change in frequency of more than half a semitone when level increases. We then showed that the structure of pitch shifts is anti-symmetric and transitive, as expected for changes in pitch. We also observed shifts in the same direction (although smaller) in an interval matching task. Finally, we observed that musicians are more precise in pitch matching tasks than non-musicians but show the same average shifts with level. These combined experiments confirm that the pitch of low frequency pure tones depends weakly but systematically on level. These observations pose a challenge to current theories of pitch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-cultural perspectives on pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Glenn Schellenberg, E; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-05-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and 6-year-olds distinguished the pitch-shifted foils from the originals, performing significantly better than same-age Canadian children (Experiment 2). Moreover, Japanese 6-year-olds were more accurate than their 5-year-old counterparts. These findings challenge the prevailing view of enhanced pitch memory during early life. We consider factors that may account for Japanese children's superior performance such as their use of a pitch accent language (Japanese) rather than a stress accent language (English) and their experience with musical pitch labels.

  20. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10–15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,” has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language. PMID:21811479

  1. Application of theory to propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. G.; Morgan, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various theories concerning propeller design are discussed. The use of digital computers to obtain specific blade shapes to meet appropriate flow conditions is emphasized. The development of lifting-line and lifting surface configurations is analyzed. Ship propulsive performance and basic propeller design considerations are investigated. The characteristics of supercavitating propellers are compared with those of subcavitating propellers.

  2. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905...

  3. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905...

  4. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905...

  5. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905...

  6. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905...

  7. Pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals: the impact of musical interference and noise.

    PubMed

    Estis, Julie M; Dean-Claytor, Ashli; Moore, Robert E; Rowell, Thomas L

    2011-03-01

    The effects of musical interference and noise on pitch-matching accuracy were examined. Vocal training was explored as a factor influencing pitch-matching accuracy, and the relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination was examined. Twenty trained singers (TS) and 20 untrained individuals (UT) vocally matched tones in six conditions (immediate, four types of chords, noise). Fundamental frequencies were calculated, compared with the frequency of the target tone, and converted to semitone difference scores. A pitch discrimination task was also completed. TS showed significantly better pitch matching than UT across all conditions. Individual performances for UT were highly variable. Therefore, untrained participants were divided into two groups: 10 untrained accurate and 10 untrained inaccurate. Comparison of TS with untrained accurate individuals revealed significant differences between groups and across conditions. Compared with immediate vocal matching of target tones, pitch-matching accuracy was significantly reduced, given musical chord and noise interference unless the target tone was presented in the musical chord. A direct relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination was revealed. Across pitch-matching conditions, TS were consistently more accurate than UT. Pitch-matching accuracy diminished when auditory interference consisted of chords that did not contain the target tone and noise. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 7934 - Airworthiness Directives; McCauley Propeller Systems 1A103/TCM Series Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... with cracks that do not meet acceptable limits, and rework of propellers with cracks that meet..., replacement of propellers with cracks that do not meet acceptable limits, and rework of propellers with cracks... propeller hub, removal from service of propellers with cracks that do not meet acceptable limits, and rework...

  9. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  10. Earth-to-orbit propellant transportation overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, D.

    1984-01-01

    The transportation of large quantities of cryogenic propellants which are needed to support Space Station/OTV operation is discussed. Two ways to send propellants into space are: transporting them in dedicated tankers or scavenging unused STS propellant. Scavenging propellant, both with and without an aft cargo carrier system is examined. An average of two to four flights per year can be saved by scavenging and manifesting propellant as payload. Addition of an aft cargo carrier permits loading closer to maximum, reduces the required number of flights, and reduces the propellant available for scavenging. Sufficient propellant remains, however, for OTV needs.

  11. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  12. Computational prediction of propellant reorientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, John I.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on computational prediction of propellant reorientation are given. Information is given on code verification, test conditions, predictions for a one-quarter scale cryogenic tank, pulsed settling, and preliminary results.

  13. Propeller speed and phase sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collopy, Paul D. (Inventor); Bennett, George W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A speed and phase sensor counterrotates aircraft propellers. A toothed wheel is attached to each propeller, and the teeth trigger a sensor as they pass, producing a sequence of signals. From the sequence of signals, rotational speed of each propeller is computer based on time intervals between successive signals. The speed can be computed several times during one revolution, thus giving speed information which is highly up-to-date. Given that spacing between teeth may not be uniform, the signals produced may be nonuniform in time. Error coefficients are derived to correct for nonuniformities in the resulting signals, thus allowing accurate speed to be computed despite the spacing nonuniformities. Phase can be viewed as the relative rotational position of one propeller with respect to the other, but measured at a fixed time. Phase is computed from the signals.

  14. Propeller Churns the A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-08

    This image is part of a set of images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft showing a propeller-shaped structure created by a hidden, embedded moon moving through one of Saturn rings. An animation is available at the Photojournal.

  15. Ion-thruster propellant utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The evaluation and understanding of maximum propellant utilization, with mercury used as the propellant are presented. The primary-electron region in the ion chamber of a bombardment thruster is analyzed at maximum utilization. The results of this analysis, as well as experimental data from a range of ion-chamber configurations, show a nearly constant loss rate for unionized propellant at maximum utilization over a wide range of total propellant flow rate. The discharge loss level of 1000 eV/ion was used as a definition of maximum utilization, but the exact level of this definition has no effect on the qualitative results and little effect on the quantitative results. There are obvious design applications for the results of this investigation, but the results are particularly significant whenever efficient throttled operation is required.

  16. Rapid Propellant Loading Approach Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    the impact upon ground operations of three configuration options. Ground operations management was addressed through a series of studies performed...and operations management system can enable safe rapid propellant loading operations with limited operator knowledge and involvement. A single

  17. Propeller-driven outflows from an MRI disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lii, Patrick S.; Romanova, Marina M.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Koldoba, Alexander V.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2014-06-01

    Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and plays a dominant role in the inner disc dynamics by inhibiting matter accretion on to the star. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of the propeller regime using axisymmetric MHD simulations of MRI-driven accretion on to a rapidly rotating magnetized star. The disc matter is inhibited from accreting on to the star and instead accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere boundary, slowly building up a reservoir of matter. Some of this matter diffuses into the outer magnetosphere where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected as an outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is smaller than the disc's accretion rate, then the matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere boundary faster than it can be ejected. In this situation, accretion on to the propelling star proceeds through the episodic accretion cycle in which episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion on to the star. In addition to the matter-dominated wind component, the propeller also drives a well-collimated, magnetically dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propelling stars undergo strong spin-down due to the outflow of angular momentum in the wind and jet. We measure spin-down time-scales of ˜1.2 Myr for a cTTs in the strong propeller regime of accretion. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the nature of their ejections. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  18. Unaccounted Workload Factor: Game-Day Pitch Counts in High School Baseball Pitchers—An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Jones, Deborah L.; Tripp, Brady L.; Bruner, Michelle; Vincent, Heather K.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2018-01-01

    Background: Throwing injuries are common in high school baseball. Known risk factors include excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, the prevalence of pitching injuries among high school players has not decreased. One possibility to explain this pattern is that players accumulate unaccounted pitch volume during warm-up and bullpen activity, but this has not yet been examined. Hypotheses: Our primary hypothesis was that approximately 30% to 40% of pitches thrown off a mound by high school pitchers during a game-day outing are unaccounted for in current data but will be revealed when bullpen sessions and warm-up pitches are included. Our secondary hypothesis was that there is wide variability among players in the number of bullpen pitches thrown per outing. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Researchers counted all pitches thrown off a mound during varsity high school baseball games played by 34 high schools in North Central Florida during the 2017 season. Results: We recorded 13,769 total pitches during 115 varsity high school baseball starting pitcher outings. The mean ± SD pitch numbers per game were calculated for bullpen activity (27.2 ± 9.4), warm-up (23.6 ±8.0), live games (68.9 ±19.7), and total pitches per game (119.7 ± 27.8). Thus, 42.4% of the pitches performed were not accounted for in the pitch count monitoring of these players. The number of bullpen pitches thrown varied widely among players, with 25% of participants in our data set throwing fewer than 22 pitches and 25% throwing more than 33 pitches per outing. Conclusion: In high school baseball players, pitch count monitoring does not account for the substantial volume of pitching that occurs during warm-up and bullpen activity during the playing season. These extra pitches should be closely monitored to help mitigate the risk of overuse injury. PMID:29662911

  19. Propelled microprobes in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzavarini, E.; Huang, Y. X.; Schmitt, F. G.; Wang, L. P.

    2018-05-01

    The temporal statistics of incompressible fluid velocity and passive scalar fields in developed turbulent conditions is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations along the trajectories of self-propelled pointlike probes drifting in a flow. Such probes are characterized by a propulsion velocity which is fixed in intensity and direction; however, like vessels in a flow they are continuously deviated on their intended course as the result of local sweeping of the fluid flow. The recorded time series by these moving probes represent the simplest realization of transect measurements in a fluid flow environment. We investigate the nontrivial combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian statistical properties displayed by the transect time series. We show that, as a result of the homogeneity and isotropy of the flow, the single-point acceleration statistics of the probes follows a predictable trend at varying the propulsion speed, a feature that is also present in the scalar time-derivative fluctuations. Further, by focusing on two-time statistics we characterize how the Lagrangian-to-Eulerian transition occurs at increasing the propulsion velocity. The analysis of intermittency of temporal increments highlights in a striking way the opposite trends displayed by the fluid velocity and passive scalars.

  20. Propelling Extended Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local force that directly propels each part of the object. Those gradients resemble the ones created in objects by their weights. An example of the latter is the compressive stress in a column of a building increasing steadily toward its lower end. That gradient occurs because each horizontal section through the column supports all of the weight above it, including the load force pushing down on the column's upper end. The gradient resembles the pressure in a container of liquid increasing with depth in it. Likewise, the weight of a vertically hanging cable causes its tension and tensile stress to increase toward its upper end.

  1. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spraymore » coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.« less

  2. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  3. The acoustics of ducted propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif F.

    The return of the propeller to the long haul commercial service may be rapidly approaching in the form of advanced "prop fans". It is believed that the advanced turboprop will considerably reduce the operational cost. However, such aircraft will come into general use only if their noise levels meet the standards of community acceptability currently applied to existing aircraft. In this work a time-marching boundary-element technique is developed, and used to study the acoustics of ducted propeller. The numerical technique is developed in this work eliminated the inherent instability suffered by conventional approaches. The methodology is validated against other numerical and analytical results. The results show excellent agreement with the analytical solution and show no indication of unstable behavior. For the ducted propeller problem, the propeller is modeled by a rotating source-sink pairs, and the duct is modeled by rigid annular body of elliptical cross-section. Using the model and the developed technique, the effect of different parameters on the acoustic field is predicted and analyzed. This includes the effect of duct length, propeller axial location, and source Mach number. The results of this study show that installing a short duct around the propeller can reduce the noise that reaches an observer on a side line.

  4. Propeller flaps in eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Saul N; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Murakami, Masahiro; Selva, Dinesh

    2018-03-14

    Propeller flaps are island flaps that reach the recipient site through an axial rotation. The flap has a subcutaneous pedicle on which it pivots, thereby resembling a helicopter propeller. We present our series of propeller flaps for the reconstruction of large eyelid defects. This is a retrospective review of the clinical case notes of eight patients that underwent tumour excision with reconstruction with a cutaneous propeller flap supplied by a non-perforator orbicularis pedicle between July and December 2016. Propeller flaps were used in the reconstruction of five lower lid defects (size range 19 × 5 mm to 25 × 8 mm), one medial canthus defect (13 mm diameter), one complete upper lid defect (42 × 19 mm diameter) and one lid sparing extenteration defect. The flaps were recruited from nasolabial, lateral canthal, temple or medial upper cheek skin. Post-operatively one case had 'trapdooring' which required flap revision at 4 months and one had persistent oedema that settled without intervention. The reconstruction of large eyelid defects is challenging in part because of the paucity of locally available skin. Propeller flaps are a paradigm shift in periocular reconstruction in which the subcutaneous pedicle enables the recruitment of large and highly mobile skin flaps from a wide area of regional tissue.

  5. Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1936-01-01

    The relative efficiencies of various engine-propeller combinations were the subject of a study that covered the important flight conditions, particularly the take-off. Design charts that graphically correlate the various propeller parameters were prepared to facilitate the solution of problems and also to c1arify the conception of the relationships of the various engine-propeller design factors. It is shown that, among the many methods for improving the take-off thrust, the use of high-pitch, large-diameter controllable propellers turning at low rotational speeds is probably the most generally promising. With such a combination the take-off thrust may be further increased, at the expense of a small loss in cruising efficiency, by compromise designs wherein the pitch setting is slightly reduced and the diameter is further increased. The degree of compromise necessary to accomplish the maximum possible take-off improvement depends on such design factors as overspeeding and overboosting at take-off as well as depending on the design altitude. Both overspeeding and designing for altitude operation have the same effect on the take-off thrust as compromising in that the propulsive efficiency is increased thereby; boosting the engine, however, has the reverse effect on the propulsive efficiency, although the brake horsepower is increased.

  6. A Bayesian Account of Vocal Adaptation to Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2017-01-01

    Motor systems are highly adaptive. Both birds and humans compensate for synthetically induced shifts in the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback stemming from their vocalizations. Pitch-shift compensation is partial in the sense that large shifts lead to smaller relative compensatory adjustments of vocal pitch than small shifts. Also, compensation is larger in subjects with high motor variability. To formulate a mechanistic description of these findings, we adapt a Bayesian model of error relevance. We assume that vocal-auditory feedback loops in the brain cope optimally with known sensory and motor variability. Based on measurements of motor variability, optimal compensatory responses in our model provide accurate fits to published experimental data. Optimal compensation correctly predicts sensory acuity, which has been estimated in psychophysical experiments as just-noticeable pitch differences. Our model extends the utility of Bayesian approaches to adaptive vocal behaviors. PMID:28135267

  7. Feminization laryngoplasty: assessment of surgical pitch elevation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James P; Macmillan, Cody

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze change in pitch following feminization laryngoplasty, a technique to alter the vocal tract of male to female transgender patients. This is a retrospective review of 94 patients undergoing feminization laryngoplasty between June 2002 and April 2012 of which 76 individuals completed follow-up audio recordings. Feminization laryngoplasty is a procedure removing the anterior thyroid cartilage, collapsing the diameter of the larynx as well as shortening and tensioning the vocal folds to raise the pitch. Changes in comfortable speaking pitch, lowest vocal pitch and highest vocal pitch are assessed before and after surgery. Acoustic parameters of speaking pitch and vocal range were compared between pre- and postoperative results. The average comfortable speaking pitch preoperatively, C3# (139 Hz), was raised an average of six semitones to G3 (196 Hz), after surgical intervention. The lowest attainable pitch was raised an average of seven semitones and the highest attainable pitch decreased by an average of two semitones. One aspect of the procedure, thyrohyoid approximation (introduced in 2006 to alter resonance), did not affect pitch. Feminization laryngoplasty successfully increased the comfortable fundamental frequency of speech and removed the lowest notes from the patient's vocal range. It does not typically raise the upper limits of the vocal range.

  8. A numerical study of the effects of design parameters on the acoustics noise of a high efficiency propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Huang, Jun; Yi, Mingxu; Zhang, Chaopu; Xiao, Qian

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study of a high efficiency propeller in the aerodynamic noise generation is carried out. Based on RANS, three-dimensional numerical simulation is performed to obtain the aerodynamic performance of the propeller. The result of the aerodynamic analysis is given as input of the acoustic calculation. The sound is calculated using the Farassat 1A, which is derived from Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, and compared with the data of wind tunnel. The propeller is modified for noise reduction by changing its geometrical parameters such as diameter, chord width and pitch angle. The trend of variation between aerodynamic analysis data and acoustic calculation result are compared and discussed for different modification tasks. Meaningful conclusions are drawn on the noise reduction of propeller.

  9. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual’s threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory. PMID:24205375

  10. The role of timbre in pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities with complex tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert E.; Watts, Christopher R.; Zhang, Fawen

    2004-05-01

    Control of fundamental frequency (F0) is important for singing in-tune and is an important factor related to the perception of a talented singing voice. One purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pitch-matching skills, which is one method of testing F0 control, and pitch discrimination skills. It was observed that there was a relationship between pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities. Those subjects that were accurate pitch matchers were also accurate pitch discriminators (and vice versa). Further, timbre differences appeared to play a role in pitch discrimination accuracy. A second part of the study investigated the effect of timbre on speech discrimination. To study this, all but the first five harmonics of complex tones with different timbre were removed for the pitch discrimination task, thus making the tones more similar in timbre. Under this condition no difference was found between the pitch discrimination abilities of those who were accurate pitch matchers and those who were inaccurate pitch matchers. The results suggest that accurate F0 control is at least partially dependent on pitch discrimination abilities, and timbre appears to play an important role in differences in pitch discrimination ability.

  11. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  12. Local Cochlear Correlations of Perceived Pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoli, Stefan; Stoop, Ruedi

    2010-07-01

    Pitch is one of the most salient attributes of the human perception of sound, but is still not well understood. This difficulty originates in the entwined nature of the phenomenon, in which a physical stimulus as well as a psychophysiological signal receiver are involved. In an electronic realization of a biophysically detailed nonlinear model of the cochlea, we find local cochlear correlates of the perceived pitch that explain all essential pitch-shifting phenomena from physical grounds.

  13. A pocket model for aluminum agglomeration in composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the purpose of estimating the fraction of aluminum powder that will form agglomerates at the surface of deflagrating composite propellants. The basic idea is that the fraction agglomerated depends upon the amount of aluminum that melts within effective binder pocket volumes framed by oxidizer particles. The effective pocket depends upon the ability of ammonium perchlorate modals to encapsulate the aluminum and provide a local temperature sufficient to ignite the aluminum. Model results are discussed in the light of data showing effects of propellant formulation variables and pressure.

  14. Centaur space vehicle pressurized propellant feed system tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Engine firing tests, using a full-scale flight-weight vehicle, were performed to evaluate a pressurized propellant feed system for the Centaur. The pressurant gases used were helium and hydrogen. The system was designed to replace the boost pumps currently used on Centaur. Two liquid oxygen tank pressurization modes were studied: (1) directly into the ullage and (2) below the propellant surface. Test results showed the two Centaur RL10 engines could be started and run over the range of expected flight variables. No system instabilities were encountered. Measured pressurization gas quantities agreed well with analytically predicted values.

  15. Adaptive finite element method for turbulent flow near a propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Dominique; Ilinca, Florin; Hetu, Jean-Francois

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an adaptive finite element method based on remeshing to solve incompressible turbulent free shear flow near a propeller. Solutions are obtained in primitive variables using a highly accurate finite element approximation on unstructured grids. Turbulence is modeled by a mixing length formulation. Two general purpose error estimators, which take into account swirl and the variation of the eddy viscosity, are presented and applied to the turbulent wake of a propeller. Predictions compare well with experimental measurements. The proposed adaptive scheme is robust, reliable and cost effective.

  16. Aircraft Pitch Control With Fixed Order LQ Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James; Ashokkumar, C. R.; Homaifar, Abdollah

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a given set of fixed order compensators for aircraft pitch control problem. By augmenting compensator variables to the original state equations of the aircraft, a new dynamic model is considered to seek a LQ controller. While the fixed order compensators can achieve a set of desired poles in a specified region, LQ formulation provides the inherent robustness properties. The time response for ride quality is significantly improved with a set of dynamic compensators.

  17. Aircraft Pitch Control with Fixed Order LQ Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James; Ashokkumar, Cr.; Homaifar, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a given set of fixed order compensators for aircraft pitch control problem. By augmenting compensator variables to the original state equations of the aircraft, a new dynamic model is considered to seek a LQ controller. While the fixed order compensators can achieve a set of desired poles in a specified region, LQ formulation provides the inherent robustness properties. The time response for ride quality is significantly improved with a set of dynamic compensators.

  18. Bleriot Propeller Close-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-10

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows Cassini's best image of the propeller feature known informally as Bleriot. The propeller is named after Louis Bleriot, the French engineer and aviator who in 1909 was the first person to fly across the English Channel. This is the third and final propeller to be targeted for a close flyby observation during Cassini's ring-grazing orbits (the period from Nov. 2016 to April 2017 when Cassini's orbit passed just outside the main rings). Because propellers are seen in the outermost parts of the main rings, the ring-grazing orbits provided Cassini's best opportunity to see them up close. Many small, bright specks and linear, scratch-like artifacts are visible in the image. These artifacts are due to cosmic rays and particles of radiation near the planet striking the camera detector during the exposure. Bleriot is the largest of the propellers in Saturn's rings. The wavy features embedded in the propeller structure indicate that its central moonlet is some 60 percent wider than that of Santos-Dumont, which means the Bleriot moonlet is about four times more massive. Cassini scientists have been tracking the orbit of this object for the past decade, tracing the effect that the ring has upon it. Because it is the biggest propeller, it is more easily seen in lower-resolution images than other propellers, and thus it can be spotted in the most images by far. Here, as Cassini moved in close to the rings as part of its ring-grazing orbits, it was able to obtain this extreme close-up view of the propeller, which enables researchers to examine its effects on the ring as never before. These views, and others like them, will inform models and studies in new ways going forward. This image was taken on the unilluminated side of the rings, where sunlight filters through the backlit ring. Like a frosted window, Saturn's rings look different depending on whether they are seen fully sunlit or backlit. On the lit side, the rings look darker

  19. Pitch Angles Of Artificially Redshifted Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Davis, B.; Johns, L.; Berrier, J. C.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J.; Seigar, M.

    2012-05-01

    We present the pitch angles of several galaxies that have been artificially redshifted using Barden et al’s FERENGI software. The (central black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation has been used on a statistically complete sample of local galaxies to determine the black hole mass function of local spiral galaxies. We now measure the pitch angles at increasing redshifts by operating on the images pixel-by-pixel. The results will be compared to the pitch angle function as measured in the GOODS field. This research was funded in part by NASA / EPScOR.

  20. Erosive burning research. [for solid-propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L.; Yang, L. C.; Nguyen, M. H.; Cohen, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    A status report is given on the results for the completed tests in a series of motor firings being carried out to measure the effects of the parameters that are considered to most strongly influence the scaling to larger rocket motor sizes of the transition to/or threshold conditions for erosive burning rate augmentation. Propellant burning rates at locations along the axis of the test motors are measured with a newly developed plasma capacitance gauge technique. The measured results are compared with erosive-burning predictions from a supporting ballistics analysis. The completed motor firings have successfully demonstrated response to the designed test variables. The trends with varying propellant burning rate, chamber pressure, and mass flow rate are consistent with existing results, but no pronounced effect of surface roughness has been observed. Rather, the influence of propellant oxidizer particle size on erosive burning is through its effect on the base, no-corssflow burning rate.

  1. Why Pteropods Flap Their Wings, Periodically Pitch Their Shell, and Swim in a Sawtooth-like Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Antarctic pteropods (Limacina helicina antarctica), which are currently threatened by ocean acidification, swim in seawater with a pair of gelatinous parapodia (or "wings") via a distinctive propulsion mechanism. By flapping their parapodia in a way that resembles insect flight, they exhibit a unique shell wobble (or periodic shell pitching) motion and sawtooth-like trajectory. We present three-dimensional kinematics and volumetric fluid velocity fields for upward-swimming pteropods. Time-resolved data were collected with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) system that was transported to Palmer Station, Antarctica. Both power and recovery strokes of the parapodia propel the pteropod (1.5 - 5 mm in size) upward in a sawtooth-like trajectory with average speed of 14 - 30 mm/s and periodically pitch the shell at 1.9 - 3 Hz with up to 110° difference in pitching angle. The pitch motion effectively positions the parapodia such that they stroke downward during both the power and recovery strokes. We use the kinematics measurement to illustrate the relationship between flapping, swimming and pitching, where the corresponding Reynolds numbers (i.e. Ref, ReU, and ReΩ) characterize the motion of the pteropod. For example, when Ref < 50, the shell does not pitch and the pteropod swims abnormally with little or no vertical translation. We show that the flow field and vortices generated during pteropod propulsion resemble some aspects of insect-flight aerodynamics reported in classic literature, albeit with distinct aquatic variations.

  2. Hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones: dependence on pitch level and pitch contour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, pitch level and pitch contour are two dimensions of lexical tones according to their acoustic features (i.e., pitch patterns). A change in pitch level features a step change whereas that in pitch contour features a continuous variation in voice pitch. Currently, relatively little is known about the hemispheric lateralization for the processing of each dimension. To address this issue, we made whole-head electrical recordings of mismatch negativity in native Chinese speakers in response to the contrast of Chinese lexical tones in each dimension. We found that pre-attentive auditory processing of pitch level was obviously lateralized to the right hemisphere whereas there is a tendency for that of pitch contour to be lateralized to the left. We also found that the brain responded faster to pitch level than to pitch contour at a pre-attentive stage. These results indicate that the hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones depends on the pitch level and pitch contour, and suggest an underlying inter-hemispheric interactive mechanism for the processing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  4. Propeller Flaps: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (<10 years old) and in the older population (>70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling of impulsive propellant reorientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, John I.; Patag, Alfredo E.; Chato, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The impulsive propellant reorientation process is modeled using the (Energy Calculations for Liquid Propellants in a Space Environment (ECLIPSE) code. A brief description of the process and the computational model is presented. Code validation is documented via comparison to experimentally derived data for small scale tanks. Predictions of reorientation performance are presented for two tanks designed for use in flight experiments and for a proposed full scale OTV tank. A new dimensionless parameter is developed to correlate reorientation performance in geometrically similar tanks. Its success is demonstrated.

  6. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  7. Development of advanced blade pitching kinematics for cycloturbines and cyclorotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Zachary Howard

    to achieve optimum performance. A novel inverse method was developed implementing a new semi-empirical curvilinear flow blade aerodynamic coefficient model to predict optimum cycloturbine blade pitch waveforms from the ideal fluid deceleration. These improved blade pitch waveforms were evaluated on a 1.37m diameter by 1.37m span cycloturbine to definitively characterize their improvement over existing blade pitch motions and demonstrate the practicality of a variable blade pitch system. The Fluxline Optimal pitching kinematics outperformed sinusoidal and fixed pitching kinematics. The turbine achieved a mean gross aerodynamic power coefficient of 0.44 (95% confidence interval: [0.388,0.490]) and 0.52 (95% confidence interval: [0.426,0.614]) at tip speed ratios (TSRs) of 1.5 and 2.25 respectively which exceeds all other low TSR vertical axis wind turbines. Two-dimensional incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamic simulations were used to characterize higher order effects of the blade interaction with the fluid. These simulations suggest Fluxline Optimal pitch kinematics achieve high power coefficients by evenly extracting energy from the flow without blade stall or detached turbine wakes. Fluxline Theory was adapted to inform the design of high efficiency cyclorotors by incorporating the concept of rotor angle of attack as well as a power and drag loss model for blade support structure. A blade element version of this theory predicts rotor performance. For hovering, a simplified variation of the theory instructs that cyclorotors will achieve the greatest power loading at low disk loadings with high solidity blades pitched to maximum lift coefficient. Increasing lift coefficients in the upstream portion of the rotor disproportionately increases performance compared to magnifying lift in the downstream portion. This suggests airfoil sections that counter curvilinear flow effects could improve hovering efficiency. Additionally, the

  8. Context-dependent plasticity in the subcortical encoding of linguistic pitch patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph C. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the mechanics of online experience-dependent auditory plasticity by assessing the influence of prior context on the frequency-following responses (FFRs), which reflect phase-locked responses from neural ensembles within the subcortical auditory system. FFRs were elicited to a Cantonese falling lexical pitch pattern from 24 native speakers of Cantonese in a variable context, wherein the falling pitch pattern randomly occurred in the context of two other linguistic pitch patterns; in a patterned context, wherein, the falling pitch pattern was presented in a predictable sequence along with two other pitch patterns, and in a repetitive context, wherein the falling pitch pattern was presented with 100% probability. We found that neural tracking of the stimulus pitch contour was most faithful and accurate when listening context was patterned and least faithful when the listening context was variable. The patterned context elicited more robust pitch tracking relative to the repetitive context, suggesting that context-dependent plasticity is most robust when the context is predictable but not repetitive. Our study demonstrates a robust influence of prior listening context that works to enhance online neural encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. We interpret these results as indicative of an interplay between contextual processes that are responsive to predictability as well as novelty in the presentation context. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Human auditory perception in dynamic listening environments requires fine-tuning of sensory signal based on behaviorally relevant regularities in listening context, i.e., online experience-dependent plasticity. Our finding suggests what partly underlie online experience-dependent plasticity are interplaying contextual processes in the subcortical auditory system that are responsive to predictability as well as novelty in listening context. These findings add to the literature that looks to establish the neurophysiological bases of

  9. Context-dependent plasticity in the subcortical encoding of linguistic pitch patterns.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph C Y; Wong, Patrick C M; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2017-02-01

    We examined the mechanics of online experience-dependent auditory plasticity by assessing the influence of prior context on the frequency-following responses (FFRs), which reflect phase-locked responses from neural ensembles within the subcortical auditory system. FFRs were elicited to a Cantonese falling lexical pitch pattern from 24 native speakers of Cantonese in a variable context, wherein the falling pitch pattern randomly occurred in the context of two other linguistic pitch patterns; in a patterned context, wherein, the falling pitch pattern was presented in a predictable sequence along with two other pitch patterns, and in a repetitive context, wherein the falling pitch pattern was presented with 100% probability. We found that neural tracking of the stimulus pitch contour was most faithful and accurate when listening context was patterned and least faithful when the listening context was variable. The patterned context elicited more robust pitch tracking relative to the repetitive context, suggesting that context-dependent plasticity is most robust when the context is predictable but not repetitive. Our study demonstrates a robust influence of prior listening context that works to enhance online neural encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. We interpret these results as indicative of an interplay between contextual processes that are responsive to predictability as well as novelty in the presentation context. Human auditory perception in dynamic listening environments requires fine-tuning of sensory signal based on behaviorally relevant regularities in listening context, i.e., online experience-dependent plasticity. Our finding suggests what partly underlie online experience-dependent plasticity are interplaying contextual processes in the subcortical auditory system that are responsive to predictability as well as novelty in listening context. These findings add to the literature that looks to establish the neurophysiological bases of auditory system

  10. Effect of Body Nose Shape on the Propulsive Efficiency of a Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Crigler, John L; Naiman, Irven

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of the propulsive efficiency of three adjustable propellers of 10-foot diameter operated in front of four body nose shapes, varying from streamline nose that continued through the propeller plane in the form of a large spinner to a conventional open-nose radial-engine cowling. One propeller had airfoil sections close to the hub, the second had conventional round blade shanks, and the third differed from the second only in pitch distribution. The blade-angle settings ranged from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The effect of the body nose shape on propulsive efficiency may be divided into two parts: (1) the change in the body drag due to the propeller slipstream and (2) the change in propeller load distribution due to the change in velocity caused by the body. For the nose shape tested in the report, the first effect is shown to be very small; therefore, the chief emphasis of the report is confined to the second effect.

  11. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  12. Learning Novel Musical Pitch via Distributional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Because different musical scales use different sets of intervals and, hence, different musical pitches, how do music listeners learn those that are in their native musical system? One possibility is that musical pitches are acquired in the same way as phonemes, that is, via distributional learning, in which learners infer knowledge from the…

  13. Video Game Programmers Learn to "Pitch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    New video and computer game ideas reach the stage of production by a company when they are "pitched" by game developers to game publishers. Learning how to "pitch" technology products has great educational value for technology education students. In this article, the author shares his experience with helping his students master…

  14. Pitch-Learning Algorithm For Speech Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, B. R. Udaya

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive algorithm detects and corrects errors in sequence of estimates of pitch period of speech. Algorithm operates in conjunction with techniques used to estimate pitch period. Used in such parametric and hybrid speech coders as linear predictive coders and adaptive predictive coders.

  15. Solid Propellant Grain Structural Integrity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural properties of solid propellant rocket grains were studied to determine the propellant resistance to stresses. Grain geometry, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and failure modes are discussed along with design criteria and recommended practices.

  16. [Characteristics and mechanism of boat propeller injuries].

    PubMed

    Yu, Song; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min

    2008-02-01

    To summarize the characteristics and investigate the mechanisms of boat propeller injuries so as to explore the identification methods between boat propeller injuries and corpse dismemberment. More than 100 autopsy cases of boat propeller injuries were collected in a period between 1994 and 2005 in Huzhou district, Zhejiang province. The characteristics of injuries caused by propeller, including abrasion, wound, fracture and severed wound, and the characteristics of clothing, were retrospectively studied and summarized. The severed cross wound section of boat propeller injuries was compared with that caused by corpse dismemberment. The boat propeller injuries were resulted from high-speed propellers with enormous splitting power and mechanical cutting, while corpse dismemberment were resulted from cutting and dismembering the body with sharp instruments. Due to the different mechanisms, the different strength of force and recoil force, the severed wound cross section had different characteristics. Wounds caused by boat propeller injuries have their unique characteristics, distinguished from wounds of dismembered corpse.

  17. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as...

  18. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as...

  19. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as...

  20. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as...

  1. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as...

  2. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  3. Influence of yaw on propeller aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Bang; Rozehnal, Dalibor; Hnidka, Jakub; Pham, Vu Uy

    2018-06-01

    Between the propeller axis and free stream direction, it can still be a non-zero yaw angle. This paper introduces some propeller experiments, in which the propeller aerodynamic characteristics have been determined in various yaw angle and different rotational speeds. The experimental aerodynamic characteristics are acquired dynamic values, from which the influence of yaw conditions on the frequency and the amplitude of propeller thrust and torque can be obtained.

  4. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter. [Amdt. No. 35-8, 73 FR 63346, Oct...

  5. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter. [Amdt. No. 35-8, 73 FR 63346, Oct...

  6. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter. [Amdt. 35-8, 73 FR 63346, Oct. 24...

  7. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter. [Amdt. 35-8, 73 FR 63346, Oct. 24...

  8. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter. [Amdt. 35-8, 73 FR 63346, Oct. 24...

  9. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  10. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  11. Micarta Propellers II : Method of Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    The methods used in manufacturing Micarta propellers differ considerably from those employed with wood propellers on account of the hardness of the materials. The propellers must be formed accurately to size in a mold and afterwards balanced without the customary trimming of the material from the tips. Described here are the pressing and molding processes, filing, boring, balancing, and curing.

  12. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most adverse...

  13. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the most...

  14. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the most...

  15. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the most...

  16. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most adverse...

  17. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most adverse...

  18. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most adverse...

  19. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the most...

  20. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  1. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  2. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  3. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  4. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails. (c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22...

  5. Refueling with In-Situ Produced Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ produced propellants have been identified in many architecture studies as key to implementing feasible chemical propulsion missions to destinations beyond lunar orbit. Some of the more noteworthy ones include: launching from Mars to return to Earth (either direct from the surface, or via an orbital rendezvous); using the Earth-Moon Lagrange point as a place to refuel Mars transfer stages with Lunar surface produced propellants; and using Mars Moon Phobos as a place to produce propellants for descent and ascent stages bound for the Mars surface. However successful implementation of these strategies require an ability to successfully transfer propellants from the in-situ production equipment into the propellant tankage of the rocket stage used to move to the desired location. In many circumstances the most desirable location for this transfer to occur is in the low-gravity environment of space. In support of low earth orbit propellant depot concepts, extensive studies have been conducted on transferring propellants in-space. Most of these propellant transfer techniques will be applicable to low gravity operations in other locations. Even ground-based transfer operations on the Moon, Mars, and especially Phobos could benefit from the propellant conserving techniques used for depot refueling. This paper will review the literature of in-situ propellants and refueling to: assess the performance benefits of the use in-situ propellants for mission concepts; review the parallels with propellant depot efforts; assess the progress of the techniques required; and provide recommendations for future research.

  6. Noise of a model counterrotation propeller with simulated fuselage and support pylon at takeoff/approach conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    1989-01-01

    Two modern high-speed advanced counterrotation propellers, F7/A7 and F7/A3 were tested in the NASA Lewis Research Centers's 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel at simulated takeoff/approach conditions of 0.2 Mach number. Both rotors were of similar diameter on the F7/A7 propeller, while the aft rotor diameter of the F7/A3 propeller was 85 percent of the forward propeller to reduce tip vortex-aft rotor interaction. The two propellers were designed for similar performance. The propellers were tested in both the clean configuration, and installed configuration consisting of a simulated upstream nacelle support pylon and fuselage section. Acoustic measurements were made with an axially translating microphone probe, and with a polar microphone probe which was fixed to the propeller nacelle and could make both sideline and circumferential acoustic surveys. Aerodynamic measurements were also made to establish propeller operating conditions. The propellers were run at blade setting angles (fron angle/rear angle) of 41.1/39.4 deg for the F7/A7 propeller, and 41.1/46.4 deg for the F7/A3 propeller. The forward rotors were tested over a range of tip speeds from 165 to 259 m/sec (540 to 850 ft/sec), and both propellers were tested at the maximum rotor-rotor spacing, based on pitch change axis separation, of 14.99 cm (5.90 in.). The data presented in this paper are for 0 deg propeller axis angle of attack. Results are presented for the baseline, pylon-alone, and strut + fuselage configurations. The presence of the simulated fuselage resulted in higher rotor-alone tone levels in a direction normal to the advancing propeller blade near the fuselage. A corresponding rotor-alone tone reduction was often observed 180 deg circumferentially from this region of increased noise. A significant rotor-alone increase for both rotors was observed diametrically opposite the fuselage. In some cases, interaction tone levels were likewise affected by the simulated installation.

  7. Propelling arboriculture into the future

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Research is the engine that propels arboriculture and urban forestry into the future. New knowledge, technologies, and tools provide arborists with improved tree care practices that result in healthier urban forests. The ISA Science and Research Committee (SRC) is composed of 13 professionals and researchers who are dedicated to elevating the importance of research...

  8. Propeller dynamic and aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of propeller blade dynamics are considered including those factors which are exciting the blades and the dynamic response of the blades to the excitations. Methods for treating this dynamic system are described and problems are discussed which may arise with advanced turboprop designs employing thin, swept blades.

  9. The Propeller and the Frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Blériot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 year period over which Blériot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  10. Solid Propellant Test Motor Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    50 Figure 40. Comparison of Measured and Calculated Strand and Small Motor Burning Rates for Fundamental Studies of HTPB /AP Smokeless...Propellants...................................... 51 Figure 41. Agreement Between 2x4 Motor and Strand Burning Rate Data for Non-aluminized HTPB /AP...58 Figure 51. Comparison Between Results Obtained with Ultrasonic Method and Standard

  11. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.ed

    2010-10-20

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of themore » co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of {approx}4 years, similar to the {approx}3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.« less

  12. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  13. Analysis of propellant feedline dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astleford, W. J.; Holster, J. L.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical model and computer program were developed for studying the disturbances of liquid propellants in engine feedline systems. It was found that the predominant effect of turbulence is to increase the spatial attenuation at low frequencies; at high frequencies the laminar and turbulent frequencies coincide. Recommendations for future work are included.

  14. Agreement and Reliability of Tinnitus Loudness Matching and Pitch Likeness Rating

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Derek J.; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Gander, Phillip E.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reproducibly match tinnitus loudness and pitch is important to research and clinical management. Here we examine agreement and reliability of tinnitus loudness matching and pitch likeness ratings when using a computer-based method to measure the tinnitus spectrum and estimate a dominant tinnitus pitch, using tonal or narrowband sounds. Group level data indicated a significant effect of time between test session 1 and 2 for loudness matching, likely procedural or perceptual learning, which needs to be accounted in study design. Pitch likeness rating across multiple frequencies appeared inherently more variable and with no systematic effect of time. Dominant pitch estimates reached a level of clinical acceptability when sessions were spaced two weeks apart. However when dominant tinnitus pitch assessments were separated by three months, acceptable agreement was achieved only for group mean data, not for individual estimates. This has implications for prescription of some sound-based interventions that rely on accurate measures of individual dominant tinnitus pitch. PMID:25478690

  15. Does foot pitch at ground contact affect parachute landing technique?

    PubMed

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark; Munro, Bridget J

    2009-08-01

    The Australian Defence Force Parachute Training School instructs trainees to make initial ground contact using a flat foot whereas United States paratroopers are taught to contact the ground with the ball of the foot first. This study aimed to determine whether differences in foot pitch affected parachute landing technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were analyzed for 28 parachutists who performed parachute landings (vertical descent velocity = 3.4 m x s(-1)) from a monorail apparatus. Independent t-tests were used to determine significant (p < 0.05) differences between variables characterizing foot pitch. Subjects who landed flat-footed displayed less knee and ankle flexion, sustained higher peak ground reaction forces, and took less time to reach peak force than those who landed on the balls of their feet. Although forefoot landings lowered ground reaction forces compared to landing flat-footed, further research is required to confirm whether this is a safer parachute landing strategy.

  16. Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients on pitch perception, melody recognition, and speech reception in noise.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Zhang, Xuyang; Gantz, Bruce; Froman, Rebecca; Olszewski, Carol

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the accuracy of cochlear implant recipients who use different types of devices and signal processing strategies on pitch ranking as a function of size of interval and frequency range and (b) to examine the relations between this pitch perception measure and demographic variables, melody recognition, and speech reception in background noise. One hundred fourteen cochlear implant users and 21 normal-hearing adults were tested on a pitch discrimination task (pitch ranking) that required them to determine direction of pitch change as a function of base frequency and interval size. Three groups were tested: (a) long electrode cochlear implant users (N = 101); (b) short electrode users that received acoustic plus electrical stimulation (A+E) (N = 13); and (c) a normal-hearing (NH) comparison group (N = 21). Pitch ranking was tested at standard frequencies of 131 to 1048 Hz, and the size of the pitch-change intervals ranged from 1 to 4 semitones. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was fit to predict pitch ranking and to determine if group differences exist as a function of base frequency and interval size. Overall significance effects were measured with Chi-square tests and individual effects were measured with t-tests. Pitch ranking accuracy was correlated with demographic measures (age at time of testing, length of profound deafness, months of implant use), frequency difference limens, familiar melody recognition, and two measures of speech reception in noise. The long electrode recipients performed significantly poorer on pitch discrimination than the NH and A+E group. The A+E users performed similarly to the NH listeners as a function of interval size in the lower base frequency range, but their pitch discrimination scores deteriorated slightly in the higher frequency range. The long electrode recipients, although less accurate than participants in the NH and A+E groups, tended to perform with greater accuracy within

  17. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  18. Imperfect pitch: Gabor's uncertainty principle and the pitch of extremely brief sounds.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2016-02-01

    How brief must a sound be before its pitch is no longer perceived? The uncertainty tradeoff between temporal and spectral resolution (Gabor's principle) limits the minimum duration required for accurate pitch identification or discrimination. Prior studies have reported that pitch can be extracted from sinusoidal pulses as brief as half a cycle. This finding has been used in a number of classic papers to develop models of pitch encoding. We have found that phase randomization, which eliminates timbre confounds, degrades this ability to chance, raising serious concerns over the foundation on which classic pitch models have been built. The current study investigated whether subthreshold pitch cues may still exist in partial-cycle pulses revealed through statistical integration in a time series containing multiple pulses. To this end, we measured frequency-discrimination thresholds in a two-interval forced-choice task for trains of partial-cycle random-phase tone pulses. We found that residual pitch cues exist in these pulses but discriminating them requires an order of magnitude (ten times) larger frequency difference than that reported previously, necessitating a re-evaluation of pitch models built on earlier findings. We also found that as pulse duration is decreased to less than two cycles its pitch becomes biased toward higher frequencies, consistent with predictions of an auto-correlation model of pitch extraction.

  19. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  20. A Computational Investigation for Determining the Natural Frequencies and Damping Effects of Diaphragm-Implemented Spacecraft Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahen, Brian; Bernier, Adrien; Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marsell, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Spin-stabilization maneuvers are typically performed by spacecraft entering low-earth orbit to maintain attitude stability. These maneuvers induce periodic fluid movement inside the spacecraft's propellant tank known as fuel slosh, which is responsible for creating forces and moments on the sidewalls of the propellant tank. These forces and moments adversely affect spin-stabilization and risk jeopardizing the mission of the spacecraft. Therefore, propellant tanks are designed with propellant management devices (PMD's) such as barnes or diaphragms which work to counteract the forces and moments associated with fuel slosh. However, despite the presence of PMD's, the threat of spin-stabilization interference still exists should the propellant tank be excited at its natural frequency. When the fluid is excited at its natural frequency, the forces and moments acting on the propellant tank are amplified and may result in destabilizing the spacecraft. Thus, a computational analysis is conducted concerning diaphragm-implemented propellant tanks excited at their natural frequencies. Using multi-disciplinary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, computational models are developed to reflect potential scenarios that spacecraft propellant tanks could experience. By simulating the propellant tank under a wide array of parameters and variables including fill-level, gravity and diaphragm material and shape, a better understanding is gained as to how these parameters individually and collectively affect liquid propellant tanks and ultimately, spacecraft attitude dynamics.

  1. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  2. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  3. Method for extruding pitch based foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extruding pitch based foam is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: forming a viscous pitch foam; passing the precursor through an extrusion tube; and subjecting the precursor in said extrusion tube to a temperature gradient which varies along the length of the extrusion tube to form an extruded carbon foam. The apparatus includes an extrusion tube having a passageway communicatively connected to a chamber in which a viscous pitch foam formed in the chamber paring through the extrusion tube, and a heating mechanism in thermal communication with the tube for heating the viscous pitch foam along the length of the tube in accordance with a predetermined temperature gradient.

  4. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: michiko@mail.doshisha.ac.jp, E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fittingmore » formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.« less

  5. SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, David L.; Anderson, Phillip C.

    2002-01-01

    This final research report summarizes the scientific work performed by The Aerospace Corporation on SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions. The period of performance was from June 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001.

  6. Human spatial orientation in the pitch dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Larson, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment I, each of eight Ss attempted to place himself at 13 different goal orientations between prone and supine. Deviations of achieved body pitch angles from goal orientations were determined. In Experiment II, each of eight Ss attempted to align a visual target with his morphological horizon while he was placed at each of the 13 goal orientations. Changes in settings of the target were examined. Results indicate that Ss underestimate body pitch when they are tilted less than 60 deg backward or forward from the vertical, overestimate body pitch when they are nearly prone, and accurately estimate body pitch when they are nearly supine. In contrast, Ss set the visual target maximally above the morphological horizon when they are tilted 30 deg forward from the vertical. The findings are discussed in terms of common and different physiological mechanism that may underlie judgments of these types.

  7. Revisiting place and temporal theories of pitch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nature of pitch and its neural coding have been studied for over a century. A popular debate has revolved around the question of whether pitch is coded via “place” cues in the cochlea, or via timing cues in the auditory nerve. In the most recent incarnation of this debate, the role of temporal fine structure has been emphasized in conveying important pitch and speech information, particularly because the lack of temporal fine structure coding in cochlear implants might explain some of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant users in perceiving music and pitch contours in speech. In addition, some studies have postulated that hearing-impaired listeners may have a specific deficit related to processing temporal fine structure. This article reviews some of the recent literature surrounding the debate, and argues that much of the recent evidence suggesting the importance of temporal fine structure processing can also be accounted for using spectral (place) or temporal-envelope cues. PMID:25364292

  8. Propellant Expulsion in Unmanned Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-07-01

    29 19. Experimental WAC Corporal piston tank .. ......... . 33 20. Three piston tank designs used in the Corporal program ..... 34 21...propellant. The only universal F. Filling seal at this writing is a metal bellows. Usually, piston tank assemblies are filled by a vacuum technique...externally gener- Piston tank assemblies are subjected to essentially the ated loads due to shock and vibration may be the sever- same tests as bladders. 31

  9. Alternate propellant program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A.; West, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    Candidate propellant systems for the shuttle booster solid rocket motor (SRM), which would eliminate, or greatly reduce, the amount of HCl produced in the exhaust of the shuttle SRM were investigated. Ammonium nitrate was selected for consideration as the main oxidizer, with ammonium perchlorate and the nitramine, cyclo-tetramethylene-tetranitramine as secondary oxidizers. The amount of ammonium perchlorate used was limited to an amount which would produce an exhaust containing no more than 3% HCl.

  10. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  11. Binaural pitch fusion: Pitch averaging and dominance in hearing-impaired listeners with broad fusion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yonghee; Reiss, Lina A J

    2017-08-01

    Both bimodal cochlear implant and bilateral hearing aid users can exhibit broad binaural pitch fusion, the fusion of dichotically presented tones over a broad range of pitch differences between ears [Reiss, Ito, Eggleston, and Wozny. (2014). J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 15(2), 235-248; Reiss, Eggleston, Walker, and Oh. (2016). J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 17(4), 341-356; Reiss, Shayman, Walker, Bennett, Fowler, Hartling, Glickman, Lasarev, and Oh. (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143(3), 1909-1920]. Further, the fused binaural pitch is often a weighted average of the different pitches perceived in the two ears. The current study was designed to systematically measure these pitch averaging phenomena in bilateral hearing aid users with broad fusion. The fused binaural pitch of the reference-pair tone combination was initially measured by pitch-matching to monaural comparison tones presented to the pair tone ear. The averaged results for all subjects showed two distinct trends: (1) The fused binaural pitch was dominated by the lower-pitch component when the pair tone was either 0.14 octaves below or 0.78 octaves above the reference tone; (2) pitch averaging occurred when the pair tone was between the two boundaries above, with the most equal weighting at 0.38 octaves above the reference tone. Findings from two subjects suggest that randomization or alternation of the comparison ear can eliminate this asymmetry in the pitch averaging range. Overall, these pitch averaging phenomena suggest that spectral distortions and thus binaural interference may arise during binaural stimulation in hearing-impaired listeners with broad fusion.

  12. Mutagenicity of burnt gun propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Lewis, P.; Knize, M.G.

    1989-08-02

    The use of the Ames/Salmonella assay as a workplace monitoring method is a long-standing practice at LLNL. This practice has led to the discovery of very mutagenic soot in and around a 4 inch test gun. To the authors' knowledge this is the first finding of mutagenic components in the residue from gun propellants, although there have been numerous reports of mutagenic compounds associated with high explosives -- compounds of entirely different chemical composition (Won et al., 1976). In addition, Ase et al., 1985, analyzed the propellant combustion products of both a M16 rifle and a 105 mm caliber gunmore » with HPLC and GC/MS methods, and found a number of PAHs with known toxicological effects. No biological analysis was done on the residues. Further investigation in our laboratory found that direct acting mutagens where produced upon open burning of the propellants. Small gauge firearms when tested also showed mutagenic residue. Preliminary efforts to identify the mutagenic components estimate that 2-3 compounds are responsible for the biological activity. The identity of these compounds is under investigation. 8 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  13. Particle chaos and pitch angle scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, G. R.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Speiser, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Pitch angle scattering is a factor that helps determine the dawn-to-dusk current, controls particle energization, and it has also been used as a remote probe of the current sheet structure. Previous studies have interpreted their results under the exception that randomization will be greatest when the ratio of the two timescales of motion (gyration parallel to and perpendicular to the current sheet) is closet to one. Recently, the average expotential divergence rate (AEDR) has been calculated for particle motion in a hyperbolic current sheet (Chen, 1992). It is claimed that this AEDR measures the degree of chaos and therefore may be thought to measure the randomization. In contrast to previous expectations, the AEDR is not maximized when Kappa is approximately equal to 1 but instead increases with decreasing Kappa. Also contrary to previous expectations, the AEDR is dependent upon the parameter b(sub z). In response to the challenge to previous expectations that has been raised by this calculation of the AEDR, we have investigated the dependence of a measure of particle pitch angle scattering on both the parameters Kappa and b(sub z). We find that, as was previously expected, particle pitch angle scattering is maximized near Kappa = 1 provided that Kappa/b(sub z) greater than 1. In the opposite regime, Kappa/b(sub z) less than 1, we find that particle pitch angle scattering is still largest when the two timescales are equal, but the ratio of the timescales is proportional to b(sub z). In this second regime, particle pitch angle scattering is not due to randomization, but is instead due to a systematic pitch angle change. This result shows that particle pitch angle scattering need not be due to randomization and indicates how a measure of pitch angle scattering can exhibit a different behavior than a measure of chaos.

  14. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association—the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders—remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means ‘teacher’ and ‘to try’ when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  15. Digital Pitch-And-Roll Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Brown, Jeff; Campbell, Ryland

    1991-01-01

    Highly accurate inclinometer developed. Monitors both pitch and roll simultaneously and provides printed output on demand. Includes three mutually perpendicular accelerometers and signal-conditioning circuitry converting outputs of sensors to digital values of pitch and roll. In addition to wind-tunnel applications, system useful in any application involving steady-state, precise sensing of angles, such as calibration of robotic devices and positioners.

  16. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  17. Propeller Study. Part 2: the Design of Propellers for Minimum Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Woan, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The design of propellers which are efficient and yet produce minimum noise requires accurate determinations of both the flow over the propeller. Topics discussed in relating aerodynamic propeller design and propeller acoustics include the necessary approximations and assumptions involved, the coordinate systems and their transformations, the geometry of the propeller blade, and the problem formulations including the induced velocity, required in the determination of mean lines of blade sections, and the optimization of propeller noise. The numerical formulation for the lifting-line model are given. Some applications and numerical results are included.

  18. In-flight measurements of aircraft propeller deformation by means of an autarkic fast rotating imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasicki, Boleslaw; Boden, Fritz

    2015-03-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation and pitch of the aircraft propeller is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the aircraft propeller has been presented on the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as on the real aircraft. In this paper we outline the principle of Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and describe the construction of a dedicated autarkic 3D camera system placed on the investigated propeller and rotating at its full speed. Furthermore, the results of the first ground and in-flight tests are shown and discussed. This development has been found by the European Commission within the 7th frame project AIM2 (contract no. 266107).

  19. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  20. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  1. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  2. The "Tokyo" consensus on propeller flaps.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Marco; Ogawa, Rei; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Mateev, Musa; Georgescu, Alexandru V; Balakrishnan, Govindasamy; Ono, Shimpei; Cubison, Tania C S; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Koshima, Isao; Hyakusoku, Hikko

    2011-02-01

    Over the past few years, the use of propeller flaps, which base their blood supply on subcutaneous tissue or isolated perforators, has become increasingly popular. Because no consensus has yet been reached on terminology and nomenclature of the propeller flap, different and confusing uses of the term can be found in the literature. In this article, the authors report the consensus on the definition and classification of propeller flaps reached by the authors that gathered at the First Tokyo Meeting on Perforator and Propeller Flaps in June of 2009. Some peculiar aspects of the surgical technique are discussed. A propeller flap can be defined as an "island flap that reaches the recipient site through an axial rotation." The classification is based on the nourishing pedicle (subcutaneous pedicled propeller flap, perforator pedicled propeller flap, supercharged propeller flap), the degrees of skin island rotation (90 to 180 degrees) and, when possible, the artery of origin of the perforator. The propeller flap is a useful reconstructive tool that can achieve good cosmetic and functional results. A flap should be called a propeller flap only if it fulfils the definition above. The type of nourishing pedicle, the source vessel (when known), and the degree of skin island rotation should be specified for each flap.

  3. Match-derived relative pitch area changes the physical and team tactical performance of elite soccer players in small-sided soccer games.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Sigrid B H; Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-07-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) are used in training sessions to prepare for full-sized matches. For the same number of players, smaller pitch sizes result in decreased physical performance and shorter interpersonal distances. A relative pitch area derived from the full-sized match results in larger pitch sizes and this may increase the fit between SSGs and full-sized matches. This study aimed to investigate SSGs with a traditional small pitch and a match-derived relative pitch area in youth elite soccer players. Four age categories (under-13, under-15, under-17 and under-19) played 4 vs. 4 plus goalkeepers on a small (40x30m, 120m 2 relative pitch area) and large pitch (68x47m, 320m 2 relative pitch area). The number of games per age category ranged 15-30. Positional data (LPM-system) were collected to determine physical (total distance covered, high intensity distance and number of sprints) and team tactical (inter-team distance, LPW-ratio, surface area, stretch indices, goalkeeper-defender distance) performance measures and tactical variability. On a large pitch, physical performance significantly increased, inter-team and intra-team distances were significantly larger and tactical variability of intra-team distance measures significantly increased. The match-derived relative pitch area is an important training manipulation and leads to changes in physical and tactical performance 4 vs. 4 plus goalkeepers.

  4. Propeller rotation noise due to torque and thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Arthur F

    1940-01-01

    Sound pressure of the first four harmonics of rotation from a full-scale two-blade propeller were measured and are compared with values calculated from theory. The comparison is made (1) for the space distribution with constant tip speed and (2) for fixed space angles with variable tip speed. A relation for rotation noise from an element of radius developed by Gutin is given showing the effect of number of blades on the rotation noise.

  5. Singing numbers…in cognitive space--a dual-task study of the link between pitch, space, and numbers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin H; Riello, Marianna; Giordano, Bruno L; Rusconi, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the automaticity of spatial-numerical and spatial-musical associations by testing their intentionality and load sensitivity in a dual-task paradigm. In separate sessions, 16 healthy adults performed magnitude and pitch comparisons on sung numbers with variable pitch. Stimuli and response alternatives were identical, but the relevant stimulus attribute (pitch or number) differed between tasks. Concomitant tasks required retention of either color or location information. Results show that spatial associations of both magnitude and pitch are load sensitive and that the spatial association for pitch is more powerful than that for magnitude. These findings argue against the automaticity of spatial mappings in either stimulus dimension. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Evidence for pitch chroma mapping in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Briley, Paul M; Breakey, Charlotte; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-11-01

    Some areas in auditory cortex respond preferentially to sounds that elicit pitch, such as musical sounds or voiced speech. This study used human electroencephalography (EEG) with an adaptation paradigm to investigate how pitch is represented within these areas and, in particular, whether the representation reflects the physical or perceptual dimensions of pitch. Physically, pitch corresponds to a single monotonic dimension: the repetition rate of the stimulus waveform. Perceptually, however, pitch has to be described with 2 dimensions, a monotonic, "pitch height," and a cyclical, "pitch chroma," dimension, to account for the similarity of the cycle of notes (c, d, e, etc.) across different octaves. The EEG adaptation effect mirrored the cyclicality of the pitch chroma dimension, suggesting that auditory cortex contains a representation of pitch chroma. Source analysis indicated that the centroid of this pitch chroma representation lies somewhat anterior and lateral to primary auditory cortex.

  7. Evidence for Pitch Chroma Mapping in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Paul M.; Breakey, Charlotte; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Some areas in auditory cortex respond preferentially to sounds that elicit pitch, such as musical sounds or voiced speech. This study used human electroencephalography (EEG) with an adaptation paradigm to investigate how pitch is represented within these areas and, in particular, whether the representation reflects the physical or perceptual dimensions of pitch. Physically, pitch corresponds to a single monotonic dimension: the repetition rate of the stimulus waveform. Perceptually, however, pitch has to be described with 2 dimensions, a monotonic, “pitch height,” and a cyclical, “pitch chroma,” dimension, to account for the similarity of the cycle of notes (c, d, e, etc.) across different octaves. The EEG adaptation effect mirrored the cyclicality of the pitch chroma dimension, suggesting that auditory cortex contains a representation of pitch chroma. Source analysis indicated that the centroid of this pitch chroma representation lies somewhat anterior and lateral to primary auditory cortex. PMID:22918980

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  9. The Effect of Timbre, Pitch, and Vibrato on Vocal Pitch-Matching Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Duvvuru, Sirisha; Erickson, Molly

    2016-05-01

    This study seeks to examine how target stimulus timbre, vibrato, pitch, and singer classification affect pitch-matching accuracy. This is a repeated-measures factorial design. Source signals were synthesized with a source slope of -12 dB/octave with and without vibrato at each of the pitches, C4, B4, and F5. These source signals were filtered using five formant patterns (A-E) constituting a total of 30 stimuli (5 formant patterns × 3 pitches × 2 vibrato conditions). Twelve sopranos and 11 mezzo-sopranos with at least 3 years of individual voice training were recruited from the University Of Tennessee, Knoxville, School of Music and the Knoxville Opera Company. Each singer attempted to match the pitch of all 30 stimuli presented twice in a random order. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of formant pattern on pitch-matching accuracy. With increasing pitch from C4 to F5, pitch-matching accuracy increased in midpoint of the vowel condition but not in prephonatory set condition. Mezzo-sopranos moved toward being in tune from prephonatory to midpoint of the vowel. However, sopranos at C4 sang closer to being in tune at prephonatory but lowered the pitch at the midpoint of the vowel. Presence or absence of vibrato did not affect the pitch-matching accuracy. However, the interesting finding of the study was that singers attempted to match the timbre of stimuli with vibrato. The results of this study show that pitch matching is a complex process affected by many parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pitch discrimination learning: specificity for pitch and harmonic resolvability, and electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed in pitch and/or spectral resolvability of their components by the cochlea, but were filtered into the same spectral region. Cortical-evoked potentials and a behavioral measure of pitch discrimination were assessed before and after training for all the four complexes. The change in these measures was compared to that of two control groups: one trained on a level discrimination task and one without any training. The behavioral results showed that learning was partly specific to both pitch and resolvability. Training with a resolved-harmonic complex improved pitch discrimination for resolved complexes more than training with an unresolved complex. However, we did not find evidence that training with an unresolved complex leads to specific learning for unresolved complexes. Training affected the P2 component of the cortical-evoked potentials, as well as a later component (250-400 ms). No significant changes were found on the mismatch negativity (MMN) component, although a separate experiment showed that this measure was sensitive to pitch changes equivalent to the pitch discriminability changes induced by training. This result suggests that pitch discrimination training affects processes not measured by the MMN, for example, processes higher in level or parallel to those involved in MMN generation.

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of Propeller Crashback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2013-11-01

    Crashback is an operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle, where the propeller is rotated in the reverse direction to yield negative thrust. The crashback condition is dominated by the interaction of free stream flow with strong reverse flow. Crashback causes highly unsteady loads and flow separation on blade surface. This study uses Large-Eddy Simulation to predict the highly unsteady flow field in propeller crashback. Results are shown for a stand-alone open propeller, hull-attached open propeller and a ducted propeller. The simulations are compared to experiment, and used to discuss the essential physics behind the unsteady loads. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Pusher propeller noise directivity and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pylon wake interaction on far-field propeller noise are studied using a model scale SR-2 propeller in a low-speed anechoic wind tunnel. The variation in the pusher noise penalty with axial angle theta and circumferential angle phi is compared to that of the tractor noise penalty; and the former exhibits minima occurring in the propeller plane and maxima occurring toward the propeller axis. The magnitude of the pusher installation noise penalty decreased with in increase in shaft horsepower and tip Mach number. Directivity comparisons revealed that both a noise reduction and a directivity pattern change resulted when the pylon was moved farther from the propeller. Noise emerging from the wake interaction was distinguished from that of the propeller by means of a modal decomposition.

  13. Volcanic ashfall accumulation and loading on gutters and pitched roofs from laboratory empirical experiments: Implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, S. J.; Cole, J. W.; Wilson, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Broom, S.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic ash load is dependent on the migration and accumulation of ash on roofing surfaces and guttering, of which limited research has been conducted. This study investigates this knowledge gap through the empirical experimental testing of volcanic ash on variably pitched metal sheet roofs with modern PVC gutter systems, highlighting the relative importance of accumulation, migration, remobilization, saturation, and subsequent load. A testing rig delivered ash onto variably pitched roofs (pitches 15°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 45°) with two 45° tests involving a wet surface with subsequent ashfall, and the second of ashfall with periods of wetting, followed by wetting until failure. In testing, dry ash on a dry roof accumulates at pitches up to 35°, above this pitch the percentage of ash accumulating reduces with greater percentages infilling guttering and or lost to the ground. With the introduction of a wet roof surface at 45° pitch, adherence of dry ash greatly increases, increasing accumulated ash thickness as compared to dry tests from 8% to 38%. For testing involving periods of wetting at 45° roof pitch, accumulation percentages further increased to 50%. Ash migrating from the roof surface filled guttering more rapidly at greater pitches, which once full resulted in further migrating ash to spill over the front or back gutter lips. Collapse of guttering did not occur during testing, but deformation and bracket detachment did occur at loads > 1 kPa. This study provides data on load calculations on roofing and PVC guttering through the quantification and utilization of relationships between ash fate, pitch, and the influence of water, in the development of two scenarios for both roof and gutter. These two scenarios then enable the estimation of ash accumulation and thus the load and collapse thresholds for roof and gutter at different roof pitch, which could be adopted for volcanic risk modeling or risk management.

  14. In search of rules behind environmental framing; the case of head pitch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gwendoline Ixia; Norman, Brad; Walker, James; Williams, Hannah J; Holton, M D; Clarke, D; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Whether, and how, animals move requires them to assess their environment to determine the most appropriate action and trajectory, although the precise way the environment is scanned has been little studied. We hypothesized that head attitude, which effectively frames the environment for the eyes, and the way it changes over time, would be modulated by the environment. To test this, we used a head-mounted device (Human-Interfaced Personal Observation platform - HIPOP) on people moving through three different environments; a botanical garden ('green' space), a reef ('blue' space), and a featureless corridor, to examine if head movement in the vertical axis differed between environments. Template matching was used to identify and quantify distinct behaviours. The data on head pitch from all subjects and environments over time showed essentially continuous clear waveforms with varying amplitude and wavelength. There were three stylised behaviours consisting of smooth, regular peaks and troughs in head pitch angle and variable length fixations during which the head pitch remained constant. These three behaviours accounted for ca. 40 % of the total time, with irregular head pitch changes accounting for the rest. There were differences in rates of manifestation of behaviour according to environment as well as environmentally different head pitch values of peaks, troughs and fixations. Finally, although there was considerable variation in head pitch angles, the peak and trough values bounded most of the variation in the fixation pitch values. It is suggested that the constant waveforms in head pitch serve to inform people about their environment, providing a scanning mechanism. Particular emphasis to certain sectors is manifest within the peak and trough limits and these appear modulated by the distribution of the points where fixation, interpreted as being due to objects of interest, occurs. This behaviour explains how animals allocate processing resources to the

  15. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    PubMed

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Pitch Size on Technical-Tactical Actions of the Goalkeeper in Small-Sided Games

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Daniel; Ortega, Enrique; Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; de Baranda, Pilar Sainz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper was to determine how the size of the pitch affected technical and tactical actions of the goalkeeper when playing small-sided games. The participants were 13 male youth players, including 3 goalkeepers. Three different pitch sizes were used (62 x 44 m; 50 x 35 m; 32 x 23 m). On each pitch, the players played three matches of 8 minutes, with 5-minute breaks between matches. Numerous variables were recorded and examined: defensive and offensive technical and tactical actions, opponent’s shooting zone, length and zone of the offensive action, and goal zone where the shoot was directed. An ad hoc observational tool was used. A descriptive analysis was described. The Fisher’s exact test was used when the expected distribution was below 5 or included values below 1%. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The results showed that the technical-tactical actions of the goalkeeper differed among pitch sizes. In defensive actions, when the pitch was larger, the 1-on-1 situations took precedence, whereas when the pitch was smaller, the proportion of blocks increased. In offensive actions, the goalkeepers did not show a wide variety of actions when the pitch was larger, but when the pitch was smaller, passes with a hand or foot increased. These results show that the size should be taken into account when planning and designing tasks. PMID:29922387

  17. A theoretical and experimental investigation of propeller performance methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.; Mikkelson, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly covers aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies; presentation of wind tunnel propeller performance data taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 wind tunnel; discussion of the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies; and a brief review of airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications.

  18. A Review of Evidence for High Life Coefficients on Propeller and Rotor Blades Under Static Thrust Conditions with Some New Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Peter D.; Meyer, Mark; Branum, Lonnie; Burks, John S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Interest has increased recently in the thrust-producing capability of rotors at very high collective pitch angles. An early reference noted this behaviour in rotors and offered alternative models for section lift characteristics to explain it. The same phenomenon was coincidentally noted and used in a propeller code, resulting in very good correlation with static thrust data. The proposed paper will present experimental data demonstrating the pronounced persistence of thrust for propellers at increasing collective pitch angles. Comparisons with blade element/momentum theory will be made. These results are expected to point to the need to define (ultimately to explain) aerodynamic lift and drag behaviour in a rotating environment. Experimental measurements made by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center have shown that locally measured normal force coefficients along the span of a highly twisted rotor blade continue to increase at high values of collective pitch. In some cases these coefficients exceed expected values for the same type of airfoil tested under two dimensional conditions. To date no one to the authors' knowledge has defined the variation of C(n) with pitch for very high angles (to 45 deg) in a rotating environment and for a blade of reasonably high aspect ratio; however, total propeller thrust measurements support the idea that stalling does not occur in the same way as on a wing. This paper will present experimental data in the form of surface pressure distributions as well as flow visualization (microtufts) to explore the aerodynamic behavior of the rotating airfoil at high values of blade incidence. This paper also reviews experimental evidence and infers some high lift coefficient behavior from it. Comparisons between predicted thrust, utilizing modified airfoil characteristics and a blade element model, and measured thrust for both rotors and propellers that cover the extremes of collective pitch are shown and

  19. Combustion Mechanisms of Wide Distribution Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    trimodal propellants were formulated. Each set contains an HTPB binder and duplicate formulations were made with either a IPDI or a DDI curative. The...Distinctive Mechanisms Previous studies [12,131 have shown that HTPB * propellants with wide AP distributions burn at rates much different than predictions...propellants. 17 .- = i.= i i i il =.. .l=limim mll ili= =.l i@ w. -’- 87% 400/20/ 3 MICRON,AP/ HTPB PROPELLANT 2.0 Z -1.0 --- 0--.-7- 0 CALCULATIONO0

  20. The pasty propellant rocket engine development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. I.; Ivanchenko, A. N.

    1993-06-01

    The paper describes a newly developed pasty propellant rocket engine (PPRE) and the combustion process and presents results of performance tests. It is shown that, compared with liquid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs can regulate the thrust level within a wider range, are safer ecologically, and have better weight characteristics. Compared with solid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs may be produced with lower costs and more safely, are able to regulate thrust performance within a wider range, and are able to offer a greater scope for the variation of the formulation components and propellant characteristics. Diagrams of the PPRE are included.

  1. Catalytic ignitor for regenerative propellant gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the ignitor and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  2. Catalytic Ignitor for Regenerative Propellant Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the igniter and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  3. The design of propeller blade roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, G

    1942-01-01

    Predicated on the assumption of certain normal conditions for engine and propeller, simple expressions for the static and dynamic stresses of propeller blade roots are evolved. They, in combination with the fatigue strength diagram of the employed material, afford for each engine power one certain operating point by which the state of stress serving as a basis for the design of the root is defined. Different stress cases must be analyzed, depending on the vibration tendency of engine and use of propeller. The solution affords an insight into the possible introduction of different size classes of propeller.

  4. Deflection of Propeller Blades While Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzmayr, R

    1922-01-01

    The forces acting on the blades of a propeller proceed from the mass of the propeller and the resistance of the surrounding medium. The magnitude, direction and point of application of the resultant to the propeller blade is of prime importance for the strength calculation. Since it was obviously impracticable to bring any kind of testing device near the revolving propeller, not so much on account of the element of danger as on account of the resulting considerable disturbance of the air flow, the deflection in both cases was photographically recorded and subsequently measured at leisure.

  5. Application of Theodorsen's Theory to Propeller Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crigler, John L

    1948-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for obtaining by use of Theodorsen's propeller theory the load distribution along a propeller radius to give the optimum propeller efficiency for any design condition.The efficiencies realized by designing for the optimum load distribution are given in graphs, and the optimum efficiency for any design condition may be read directly from the graph without any laborious calculations. Examples are included to illustrate the method of obtaining the optimum load distributions for both single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers.

  6. Application of Theodorsen's theory to propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crigler, John L

    1949-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for obtaining, by use of Theodorsen's propeller theory, the load distribution along a propeller radius to give the optimum propeller efficiency for any design condition. The efficiencies realized by designing for the optimum load distribution are given in graphs, and the optimum efficiency for any design condition may be read directly from the graph without any laborious calculations. Examples are included to illustrate the method of obtaining the optimum load distributions for both single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers.

  7. A Neuronal Network Model for Pitch Selectivity and Representation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengcheng; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among convergent auditory nerve fibers across frequency channels. Their selectivity for only very fast rising slopes of convergent input enables these slope-detectors to distinguish the most prominent coincidences in multi-peaked input time courses. Pitch can then be estimated from the first-order interspike intervals of the slope-detectors. The regular firing pattern of the slope-detector neurons are similar for sounds sharing the same pitch despite the distinct timbres. The decoded pitch strengths also correlate well with the salience of pitch perception as reported by human listeners. Therefore, our model can serve as a neural representation for pitch. Our model performs successfully in estimating the pitch of missing fundamental complexes and reproducing the pitch variation with respect to the frequency shift of inharmonic complexes. It also accounts for the phase sensitivity of pitch perception in the cases of Schroeder phase, alternating phase and random phase relationships. Moreover, our model can also be applied to stochastic sound stimuli, iterated-ripple-noise, and account for their multiple pitch perceptions. PMID:27378900

  8. A Neuronal Network Model for Pitch Selectivity and Representation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengcheng; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among convergent auditory nerve fibers across frequency channels. Their selectivity for only very fast rising slopes of convergent input enables these slope-detectors to distinguish the most prominent coincidences in multi-peaked input time courses. Pitch can then be estimated from the first-order interspike intervals of the slope-detectors. The regular firing pattern of the slope-detector neurons are similar for sounds sharing the same pitch despite the distinct timbres. The decoded pitch strengths also correlate well with the salience of pitch perception as reported by human listeners. Therefore, our model can serve as a neural representation for pitch. Our model performs successfully in estimating the pitch of missing fundamental complexes and reproducing the pitch variation with respect to the frequency shift of inharmonic complexes. It also accounts for the phase sensitivity of pitch perception in the cases of Schroeder phase, alternating phase and random phase relationships. Moreover, our model can also be applied to stochastic sound stimuli, iterated-ripple-noise, and account for their multiple pitch perceptions.

  9. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  10. Pitch Perception in the First Year of Life, a Comparison of Lexical Tones and Musical Pitch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ao; Stevens, Catherine J; Kager, René

    2017-01-01

    Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains namely music. Using a visual fixation paradigm, 100 and one 4- and 12-month-old Dutch infants were tested on their discrimination of Chinese rising and dipping lexical tones as well as comparable three-note musical pitch contours. The 4-month-old infants failed to show a discrimination effect in either condition, whereas the 12-month-old infants succeeded in both conditions. These results suggest that lexical tone perception may reflect and relate to general pitch perception abilities, which may serve as a basis for developing more complex language and musical skills.

  11. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  12. Analysis of propellant feedline dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holster, J. L.; Astleford, W. J.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical model and corresponding computer program for studying disturbances of liquid propellants in typical engine feedline systems were developed. The model includes the effects of steady turbulent mean flow, the influence of distributed compliances, the effects of local compliances, and various factors causing structural-hydraulic coupling. The computer program was set up such that the amplitude and phase of the terminal pressure/input excitation is calculated over any desired frequency range for an arbitrary assembly of various feedline components. A user's manual is included.

  13. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Switching between pitch surfaces: practical applications and future perspectives for soccer training.

    PubMed

    Rago, Vincenzo; Silva, João R; Brito, João; Barreira, Daniel; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António N

    2018-04-04

    Soccer training and completion is conventionally practiced on natural grass (NG) or artificial turf (AT). Recently, AT pitches for training / competition, and of unstable surfaces for injury prevention training has increased. Therefore, soccer players are frequently exposed to variations in pitch surface during either training or competition. These ground changes may impact physical and physiological responses, adaptations as well as the injury. The aim of this review was to summarize the acute physical and physiological responses, chronic adaptations, and injury risk associated with exercising on different pitch surfaces in soccer. Eligible studies were published in English, had pitch surface as an independent variable, and had physical, physiological or epidemiological information as outcome variables. Specific data extracted from the articles included the training response, training adaptations or injury outcomes according to different pitch surfaces. A total of 224 studies were retrieved from a literature search. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria: 9 for acute physical and physiological responses, 2 for training adaptations and 9 for injury assessment. The literature lacks consistent evidence regarding the effects of pitch surface on performance and health outcomes in soccer players. However, it seems that occasionally switching training surfaces seems a valuable strategy for focusing on specific musculoskeletal queries and enhancing players' fitness. For instance, sand training may be occasionally proposed as complementary training strategy, given the recruitment of additional musculature probably not involved on firmer surfaces, but the possible training-induced adaptations of non-conventional soccer surfaces (e.g., sand) might potentially result into a negative transfer on AT or NG. Since the specific physical demands of soccer can differ between surfaces, coaches should resort to the use of non-traditional surfaces with parsimony, emphasizing the

  15. The oscillatory entrainment of virtual pitch perception

    PubMed Central

    Aksentijevic, Aleksandar; Northeast, Anthony; Canty, Daniel; Elliott, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that synchronized brain oscillations in the low gamma range (around 33 Hz) are involved in the perceptual integration of harmonic complex tones. This process involves the binding of harmonic components into “harmonic templates” – neural structures responsible for pitch coding in the brain. We investigated the hypothesis that oscillatory harmonic binding promotes a change in pitch perception style from spectral (frequency) to virtual (relational). Using oscillatory priming we asked 24 participants to judge as rapidly as possible, the direction of an ambiguous target with ascending spectral and descending virtual contour. They made significantly more virtual responses when primed at 29, 31, and 33 Hz and when the first target tone was harmonically related to the prime, suggesting that neural synchronization in the low gamma range could facilitate a shift toward virtual pitch processing. PMID:23630515

  16. 14 CFR 35.23 - Propeller control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... propeller effect under the intended operating conditions. (4) The failure or corruption of data or signals... corruption of airplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects. (e) The propeller...

  17. 14 CFR 35.23 - Propeller control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... propeller effect under the intended operating conditions. (4) The failure or corruption of data or signals... corruption of airplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects. (e) The propeller...

  18. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  19. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  20. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  1. In-space propellant logistics and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary guidelines for the basic delivery system and safety aspects of the space shuttle configuration in connection with the transport, handling, storage, and transfer of propellants are developed. It is shown that propellants are the major shuttle space load and influence shuttle traffic modeling significantly.

  2. Destruction of propellant magazine, November 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, N. H.

    1984-08-01

    Details on the destruction of a propellant magazine are given. The properties of single base propellants are discussed. Although single base propellants have been around for one hundred years, production of this type of propellant in Australia only commenced during World War 2 when appropriate plant and know how were provided under the Lend Lease Scheme. Most of the single base propellants made at Mulwala Explosives Factory have been of the IMR type i.e., single perforated tubular granules with their surface coated with DNT for use in small to medium calibre ammunition. Since production started at Mulwala Explosives Factory in 1944 some fourteen different versions of style of propellant have been manufactured. Four versions only were made up until 1957 and these were identified with an IMR type number matching the US propellants from which they were copied. New varieties introduced since 1957 have been identified with an AR aeries number commencing with AR2001 - the original Australian 7.62 mm rifle propellant.

  3. Feasibility of rocket propellant production on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Dowler, W. L.; Varsi, G.

    1978-01-01

    In situ production of rocket propellant to reduce landed mass requirements for Mars return missions has been investigated. The analysis has shown that a system which utilizes atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil moisture to produce liquid methane-oxygen propellant requires a landed mass which is less than half the mass of the ascent vehicle it produces.

  4. Engineering Design Handbook. Propellant Actuated Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-30

    DA 016 716 ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK PROPELLANT ACTUATED DEVICES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA SEPTEMBER 1975 Best Available Copy... DESIGN HANDBOOK PROPELLANT ACTUATED DEVICES TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraph Pae "LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .................. I LIST OF TABLES...Tramcmission in Systems ................. 2-18 References ............................... 2-18 CHAPTER 3. BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3-1 General

  5. Propeller wash effects on spray drift

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Thompson; Alvin R. Womac; Joseph Mulrooney; Sidney Deck

    2005-01-01

    for aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switching and propeller wash direction on aerial spray drift from a turbine-...

  6. Composite Solid Propellant Predictability and Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Reports are presented at the meeting at the University of Arizona on the study of predictable and reliable solid rocket motors. The following subject areas were covered: present state and trends in the research of solid propellants; the University of Arizona program in solid propellants, particularly in mixing (experimental and analytical results are presented).

  7. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  8. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation. ...

  9. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each... acceptable functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation. ...

  10. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation. ...

  11. ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size

  12. Vocal perfection in yodelling--pitch stabilities and transition times.

    PubMed

    Echternach, Matthias; Richter, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Yodelling is a special kind of vocal performance in traditional music which consists of rapid and repeated changes in pitch. It is assumed that these pitch changes are accompanied by register changes. We analysed, using the laryngograph, yodelling on different vowels by four professional yodelling teachers (two male, two female), four professional classically trained singers, and four untrained voices. Results reveal that pitch changes in yodelling are associated with decrease of electroglottograpgic (EGG) contact quotient for the upper pitch, indicating a register shift. Furthermore, in contrast to untrained voices, for the yodellers lower and upper pitches were more stable with respect to fundamental frequency and perturbation values, and the pitch transitions were faster.

  13. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  14. SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.

  15. Handbook on Hypergolic Propellant Discharges and Disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, T. E.; Sivik, H. E.; Thomas, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of all treatment methods formerly or currently used in treating chemical wastes is assessed with emphasis on the disposal of hypergolic propellants. Maximum focus is on the space shuttle propellants MMH and N2O4. Except for hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, all the propellants are nitrogen based and can be potentially reduced to valuable plant nutrients. In theory, all the propellants can be reduced to carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, except of fuming nitric acid which contains a small amount of fluorine. Appendices cover: (1) a general design criteria for disposal ponds; (2) thermal aspects of reaction in dilute solution; (3) gas bubble growth, detachment, and rise (4) absorption scrubber fundamentals and descriptions; (5) separation of a propellant vapor from a helium stream by permeation; and (6) atmospheric emission limits.

  16. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  17. Propellant Depots: The Future of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenwelge, Drew

    NASA is currently exploring several options for mankind's return to the lunar surface and beyond. The selected option must stimulate both commercial and international involvement, support future missions to the Moon and other destinations, and above all, fit within the current budget profile. Contrary to the current Constellation approach, this paper describes the option of using an in-space propellant depot architecture that can refuel or top-off visiting vehicles at EML1, and how it fits within NASA's new space exploration criteria. In addition to receiving and transferring fuel, the propellant depot will also provide cryogenic propellant storage and management that utilizes flight proven technologies in conjunction with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management and acquisition devices, thermodynamic analysis, and key enabling technologies are also discussed. Depot design concepts along with an overview of a future lunar mission sequence are also presented.

  18. The theory of the screw propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1922-01-01

    Given here is a brief review of the fundamental principles of the propeller slip-stream theory and its further development through later researches, which demonstrate the connection between the propeller slip-stream theory and Frounde's so-called 'propeller blade theory.' The propeller slip-stream theory, especially in its improved form, now gives us the basis for determining the mutual influence of the parts of the blade, so that, in calculating the shape of the blade, we can get along with certain section characteristics, which have been determined once and for all. It is argued that new theories present the possibility of investigating the phenomena in the vicinity of the propeller, allowing us to calculate its action on the basis of fewer experimental values.

  19. Interaction Between Air Propellers and Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the character and amount of interaction between air propellers as usually mounted on airplanes and the adjacent parts of the airplane structure - or, more specifically, those parts of the airplane structure within the wash of the propeller, and capable of producing any significant effect on propeller performance. In report no. 177 such interaction between air propellers and certain simple geometrical forms was made the subject of investigation and report. The present investigation aims to carry this general study one stage further by substituting actual airplane structures for the simple geometrical forms. From the point of view of the present investigation, the airplane structures, viewed as an obstruction in the wake of the propeller, must also be viewed as a necessary part of the airplane and not as an appendage which might be installed or removed at will. (author)

  20. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  1. Runtime and Pressurization Analyses of Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chung P.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-element unstructured CFD has been utilized at NASA SSC to carry out analyses of propellant tank systems in different modes of operation. The three regimes of interest at SSC include (a) tank chill down (b) tank pressurization and (c) runtime propellant draw-down and purge. While tank chill down is an important event that is best addressed with long time-scale heat transfer calculations, CFD can play a critical role in the tank pressurization and runtime modes of operation. In these situations, problems with contamination of the propellant by inclusion of the pressurant gas from the ullage causes a deterioration of the quality of the propellant delivered to the test article. CFD can be used to help quantify the mixing and propellant degradation. During tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. It should be noted that traditional CFD modeling is inadequate for such simulations because the fluids in the tank are in a range of different sub-critical and supercritical states and elaborate phase change and mixing rules have to be developed to accurately model the interaction between the ullage gas and the propellant. We show a typical run-time simulation of a spherical propellant tank, containing RP-1 in this case, being pressurized with room-temperature nitrogen at 540 R. Nitrogen

  2. Prelinguistic Pitch Patterns Expressing "Communication" and "Apprehension"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether pitch patterns of prelinguistic vocalizations could discriminate between social vocalizations, uttered apparently with the intention to communicate, and "private" speech, related to solitary activities as an expression of "thinking". Four healthy ten month old English-speaking infants (2 boys and 2 girls) were…

  3. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Treesearch

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  4. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  5. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  6. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  7. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  8. Destruction of a high sulfur pitch in an industrial scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    North, B.; Eleftheriades, C.; Engelbrecht, A.

    Sasol approached the CSIR's division of Materials Science and Technology (CSIR Mattek) for an environmentally acceptable solution to their steadily increasing stockpiles of a high sulfur pitch. Conventional incineration of the pitch would result in unacceptably high levels of sulfur dioxide emission to the atmosphere. In addition to the pitch, Sasol indicated a need to dispose of a waste water stream contaminated with organic compounds. After some initial development work CSIR Mattek, in conjunction with its licensee IMS Process Plant, presented a design for a multipurpose bubbling fluidized bed incineration plant that completely destroys the pitch and effluent water whilemore » capturing a minimum of 85% of the incoming sulfur in the pitch by limestone injection. The plant design caters for the variable consistency of both the pitch and the organic waste water, which can contain from 0 to 10% organics. The design also allows for potential future treatment of contaminated soils. In addition to the environment benefit of the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions, the plant also makes use of the hot combustion gases to raise 20 t/hr of saturated steam at 20 bar via an external waste heat boiler. This represents a valuable commodity for the business unit responsible for the waste incineration and makes the Sasol plant a more energy efficient entity. It also represents a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from Sasol. The high sulfur pitch incineration plant was commissioned in Sasolburg by a team of engineers from CSIR Mattek, IMS Process Plant and Sasol during December 1996 and January/February 1997. The plant has performed extremely well and it has complied with the environmental emission requirements as set out by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.« less

  9. Postglacial migration and adaptation for dispersal in pitch pine (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Ledig, F Thomas; Smouse, Peter E; Hom, John L

    2015-12-01

    Variation in a species is a blend of adaptive, random, and migratory responses. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida), a highly variable eastern conifer, has occupied multiple glacial refugia, whose harsh conditions favored adaptations enhancing subsequent dispersal and recolonization of newly deglaciated sites. We assessed phenotypic diversity in long-term growth trials to elucidate both the adaptations and likely refugia. Pitch pine progeny from 31 areas were grown in common gardens in six locations, from eastern Massachusetts to Korea. Survival increased with source latitude, but seedlings from southern latitudes were tallest in the first (postplanting) year, but that advantage dissipated in later years. Progeny from northern latitudes were precocious, highly fecund, had smaller seeds, and more seeds per cone. Seed mass decreased with latitude in both parents and progeny. Serotinous cones were notably common in the New Jersey Pine Plains and Acadia National Park. Various disease agents and frost burn exhibited latitudinal trends that were nonlinear, with a break in the regression slope at about 40°N latitude. Cluster analysis identified both northern and southern groups, largely split between unglaciated and deglaciated terrain, but with Acadia and the Pine Plains as unique outliers. Within the southern group, provenances were organized into contiguous subgroups, but geographic structure was less evident in the northern group. The present range of pitch pine was colonized by migrants from at least three different refugia, including at least one on the exposed continental shelf during the Last Glacial Maximum. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © Botanical Society of America (outside the USA) 2015.

  10. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  11. Over-the-wing propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr. (Inventor); White, E. Richard (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention is an aircraft with a system for increasing the lift drag ratio over a broad range of operating conditions. The system positions the engines and nacelles over the wing in such a position that gains in propeller efficiency is achieved simultaneously with increases in wing lift and a reduction in wing drag. Adverse structural and torsional effects on the wings are avoided by fuselage mounted pylons which attach to the upper portion of the fuselage aft of the wings. Similarly, pylon-wing interference is eliminated by moving the pylons to the fuselage. Further gains are achieved by locating the pylon surface area aft of the aircraft center of gravity, thereby augmenting both directional and longitudinal stability. This augmentation has the further effect of reducing the size, weight and drag of empennage components. The combination of design changes results in improved cruise performance and increased climb performance while reducing fuel consumption and drag and weight penalties.

  12. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  13. Mars Ascent Vehicle-Propellant Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John; Rousseau, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This project is to develop and test a new propellant formulation specifically for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) for the robotic Mars Sample Return mission. The project was initiated under the Planetary Sciences Division In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program and is continuing under the Mars Exploration Program. The two-stage, solid motor-based MAV has been the leading MAV solution for more than a decade. Additional studies show promise for alternative technologies including hybrid and bipropellant options, but the solid motor design has significant propellant density advantages well suited for physical constraints imposed while using the SkyCrane descent stage. The solid motor concept has lower specific impulse (Isp) than alternatives, but if the first stage and payload remain sufficiently small, the two-stage solid MAV represents a potential low risk approach to meet the mission needs. As the need date for the MAV slips, opportunities exist to advance technology with high on-ramp potential. The baseline propellant for the MAV is currently the carboxyl terminated polybutadiene (CTPB) based formulation TP-H-3062 due to its advantageous low temperature mechanical properties and flight heritage. However, the flight heritage is limited and outside the environments, the MAV must endure. The ISPT program competed a propellant formulation project with industry and selected ATK to develop a new propellant formulation specifically for the MAV application. Working with ATK, a large number of propellant formulations were assessed to either increase performance of a CTPB propellant or improve the low temperature mechanical properties of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant. Both propellants demonstrated potential to increase performance over heritage options, but an HTPB propellant formulation, TP-H-3544, was selected for production and testing. The test plan includes propellant aging first at high vacuum conditions, representative of the Mars transit

  14. Random sphere packing model of heterogeneous propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevets, Sergei Victorovich

    It is well recognized that combustion of heterogeneous propellants is strongly dependent on the propellant morphology. Recent developments in computing systems make it possible to start three-dimensional modeling of heterogeneous propellant combustion. A key component of such large scale computations is a realistic model of industrial propellants which retains the true morphology---a goal never achieved before. The research presented develops the Random Sphere Packing Model of heterogeneous propellants and generates numerical samples of actual industrial propellants. This is done by developing a sphere packing algorithm which randomly packs a large number of spheres with a polydisperse size distribution within a rectangular domain. First, the packing code is developed, optimized for performance, and parallelized using the OpenMP shared memory architecture. Second, the morphology and packing fraction of two simple cases of unimodal and bimodal packs are investigated computationally and analytically. It is shown that both the Loose Random Packing and Dense Random Packing limits are not well defined and the growth rate of the spheres is identified as the key parameter controlling the efficiency of the packing. For a properly chosen growth rate, computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. Third, two strategies are developed to define numerical samples of polydisperse heterogeneous propellants: the Deterministic Strategy and the Random Selection Strategy. Using these strategies, numerical samples of industrial propellants are generated. The packing fraction is investigated and it is shown that the experimental values of the packing fraction can be achieved computationally. It is strongly believed that this Random Sphere Packing Model of propellants is a major step forward in the realistic computational modeling of heterogeneous propellant of combustion. In addition, a method of analysis of the morphology of heterogeneous

  15. Propellant Chemistry for CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Anderson, P. G.; Cheng, Gary C.

    1996-01-01

    Current concepts for reusable launch vehicle design have created renewed interest in the use of RP-1 fuels for high pressure and tri-propellant propulsion systems. Such designs require the use of an analytical technology that accurately accounts for the effects of real fluid properties, combustion of large hydrocarbon fuel modules, and the possibility of soot formation. These effects are inadequately treated in current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes used for propulsion system analyses. The objective of this investigation is to provide an accurate analytical description of hydrocarbon combustion thermodynamics and kinetics that is sufficiently computationally efficient to be a practical design tool when used with CFD codes such as the FDNS code. A rigorous description of real fluid properties for RP-1 and its combustion products will be derived from the literature and from experiments conducted in this investigation. Upon the establishment of such a description, the fluid description will be simplified by using the minimum of empiricism necessary to maintain accurate combustion analyses and including such empirical models into an appropriate CFD code. An additional benefit of this approach is that the real fluid properties analysis simplifies the introduction of the effects of droplet sprays into the combustion model. Typical species compositions of RP-1 have been identified, surrogate fuels have been established for analyses, and combustion and sooting reaction kinetics models have been developed. Methods for predicting the necessary real fluid properties have been developed and essential experiments have been designed. Verification studies are in progress, and preliminary results from these studies will be presented. The approach has been determined to be feasible, and upon its completion the required methodology for accurate performance and heat transfer CFD analyses for high pressure, tri-propellant propulsion systems will be available.

  16. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in – a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO

    PubMed Central

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer (http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively. PMID:28453368

  17. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  18. Noise reduction for model counterrotation propeller at cruise by reducing aft-propeller diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The forward propeller of a model counterrotation propeller was tested with its original aft propeller and with a reduced diameter aft propeller. Noise reductions with the reduced diameter aft propeller were measured at simulated cruise conditions. Reductions were as large as 7.5 dB for the aft-propeller passing tone and 15 dB in the harmonics at specific angles. The interaction tones, mostly the first, were reduced probably because the reduced-diameter aft-propeller blades no longer interacted with the forward propeller tip vortex. The total noise (sum of primary and interaction noise) at each harmonic was significantly reduced. The chief noise reduction at each harmonic came from reduced aft-propeller-alone noise, with the interaction tones contributing little to the totals at cruise. Total cruise noise reductions were as much as 3 dB at given angles for the blade passing tone and 10 dB for some of the harmonics. These reductions would measurably improve the fuselage interior noise levels and represent a definite cruise noise benefit from using a reduced diameter aft propeller.

  19. Vocal warm-up increases phonation threshold pressure in soprano singers at high pitch.

    PubMed

    Motel, Tamara; Fisher, Kimberly V; Leydon, Ciara

    2003-06-01

    Vocal warm-up is thought to optimize singing performance. We compared effects of short-term, submaximal, vocal warm-up exercise with those of vocal rest on the soprano voice (n = 10, ages 19-21 years). Dependent variables were the minimum subglottic air pressure required for vocal fold oscillation to occur (phonation threshold pressure, Pth), and the maximum and minimum phonation fundamental frequency. Warm-up increased Pth for high pitch phonation (p = 0.033), but not for comfortable (p = 0.297) or low (p = 0.087) pitch phonation. No significant difference in the maximum phonation frequency (p = 0.193) or minimum frequency (p = 0.222) was observed. An elevated Pth at controlled high pitch, but an unchanging maximum and minimum frequency production suggests that short-term vocal exercise may increase the viscosity of the vocal fold and thus serve to stabilize the high voice.

  20. Hamilton Standard Q-fan demonstrator dynamic pitch change test program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demers, W. J.; Nelson, D. J.; Wainauski, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a full scale variable pitch fan engine to obtain data on the structural characteristics, response times, and fan/core engine compatibility during transient changes in blade angle, fan rpm, and engine power is reported. Steady state reverse thrust tests with a take off nozzle configuration were also conducted. The 1.4 meter diameter, 13 bladed controllable pitch fan was driven by a T55 L 11A engine with power and blade angle coordinated by a digital computer. The tests demonstrated an ability to change from full forward thrust to reverse thrust in less than one (1) second. Reverse thrust was effected through feather and through flat pitch; structural characteristics and engine/fan compatibility were within satisfactory limits.

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  2. Effects of stimulation configurations on place pitch discrimination in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J; Perry, Trevor T; Olmstead, Vauna L

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of electrode configuration, specifically monopolar (MP) or bipolar (BP) stimulation, on place pitch discrimination in cochlear implants (CIs). Twelve subjects implanted with the Nucleus Freedom device were presented with various pairs of stimulation across the electrode array, with varying degrees of distance between stimulation sites, and asked to judge the higher of the two in pitch. Each pair was presented either in the same mode or in different modes of stimulation for the within-mode or across-mode condition, respectively, at least 20 times. The result of the within-mode condition revealed that subjects, on average, were able to discriminate pitches significantly better in MP than in BP, with the sensitivity index (d') for adjacent channels of 1.2 for MP and 0.8 for BP. The result of the across-mode condition revealed that while individual variability existed, there was a strong tendency for CI subjects to perceive a higher pitch in BP stimulation than in MP for a similar site of stimulation. In other words, an MP channel needed to be shifted in a basal direction by as much as two electrodes on average to elicit a pitch comparable to that of a BP channel. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  3. A wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of thrust-axis inclination on propeller first-order vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W H; Hallissy, J M , Jr

    1950-01-01

    Data on the aerodynamic excitation of first-order vibration occurring in a representative three-blade propeller having its thrust axis inclined to the air stream at angles of 0 degrees, 4.55 degrees, and 9.8 degrees are included in this paper. For several representative conditions the aerodynamic excitation has been computed and compared with the measured values. Blade stresses also were measured to permit the evaluation of the blade stress resulting from a given blade aerodynamic excitation. It was concluded that the section aerodynamic exciting force of a pitched propeller may be computed accurately at low rotational speeds. As section velocities approach the speed of sound, the accuracy of computation of section aerodynamic exciting force is not always so satisfactory. First-order blade vibratory stresses were computed with satisfactory accuracy from untilted-propeller loading data. A stress prediction which assumes a linear relation between first-order vibratory stress and the product of pitch angle and dynamic pressure and which is based on stresses at low rotational speeds will be conservative when the outer portions of the blade are in the transonic and low supersonic speed range.

  4. Solid-propellant rocket motor ballistic performance variation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of research aimed at improving the assessment of off-nominal internal ballistic performance including tailoff and thrust imbalance of two large solid-rocket motors (SRMs) firing in parallel. Previous analyses using the Monte Carlo technique were refined to permit evaluation of the effects of radial and circumferential propellant temperature gradients. Sample evaluations of the effect of the temperature gradients are presented. A separate theoretical investigation of the effect of strain rate on the burning rate of propellant indicates that the thermoelastic coupling may cause substantial variations in burning rate during highly transient operating conditions. The Monte Carlo approach was also modified to permit the effects on performance of variation in the characteristics between lots of propellants and other materials to be evaluated. This permits the variabilities for the total SRM population to be determined. A sample case shows, however, that the effect of these between-lot variations on thrust imbalances within pairs of SRMs is minor in compariosn to the effect of the within-lot variations. The revised Monte Carlo and design analysis computer programs along with instructions including format requirements for preparation of input data and illustrative examples are presented.

  5. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic model for pressurization and cryogenic propellant conditions during all mission phases of any liquid rocket based vehicle has been developed and validated. The model assumes the propellant tanks to be divided into five nodes and also implements an empirical correlation for liquid stratification if desired. The five nodes include a tank wall node exposed to ullage gas, an ullage gas node, a saturated propellant vapor node at the liquid-vapor interface, a liquid node, and a tank wall node exposed to liquid. The conservation equations of mass and energy are then applied across all the node boundaries and, with the use of perfect gas assumptions, explicit solutions for ullage and liquid conditions are derived. All fluid properties are updated real time using NIST Refprop.1 Further, mass transfer at the liquid-vapor interface is included in the form of evaporation, bulk boiling of liquid propellant, and condensation given the appropriate conditions for each. Model validation has proven highly successful against previous analytic models and various Saturn era test data and reasonably successful against more recent LH2 tank self pressurization ground test data. Finally, this model has been applied to numerous design iterations for the Altair Lunar Lander, Ares V Core Stage, and Ares V Earth Departure Stage in order to characterize Helium and autogenous pressurant requirements, propellant lost to evaporation and thermodynamic venting to maintain propellant conditions, and non-uniform tank draining in configurations utilizing multiple LH2 or LO2 propellant tanks. In conclusion, this model provides an accurate and efficient means of analyzing multiple design configurations for any cryogenic propellant tank in launch, low-acceleration coast, or in-space maneuvering and supplies the user with pressurization requirements, unusable propellants from evaporation and liquid stratification, and general ullage gas, liquid, and tank wall conditions as functions of time.

  6. Electrostatic Evaluation of the Propellant Handlers Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Buhler, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensemble (SCAPE) used in propellant handling at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recently completed a series of tests to determine its electrostatic properties of the coverall fabric used in the Propellant Handlers Ensemble (PHE). Understanding these electrostatic properties are fundamental to ensuring safe operations when working with flammable rocket propellants such as hydrazine, methyl hydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. These tests include surface resistivity, charge decay, triboelectric charging, and flame incendivity. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of these tests on the current PHE as well as new fabrics and materials being evaluated for the next generation of PHE.

  7. Earhart Propeller in Saturn A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-30

    The propeller informally named "Earhart" is seen in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft at much higher resolution than ever before. This view, obtained on March 22, 2017, is the second time Cassini has deliberately targeted an individual propeller for close-up viewing during its ring-grazing orbits, after its images of Santos-Dumont (PIA21433) a month earlier. The biggest known propeller, informally named "Bleriot," is slated for the third and final propeller close-up in April 2017. Propellers are disturbances in the ring caused by a central moonlet. The moonlet itself would be a few pixels wide in this view, but it is difficult to distinguish from (and may be obscured by) the disturbed ring material that surrounds it. (See PIA20525 for more info on propellers.) The detailed structure of the Earhart propeller, as seen here, differs from that of Santos-Dumont. It is not clear whether these differences have to do with intrinsic differences between Earhart and Santos-Dumont, or whether they have to do with different viewing angles or differences in where the propellers were imaged in their orbits around Saturn. Earhart is situated very close to the 200-mile-wide (320-kilometer-wide) Encke Gap, which is held open by the much larger moon Pan. In this view, half of the Encke Gap is visible as the dark region at right. The gap and the propeller are a study in contrasts. The propeller is nothing more than Earhart's attempt to open a gap like Encke using its gravity. However, Earhart's attempt is thwarted by the mass of the ring, which fills in the nascent gap before it can extend very far. Pan is a few thousand times more massive than Earhart, which enables it to maintain a gap that extends all the way around the ring. To the left of the propeller are wave features in the rings caused by the moons Pandora, Prometheus and Pan. The visible-light image was acquired by the Cassini narrow-angle camera at a distance of 69,183 miles (111,340 kilometers) from the propeller

  8. Holographic investigation of solid propellant particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, T. R.

    1981-12-01

    The investigation completed the development process to establish a technique to obtain holographic recordings of particulate behavior during the combustion process of solid propellants in a two-dimensional rocket motor. Holographic and photographic recordings were taken in a crossflow environment using various compositions of metallized propellants. The reconstructed holograms are used to provide data on the behavior of aluminum/aluminum oxide particulates in a steady state combustion environment as a function of the initial aluminum size cast into the propellant. High speed, high resolution motion pictures were taken to compare the cinematic data with that available from the holograms.

  9. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J.

    1995-05-01

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  10. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  11. Controlled propulsion of artificial magnetic nanostructured propellers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Fischer, Peer

    2009-06-01

    For biomedical applications, such as targeted drug delivery and microsurgery, it is essential to develop a system of swimmers that can be propelled wirelessly in fluidic environments with good control. Here, we report the construction and operation of chiral colloidal propellers that can be navigated in water with micrometer-level precision using homogeneous magnetic fields. The propellers are made via nanostructured surfaces and can be produced in large numbers. The nanopropellers can carry chemicals, push loads, and act as local probes in rheological measurements.

  12. Noise from Two-Blade Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F

    1936-01-01

    The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included.

  13. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  14. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  15. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  16. Prosodic Transfer: From Chinese Lexical Tone to English Pitch Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploquin, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables. As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar. The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese…

  17. Blade pitch optimization methods for vertical-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Peter

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer an inherently simpler design than horizontal-axis machines, while their lower blade speed mitigates safety and noise concerns, potentially allowing for installation closer to populated and ecologically sensitive areas. While VAWTs do offer significant operational advantages, development has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the aerodynamics involved, further complicated by their rotating geometry. This thesis presents results from a simulation of a baseline VAWT computed using Star-CCM+, a commercial finite-volume (FVM) code. VAWT aerodynamics are shown to be dominated at low tip-speed ratios by dynamic stall phenomena and at high tip-speed ratios by wake-blade interactions. Several optimization techniques have been developed for the adjustment of blade pitch based on finite-volume simulations and streamtube models. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is evaluated and the basic architecture for a feedback control system is proposed. Implementation of variable blade pitch is shown to increase a baseline turbine's power output between 40%-100%, depending on the optimization technique, improving the turbine's competitiveness when compared with a commercially-available horizontal-axis turbine.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Unsteady Flow Structures of Two Interacting Pitching Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Birds, insects and fish propel themselves with unsteady motions of their wings and fins. Many of these animals are also found to fly or swim in three-dimensional flocks and schools. Numerous studies have explored the three-dimensional steady flow interactions and the two-dimensional unsteady flow interactions in collectives. Yet, the characterization of the three-dimensional unsteady interactions remains relatively unexplored. This study aims to characterize the flow structures and interactions between two sinusoidally pitching finite-span wings. The arrangement of the wings varies from a tandem to a bi-plane configuration. The vortex structures for these various arrangements are quantified by using particle image velocimetry. The vortex-wing interactions are also characterized as the synchrony between the wings is modified.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  3. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the...

  4. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  8. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  10. 14 CFR 35.16 - Propeller critical parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller critical parts. 35.16 Section 35... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.16 Propeller critical parts. The integrity of each propeller critical part identified by the safety analysis required by § 35.15 must be established...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control must...

  12. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b) If...

  14. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the...

  15. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain hydraulic...

  16. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain hydraulic...

  17. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain hydraulic...

  18. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain hydraulic...

  19. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain hydraulic...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... made to prevent sludge or other foreign matter from affecting the safe operation of the propeller...

  5. 46 CFR 50.05-20 - Steam-propelled motorboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-propelled motorboats. 50.05-20 Section 50.05-20... Application § 50.05-20 Steam-propelled motorboats. (a) The requirements covering design of the propelling... than 40 feet in length and which are propelled by machinery driven by steam shall be in accordance with...

  6. Nano Icy Moons Propellant Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanWoerkom, Michael (Principal Investigator)

    2017-01-01

    As one of just a few bodies identified in the solar system with a liquid ocean, Europa has become a top priority in the search for life outside of Earth. However, cost estimates for exploring Europa have been prohibitively expensive, with estimates of a NASA Flagship class orbiter and lander approaching $5 billion. ExoTerra's NIMPH offers an affordable solution that can not only land, but return a sample from the surface to Earth. NIMPH combines solar electric propulsion (SEP) technologies being developed for the asteroid redirect mission and microsatellite electronics to reduce the cost of a full sample return mission below $500 million. A key to achieving this order-of-magnitude cost reduction is minimizing the initial mass of the system. The cost of any mission is directly proportional to its mass. By keeping the mission within the constraints of an Atlas V 551 launch vehicle versus an SLS, we can significantly reduce launch costs. To achieve this we reduce the landed mass of the sample return lander, which is the largest multiplier of mission mass, and shrink propellant mass through high efficiency SEP and gravity assists. The NIMPH projects first step in reducing landed mass focuses on development of a micro-In Situ Resource Utilization (micro-ISRU) system. ISRU allows us to minimize landed mass of a sample return mission by converting local ice into propellants. The project reduces the ISRU system to a CubeSat-scale package that weighs just 1.74 kg and consumes just 242 W of power. We estimate that use of this ISRU vs. an identical micro-lander without ISRU reduces fuel mass by 45 kg. As the dry mass of the lander grows for larger missions, these savings scale exponentially. Taking full advantage of the micro-ISRU system requires the development of a micro-liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. The micro-liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine is tailored for the mission by scaling it to match the scale of the micro-lander and the low gravity of the target moon

  7. Theory for noise of propellers in angular inflow with parametric studies and experimental verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.; Parzych, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the derivation of a frequency domain theory and working equations for radiation of propeller harmonic noise in the presence of angular inflow. In applying the acoustic analogy, integration over the tangential coordinate of the source region is performed numerically, permitting the equations to be solved without approximation for any degree of angular inflow. Inflow angle is specified in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles of the aircraft. Since these can be arbitrarily large, the analysis applies with equal accuracy to propellers and helicopter rotors. For thickness and loading, the derivation is given in complete detail with working equations for near and far field. However, the quadrupole derivation has been carried only far enough to show feasibility of the numerical approach. Explicit formulas are presented for computation of source elements, evaluation of Green's functions, and location of observer points in various visual and retarded coordinate systems. The resulting computer program, called WOBBLE has been written in FORTRAN and follows the notation of this report very closely. The new theory is explored to establish the effects of varying inflow angle on axial and circumferential directivity. Also, parametric studies were performed to evaluate various phenomena outside the capabilities of earlier theories, such as an unsteady thickness effect. Validity of the theory was established by comparison with test data from conventional propellers and Prop Fans in flight and in wind tunnels under a variety of operating conditions and inflow angles.

  8. Perceived pitch of vibrotactile stimuli: effects of vibration amplitude, and implications for vibration frequency coding.

    PubMed

    Morley, J W; Rowe, M J

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of changes in amplitude on the perceived pitch of cutaneous vibratory stimuli was studied in psychophysical experiments designed to test whether the coding of information about the frequency of the vibration might be based on the ratio of recruitment of the PC (Pacinian corpuscle-associated) and RA (rapidly adapting) classes of tactile sensory fibres. The study was based on previous data which show that at certain vibration frequencies (e.g. 150 Hz) the ratio of recruitment of the PC and RA classes should vary as a function of vibration amplitude. 2. Sinusoidal vibration at either 30 Hz or 150 Hz, and at an amplitude 10 dB above subjective detection thresholds was delivered in a 1 s train to the distal phalangeal pad of the index finger in eight human subjects. This standard vibration was followed after 0.5 s by a 1 s comparison train of vibration which (unknown to the subject) was at the same frequency as the standard but at a range of amplitudes from 2 to 50 dB above the detection threshold. A two-alternative forced-choice procedure was used in which the subject had to indicate whether the comparison stimulus was higher or lower in pitch (frequency) than the standard. 3. Marked differences were seen from subject to subject in the effect of amplitude on perceived pitch at both 30 Hz and 150 Hz. At 150 Hz, five out of the eight subjects reported an increase in pitch as the amplitude of the comparison vibration increased, one experienced no change, and only two experienced the fall in perceived pitch that is predicted if the proposed ratio code contributes to vibrotactile pitch judgements. At 30 Hz similar intersubject variability was seen in the pitch-amplitude functions. 4. The results do not support the hypothesis that a ratio code contributes to vibrotactile pitch perception. We conclude that temporal patterning of impulse activity remains the major candidate code for pitch perception, at least over a substantial part of the vibrotactile frequency

  9. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  10. Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

  11. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Ali, Wan Khairuddin Wan

    2012-09-01

    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  12. Lessons Learned with Metallized Gelled Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During testing of metallized gelled propellants in a rocket engine, many changes had to be made to the normal test program for traditional liquid propellants. The lessons learned during the testing and the solutions for many of the new operational conditions posed with gelled fuels will help future programs run more smoothly. The major factors that influenced the success of the testing were propellant settling, piston-cylinder tank operation, control of self pressurization, capture of metal oxide particles, and a gelled-fuel protective layer. In these ongoing rocket combustion experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center, metallized, gelled liquid propellants are used in a small modular engine that produces 30 to 40 lb of thrust. Traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-wt% loadings of aluminum are used with gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer. The figure compares the thrust chamber efficiencies of different engines.

  13. Investigations Into Tank Venting for Propellant Resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, H. C.; Harrison, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Models and simulations have been developed and applied to the evaluation of propellant tank ullage venting, which is integral to one approach for propellant resupply. The analytical effort was instrumental in identifying issues associated with resupply objectives, and it was used to help develop an operational procedure to accomplish the desired propellant transfer for a particular storable bipropellant system. Work on the project was not completed, and several topics have been identified as requiring further study; these include the potential for liquid entrainment during the low-g and thermal/freezing effects in the vent line and orifice. Verification of the feasibility of this propellant venting and resupply approach still requires additional analyses as well as testing to investigate the fluid and thermodynamic phenomena involved.

  14. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-01-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of supersonic propellers with realistic blade geometries is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large-blade-count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with a full numerical integration indicate that the levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations also show that, for high speed propellers, the noise radiated by the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with the noise radiated by the blade thickness and loading sources. Results from a preliminary application of the theory indicate that the peak noise level generated by a supersonic propeller initially increases with increasing tip helical Mach number, but is eventually reaches a plateau and does not increase further. The predicted trend shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  15. Welcome to the Saclay Propeller Testing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The history, organization, purpose, and activities of the Saclay Propeller Testing Center is described. A list is provided of all facilities, current and planned, and the types of tests done in each facility are summarized.

  16. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-01-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of a propeller with a realistic blade geometry is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large blade count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with full numerical integration indicate that the noise levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations based on this method also show that the radiation from the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with thickness and loading noise for high speed propellers. A preliminary application of the theory to the problem of the sensitivity of the peak noise levels generated by a supersonic propeller to the variations in its tip helical Mach number has produced a trend that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  17. Supersonic propeller noise in a uniform flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Wen-Huei

    1989-01-01

    The sound field produced by a supersonic propeller operating in a uniform flow is investigated. The main interest is the effect of the finite forward flight speed on the directivity of the sound field as seen by an observer on the aircraft. It is found that there are cones of silence on the axis of the propeller. The semiapex angles on these cones are equal fore and aft of the propeller plane, and depend on the tip Mach number only. The Fourier coefficients of the acoustic pressure contain the Doppler amplification factor. The sound field weakens in the upstream direction and strengthen downstream. Kinematic considerations of the emitted Mach waves not only confirm these results, but also provide physical insight into the sound generation mechanism. The predicted zone of silence and the Doppler amplification factor are compared to the theoretical prediction of shock wave formation and the flight test of the SR3 propeller.

  18. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalysts are presented.

  19. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalyst are presented.

  20. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.