Science.gov

Sample records for variable rate applications

  1. Current clinical applications of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Stys, A; Stys, T

    1998-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular method for the studies of physiologic mechanisms responsible for the control of heart rate fluctuations, in which the autonomic nervous system appears to play a primary role. Depression of HRV has been observed in many clinical scenarios, including autonomic neuropathy, heart transplantation, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), and other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. However, it is important to realize that clinical implication of HRV analysis has been clearly recognized in only two clinical conditions: (1) as a predictor of risk of arrhythmic events or sudden cardiac death after acute MI, and (2) as a clinical marker of evolving diabetic neuropathy. Recently, its role in evaluation and management of heart failure has also been recognized. It is pertinent to recognize the limitations of HRV as far as its clinical utility at present is concerned. The methodology of HRV had remained poorly standardized until the recent publication of the Special Report of the Task Force of ESC/NASPE, and thus has been presenting difficulty in comparing earlier existing data. Also, determination of the exact sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of HRV, as well as the normal values of standard measures in the general population, still require further investigation before better standards can be set for existing and future clinical applications. This article reviews the major concepts of HRV measurements, their clinical relevance, and the recent advances in this field. PMID:9789691

  2. Verification of a variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit and coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, ...

  3. Field Assessment of A Variable-rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the system response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates. The research is collaboration between the USDA, ARS, APTRU and Houma Avionics, USA, manufacturer of a widely used flow controller designed for agricultural airc...

  4. Clinical Application of Heart Rate Variability after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Huikuri, Heikki V.; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) variability has been extensively studied in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability/turbulence have an increased risk of mortality within few years after an AMI. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability, as well as HR turbulence, have been used in risk stratification of post-AMI patients. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R–R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent, and HR turbulence, have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death after AMI. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of post-AMI patients. PMID:22375128

  5. Mathematical models of water application for a variable rate irrigating hill-seeder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder can adjust water application automatically according to the difference in soil moisture content in the field to alleviate drought and save water. Two key problems to realize variable rate water application are how to determine the right amount of water for the ...

  6. Mathematic models of water application for a variable rate irrigating hill-seeder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder can adjust water application automatically according to the difference in soil moisture content in the field to alleviate drought and save water. Two key problems to realize variable rate water application are how to determine the right amount of water for the ...

  7. Crop Sensors for Variable-Rate Nitrogen Application to Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield can be very responsive to nitrogen fertilizer. However, over-application of N can result in excess vegetative growth, which can delay maturity and increase the need for growth regulator, defoliant, and insecticide, in addition to wasting money on fertilizer that does not produce a retu...

  8. A variable rate speech compressor for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeldener, S.; Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most promising speech coder at the bit rate of 9.6 to 4.8 kbits/s is CELP. Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) has been dominating 9.6 to 4.8 kbits/s region during the past 3 to 4 years. Its set back however, is its expensive implementation. As an alternative to CELP, the Base-Band CELP (CELP-BB) was developed which produced good quality speech comparable to CELP and a single chip implementable complexity as reported previously. Its robustness was also improved to tolerate errors up to 1.0 pct. and maintain intelligibility up to 5.0 pct. and more. Although, CELP-BB produces good quality speech at around 4.8 kbits/s, it has a fundamental problem when updating the pitch filter memory. A sub-optimal solution is proposed for this problem. Below 4.8 kbits/s, however, CELP-BB suffers from noticeable quantization noise as a result of the large vector dimensions used. Efficient representation of speech below 4.8 kbits/s is reported by introducing Sinusoidal Transform Coding (STC) to represent the LPC excitation which is called Sine Wave Excited LPC (SWELP). In this case, natural sounding good quality synthetic speech is obtained at around 2.4 kbits/s.

  9. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  10. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  11. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  12. Improving Flow Response of a Variable-rate Aerial Application System by Interactive Refinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates and to improve its response at correspondingly varying system pressures. System improvements have been made by refinement of the control algorithms over time in collaboration with ...

  13. Variable-rate nitrogen application algorithm based on canopy reflected spectrum and its influence on wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hongxia; Zhao, Chunjiang; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Liangyun; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Youhua

    2005-01-01

    This study was to develop the time-specific and time-critical method to overcome the limitations of traditional field sampling methods for variable rate fertilization. Farmers, agricultural managers and grain processing enterprises are interested in measuring and assessing soil and crop status in order to apply adequate fertilizer quantities to crop growth. This paper focused on studying the relationship between vegetation index (OSAVI) and nitrogen content to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer recommended for variable rate management in precision agriculture. The traditional even rate fertilizer management was chosen as the CK. The grain yield, ear numbers, 1000-grain weight and grain protein content were measured among the CK, uniform treatments and variable rate fertilizer treatments. It indicated that variable rate fertilization reduced the variability of wheat yield, ear numbers and dry biomass, but it didn't increased crop yield and grain protein content significantly and did not decrease the variety of 1000-grain weight, compared to traditional rate application. The nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was improved, for this purpose, the variable rate technology based on vegetation index could be used to prevent under ground water pollution and environmental deterioration.

  14. Variable Thickness Liquid Crystal Films for High Repetition Rate Laser Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Patrick; Willis, Christopher; Cochran, Ginevra; Hanna, Randall; Andereck, C. David; Schumacher, Douglass

    2015-05-01

    The presentation of a clean target or target substrate at high repetition rates is of importance to a number of photoelectron spectroscopy and free electron laser applications, often in high vacuum environments. Additionally, high intensity laser facilities are approaching the 10 Hz shot rate at petawatt powers, but are currently unable to insert targets at these rates. We have developed liquid crystal films to address this need for high rep rate targets while preserving the planar geometry advantageous to many applications. The molecular ordering of liquid crystal is variable with temperature and can be manipulated to form a layered thin film. In this way temperature and volume control can be used to vary film thickness in vacuo and on-demand between 10 nm and over 10 μm. These techniques were previously applied to a single-shot ion acceleration experiment in, where target thickness critically determines the physics of the acceleration. Here we present an automatic film formation device that utilizes a linear sliding rail to form liquid crystal films within the aforementioned range at rates up to 0.1 Hz. The design ensures film formation location within 2 μm RMS, well within the Rayleigh range of even short f-number systems. Details of liquid crystal films and this target formation device will be shown as well as recent experimental data from the Scarlet laser facility at OSU. This work was supported by DARPA through a grant from AMRDEC.

  15. Air velocity distributions from a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer for tree applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capability that implements tree structure to control liquid and air flow rates is the preferential design in the development of variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Air jet velocity distributions from an air assisted, five-port sprayer which was under the development to achieve variable-rat...

  16. Remote sensing and implications for variable-rate application using agricultural aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Steven J.; Smith, Lowrey A.; Ray, Jeffrey D.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft routinely used for agricultural spray application are finding utility for remote sensing. Data obtained from remote sensing can be used for prescription application of pesticides, fertilizers, cotton growth regulators, and water (the latter with the assistance of hyperspectral indices and thermal imaging). Digital video was used to detect weeds in early cotton, and preliminary data were obtained to see if nitrogen status could be detected in early soybeans. Weeds were differentiable from early cotton at very low altitudes (65-m), with the aid of supervised classification algorithms in the ENVI image analysis software. The camera was flown at very low altitude for acceptable pixel resolution. Nitrogen status was not detectable by statistical analysis of digital numbers (DNs) obtained from images, but soybean cultivar differences were statistically discernable (F=26, p=0.01). Spectroradiometer data are being analyzed to identify narrow spectral bands that might aid in selecting camera filters for determination of plant nitrogen status. Multiple camera configurations are proposed to allow vegetative indices to be developed more readily. Both remotely sensed field images and ground data are to be used for decision-making in a proposed variable-rate application system for agricultural aircraft. For this system, prescriptions generated from digital imagery and data will be coupled with GPS-based swath guidance and programmable flow control.

  17. VARIABLE RATE APPLICATION OF SOIL HERBICIDES IN ARABLE CROPS: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Heijting, S; Kempenaar, C

    2014-01-01

    Soil herbicides are applied around crop emergence and kill germinating weeds in the surface layer of the soil. These herbicides play an important role in the chemical management of weeds in major arable crops. From an environmental point of view there is a clear need for smarter application of these chemicals. This paper presents research done in The Netherlands on Variable Rate Application (VRA) of soil herbicides by taking into account spatial variation of the soil. Herbicides adsorbed to soil parameters such as clay or organic matter are not available for herbicidal activity. Decision Support Rules (DSR) describe the relation between the soil parameter and herbicide dosage needed for effectively controlling weeds. Research methods such as greenhouse trials, models and on farm research to develop DSR are discussed and results are presented. Another important ingredient for VRA of soil herbicides is an accurate soil map of the field. Sampling and subsequent interpolation is costly. Soil scans measuring a proxy that is subsequently translated into soil properties such as clay fraction and soil organic matter content offer a quicker way to achieve such maps but validation is needed. DSR is applied to the soil map to get the variable dosage map. The farmer combines this map with the routing, spray volume and spray boom width in the Farm Management Information System (FMIS), resulting in a task file. This task file can subsequently be read by the board computer resulting in a VRA spray map. Reduction in soil herbicide depends on the DSR, the spatial variation and pattern of the soil, the spatial configuration of the routing and the technical advances of the spray equipment. Recently, within the framework the Programma Precisie Landbouw, first steps were made to test and implement this in practice. Currently, theory and practice of VRA of soil herbicides is developed within the research program IJKakker in close cooperation with pioneering farmers in The Netherlands

  18. VARIABLE RATE APPLICATION OF SOIL HERBICIDES IN ARABLE CROPS: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Heijting, S; Kempenaar, C

    2014-01-01

    Soil herbicides are applied around crop emergence and kill germinating weeds in the surface layer of the soil. These herbicides play an important role in the chemical management of weeds in major arable crops. From an environmental point of view there is a clear need for smarter application of these chemicals. This paper presents research done in The Netherlands on Variable Rate Application (VRA) of soil herbicides by taking into account spatial variation of the soil. Herbicides adsorbed to soil parameters such as clay or organic matter are not available for herbicidal activity. Decision Support Rules (DSR) describe the relation between the soil parameter and herbicide dosage needed for effectively controlling weeds. Research methods such as greenhouse trials, models and on farm research to develop DSR are discussed and results are presented. Another important ingredient for VRA of soil herbicides is an accurate soil map of the field. Sampling and subsequent interpolation is costly. Soil scans measuring a proxy that is subsequently translated into soil properties such as clay fraction and soil organic matter content offer a quicker way to achieve such maps but validation is needed. DSR is applied to the soil map to get the variable dosage map. The farmer combines this map with the routing, spray volume and spray boom width in the Farm Management Information System (FMIS), resulting in a task file. This task file can subsequently be read by the board computer resulting in a VRA spray map. Reduction in soil herbicide depends on the DSR, the spatial variation and pattern of the soil, the spatial configuration of the routing and the technical advances of the spray equipment. Recently, within the framework the Programma Precisie Landbouw, first steps were made to test and implement this in practice. Currently, theory and practice of VRA of soil herbicides is developed within the research program IJKakker in close cooperation with pioneering farmers in The Netherlands.

  19. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  20. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  1. Comparison of Variable and Single-Rate Applications of Aldicarb on Cotton Yield in Fields Infested with Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, T. A.; Kaufman, H. W.; Baugh, B.; Kidd, P.; Schuster, G.; Siders, K.

    1999-01-01

    Variable-rate applications of the nematicide aldicarb were compared to producer standard rates in eight field tests over 3 years. Test areas (308 to 1,015 m long) were divided into eight or five blocks. Each block contained two plots with a variable-rate treatment (VRT) of aldicarb and a producer standard treatment (PST) of aldicarb. Each VRT plot was divided into three subunits and intensively sampled for Meloidogyne incognita in either the fall or spring before planting. Rates of aldicarb were assigned to each subunit for VRT based on M. incognita population density. In three of the eight tests, VRT resulted in either higher yield or similar yields, but less nematicide applied. In two tests there were no differences between PST and VRT in yields or average rates of aldicarb applied. In three tests, VRT used more aldicarb (>0.17 kg a.i./ha difference) than PST and yields were not significantly different between treatments. In two of the cases where VRT was superior to PST, the producer's rate of aldicarb was judged to be either too low or too high for the average M. incognita density present in the field. In all three cases where PST was superior to VRT, perennial weeds were an important factor also limiting yield. Variable-rate application of aldicarb did not consistently provide for higher yields or lower nematicide usage than standard application rates. PMID:19270939

  2. Recurrence-plot-based measures of complexity and their application to heart-rate-variability data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Wessel, Niels; Meyerfeldt, Udo; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2002-08-01

    The knowledge of transitions between regular, laminar or chaotic behaviors is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms behind complex systems. While several linear approaches are often insufficient to describe such processes, there are several nonlinear methods that, however, require rather long time observations. To overcome these difficulties, we propose measures of complexity based on vertical structures in recurrence plots and apply them to the logistic map as well as to heart-rate-variability data. For the logistic map these measures enable us not only to detect transitions between chaotic and periodic states, but also to identify laminar states, i.e., chaos-chaos transitions. The traditional recurrence quantification analysis fails to detect the latter transitions. Applying our measures to the heart-rate-variability data, we are able to detect and quantify the laminar phases before a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia occurs thereby facilitating a prediction of such an event. Our findings could be of importance for the therapy of malignant cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. On rating curve variability in presence of movable bed and unsteady flow. Applications to Tuscan rivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatti, Lorenzo; Nicoletta De Cicco, Pina; Paris, Enio

    2014-05-01

    In common engineering practice, rating curves are obtained from direct stage-discharge measurements or, more often, from stage measurements coupled with flow simulations. The present work mainly focuses on the latter technique, where stage-measuring gauges are usually installed on bridges with flow conditions likely to be influenced by local geometry constraints. In such cases, backwater flow and flow transition to supercritical state may occur, influencing sediment transport capacity and triggering more intense changes in river morphology. The unsteadiness of the flow hydrograph may play an important role too, according to the velocity of its rising and falling limbs. Nevertheless, the simulations conducted to build a rating curve are often carried out with steady flow and fixed bed conditions where the afore-mentioned effects are not taken into account at all. Numerical simulations with mobile bed and different unsteady flow conditions have been conducted on some real case studies in the rivers of Tuscany (Italy), in order to assess how rating curves change with respect to the "standard" one (that is, the classical steady flow rating curve). A 1D finite volume numerical model (REMo, River Evolution Modeler) has been employed for the simulations. The model solves the 1D Shallow Water equations coupled with the sediments continuity equation in composite channels, where the overbanks are treated with fixed bed conditions while the main channel can either aggrade or be scoured. The model employs an explicit scheme with 2nd order accuracy in both space and time: this allows the correct handling of moderately stiff source terms via a local corrector step. Such capability is very important for the applications of the present work as it allows the modelling of abrupt contractions and jumps in bed bottom elevations which often occur near bridges. The outcomes of the simulations are critically analyzed in order to provide a first insight on the conditions inducing

  4. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine.

  5. Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of Short Data Sets: an Application to Heart Rate Variability from Implantable Defibrillator Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrowski, Jan J.; Baranowski, Rafal; Przybylski, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the complexity of short data sets by nonlinear dynamics. The method was devised for and tested on human heart rate recordings approximately 2000 to 9000 RR intervals long which were extracted from the memory of implantable defibrillator devices (ICD). It is, however, applicable in a more general context. The ICDs are meant to control life-threatening episodes of ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation by applying a electric shock to the heart through intracardiac electrodes. It is well known that conventional ICD algorithms yield approximately 20--30 % of spurious interventions. The main aim of this work is to look for nonlinear dynamics methods to enhance the appropriateness of the ICD intervention. We first showed that nonlinear dynamics methods first applied to 24-hour heart rate variability analysis were able to detect the need for the ICD intervention. To be applicable to future ICD use, the methods must also be low in computational requirements. Methods to analyse the complexity of the short and non-stationary sets were devised. We calculated the Shannon entropy of symbolic words obtained in a sliding 50 beat window and analysed the dependence of this complexity measure on the time. Precursors were found extending much earlier time than the time the standard ICD algorithms span.

  6. Flow variability of an aerial variable-rate nozzle at constant pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable-rate ground application systems have been in use for the past 15 years, but due to high application speeds, flow requirements, and aerodynamic considerations, variable-rate aerial nozzles have not been available until now. In 2006, Spray Target, Inc. released the VeriRate™ variable-rate aer...

  7. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  8. [Application of linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic nervous system activity].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu

    2014-04-01

    Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.

  9. Method and system for spatially variable rate application of agricultural chemicals based on remotely sensed vegetation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Kenneth Brown (Inventor); Seal, Michael R. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark David (Inventor); Johnson, James William (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Remotely sensed spectral image data are used to develop a Vegetation Index file which represents spatial variations of actual crop vigor throughout a field that is under cultivation. The latter information is processed to place it in a format that can be used by farm personnel to correlate and calibrate it with actually observed crop conditions existing at control points within the field. Based on the results, farm personnel formulate a prescription request, which is forwarded via email or FTP to a central processing site, where the prescription is prepared. The latter is returned via email or FTP to on-side farm personnel, who can load it into a controller on a spray rig that directly applies inputs to the field at a spatially variable rate.

  10. CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN TIME SERIES AND STATIC OUTCOMES, WITH APPLICATION TO THE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    Krafty, Robert T; Hall, Martica

    2013-03-01

    Although many studies collect biomedical time series signals from multiple subjects, there is a dearth of models and methods for assessing the association between frequency domain properties of time series and other study outcomes. This article introduces the random Cramér representation as a joint model for collections of time series and static outcomes where power spectra are random functions that are correlated with the outcomes. A canonical correlation analysis between cepstral coefficients and static outcomes is developed to provide a flexible yet interpretable measure of association. Estimates of the canonical correlations and weight functions are obtained from a canonical correlation analysis between the static outcomes and maximum Whittle likelihood estimates of truncated cepstral coefficients. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the association between the spectrum of heart rate variability and measures of sleep duration and fragmentation in a study of older adults who serve as the primary caregiver for their ill spouse.

  11. Application of alpha/theta neurofeedback and heart rate variability training to young contemporary dancers: state anxiety and creativity.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, J H; Thompson, T; Redding, E; Brandt, R; Steffert, T

    2014-07-01

    As one in a series on the impact of EEG-neurofeedback in the performing arts, we set out to replicate a previous dance study in which alpha/theta (A/T) neurofeedback and heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback enhanced performance in competitive ballroom dancers compared with controls. First year contemporary dance conservatoire students were randomised to the same two psychophysiological interventions or a choreology instruction comparison group or a no-training control group. While there was demonstrable neurofeedback learning, there was no impact of the three interventions on dance performance as assessed by four experts. However, HRV training reduced anxiety and the reduction correlated with improved technique and artistry in performance; the anxiety scale items focussed on autonomic functions, especially cardiovascular activity. In line with the putative impact of hypnogogic training on creativity A/T training increased cognitive creativity with the test of unusual uses, but not insight problems. Methodological and theoretical implications are considered.

  12. CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN TIME SERIES AND STATIC OUTCOMES, WITH APPLICATION TO THE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    Krafty, Robert T; Hall, Martica

    2013-03-01

    Although many studies collect biomedical time series signals from multiple subjects, there is a dearth of models and methods for assessing the association between frequency domain properties of time series and other study outcomes. This article introduces the random Cramér representation as a joint model for collections of time series and static outcomes where power spectra are random functions that are correlated with the outcomes. A canonical correlation analysis between cepstral coefficients and static outcomes is developed to provide a flexible yet interpretable measure of association. Estimates of the canonical correlations and weight functions are obtained from a canonical correlation analysis between the static outcomes and maximum Whittle likelihood estimates of truncated cepstral coefficients. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the association between the spectrum of heart rate variability and measures of sleep duration and fragmentation in a study of older adults who serve as the primary caregiver for their ill spouse. PMID:24851143

  13. Application of alpha/theta neurofeedback and heart rate variability training to young contemporary dancers: state anxiety and creativity.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, J H; Thompson, T; Redding, E; Brandt, R; Steffert, T

    2014-07-01

    As one in a series on the impact of EEG-neurofeedback in the performing arts, we set out to replicate a previous dance study in which alpha/theta (A/T) neurofeedback and heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback enhanced performance in competitive ballroom dancers compared with controls. First year contemporary dance conservatoire students were randomised to the same two psychophysiological interventions or a choreology instruction comparison group or a no-training control group. While there was demonstrable neurofeedback learning, there was no impact of the three interventions on dance performance as assessed by four experts. However, HRV training reduced anxiety and the reduction correlated with improved technique and artistry in performance; the anxiety scale items focussed on autonomic functions, especially cardiovascular activity. In line with the putative impact of hypnogogic training on creativity A/T training increased cognitive creativity with the test of unusual uses, but not insight problems. Methodological and theoretical implications are considered. PMID:23684733

  14. Method and apparatus for spatially variable rate application of agricultural chemicals based on remotely sensed vegetation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Kenneth Brown (Inventor); Seal, Michael R. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark David (Inventor); Johnson, James William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Remotely sensed spectral image data are used to develop a Vegetation Index file which represents spatial variations of actual crop vigor throughout a field that is under cultivation. The latter information is processed to place it in a format that can be used by farm personnel to correlate and calibrate it with actually observed crop conditions existing at control points within the field. Based on the results, farm personnel formulate a prescription request, which is forwarded via email or FTP to a central processing site, where the prescription is prepared. The latter is returned via email or FTP to on-side farm personnel, who can load it into a controller on a spray rig that directly applies inputs to the field at a spatially variable rate.

  15. Association between oral variables and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; de Souza, Ana Cecilia Amorim; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2013-12-27

    The heart rate variability is a useful method to assess cardiac autonomic modulation in patients undergoing dental procedures, because knowledge of physiological conditions provides greater security to the professional as well as the possibility of a better plan treatment to patient benefit. The aim of our study was to describe the association between cardiac autonomic control and dental variables. We consulted the databases Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane, using the terms "autonomic", "dentistry", "heart rate variability", "cardiovascular physiology." The selected studies indicated a strong relationship between dental variables and HRV. There was an association between malocclusion, TMD, dental procedures cirugia and low HRV. Thus, they become more studies that relate to HRV in dental science, especially in clinical practice.

  16. Rater variables associated with ITER ratings.

    PubMed

    Paget, Michael; Wu, Caren; McIlwrick, Joann; Woloschuk, Wayne; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Advocates of holistic assessment consider the ITER a more authentic way to assess performance. But this assessment format is subjective and, therefore, susceptible to rater bias. Here our objective was to study the association between rater variables and ITER ratings. In this observational study our participants were clerks at the University of Calgary and preceptors who completed online ITERs between February 2008 and July 2009. Our outcome variable was global rating on the ITER (rated 1-5), and we used a generalized estimating equation model to identify variables associated with this rating. Students were rated "above expected level" or "outstanding" on 66.4 % of 1050 online ITERs completed during the study period. Two rater variables attenuated ITER ratings: the log transformed time taken to complete the ITER [β = -0.06, 95 % confidence interval (-0.10, -0.02), p = 0.002], and the number of ITERs that a preceptor completed over the time period of the study [β = -0.008 (-0.02, -0.001), p = 0.02]. In this study we found evidence of leniency bias that resulted in two thirds of students being rated above expected level of performance. This leniency bias appeared to be attenuated by delay in ITER completion, and was also blunted in preceptors who rated more students. As all biases threaten the internal validity of the assessment process, further research is needed to confirm these and other sources of rater bias in ITER ratings, and to explore ways of limiting their impact.

  17. Automated support tool for variable rate irrigation prescriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) enables center pivot management to better meet non-uniform water and fertility needs. This is accomplished through correctly matching system water application with spatial and temporal variability within the field. A computer program was modified to accommodate GIS dat...

  18. Detection of anomalous diffusion using confidence intervals of the scaling exponent with application to preterm neonatal heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, David R.; Verklan, M. Terese; Moon, Jon

    1998-11-01

    The scaling exponent of the root mean square (rms) displacement quantifies the roughness of fractal or multifractal time series; it is equivalent to other second-order measures of scaling, such as the power-law exponents of the spectral density and autocorrelation function. For self-similar time series, the rms scaling exponent equals the Hurst parameter, which is related to the fractal dimension. A scaling exponent of 0.5 implies that the process is normal diffusion, which is equivalent to an uncorrelated random walk; otherwise, the process can be modeled as anomalous diffusion. Higher exponents indicate that the increments of the signal have positive correlations, while exponents below 0.5 imply that they have negative correlations. Scaling exponent estimates of successive segments of the increments of a signal are used to test the null hypothesis that the signal is normal diffusion, with the alternate hypothesis that the diffusion is anomalous. Dispersional analysis, a simple technique which does not require long signals, is used to estimate the scaling exponent from the slope of the linear regression of the logarithm of the standard deviation of binned data points on the logarithm of the number of points per bin. Computing the standard error of the scaling exponent using successive segments of the signal is superior to previous methods of obtaining the standard error, such as that based on the sum of squared errors used in the regression; the regression error is more of a measure of the deviation from power-law scaling than of the uncertainty of the scaling exponent estimate. Applying this test to preterm neonate heart rate data, it is found that time intervals between heart beats can be modeled as anomalous diffusion with negatively correlated increments. This corresponds to power spectra between 1/f2 and 1/f, whereas healthy adults are usually reported to have 1/f spectra, suggesting that the immaturity of the neonatal nervous system affects the scaling

  19. An adaptive technique for multiscale approximate entropy (MAEbin) threshold (r) selection: application to heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) under postural stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Saini, Barjinder Singh; Singh, Dilbag

    2016-06-01

    Multiscale approximate entropy (MAE) is used to quantify the complexity of a time series as a function of time scale τ. Approximate entropy (ApEn) tolerance threshold selection 'r' is based on either: (1) arbitrary selection in the recommended range (0.1-0.25) times standard deviation of time series (2) or finding maximum ApEn (ApEnmax) i.e., the point where self-matches start to prevail over other matches and choosing the corresponding 'r' (rmax) as threshold (3) or computing rchon by empirically finding the relation between rmax, SD1/SD2 ratio and N using curve fitting, where, SD1 and SD2 are short-term and long-term variability of a time series respectively. None of these methods is gold standard for selection of 'r'. In our previous study [1], an adaptive procedure for selection of 'r' is proposed for approximate entropy (ApEn). In this paper, this is extended to multiple time scales using MAEbin and multiscale cross-MAEbin (XMAEbin). We applied this to simulations i.e. 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series, fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and MIX (P) [1] series of data length of N = 300 and short term recordings of HRV and SBPV performed under postural stress from supine to standing. MAEbin and XMAEbin analysis was performed on laboratory recorded data of 50 healthy young subjects experiencing postural stress from supine to upright. The study showed that (i) ApEnbin of HRV is more than SBPV in supine position but is lower than SBPV in upright position (ii) ApEnbin of HRV decreases from supine i.e. 1.7324 ± 0.112 (mean ± SD) to upright 1.4916 ± 0.108 due to vagal inhibition (iii) ApEnbin of SBPV increases from supine i.e. 1.5535 ± 0.098 to upright i.e. 1.6241 ± 0.101 due sympathetic activation (iv) individual and cross complexities of RRi and systolic blood pressure (SBP) series depend on time scale under consideration (v) XMAEbin calculated using ApEnmax is correlated with cross-MAE calculated using ApEn (0.1-0.26) in steps of 0

  20. Rater Variables Associated with ITER Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Michael; Wu, Caren; McIlwrick, Joann; Woloschuk, Wayne; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of holistic assessment consider the ITER a more authentic way to assess performance. But this assessment format is subjective and, therefore, susceptible to rater bias. Here our objective was to study the association between rater variables and ITER ratings. In this observational study our participants were clerks at the University of…

  1. Heart rate variability in Chinchilla rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nadareishvili, K Sh; Meskhishvili, I I; Kakhiani, D D; Ormotsadze, G L; Nazarishvili, G T; Gvasalia, M G; Khvedelidze, M T; Sandodze, V Ya

    2002-12-01

    Temporal and spectral parameters of heart rate variability were studied as criteria for classification of mature Chinchilla rabbit population according to their basal neurovegetative status. The absolute values of total spectral power density and individual frequency bands differed significantly in vagotonics and sympathotonics. However, standardized spectral power distributions in high-, low- and very low-frequency ranges were similar in both groups. Our results suggest that the intensity of regulatory influences on the heart at all levels of regulation, which can be evaluated by spectral analysis, is similarly distributed in both groups. Hence, the observed differences in the heart rate variability can not be explained by peculiarities in sympathovagal balance, but are determined by more universal mechanisms. PMID:12660841

  2. Modeling heart rate variability by stochastic feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the question of how the cardiac rhythm spontaneously self-regulates and propose a new mechanism as a possible answer. We model the neuroautonomic regulation of the heart rate as a stochastic feedback system and find that the model successfully accounts for key characteristics of cardiac variability, including the 1/f power spectrum, the functional form and scaling of the distribution of variations of the interbeat intervals, and the correlations in the Fourier phases which indicate nonlinear dynamics.

  3. Multiscale power analysis for heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Peng; Liu, Hongxing; Ni, Huangjing; Zhou, Jing; Xia, Lan; Ning, Xinbao

    2015-06-01

    We first introduce multiscale power (MSP) method to assess the power distribution of physiological signals on multiple time scales. Simulation on synthetic data and experiments on heart rate variability (HRV) are tested to support the approach. Results show that both physical and psychological changes influence power distribution significantly. A quantitative parameter, termed power difference (PD), is introduced to evaluate the degree of power distribution alteration. We find that dynamical correlation of HRV will be destroyed completely when PD>0.7.

  4. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  5. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  6. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  7. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  8. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  9. Evaluation of a Variable Rate Irrigating Hill-Seeder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder is a drought-alleviating and water-saving agricultural machine that can adjust water application automatically according to the soil moisture content and realize the synchronization between water and seeds through photoelectric-detecting technology. The objecti...

  10. Remote measurement of cognitive stress via heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    McDuff, Daniel; Gontarek, Sarah; Picard, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Remote detection of cognitive load has many powerful applications, such as measuring stress in the workplace. Cognitive tasks have an impact on breathing and heart rate variability (HRV). We show that changes in physiological parameters during cognitive stress can be captured remotely (at a distance of 3m) using a digital camera. A study (n=10) was conducted with participants at rest and under cognitive stress. A novel five band digital camera was used to capture videos of the face of the participant. Significantly higher normalized low frequency HRV components and breathing rates were measured in the stress condition when compared to the rest condition. Heart rates were not significantly different between the two conditions. We built a person-independent classifier to predict cognitive stress based on the remotely detected physiological parameters (heart rate, breathing rate and heart rate variability). The accuracy of the model was 85% (35% greater than chance). PMID:25570611

  11. Heart Rate Variability – A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Billman, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R–R interval – the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration – the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of HRV. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the “Physician’s Pulse Watch” (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped) in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733) was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895) and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations) that are commonly used to measure HRV. PMID:22144961

  12. Heart rate variability - a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Billman, George E

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval - the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration - the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of HRV. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the "Physician's Pulse Watch" (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped) in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733) was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895) and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations) that are commonly used to measure HRV. PMID:22144961

  13. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5 Section... Variable rate debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. This section provides rules for variable rate debt instruments. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a variable rate...

  14. Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Khandoker, Ahsan H; Karmakar, Chandan K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    We investigate whether pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from finger photo-plethysmography (Pleth) waveforms can be the substitute of heart rate variability (HRV) from RR intervals of ECG signals during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Simultaneous measurements (ECG and Pleth) were taken from 29 healthy subjects during normal (undisturbed sleep) breathing and 22 patients with OSA during OSA events. Highly significant (p<0.01) correlations (1.0>r>0.95) were found between heart rate (HR) and pulse rate (PR). Bland-Altman plot of HR and PR shows good agreement (<5% difference). Comparison of 2 min recording epochs demonstrated significant differences (p<0.01) in time, frequency domains and complexity analysis, between normal and OSA events using PRV as well as HRV measures. Results suggest that both HRV and PRV indices could be used to distinguish OSA events from normal breathing during sleep. However, several variability measures (SDNN, RMSSD, HF power, LF/HF and sample entropy) of PR and HR were found to be significantly (p<0.01) different during OSA events. Therefore, we conclude that PRV provides accurate inter-pulse variability to measure heart rate variability under normal breathing in sleep but does not precisely reflect HRV in sleep disordered breathing.

  15. Within-field variability in optimum nitrogen rate for corn linked to soil moisture variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the interaction between yield response to N and other growth-limiting factors is essential to improving spatially dependent N fertilizer applications. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of soil water content variability on the economic optimum N rate (EONR) for corn (Zea mays L.)...

  16. Heart rate variability in isolated rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Frey, B; Heger, G; Mayer, C; Kiegler, B; Stöhr, H; Steurer, G

    1996-11-01

    The presence of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation raised our interest in HRV of isolated, denervated hearts. Hearts from seven adult white ELCO rabbits were transferred to a perfusion apparatus. All hearts were perfused in the working mode and in the Langendorff mode for 20 minutes each. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain. A computer simulated test ECG at a constant rate of 2 Hz was used for error estimation of the system. In the isolated, denervated heart, HRV was of random, broadband fluctuations, different from the well-characterized oscillations at specific frequencies in intact animals. Mean NN was 423 +/- 51 ms in the Langendorff mode, 406 +/- 33 ms in the working heart mode, and 500 ms in the test ECG. Total power was 663 +/- 207 ms2, 817 +/- 318 ms2, and 3.7 ms2, respectively. There was no significant difference in any measure of HRV between Langendorff and working heart modes. The data provide evidence for the presence of HRV in isolated, denervated rabbit hearts. Left atrial and ventricular filling, i.e., the working heart mode, did not alter HRV, indicating that left atrial or ventricular stretch did not influence the sinus nodal discharge rate.

  17. Phase asymmetry of heart rate variability signal.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, C K; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate asymmetry (HRA) is considered as a physiological phenomenon in healthy subjects. In this article, we propose a novel HRA index, Slope Index (SI), to quantify phase asymmetry of heart rate variability (HRV) system. We assessed the performance of proposed index in comparison with conventional (Guzik's Index (GI) and Porta's Index (PI)) HRA indices. As illustrative examples, we used two case studies: (i) differentiate physiologic RR series from synthetic RR series; and (ii) discriminate arrhythmia subjects from Healthy using beat-to-beat heart rate time series. The results showed that SI is a superior parameter than GI and PI for both case studies with maximum ROC area of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. In contrast, GI and PI had ROC areas {0.78, 0.61} and {0.50, 0.56} in two case studies respectively. We also performed surrogate analysis to show that phase asymmetry is caused by a physiologic phenomena rather than a random nature of the signal. In conclusion, quantification of phase asymmetry of HRV provides additional information on HRA, which might have a potential clinical use to discriminate pathological HRV in future.

  18. Quantitative analysis of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, J.; Voss, A.; Saparin, P.; Witt, A.; Kleiner, H. J.; Wessel, N.

    1995-03-01

    In the modern industrialized countries every year several hundred thousands of people die due to sudden cardiac death. The individual risk for this sudden cardiac death cannot be defined precisely by common available, noninvasive diagnostic tools like Holter monitoring, highly amplified ECG and traditional linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, we apply some rather unconventional methods of nonlinear dynamics to analyze the HRV. Especially, some complexity measures that are based on symbolic dynamics as well as a new measure, the renormalized entropy, detect some abnormalities in the HRV of several patients who have been classified in the low risk group by traditional methods. A combination of these complexity measures with the parameters in the frequency domain seems to be a promising way to get a more precise definition of the individual risk. These findings have to be validated by a representative number of patients.

  19. Effect of hyperbaric pressure during scuba diving on autonomic modulation of the cardiac response: application of the continuous wavelet transform to the analysis of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo; García-Manso, Juan M; Martín-González, Juan M; Sarmiento, Samuel; Calderón, Francisco J; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of hyperbaric pressure on heart rate modulation, by analyzing potential changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Ten divers were exposed to pressures of 1, 2, 3, and 4 atmospheres absolute (ATA). The test was performed in a hyperbaric chamber. Heart rate (HR) was recorded in supine subjects for 10 minutes per atmosphere. HRV was analyzed in the frequency mode (fast-Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform). Results confirmed bradycardia as pressure increased. The drop in HR attained statistical significance after 2, 3, and 4 ATA. Signal energy (normalized TP values) rose progressively, becoming significant at 2 ATA. High frequency and low frequency displayed similar behavior in both cases. Although frequency band peaks did not yield clear results, continuous wave transform analysis showed that the frequency spectrum tended to shift into the high-frequency range as pressure increased. In summary, increased pressure prompted increased bradycardia, and HRV shifted into high-frequency range.

  20. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  1. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  2. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  3. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  5. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  6. The Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion Protocol.

    PubMed

    Collard, Benjamin; Sturgeon, Jonathan; Patel, Natasha; Asharia, Shabbar

    2014-01-01

    Insulin use among inpatients is high and associated with severe and regular medication errors. An initial baseline audit showed a wide variation in the prescription of intravenous insulin within the trust. These included variation in the choice of fluid prescribed, electrolyte levels not consistently checked, handwritten illegible prescriptions, and varying parameters set for adjustment of the prescription. A Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion protocol (VRIII)) was introduced to standardize intravenous insulin prescription throughout the trust by all members of the clinical team. We looked at and measured uptake and effects of the VRIII protocol in improving standardization of insulin prescription for inpatients on insulin at St George's NHS trust. The protocol was uploaded to the intranet to allow access 24 hours a day and the staff educated about it. The VRIII protocol was routinely used successfully throughout the trust. Any initial problems were addressed through education of clinical staff. The protocol has shown decreased prescribing and administrative errors, whilst demonstrating good glucose and electrolyte control. Use of a standardized protocol helps reduce medication errors and demonstrates good glycaemic control. Regular and continued education of clinical staff is necessary to maintain its efficacy. PMID:26734228

  7. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  8. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems. PMID:26780463

  9. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  10. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5....1275-5 Variable rate debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. This section provides rules for variable rate debt instruments. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5....1275-5 Variable rate debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. This section provides rules for variable rate debt instruments. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5....1275-5 Variable rate debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. This section provides rules for variable rate debt instruments. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5....1275-5 Variable rate debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. This section provides rules for variable rate debt instruments. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a...

  14. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  15. Novel application of multi dynamic trend analysis as a sensitive tool for detecting the effects of aging and congestive heart failure on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2016-02-01

    The complex fluctuations in heart rate variability (HRV) reflect cardiac autonomic modulation and are an indicator of congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper proposes a novel nonlinear approach to HRV investigation, the multi dynamic trend analysis (MDTA) method, based on the empirical mode decomposition algorithm of the Hilbert-Huang transform combined with a variable-sized sliding-window method. Electrocardiographic signal data obtained from the PhysioNet database were used. These data were from subjects with CHF (mean age = 59.4 ± 8.4), an age-matched elderly healthy control group (59.3 ± 10.6), and a healthy young group (30.3 ± 4.8); the HRVs of these subjects were processed using the MDTA method, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Among all HRV parameters, the MDTA absolute value slope (MDTS) and MDTA deviation (MDTD) exhibited the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics in distinguishing between the CHF group and the healthy controls (AUC = 1.000) and between the healthy elderly subject group and the young subject group (AUC = 0.834 ± 0.067 for MDTS; 0.837 ± 0.066 for MDTD). The CHF subjects presented with lower MDTA indices than those of the healthy elderly subject group. Furthermore, the healthy elderly subjects exhibited lower MDTA indices than those of the young controls. The MDTA method can adaptively and automatically identify the intrinsic fluctuation on variable temporal and spatial scales when investigating complex fluctuations in the cardiac autonomic regulation effects of aging and CHF. PMID:26931590

  16. Novel application of multi dynamic trend analysis as a sensitive tool for detecting the effects of aging and congestive heart failure on heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E.; Yang, Cheryl C. H.; Kuo, Terry B. J.

    2016-02-01

    The complex fluctuations in heart rate variability (HRV) reflect cardiac autonomic modulation and are an indicator of congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper proposes a novel nonlinear approach to HRV investigation, the multi dynamic trend analysis (MDTA) method, based on the empirical mode decomposition algorithm of the Hilbert-Huang transform combined with a variable-sized sliding-window method. Electrocardiographic signal data obtained from the PhysioNet database were used. These data were from subjects with CHF (mean age = 59.4 ± 8.4), an age-matched elderly healthy control group (59.3 ± 10.6), and a healthy young group (30.3 ± 4.8); the HRVs of these subjects were processed using the MDTA method, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Among all HRV parameters, the MDTA absolute value slope (MDTS) and MDTA deviation (MDTD) exhibited the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics in distinguishing between the CHF group and the healthy controls (AUC = 1.000) and between the healthy elderly subject group and the young subject group (AUC = 0.834 ± 0.067 for MDTS; 0.837 ± 0.066 for MDTD). The CHF subjects presented with lower MDTA indices than those of the healthy elderly subject group. Furthermore, the healthy elderly subjects exhibited lower MDTA indices than those of the young controls. The MDTA method can adaptively and automatically identify the intrinsic fluctuation on variable temporal and spatial scales when investigating complex fluctuations in the cardiac autonomic regulation effects of aging and CHF.

  17. gHRV: Heart rate variability analysis made easy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Liñares, L; Lado, M J; Vila, X A; Méndez, A J; Cuesta, P

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the gHRV software tool is presented. It is a simple, free and portable tool developed in python for analysing heart rate variability. It includes a graphical user interface and it can import files in multiple formats, analyse time intervals in the signal, test statistical significance and export the results. This paper also contains, as an example of use, a clinical analysis performed with the gHRV tool, namely to determine whether the heart rate variability indexes change across different stages of sleep. Results from tests completed by researchers who have tried gHRV are also explained: in general the application was positively valued and results reflect a high level of satisfaction. gHRV is in continuous development and new versions will include suggestions made by testers.

  18. Soil variability in engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Natural geomaterials, as soils and rocks, show spatial variability and heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties. They can be measured by in field and laboratory testing. The heterogeneity concerns different values of litho-technical parameters pertaining similar lithological units placed close to each other. On the contrary, the variability is inherent to the formation and evolution processes experienced by each geological units (homogeneous geomaterials on average) and captured as a spatial structure of fluctuation of physical property values about their mean trend, e.g. the unit weight, the hydraulic permeability, the friction angle, the cohesion, among others. The preceding spatial variations shall be managed by engineering models to accomplish reliable designing of structures and infrastructures. Materon (1962) introduced the Geostatistics as the most comprehensive tool to manage spatial correlation of parameter measures used in a wide range of earth science applications. In the field of the engineering geology, Vanmarcke (1977) developed the first pioneering attempts to describe and manage the inherent variability in geomaterials although Terzaghi (1943) already highlighted that spatial fluctuations of physical and mechanical parameters used in geotechnical designing cannot be neglected. A few years later, Mandelbrot (1983) and Turcotte (1986) interpreted the internal arrangement of geomaterial according to Fractal Theory. In the same years, Vanmarcke (1983) proposed the Random Field Theory providing mathematical tools to deal with inherent variability of each geological units or stratigraphic succession that can be resembled as one material. In this approach, measurement fluctuations of physical parameters are interpreted through the spatial variability structure consisting in the correlation function and the scale of fluctuation. Fenton and Griffiths (1992) combined random field simulation with the finite element method to produce the Random

  19. Comparison of heart rate variability and pulse rate variability detected with photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauh, Robert; Limley, Robert; Bauer, Rainer-Dieter; Radespiel-Troger, Martin; Mueck-Weymann, Michael

    2004-08-01

    This study compares ear photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in providing accurate heart beat intervals for use in calculations of heart rate variability (HRV, from ECG) or of pulse rate variability (PRV, from PPG) respectively. Simultaneous measurements were taken from 44 healthy subjects at rest during spontaneous breathing and during forced metronomic breathing (6/min). Under both conditions, highly significant (p > 0.001) correlations (1.0 > r > 0.97) were found between all evaluated common HRV and PRV parameters. However, under both conditions the PRV parameters were higher than HRV. In addition, we calculated the limits of agreement according to Bland and Altman between both techniques and found good agreement (< 10% difference) for heart rate and standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), but only moderate (10-20%) or even insufficient (> 20%) agreement for other standard HRV and PRV parameters. Thus, PRV data seem to be acceptable for screening purposes but, at least at this state of knowledge, not for medical decision making. However, further studies are needed before more certain determination can be made.

  20. Estimating the Variability of Substitution Rates

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Suppose that amino acid or nucleotide data are available for a homologous gene in several species which diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time and that substitution rates between all pairs of species are calculated, correcting as necessary for multiple substitutions and for back and parallel substitutions. The variances and covariances of these corrected substitution rates are evaluated, and are used to construct a new test for uniformity (constancy of the molecular clock) and to find the best estimates of substitution rates in individual lineages with their standard errors. A substantial bias may arise if the effect of correcting the pairwise substitution rates is ignored. PMID:2599371

  1. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDF_RECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillations—more or less pronounced, depending on subjects—are found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDF_RECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDF_RECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals.

  2. Fuel injector train with variable injection rate

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a fuel injection train for injecting fuel at a reduced rate during a portion of a fuel injection cycle. It comprises: a fuel injector having a plunger and plunger biasing means having a predetermined spring rate for biasing the plunger to control the injection rate of the injector, a rocker arm for applying force to the plunger in response to force applied thereto, cam assembly means, and a elongate push rod means mounted between the cam assembly means and the rocker means. The cam assembly means operating to apply force to the push rod means to cause the push rod means to apply force to the rocker arm.

  3. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  5. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  8. Climate variables as predictors of basal metabolic rate: new equations.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and daily energy expenditure (DEE) in living humans and in fossil hominins can be used to understand the way populations adapt to different environmental and nutritional circumstances. One variable that should be considered in such estimates is climate, which may influence between-population variation in BMR. Overall, populations living in warmer climates tend to have lower BMR than those living in colder climates, even after controlling for body size and composition. Current methods of estimating BMR ignore climate, or deal with its effects in an insufficient manner. This may affect studies that use the factorial method to estimate DEE from BMR, when BMR is not measured but predicted using an equation. The present meta-analysis of published BMR uses stepwise regression to investigate whether the inclusion of climate variables can produce a generally applicable model for human BMR. Regression results show that mean annual temperature and high heat index temperature have a significant effect on BMR, along with body size, age and sex. Based on the regression analysis, equations predicting BMR from body size and climate variables were derived and compared with existing equations. The new equations are generally more accurate and more consistent across climates than the older ones. Estimates of DEE in living and fossil humans using the new equations are compared with estimates using previously published equations, illustrating the utility of including climate variables in estimates of BMR. The new equations derived here may prove useful for future studies of human energy expenditure.

  9. Validation of pulse rate variability as a surrogate for heart rate variability in chronically instrumented rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Peter R.; Schiller, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a function of cardiac autonomic tone that is widely used in both clinical and animal studies. In preclinical studies, HRV measures are frequently derived using the arterial pulse waveform from an implanted pressure telemetry device, termed pulse rate variability (PRV), instead of the electrocardiogram signal in accordance with clinical guidelines. The acceptability of PRV as a surrogate for HRV in instrumented animals is unknown. Using rabbits implanted with intracardiac leads and chronically implanted pressure transducers, we investigated the correlation and agreement of time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear indexes of HRV and PRV at baseline. We also investigated the effects of ventricular pacing and autonomic blockade on both measures. At baseline, HRV and PRV time- and frequency-domain parameters showed robust correlations and moderate to high agreement, whereas nonlinear parameters showed slightly weaker correlations and varied agreement. Ventricular pacing almost completely eliminated HRV, and spectral analysis of the PRV signal revealed a HRV-independent rhythm. After cardiac autonomic blockade with atropine or metoprolol, the changes in time- and non-normalized frequency-domain measures of PRV continued to show strong correlations and moderate to high agreement with corresponding changes in HRV measures. Blockade-induced changes in nonlinear PRV indexes correlated poorly with HRV changes and showed weak agreement. These results suggest that time- and frequency-domain measures of PRV are acceptable surrogates for HRV even in the context of changing cardiac autonomic tone, but caution should be used when nonlinear measures are a primary end point or when HRV is very low as HRV-independent rhythms may predominate. PMID:24791786

  10. Predicting interannual variability in evapotranspiration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-11-01

    The amount of evapotranspiration (ET), the sum of all the water that evaporates from the surface or is drawn up through plants and vented as vapor, is a strong controlling factor for the amount of water left over for other purposes, such as groundwater recharge or surface runoff. Understanding how ET rates vary from year to year is challenging, because the change is inherently controlled by small-scale variations in vegetation type and density, soil properties, and meteorological conditions. Yet there has been some success understanding variations in ET at the watershed scale. Analyzing daily measurements of evapotranspiration for 547 watersheds across the United States from 1983 to 2006, Cheng et al. identified a strong linear relationship between two slightly different ratios: the ratio between the watershed's potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation and that between observed ET and precipitation. This is surprising because many previous studies suggested a nonlinear relationship between the two ratios by following the Budyko framework, a dominant approach in water cycle modeling that relates ET rates to the amount of energy and water in the system.

  11. Yield response to variable rate irrigation in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the impact of variable rate irrigation on corn yield, twenty plots of corn were laid out under a center pivot variable rate irrigation (VRI) system in an experimental field near Stoneville, MS. The VRI system is equipped with five VRI zone control units, a global positioning system (G...

  12. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  13. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  14. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  15. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  16. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  17. Development of digital flow control system for multi-channel variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical step for variable-rate spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries. An automatic flow rate control system activated with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was developed to control flow rates...

  18. Rate-matching packet scheduler for real-rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Walpole, Jonathan; McNamee, Dylan; Pu, Calton; Steere, David C.

    2000-12-01

    A packet scheduler is an operating system component that controls the allocation of network interface bandwidth to outgoing network flows. By deciding which packet to send next, packet schedulers not only determine how bandwidth is shared among flows, but also play a key role in determining the rate and timing behavior of individual flows. The recent explosion of rate and timing-sensitive flows, particularly in the context of multimedia applications, has focused new interest on packet schedulers. Next generation packet schedulers must not only ensure separation among flows and meet real-time performance constraints, they must also support dynamic fine- grain real-location of bandwidth for flows with variable-bit- rate requirements. Unfortunately, today's packet schedulers either do not support rate and timing sensitive flows, or do so with reservation systems that are relatively coarse-grain and inflexible. This paper makes two contributions. First it shows how bandwidth requirements can be inferred directly from real-rate flows, without requiring explicit specifications from the application. Second, it presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of a rate-matching packet scheduler that uses these inferred requirements to automatically and dynamically control the bandwidth allocation to flows.

  19. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Cole, Aimee R; Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-05-01

    Tai Chi is a callisthenic exercise form that incorporates aerobic exercise with diaphragmatic breathing. These two aspects alone have been shown to enhance the heart rate variability, warranting research into the effects of Tai Chi on autonomic nervous system modulation and heart rate variability. A low heart rate variability has been shown to be indicative of compromised health. Any methods to enhance the heart rate variability, in particular, non-pharmacological methods, are therefore seen as beneficial to health and are sought after. The aim of this review was to comprehensively summarize the currently published studies regarding the effects of Tai Chi on heart rate variability. Both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented and discussed, and an overall conclusion attained which could benefit future clinical studies.

  20. [Music and heart rate variability. Study of the effect of music on heart rate variability in healthy adolescents].

    PubMed

    Escher, J; Evéquoz, D

    1999-05-20

    The effect of trophotropic (relaxing) music on heart rate and heart rate variability has been investigated in 23 healthy young individuals by means of 24-hour Holter-ECG. Relaxing music (Bach, Vivaldi, Mozart) resulted in significant reduction of heart rate and also significant reduction of heart rate variability. The significance of these results for the use of music in coronary heart disease is discussed.

  1. The role of heart rate variability in sports physiology

    PubMed Central

    DONG, JIN-GUO

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a relevant marker reflecting cardiac modulation by sympathetic and vagal components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although the clinical application of HRV is mainly associated with the prediction of sudden cardiac death and assessing cardiovascular and metabolic illness progression, recent observations have suggested its applicability to physical exercise training. HRV is becoming one of the most useful tools for tracking the time course of training adaptation/maladaptation of athletes and in setting the optimal training loads leading to improved performances. However, little is known regarding the role of HRV and the internal effects of physical exercise on an athlete, which may be useful in designing fitness programs ensuring sufficient training load that may correspond with the specific ability of the athlete. In this review, we offer a comprehensive assessment of investigations concerning the interrelation between HRV and ANS, and examine how the application of HRV to physical exercise may play a role in sports physiology. PMID:27168768

  2. Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Kalawsky, Roy; Greenwald, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) can provide physiological assessment at various anatomical locations with no discomfort to the patient. However, most previous imaging PPG (iPPG) systems have been limited by a low sample frequency, which restricts their use clinically, for instance, in the assessment of pulse rate variability (PRV). In the present study, plethysmographic signals are remotely captured via an iPPG system at a rate of 200 fps. The physiological parameters (i.e., heart and respiration rate and PRV) derived from the iPPG datasets yield statistically comparable results to those acquired using a contact PPG sensor, the gold standard. More importantly, we present evidence that the negative influence of initial low sample frequency could be compensated via interpolation to improve the time domain resolution. We thereby provide further strong support for the low-cost webcam-based iPPG technique and, importantly, open up a new avenue for effective noncontact assessment of multiple physiological parameters, with potential applications in the evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity and remote sensing of vital physiological signs.

  3. Smoluchowski Equations for Agglomeration in Conditions of Variable Temperature and Pressure and a New Scaling of Rate Constants: Application to Nozzle-Beam Expansion.

    PubMed

    Chaiken, J; Goodisman, J; Kornilov, O

    2015-07-01

    The Smoluchowski equations provide a rigorous and efficient means for including multiple kinetic pathways when modeling coalescence growth systems. Originally written for a constant temperature and volume system, the equations must be modified if temperature and pressure vary during the coalescence time. In this paper, the equations are generalized, and adaptations appropriate to the situation presented by supersonic nozzle beam expansions are described. Given rate constants for all the cluster-cluster reactions, solution of the Smoluchowski equations would yield the abundances of clusters of all sizes at all times. This is unlikely, but we show that if these rate constants scale with the sizes of the reacting partners, the asymptotic (large size and large time) form of the cluster size distribution can be predicted. Experimentally determined distributions for He fit the predicted asymptotic distribution very well. Deviations between predicted and observed distributions allow identification of special cluster sizes that is, magic numbers. Furthermore, fitting an observed distribution to the theoretical form yields the base agglomeration cross section, from which all cluster-cluster rate constants may be obtained by scaling. Comparing the base cross section to measures of size and reactivity gives information about the coalescence process.

  4. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  5. Factors Accounting for Variability in Superintendent Ratings of Academic Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Young, I. Phillip; McCord, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized findings from the 2010 decennial study of the school superintendent to determine the extent to which four predictor variables ("courses," "professor credibility," "size" [enrollment of employing school district], and "gender") accounted for variability in superintendent overall ratings of their academic preparation. The…

  6. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  7. Risks and rewards of variable-rate debt.

    PubMed

    Jordahl, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Hospital and health system finance leaders should position their organizations to participate in the variable-rate market. To this end, one important step is to establish the right baseline variable-rate exposure target for the organization based on its credit and risk profile. Leaders also should be thoroughly familiar with the available products and understand the circumstances (pricing, terms, and embedded risk) under which the organization would be willing to deploy them within the overall capital structure.

  8. A multivariate rate equation for variable-interval performance.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Kessel, R

    1979-03-01

    A value-like parameter is introduced into a rate equation for describing variable-interval performance. The equation, derived solely from formal considerations, expresses rate of responding as a joint function of rate of reinforcement and "reinforcer power." Preliminary tests of the rate equation show that it handles univariate data as well as Herrnstein's hyperbola. In addition, a form of Herrnstein's hyperbola can be derived from the equation, and it predicts forms of matching in concurrent situations. For the multivariate case, reinforcer values scaled in concurrent situations where matching is assumed to hold are taken as determinations of reinforcer power. The multivariate rate equation is fitted to an appropriate set of data and found to provide a good description of variable-interval performance when both rate and power of reinforcement are varied. Rate and power measures completely describe reinforcement. The effects of their joint variation are not predicted and cannot be described by Herrnstein's equation.

  9. Factors to consider in developing variable rate seeding prescriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing number of variable rate seeding (VRS)-enabled planters and wide-spread on-farm use of GPS technology make it easier than ever to deploy a VRS strategy. However, growers still need reliable methods to identify candidate fields, select appropriate seeding rates and evaluate whether their s...

  10. Heart rate variability (HRV): an indicator of stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Durek, Joseph J.; O'Kane, Barbara L.; Tran, Nhien; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can be an important indicator of several conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and peripheral neuropathy [3], [4], [10] & [11]. Recent work has shown that some of the HRV features can potentially be used for distinguishing a subject's normal mental state from a stressed one [4], [13] & [14]. In all of these past works, although processing is done in both frequency and time domains, few classification algorithms have been explored for classifying normal from stressed RRintervals. In this paper we used 30 s intervals from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) time series collected during normal and stressed conditions, produced by means of a modified version of the Trier social stress test, to compute HRV-driven features and subsequently applied a set of classification algorithms to distinguish stressed from normal conditions. To classify RR-intervals, we explored classification algorithms that are commonly used for medical applications, namely 1) logistic regression (LR) [16] and 2) linear discriminant analysis (LDA) [6]. Classification performance for various levels of stress over the entire test was quantified using precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity measures. Results from both classifiers were then compared to find an optimal classifier and HRV features for stress detection. This work, performed under an IRB-approved protocol, not only provides a method for developing models and classifiers based on human data, but also provides a foundation for a stress indicator tool based on HRV. Further, these classification tools will not only benefit many civilian applications for detecting stress, but also security and military applications for screening such as: border patrol, stress detection for deception [3],[17], and wounded-warrior triage [12].

  11. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    PubMed

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S; McLean, A P

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the difference was correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher in the ratio component. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in one half of each session and on concurrent chains in the other half in which the terminal links corresponded to the multiple-schedule components. The schedules were varied over six conditions, including two with equated reinforcer rates. In concurrent chains, preference strongly overmatched the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates. In multiple schedules, relative resistance to response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, extinction, and intercomponent food plus extinction depended on the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates but was less sensitive than was preference. When reinforcer rates were similar, both preference and relative resistance were greater for the variable-interval schedule, and the differences were correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher on the variable-ratio schedule, confirming the results of Experiment 1. These results demonstrate that resistance to change and preference depend in part on response rate as well as obtained reinforcer rate, and challenge the independence of resistance to change and preference with respect to response rate proposed by behavioral momentum theory.

  12. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S; McLean, A P

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the difference was correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher in the ratio component. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in one half of each session and on concurrent chains in the other half in which the terminal links corresponded to the multiple-schedule components. The schedules were varied over six conditions, including two with equated reinforcer rates. In concurrent chains, preference strongly overmatched the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates. In multiple schedules, relative resistance to response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, extinction, and intercomponent food plus extinction depended on the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates but was less sensitive than was preference. When reinforcer rates were similar, both preference and relative resistance were greater for the variable-interval schedule, and the differences were correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher on the variable-ratio schedule, confirming the results of Experiment 1. These results demonstrate that resistance to change and preference depend in part on response rate as well as obtained reinforcer rate, and challenge the independence of resistance to change and preference with respect to response rate proposed by behavioral momentum theory. PMID:11516115

  13. Universal structures of normal and pathological heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.; Fajardo-López, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The circulatory system of living organisms is an autonomous mechanical system softly tuned with the respiratory system, and both developed by evolution as a response to the complex oxygen demand patterns associated with motion. Circulatory health is rooted in adaptability, which entails an inherent variability. Here, we show that a generalized N-dimensional normalized graph representing heart rate variability reveals two universal arrhythmic patterns as specific signatures of health one reflects cardiac adaptability, and the other the cardiac-respiratory rate tuning. In addition, we identify at least three universal arrhythmic profiles whose presences raise in proportional detriment of the two healthy ones in pathological conditions (myocardial infarction; heart failure; and recovery from sudden death). The presence of the identified universal arrhythmic structures together with the position of the centre of mass of the heart rate variability graph provide a unique quantitative assessment of the health-pathology gradient. PMID:26912108

  14. Universal structures of normal and pathological heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Fajardo-López, Juan

    2016-02-25

    The circulatory system of living organisms is an autonomous mechanical system softly tuned with the respiratory system, and both developed by evolution as a response to the complex oxygen demand patterns associated with motion. Circulatory health is rooted in adaptability, which entails an inherent variability. Here, we show that a generalized N-dimensional normalized graph representing heart rate variability reveals two universal arrhythmic patterns as specific signatures of health one reflects cardiac adaptability, and the other the cardiac-respiratory rate tuning. In addition, we identify at least three universal arrhythmic profiles whose presences raise in proportional detriment of the two healthy ones in pathological conditions (myocardial infarction; heart failure; and recovery from sudden death). The presence of the identified universal arrhythmic structures together with the position of the centre of mass of the heart rate variability graph provide a unique quantitative assessment of the health-pathology gradient.

  15. Universal structures of normal and pathological heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Fajardo-López, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The circulatory system of living organisms is an autonomous mechanical system softly tuned with the respiratory system, and both developed by evolution as a response to the complex oxygen demand patterns associated with motion. Circulatory health is rooted in adaptability, which entails an inherent variability. Here, we show that a generalized N-dimensional normalized graph representing heart rate variability reveals two universal arrhythmic patterns as specific signatures of health one reflects cardiac adaptability, and the other the cardiac-respiratory rate tuning. In addition, we identify at least three universal arrhythmic profiles whose presences raise in proportional detriment of the two healthy ones in pathological conditions (myocardial infarction; heart failure; and recovery from sudden death). The presence of the identified universal arrhythmic structures together with the position of the centre of mass of the heart rate variability graph provide a unique quantitative assessment of the health-pathology gradient. PMID:26912108

  16. Heart rate variability in risk stratification of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Stein, Phyllis K

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) variability has been extensively studied in cardiac patients, especially in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability have an increased risk of mortality within a few years after an AMI or after a diagnosis of CHF/LV dysfunction. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability have been used in risk stratification. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R-R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of cardiac patients.

  17. Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate Influence on Heart Rate Variability Repeatability: Effects of the Correction for the Prevailing Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006

  18. Two-Stage Variable Sample-Rate Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkacenko, Andre

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage variable sample-rate conversion (SRC) system has been pro posed as part of a digital signal-processing system in a digital com munication radio receiver that utilizes a variety of data rates. The proposed system would be used as an interface between (1) an analog- todigital converter used in the front end of the receiver to sample an intermediatefrequency signal at a fixed input rate and (2) digita lly implemented tracking loops in subsequent stages that operate at v arious sample rates that are generally lower than the input sample r ate. This Two-Stage System would be capable of converting from an input sample rate to a desired lower output sample rate that could be var iable and not necessarily a rational fraction of the input rate.

  19. Variability of Lekanesphaera monodi metabolic rates with habitat trophic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignes, Fabio; Fedele, Marialaura; Pinna, Maurizio; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Basset, Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Regulation of metabolism is a common strategy used by individuals to respond to a changing environment. The mechanisms underlying the variability of metabolic rates in macroinvertebrates are of primary importance in studying benthic-pelagic energy transfer in transitional water ecosystems. Lekanesphaera monodi is an isopod endemic to transitional water ecosystems that can modify its metabolic rate in response to environmental changes. Therefore it is a useful model in studying the influence of environmental factors on metabolism. This study focused on the interpopulation variability of standard metabolic rates (SMR) in L. monodi populations sampled in three transitional water ecosystems differing in their trophic status. The standard metabolic rates of L. monodi individuals across the same range of body size spectra were inferred from oxygen consumption measurements in a flow-through respirometer in the three populations and a body condition index was assessed for each population. Habitat trophic status was evaluated by monthly measurement of the basic physical-chemical parameters of the water column in the ecosystems for one year. Standard metabolic rates showed high variability, ranging from 0.27 to 10.14 J d-1. Body size accounted for more than 38% of total variability. In terms of trophic status, individuals from the eutrophic ecosystem had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than individuals from the other ecosystems (SMR = 2.3 J d-1 in Spunderati Sud vs. 1.36 J d-1 in Alimini and 0.69 J d-1 in Acquatina). The body conditions index was also higher in the population from the eutrophic ecosystem. Results show that standard metabolic rates and growth rates are directly related to habitat productivity in accordance with the expectations of the food habits hypothesis. A possible extension of this hypothesis to benthic invertebrates is proposed.

  20. Prognostic significance of heart rate variability in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kenichiro; Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Yonemoto, Takayuki; Wakida, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    We studied the significance for further survival of heart rate variability and other variables in the very elderly. In 1992, we assessed activities of daily living, cognitive function, and nutritional status in 27 centenarians with no disease, in addition to the power of the heart rate variability in the ultralow, very low, low (LF), and high frequency (HF) bands. In 1996, we assessed survival in these centenarians; 17 had died and 10 were still living. Logistic regression analysis using backward elimination detected three factors, dementia, LF/HF, and age, that independently influenced mortality. Mortality risk increased with greater age in 1992, more severe dementia, or lower LF/HF. Sympathetic nerve activity, represented as LF/HF, may be associated with prognosis for survival in centenarians.

  1. Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

  2. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  3. A Latent-Variable Causal Model of Faculty Reputational Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Suzanne; Wolfle, Lee M.

    A reanalysis was conducted of Saunier's research (1985) on sources of variation in the National Research Council (NRC) reputational ratings of university faculty. Saunier conducted a stepwise regression analysis using 12 predictor variables. Due to problems with multicollinearity and because of the atheoretical nature of stepwise regression,…

  4. Enhancing adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than twenty years of private and public research on site-specific variable-rate sprinkler irrigation (SS-VRI) has resulted in very limited commercial adoption of the technology. Documented and proven water conservation strategies using site-specific irrigation are quite limited, and its cost-ef...

  5. Adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler irrigation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than twenty years of private and public research on site-specific variable-rate sprinkler irrigation (SS-VRI) technology has resulted in limited commercial adoption of the technology. Competing patents, liability and proprietary software have affected industry’s willingness to move into a new t...

  6. Ultraviolet variability of quasars: dependence on the accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, H.; Weiss, V.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: Although the variability in the ultraviolet and optical domain is one of the major characteristics of quasars, the dominant underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. There is a broad consensus on the relationship between the strength of the variability and such quantities as time-lag, wavelength, luminosity, and redshift. However, evidence on a dependence on the fundamental parameters of the accretion process is still inconclusive. This paper is focused on the correlation between the ultraviolet quasar long-term variability and the accretion rate. Methods: We compiled a catalogue of about 4000 quasars including individual estimators for the variability strength derived from the multi-epoch photometry in the SDSS Stripe 82, virial black hole masses M derived from the Mg ii line, and mass accretion rates Ṁ from the Davis-Laor scaling relation. Several statistical tests were applied to evaluate the correlations of the variability with luminosity, mass, Eddington ratio, and accretion rate. Results: We confirm the existence of significant anti-correlations between the variability estimator V and the accretion rate Ṁ, the Eddington ratio ɛ, and the bolometric luminosity Lbol, respectively. The Eddington ratio is tightly correlated with Ṁ. A weak, statistically not significant positive trend is indicated for the dependence of V on M. As a side product, we find a strong correlation of the radiative efficiency η with M in our sample. We show via numerical simulations that this trend is most likely produced by selection effects in combination with the mass errors and the use of the scaling relation for Ṁ. The anti-correlations of V with Ṁ, ɛ, and Lbol cannot be explained in such a way. The strongest anti-correlation is found between V and Ṁ. However, it is difficult to decide which of the quantities L,ɛ, and Ṁ is intrinsically correlated with V and which of the observed correlations of V are produced by the L - ɛ - Ṁ relation. A V -

  7. Ordinal pattern statistics for the assessment of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, G.; Graff, B.; Kaczkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.; Amigó, J. M.; Piskorski, J.; Narkiewicz, K.; Guzik, P.

    2013-06-01

    The recognition of all main features of a healthy heart rhythm (the so-called sinus rhythm) is still one of the biggest challenges in contemporary cardiology. Recently the interesting physiological phenomenon of heart rate asymmetry has been observed. This phenomenon is related to unbalanced contributions of heart rate decelerations and accelerations to heart rate variability. In this paper we apply methods based on the concept of ordinal pattern to the analysis of electrocardiograms (inter-peak intervals) of healthy subjects in the supine position. This way we observe new regularities of the heart rhythm related to the distribution of ordinal patterns of lengths 3 and 4.

  8. Bouts of responding: the relation between bout rate and the rate of variable-interval reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A; Bennett, J Adam

    2004-01-01

    By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of tile variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was varied between blocks of sessions from 16 min to 0.25 min. Total rate of key poking increased similarly as a function of the reinforcer rate for the two schedule types, but response rate was higher with than without the four-response requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times showed that key poking occurred in bouts. The rate of initiating bouts increased as a function of reinforcer rate but was either unaffected or was decreased by adding the four-response requirement. Within-bout response rate was insensitive to reinforcer rate and only inconsistently affected by the four-response requirement. For both kinds of schedule, the ratio of bout time to between-bout pause time was approximately a power function of reinforcer rate, with exponents above and below 1.0. PMID:15113134

  9. Fractal and complexity measures of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Perkiömäki, Juha S; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2005-01-01

    Heart rate variability has been analyzed conventionally with time and frequency domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of heart rate dynamics by methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory has gained recent interest. This interest is based on observations suggesting that the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation likely interact with each other in a nonlinear way. Furthermore, recent observational studies suggest that some indexes describing nonlinear heart rate dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, may provide more powerful prognostic information than the traditional heart rate variability indexes. In particular, the short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis method has predicted fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of heart rate dynamics, that describes the complexity of RR interval behavior, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. Many other nonlinear indexes, e.g., Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimensions, also give information on the characteristics of heart rate dynamics, but their clinical utility is not well established. Although concepts of chaos theory, fractal mathematics, and complexity measures of heart rate behavior in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for future research to expand our knowledge concerning the behavior of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  10. A rumor spreading model with variable forgetting rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Wanlin; Gao, H. Oliver; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shuhai

    2013-12-01

    A rumor spreading model with the consideration of forgetting rate changing over time is examined in small-world networks. The mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of rumor spreading in small-world networks. Further, numerical solutions are conducted on LiveJournal, an online social blogging platform, to better understand the performance of the model. Results show that the forgetting rate has a significant impact on the final size of rumor spreading: the larger the initial forgetting rate or the faster the forgetting speed, the smaller the final size of the rumor spreading. Numerical solutions also show that the final size of rumor spreading is much larger under a variable forgetting rate compared to that under a constant forgetting rate.

  11. Heart rate variability in normal and pathological sleep

    PubMed Central

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Nobili, Lino; Strada, Silvia; Casali, Karina R.; Braghiroli, Alberto; Montano, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process involving different biological systems, from molecular to organ level; its integrity is essential for maintaining health and homeostasis in human beings. Although in the past sleep has been considered a state of quiet, experimental and clinical evidences suggest a noteworthy activation of different biological systems during sleep. A key role is played by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), whose modulation regulates cardiovascular functions during sleep onset and different sleep stages. Therefore, an interest on the evaluation of autonomic cardiovascular control in health and disease is growing by means of linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. The application of classical tools for ANS analysis, such as HRV during physiological sleep, showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) stage is characterized by a likely sympathetic predominance associated with a vagal withdrawal, while the opposite trend is observed during non-REM sleep. More recently, the use of non-linear tools, such as entropy-derived indices, have provided new insight on the cardiac autonomic regulation, revealing for instance changes in the cardiovascular complexity during REM sleep, supporting the hypothesis of a reduced capability of the cardiovascular system to deal with stress challenges. Interestingly, different HRV tools have been applied to characterize autonomic cardiac control in different pathological conditions, from neurological sleep disorders to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In summary, linear and non-linear analysis of HRV are reliable approaches to assess changes of autonomic cardiac modulation during sleep both in health and diseases. The use of these tools could provide important information of clinical and prognostic relevance. PMID:24137133

  12. Interannual variability of Indian Ocean subtropical mode water subduction rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Lan, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The interannual variation of Indian Ocean subtropical mode water (IOSTMW) subduction rate in the Southwest Indian Ocean from 1980 to 2007 is investigated in this paper based on Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) outputs. Climatology of subduction rate exceeds 75 m/year in the IOSTMW formation area. The renewal time of permanent pycnocline water mass based on the subduction rate is calculated for each density class: 3-6 years for IOSTMW (25.8 < σ θ < 26.2 kg m-3). Subduction rate in the Southwest Indian Ocean subtropical gyre exhibits a great year-to-year variability. This interannual variations of the IOSTMW subduction rate is primarily dominated by the lateral induction term, associated with the interannual variations of strong meridional gradient of winter mixed layer depth (MLD). The slope of the mixed layer depth in the mode water is closely linked to the large variations of deep late winter MLD in the mid-latitudes and negligible variations of shallow winter MLD in lower latitudes. It is further identified that the interannual variation of late winter MLD in this area is largely controlled by the latent and sensible heat flux components. The water volume of the permanent pycnocline in the IOSTMW distribution area is also found to show a significant interannual variability, and it is well correlated with the interannual variation of subduction rate.

  13. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  14. Direct observation of homoclinic orbits in human heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

    2003-05-01

    Homoclinic trajectories of the interbeat intervals between contractions of ventricles of the human heart are identified. The interbeat intervals are extracted from 24-h Holter ECG recordings. Three such recordings are discussed in detail. Mappings of the measured consecutive interbeat intervals are constructed. In the second and in some cases in the fourth iterate of the map of interbeat intervals homoclinic trajectories associated with a hyperbolic saddle are found. The homoclinic trajectories are often persistent for many interbeat intervals, sometimes spanning many thousands of heartbeats. Several features typical for homoclinic trajectories found in other systems were identified, including a signature of the gluing bifurcation. The homoclinic trajectories are present both in recordings of heart rate variability obtained from patients with an increased number of arrhythmias and in cases in which the sinus rhythm is dominant. The results presented are a strong indication of the importance of deterministic nonlinear instabilities in human heart rate variability.

  15. Changes in heart rate variability during concentration meditation.

    PubMed

    Phongsuphap, Sukanya; Pongsupap, Yongyuth; Chandanamattha, Pakorn; Lursinsap, Chidchanok

    2008-11-28

    This study aims at investigating changes in heart rate variability (HRV) measured during meditation. The statistical and spectral measures of HRV from the RR intervals were analyzed. Results indicate that meditation may have different effects on health depending on frequency of the resonant peak that each meditator can achieve. The possible effects may concern resetting baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the parasympathetic tone, and improving efficiency of gas exchange in the lung.

  16. The effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Ramazan; Ozcan, Osman; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    Uslu et al. (2012 ) suggested that hypnotic status can modulate cerebral blood flow. The authors investigated the effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability (HRV). In women, HRV decreased during hypnosis. Posthypnotic values were higher compared to prehypnotic and hypnotic values. Women had highest HRV parameters in the posthypnotic condition. It appears that hypnosis can produce cardiac and cognitive activations. Hypnotherapy may be useful in some cardiac clinical conditions characterized by an autonomic imbalance or some cardiac arrhythmias.

  17. Solutions of two-factor models with variable interest rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.

    2008-12-01

    The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest rates. Two interest rate models, the Vasicek model and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio models, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek model and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest rate are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest rate and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR model yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek model in a less complete market.

  18. Heart rate variability in natural time and 1/f "noise"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Several studies have shown that heart rate fluctuations exhibit the ubiquitous 1/f behavior which is altered in desease. Furthermore, the analysis of electrocardiograms in natural time reveals that important malfunctions in the complex system of the human heart can be identified. Here, we present a simple evolution model in natural time that exhibits the 1/fa behavior with a close to unity. The results of this model are consistent with a progressive modification of heart rate variability in healthy children and adolescents. The model results in complexity measures that separate healthy dynamics from patients as well as from sudden cardiac death individuals.

  19. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  20. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  1. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed. PMID:26931582

  2. [Association between level of intelligence and heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V N; Iakovlev, N M

    2011-08-01

    Earlier we discovered that heart rate variability was associated with the level of intelligence. The purpose of this study is to confirm this association using more reliable method and to define more precisely the frequency band within which the amplitude of the heart rate modulations is related to intelligence. 13 males (aged 14 to 17) were the study subjects. The total score of the computer game Tetris was taken as a general measure of the intelligence level. Heart rate was recorded electrocardiographically both at rest and during playing Tetris. Frequency analysis of heart rate was carried out with digital Fourier transformation. Correlation analysis showed that there was positive association between the level of intelligence and the amplitude of heart rate modulation at the frequencies 0.30 and 0.15 modulations per RR interval. This association is closer for the heart rate at rest than for the heart rate during mental work and for the frequency 0.30 than for the 0.15 modulations per RR interval.

  3. Heart Rate Variability During Early Adaptation to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    A recent report hypothesized that episodes of space motion sickness (SMS) were reliably associated with low frequency oscillations (less than 0.03 to less than 0.01 Hz) in heart rate variability. This paper archives a large data set for review of investigators in this field which may facilitate the evaluation of this hypothesis. Continuous recording of Electro-cardiography (ECG) and other measures were made for 6 to 12 hours per day (waking hours) of six Shuttle crewmembers for the first 3 mission days of two separate Shuttle flights. Spectral analyses of heart rate variability during approximately 200 hours of inflight is presented. In addition, nearly 200 hours of data collected on these same individuals during ground tests prior to the mission are presented. The Purpose of this Publication is to document the incidence of low frequency oscillations of heart rate in 4 people exposed to microgravity over a period of five days. In addition, this report contains spectral analyses of heart rate data collected on these same individuals during ground-based mission simulations. By archiving these data in this manner, it is our intention to make this information available to other investigators interested in studying this phenomena.

  4. Categorizing Fetal Heart Rate Variability with and without Visual Aids

    PubMed Central

    Ashdown, Amanda J.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Belfore, Lee A.; Davis, Stephen S.; Abuhamad, Alfred Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of clinicians to correctly categorize images of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability with and without the use of exemplars. Study Design A sample of 33 labor and delivery clinicians inspected static FHR images and categorized them into one of four categories defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) based on the amount of variability within absent, minimal, moderate, or marked ranges. Participants took part in three conditions: two in which they used exemplars representing FHR variability near the center or near the boundaries of each range, and a third control condition with no exemplars. The data gathered from clinicians were compared with those from a previous study using novices. Results Clinicians correctly categorized more images when the FHR variability fell near the center rather than the boundaries of each range, F (1,32) = 71.69, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.69. They also correctly categorized more images when exemplars were available, F (2,64) = 5.44, p = 0.007, partial η2 = 0.15. Compared with the novices, the clinicians were more accurate and quicker in their category judgments, but this difference was limited to the condition without exemplars. Conclusion The results suggest that categorizing FHR variability is more difficult when the examples fall near the boundaries of each NICHD-defined range. Thus, clinicians could benefit from training with visual aids to improve judgments about FHR variability and potentially enhance safety in labor and delivery. PMID:27722031

  5. Development of variable-rate precision spraying systems for tree crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive pesticides are often applied to target and non-target areas in orchards and nurseries, resulting in greater production costs, worker exposure to unnecessary pesticide risks, and adverse contamination of the environment. To improve spray application efficiency, two types of variable-rate pr...

  6. Heart Rate Variability for the Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J Michael

    2016-06-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia is considered the leading cause of death or major disability in subarachnoid hemorrhage after the impact of the initial event and rebleeding. Waiting to treat patients until they exhibit clinical symptoms of ischemia is too late to prevent cerebral infarction for more than 60% of patients, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography has not proven to be a reliable screening tool to identify high-risk patients. Continuous heart rate variability monitoring may provide an alternative screening strategy to identify patients at high risk for delayed cerebral ischemia. Heart rate variability is a composite reflection of autonomic outflow, neuroendocrine influences, and autonomic responsiveness. Most importantly, heart rate variability is responsive to changes in systemic inflammation, which evidence suggests is important to the causal pathway of delayed cerebral ischemia. The clinical application of continuous heart rate variability monitoring in critical care is relatively recent despite its existence for more than 50 years. Initial studies suggest promise for heart rate variability monitoring as a delayed cerebral ischemia screening tool, but significant research is still required before this approach may achieve clinical applicability and bring benefit to patients. PMID:27258451

  7. Reliability of spectral analysis of fetal heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Bergmans, J W M; Oei, S G

    2014-01-01

    Spectral analysis of fetal heart rate variability could provide information on fetal wellbeing. Unfortunately, fetal heart rate recordings are often contaminated by artifacts. Correction of these artifacts affects the outcome of spectral analysis, but it is currently unclear what level of artifact correction facilitates reliable spectral analysis. In this study, a method is presented that estimates the error in spectral powers due to artifact correction, based on the properties of the Continuous Wavelet Transformation. The results show that it is possible to estimate the error in spectral powers. The information about this error makes it possible for clinicians to assess the reliability of spectral analysis of fetal heart rate recordings that are contaminated by artifacts. PMID:25570577

  8. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  9. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening.

    PubMed

    Ravelo-García, A G; Saavedra-Santana, P; Juliá-Serdá, G; Navarro-Mesa, J L; Navarro-Esteva, J; Álvarez-López, X; Gapelyuk, A; Penzel, T; Wessel, N

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p < 10(-3)), neck circumference (p < 10(-3)), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10(-3)), and intensity of snoring (p < 10(-3)). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  10. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p < 10-3), neck circumference (p < 10-3), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10-3), and intensity of snoring (p < 10-3). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  11. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  12. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

  13. Environmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone.

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin; Cammarano, Davide; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Marinello, Francesco; Sartori, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005-2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha(-1) applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha(-1) applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching. PMID:26747986

  14. [Parameters of heart rate variability during bicycle ergometry test].

    PubMed

    Parnes, E Ia; Koshkina, E V; Krasnoselskiĭ, M Ia

    2003-01-01

    Short-term (5 min) heart rate variability (HRV) was studied before and during submaximal bicycle exercise tests in 27 patients with ischemic heart disease, 23 patients with hypertension and 9 healthy subjects. Low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) power components of HRV were significantly decreased during submaximal exercise. The level of load at which abrupt decrease of low-frequency components below 40 ms(2) occurred possibly reflected individual exercise tolerance. Episodes of myocardial ischemia were associated with pronounced decreases of low - frequency HRV components.

  15. Variable-rate colour image quantization based on quadtree segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. C.; Li, C. Y.; Chuang, J. C.; Lo, C. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel variable-sized block encoding with threshold control for colour image quantization (CIQ) is presented in this paper. In CIQ, the colour palette used has a great influence on the reconstructed image quality. Typically, a higher image quality and a larger storage cost are obtained when a larger-sized palette is used in CIQ. To cut down the storage cost while preserving quality of the reconstructed images, the threshold control policy for quadtree segmentation is used in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method adaptively provides desired bit rates while having better image qualities comparing to CIQ with the usage of multiple palettes of different sizes.

  16. Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul M.; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been substantial support for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013). Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the baroreceptor (Vaschillo et al., 2002; Lehrer et al., 2003). Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB. PMID:25101026

  17. How to avoid misinterpretation of heart rate variability power spectra?

    PubMed

    Cammann, Henning; Michel, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Spectral analysis of R-R Interval time series is increasingly used to determine periodic components of heart rate variability (HRV). Particular diagnostic relevance is assigned to a low-frequency (LF) component, associated with blood pressure regulation, and a high-frequency (HF) component, also referred to as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in the HRV power spectra. Frequency ranges for parametrisation of power spectra have been defined for either component in numerous publications.Results obtained from examinations with standardised psychic load in which ECG and respiratory signal are continuously recorded and adequately processed have shown that the true individual frequency range of the HF component can be reliably determined only by means of characteristics of respiration (respiratory rate (RR), range and median value of RR, tidal depth). Respiratory rhythms are interindividually extremely differentiated and of individual-specific nature. In many cases LF and HF components may be totally superimposed on each other and, consequently, cannot be diagnostically evaluated.

  18. Heart-rate variability and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cervantes Blásquez, Julio César; Rodas Font, Gil; Capdevila Ortís, Lluís

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility of heart-rate variability (HRV) analyses as a noninvasive means of quantifying cardiac autonomic regulation during precompetitive anxiety situations in swimmers. Psychophysiological state evaluation of 10 volunteer swimmers (6 women and 4 men) was obtained by comparing baseline training condition (TC) with competition condition (CC). Self-evaluation of precompetitive somatic anxiety measured by CSAI-2 showed significant increase from the TC to CC. Analysis showed that during higher precompetitive anxiety level, a significant reduction in the timing (RMSSD), frequency (HFms2 and HFnu) and Poincaré plot (SD1) of heart-rate variability was observed, and a significant increase in the low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF/HF %). The results indicate a shift towards sympathetic predominance as a result of parasympathetic withdrawal. Our results provide an HRV analysis in a valid, useful and non-invasive way to evaluate the change of sympathovagal balance in presence of precompetitive stress.

  19. Autonomic functions in acrocyanosis assessed by heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Sedat; Yokuşoğlu, Mehmet; Çınar, Muhammet; Şimşek, İsmail; Baysan, Oben; Öz, Bilgehan Savaş; Erdem, Hakan; Pay, Salih; Dinç, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the autonomic activity of patients with acrocyanosis by using heart rate variability indices. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 24 patients with acrocyanosis and the control group contained 22 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. Among the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, time-domain and frequency-domain indices were analysed. Results The time-domain indices of HRV indicating global autonomic functions were found to be increased, and indices indicating parasympathetic activity showed a significant decrease in the patient group. Power-spectral analysis of HRV revealed that the low frequency and high frequency power were higher in the patient group than in controls. However, the ratio of Low Frequency/High Frequency was found to be lower in the patient group than in controls. Conclusion In acrocyanosis, both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems seem to be disrupted. Therefore, we may conclude that acrocyanosis may be resulted of systemic autonomic imbalance rather than pure sympathetic over-activation. Also, these results suggest that acrocyanosis is not a localised disorder; on the contrary, it is associated with various abnormalities of the systemic autonomic nervous system.

  20. Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gardim, Camila Balsamo; de Oliveira, Bruno Affonso P.; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda B.; Gomes, Rayana Loch; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Lorençoni, Roselene Modolo R.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior. DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS). Articles published from January 2003 to February 2013 that enrolled children with 9-12 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the review. DATA SYNTHESIS: The electronic search resulted in four articles that approached the heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, showing that, in general, these children present decreased global heart rate variability and vagal activity. The practice of physical activity promoted benefits for these individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus present changes on autonomic modulation, indicating the need for early attention to avoid future complications in this group. PMID:25119762

  1. Highly Variable Rates of Genome Rearrangements between Hemiascomycetous Yeast Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gilles; Rocha, Eduardo P. C; Brunet, Frédéric; Vergassola, Massimo; Dujon, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Hemiascomycete yeasts cover an evolutionary span comparable to that of the entire phylum of chordates. Since this group currently contains the largest number of complete genome sequences it presents unique opportunities to understand the evolution of genome organization in eukaryotes. We inferred rates of genome instability on all branches of a phylogenetic tree for 11 species and calculated species-specific rates of genome rearrangements. We characterized all inversion events that occurred within synteny blocks between six representatives of the different lineages. We show that the rates of macro- and microrearrangements of gene order are correlated within individual lineages but are highly variable across different lineages. The most unstable genomes correspond to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Chromosomal maps have been intensively shuffled by numerous interchromosomal rearrangements, even between species that have retained a very high physical fraction of their genomes within small synteny blocks. Despite this intensive reshuffling of gene positions, essential genes, which cluster in low recombination regions in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tend to remain syntenic during evolution. This work reveals that the high plasticity of eukaryotic genomes results from rearrangement rates that vary between lineages but also at different evolutionary times of a given lineage. PMID:16532063

  2. Factors affecting heart rate variability in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Cabal, L A; Siassi, B; Zanini, B; Hodgman, J E; Hon, E E

    1980-01-01

    Neonatal heart rate variability (NHRV) was studied in 92 preterm infants (birth weight, 750 to 2,500 gm; gestational age, 28 to 36 weeks). Each infant was monitored continuously during the first 6 hours and for one hour at 24, 48, and 168 hours of life. During each hour NHRV was quantified and related to the following parameters: sex, gestational age, postnatal age, heart rate, and the presence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). NHRV in healthy preterm infants was inversely related to heart rate level and directly related to the infant's postnatal age. In healthy babies with gestations of 30 to 36 weeks there was no significant correlation between NHRV and gestation. Decrease in NHRV was significantly related to the severity of RDS, and the reappearance of NHRV in infants with RDS was associated with a good prognosis. Decreased NHRV significantly differentiated the infants with RDS who survived after the fifth hour of life. The data reveal that NHRV (1) should be corrected for heart rate level and postnatal age; (2) is decreased in RDS; and (3) can be used as an indicator of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants with RDS.

  3. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  4. 5 CFR 337.101 - Rating applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rating applicants. 337.101 Section 337.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXAMINING SYSTEM General Provisions § 337.101 Rating applicants. (a) OPM shall prescribe the relative weights to be...

  5. On the Primacy of Molecular Processes in Determining Response Rates under Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same…

  6. Heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance: pharmacological validation

    PubMed Central

    Bootsma, M.; Swenne, C.A.; Janssen, M.J.A.; Cats, V. Manger; Schalij, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale We validated heart rate (HR) and six time and six frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) as estimators of autonomic outflow in 44 young healthy male subjects. Gold standards for autonomic outflow were the Rosenblueth-Simeone factors m (sympathetic tone) and n (vagal tone), and the sympathovagal balance m·n, determined by two-stage complete autonomic blockade. Methods Rank correlations were computed between HR and the HRV measures obtained before autonomic blockade, and m, n and m·n. Also, the maximal mean performances (averaged sensitivity and specificity) for HR and HRV as discriminators between low and high values of m, n or m·n were computed. Results The spectral HRV measures showed less good correlations and performances than the time domain HRV measures. Correlations with sympathetic tone were all below 0.31. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during 15 cycles/min metronome breathing was superior in estimating vagal tone and sympathovagal balance (correlations -0.71/-0.73; both performances 0.82), heart rate scored similarly for assessing the sympathovagal balance (correlation 0.71; performance 0.82). Conclusions It does not appear justified to evaluate HR or HRV in terms of sympathetic tone, vagal tone, or sympathovagal balance. HR and HRV are specifically weak in assessing sympathetic tone. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during 15 cycles/min metronome breathing is superior in assessing vagal tone. Current HRV analysis techniques offer no advantages compared with HR in assessing the sympathovagal balance. PMID:25696224

  7. Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers

    PubMed Central

    Vickhoff, Björn; Malmgren, Helge; Åström, Rickard; Nyberg, Gunnar; Ekström, Seth-Reino; Engwall, Mathias; Snygg, Johan; Nilsson, Michael; Jörnsten, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration, which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV) to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below). In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1) hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2) sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3) sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR) is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1–3). We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and HR are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior. PMID:23847555

  8. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  9. Alcohol-dependence syndrome: Postural challenge on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Sucharita, S.; Pradeep, Johnson; Vincent, Anoop; Vaz, M.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic involvement in Alcohol-Dependence Syndrome (ADS) patients has been demonstrated using conventional autonomic tests. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) without normalization has also been reported. Aims: To evaluate cardiac autonomic changes with postural challenge using HRV in ADS and controls while controlling for confounding factors. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study involving 27 male subjects with ADS and age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Clinical assessments included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. Spectral measures of HRV while lying and with active standing were assessed. Results: There was an attenuated response in delta high-frequency (P=0.06) and delta low-frequency (P=0.04) power to standing in ADS subjects compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ADS appear to have attenuated cardiac vagal and sympathetic responses to standing. HRV with postural challenge may help earlier recognition of autonomic dysfunction in ADS. PMID:23226850

  10. Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Lam-Espinosa, Eric; Ramirez-Moreno, David F.; Calvo-Echeverry, Paulo C.; Agredo-Rodriguez, Wilfredo

    2011-01-01

    Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test). The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%). Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis. PMID:21386966

  11. Chronomics of heart rate variability on earth and in space.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, K; Izumi, R; Ishioka, N; Ohshima, H; Mukai, C

    2009-10-01

    Chronomes are time structures consisting of multifrequency rhythms, elements of chaos, and trends in chaotic and rhythmic endpoints. Chronomics maps the dynamics of organisms' broad interactions with the environment near and far, rather than merely the daily routines. We introduced the chronomics of heart rate variability (HRV), characterized by a broad time structure, that includes the prominent circadians and also ultradian (notably about 8h and about 12h) and infradian (notably about-weekly, about-yearly, and about 10-yearly) changes, in addition to undergoing trends with aging. Alterations in these HRV chronomes are known to predict the presence of disease in the near future. Thus, for the health and safety of astronauts, HRV chronomes should be assessed before, during and after the mission in the International Space Station to check for any alteration. Future work should focus on how phenomena in the cosmos, including helio- and geomagnetics, can affect physiological chronomes, those of the HRV in particular.

  12. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis. PMID:25147421

  13. Mercury Exposure and Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald D.; Rosman, Lori; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mercury affects the nervous system and has been implicated in altering heart rhythm and function. We sought to better define its role in modulating heart rate variability, a well-known marker of cardiac autonomic function. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, TOXLINE and DART databases without language restriction. We report findings as a qualitative systematic review because heterogeneity in study design and assessment of exposures and outcomes across studies, as well as other methodological limitations of the literature, precluded a quantitative meta-analysis. Results We identified 12 studies of mercury exposure and heart rate variability in human populations (10 studies involving primarily environmental methylmercury exposure and two studies involving occupational exposure to inorganic mercury) conducted in Japan, the Faroe Islands, Canada, Korea, French Polynesia, Finland and Egypt. The association of prenatal mercury exposure with lower high-frequency band scores (thought to reflect parasympathetic activity) in several studies, in particular the inverse association of cord blood mercury levels with the coefficient of variation of the R-R intervals and with low frequency and high frequency bands at 14 years of age in the Faroe Islands birth cohort study, suggests that early mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity. Studies with later environmental exposures to mercury in children or in adults were heterogeneous and did not show consistent associations. Conclusions The evidence was too limited to draw firm causal inferences. Additional research is needed to elucidate the effects of mercury on cardiac autonomic function, particularly as early-life exposures might have lasting impacts on cardiac parasympathetic function. PMID:26231507

  14. Heart Rate Variability for Quantification of Autonomic Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Ho; Hong, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyun; Choi, Byoong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls using heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Sixteen patients with fibromyalgia and 16 healthy controls were recruited in this case control study. HRV was measured using the time-domain method incorporating the following parameters: total heartbeats, the mean of intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals), the standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD), ratio of SDNN to RMSSD (SDNN/RMSSD), and difference between the longest and shortest R-R interval under different three conditions including normal quiet breathing, rate controlled breathing, and Valsalva maneuver. The severity of autonomic symptoms in the group of patients with fibromyalgia was measured by Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale 31 (COMPASS 31). Then we analyzed the difference between the fibromyalgia and control groups and the correlation between the COMPASS 31 and aforementioned HRV parameters in the study groups. Results Patients with fibromyalgia had significantly higher SDNN/RMSSD values under both normal quiet breathing and rate controlled breathing compared to controls. Differences between the longest and shortest R-R interval under Valsalva maneuver were also significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in controls. COMPASS 31 score was negatively correlated with SDNN/RMSSD values under rate controlled breathing. Conclusion SDNN/RMSSD is a valuable parameter for autonomic nervous system function and can be used to quantify subjective autonomic symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27152281

  15. Estimation of heart rate and heart rate variability from pulse oximeter recordings using localized model fitting.

    PubMed

    Wadehn, Federico; Carnal, David; Loeliger, Hans-Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate variability is one of the key parameters for assessing the health status of a subject's cardiovascular system. This paper presents a local model fitting algorithm used for finding single heart beats in photoplethysmogram recordings. The local fit of exponentially decaying cosines of frequencies within the physiological range is used to detect the presence of a heart beat. Using 42 subjects from the CapnoBase database, the average heart rate error was 0.16 BPM and the standard deviation of the absolute estimation error was 0.24 BPM. PMID:26737125

  16. Variable frame rate analysis for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of variable frame rate (VFR) analysis in automatic speech recognition (ASR). First, we review VFR technique and analyze its behavior. It is experimentally shown that VFR improves ASR performance for signals with low signal-to-noise ratios since it generates improved acoustic models and substantially reduces insertion and substitution errors although it may increase deletion errors. It is also underlined that the match between the average frame rate and the number of hidden Markov model states is critical in implementing VFR. Secondly, we analyze an effective VFR method that uses a cumulative, weighted cepstral-distance criterion for frame selection and present a revision for it. Lastly, the revised VFR method is combined with spectral- and cepstral-domain enhancement methods including the minimum statistics noise estimation (MSNE) based spectral subtraction and the cepstral mean subtraction, variance normalization and ARMA filtering (MVA) process. Experiments on the Aurora 2 database justify that VFR is highly complementary to the enhancement methods. Enhancement of speech both facilitates the frame selection in VFR and provides de-noised speech for recognition.

  17. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  18. Heart rate variability (HRV) during virtual reality immersion.

    PubMed

    Malińska, Marzena; Zużewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was assessment of the hour-long training involving handling virtual environment (sVR) and watching a stereoscopic 3D movie on the mechanisms of autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation among the subjects who were not predisposed to motion sickness. In order to exclude predispositions to motion sickness, all the participants (n=19) underwent a Coriolis test. During an exposure to 3D and sVR the ECG signal was continuously recorded using the Holter method. For the twelve consecutive 5-min epochs of ECG signal, the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domains was conducted. After 30 min from the beginning of the training in handling the virtual workstation a significant increase in LF spectral power was noted. The values of the sympathovagal LF/HF index while sVR indicated a significant increase in sympathetic predominance in four time intervals, namely between the 5th and the 10th minute, between the 15th and the 20th minute, between the 35th and 40th minute and between the 55th and the 60th minute of exposure.

  19. Heart rate variability (HRV) during virtual reality immersion

    PubMed Central

    Malińska, Marzena; Zużewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was assessment of the hour-long training involving handling virtual environment (sVR) and watching a stereoscopic 3D movie on the mechanisms of autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation among the subjects who were not predisposed to motion sickness. In order to exclude predispositions to motion sickness, all the participants (n=19) underwent a Coriolis test. During an exposure to 3D and sVR the ECG signal was continuously recorded using the Holter method. For the twelve consecutive 5-min epochs of ECG signal, the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domains was conducted. After 30 min from the beginning of the training in handling the virtual workstation a significant increase in LF spectral power was noted. The values of the sympathovagal LF/HF index while sVR indicated a significant increase in sympathetic predominance in four time intervals, namely between the 5th and the 10th minute, between the 15th and the 20th minute, between the 35th and 40th minute and between the 55th and the 60th minute of exposure. PMID:26327262

  20. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  1. Heart rate variability (HRV) during virtual reality immersion.

    PubMed

    Malińska, Marzena; Zużewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was assessment of the hour-long training involving handling virtual environment (sVR) and watching a stereoscopic 3D movie on the mechanisms of autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation among the subjects who were not predisposed to motion sickness. In order to exclude predispositions to motion sickness, all the participants (n=19) underwent a Coriolis test. During an exposure to 3D and sVR the ECG signal was continuously recorded using the Holter method. For the twelve consecutive 5-min epochs of ECG signal, the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domains was conducted. After 30 min from the beginning of the training in handling the virtual workstation a significant increase in LF spectral power was noted. The values of the sympathovagal LF/HF index while sVR indicated a significant increase in sympathetic predominance in four time intervals, namely between the 5th and the 10th minute, between the 15th and the 20th minute, between the 35th and 40th minute and between the 55th and the 60th minute of exposure. PMID:26327262

  2. High frequency chest compression effects heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong W; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) supplies a sequence of air pulses through a jacket worn by a patient to remove excessive mucus for the treatment or prevention of lung disease patients. The air pulses produced from the pulse generator propagates over the thorax delivering the vibration and compression energy. A number of studies have demonstrated that the HFCC system increases the ability to clear mucus and improves lung function. Few studies have examined the change in instantaneous heart rate (iHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during the HFCC therapy. The purpose of this study is to measure the change of HRV with four experimental protocols: (a) without HFCC, (b) during Inflated, (c)HFCC at 6Hz, and (d) HFCC at 21Hz. The nonlinearity and regularity of HRV was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), a method used to quantify the complexities and randomness. To compute the ApEn, we sectioned with a total of eight epochs and displayed the ApEn over the each epoch. Our results show significant differences in the both the iHR and HRV between the experimental protocols. The iHR was elevated at both the (c) 6Hz and (d) 21Hz condition from without HFCC (10%, 16%, respectively). We also found that the HFCC system tends to increase the HRV. Our study suggests that monitoring iHR and HRV are very important physiological indexes during HFCC therapy.

  3. Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A.; Yu, Cedric X.

    2009-11-01

    Single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) has gained worldwide interest in both research and clinical implementation due to its superior plan quality and delivery efficiency. Single-arc IMAT techniques such as the Varian RapidArc™ deliver conformal dose distributions to the target in one single gantry rotation, resulting in a delivery time in the order of 2 min. The segments in these techniques are evenly distributed within an arc and are allowed to have different monitor unit (MU) weightings. Therefore, a variable dose-rate (VDR) is required for delivery. Because the VDR requirement complicates the control hardware and software of the linear accelerators (linacs) and prevents most existing linacs from delivering IMAT, we propose an alternative planning approach for IMAT using constant dose-rate (CDR) delivery with variable angular spacing. We prove the equivalence by converting VDR-optimized RapidArc plans to CDR plans, where the evenly spaced beams in the VDR plan are redistributed to uneven spacing such that the segments with larger MU weighting occupy a greater angular interval. To minimize perturbation in the optimized dose distribution, the angular deviation of the segments was restricted to <=± 5°. This restriction requires the treatment arc to be broken into multiple sectors such that the local MU fluctuation within each sector is reduced, thereby lowering the angular deviation of the segments during redistribution. The converted CDR plans were delivered with a single gantry sweep as in the VDR plans but each sector was delivered with a different value of CDR. For four patient cases, including two head-and-neck, one brain and one prostate, all CDR plans developed with the variable spacing scheme produced similar dose distributions to the original VDR plans. For plans with complex angular MU distributions, the number of sectors increased up to four in the CDR plans in order to maintain the original plan quality. Since each sector was delivered

  4. Heart rate variability in childhood obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Li; Yung, Tak-Cheung; Ng, Daniel K; Chan, Chung-Hong; Lau, Wing-Fai; Fu, Yu-Ming

    2011-03-01

    The identification of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is important because of morbidities associated with OSA. A previous adult study demonstrated the use of heart rate variability (HRV) as a tool to identify patients with moderate to severe OSA. Either a reduction in time parameters or an increase in LF/HF ratio was seen at overnight or 24-hr studies suggestive of increased sympathetic modulation. To study the feasibility of daytime HRV as a screening tool, a short-term recording of HRV is studied. Since it was shown in adult study that increased normalized LF, decreased normalized HF and increased LF/HF ratio could be detectable during supine rest at daytime awake period, the authors hypothesize that the differences are also detectable in children. Children who underwent sleep polysomnography for suspected OSA were recruited. Subjects were classified OSA if apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 1.5/hr and non-OSA if AHI ≤ 1.5/hr. Continuous 1-hr electrocardiographic monitoring was recorded in awake children during the day. Parameters from time domain and frequency domain were analyzed. Seventy-four male and 17 female snoring subjects were included in this study. Fifty-one (56%) and 40 (44%) of them were classified as "non-OSA" and "OSA," respectively. pNN50, a parameter for parasympathetic modulation, was significantly reduced in the OSA group when compared with the non-OSA group. Using multiple regression, all time domain variables were shown to be decreased in OSA group. Our results suggest that 1-hr study of HRV may be a feasible tool in identifying children with OSA.

  5. Current performance of planter technology to support variable-rate seeding in the Southern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in planting technology are expanding opportunities to vary seeding rates on–the-go. Variable-rate seeding can help maximize overall profits by matching optimal planting rates to field production variability. An important aspect of variable-rate seeding is ensuring peak performance of the pl...

  6. 12 CFR 226.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage transactions subject to RESPA—(1)(i) Time of disclosures. In a... or settlement. (b) Certain variable-rate transactions. 45a If the annual percentage rate may...

  7. 12 CFR 226.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage transactions subject to RESPA—(1)(i) Time of disclosures. In a... or settlement. (b) Certain variable-rate transactions. 45a If the annual percentage rate may...

  8. Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation

  9. Heart Rate Variability in Porcine Progressive Peritonitis-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Jarkovska, Dagmar; Valesova, Lenka; Chvojka, Jiri; Benes, Jan; Sviglerova, Jitka; Florova, Blanka; Nalos, Lukas; Matejovic, Martin; Stengl, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) alterations could serve as an indicator of sepsis progression and outcome, however, the relationships of HRV and major pathophysiological processes of sepsis remain unclear. Therefore, in this experimental study HRV was investigated in a clinically relevant long-term porcine model of severe sepsis/septic shock. HRV was analyzed by several methods and the parameters were correlated with pathophysiological processes of sepsis. In 16 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented domestic pigs of either gender, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis. Experimental subjects were screened up to the refractory shock development or death. ECG was continuously recorded throughout the experiment, afterwards RR intervals were detected and HRV parameters computed automatically using custom made measurement and analysis MATLAB routines. In all septic animals, progressive hyperdynamic septic shock developed. The statistical measures of HRV, geometrical measures of HRV and Poincaré plot analysis revealed a pronounced reduction of HRV that developed quickly upon the onset of sepsis and was maintained throughout the experiment. The frequency domain analysis demonstrated a decrease in the high frequency component and increase in the low frequency component together with an increase of the low/high frequency component ratio. The reduction of HRV parameters preceded sepsis-associated hemodynamic changes including heart rate increase or shock progression. In a clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced progressive septic shock, reduction of HRV parameters heralded sepsis development. HRV reduction was associated with a pronounced parasympathetic inhibition and a shift of sympathovagal balance. Early reduction of HRV may serve as a non-invasive and sensitive marker of systemic inflammatory syndrome, thereby widening the therapeutic window for early interventions. PMID:26779039

  10. Heart Rate Variability and Arrhythmic Burden in Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Witte, C; Meyer Zur Heide Genannt Meyer-Arend, J U; Andrié, R; Schrickel, J W; Hammerstingl, C; Schwab, J O; Nickenig, G; Skowasch, D; Pizarro, C

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that sudden cardiac death constitutes a major cause of mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH). As validated method to evaluate cardiac autonomic system dysfunction, alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) are predictive of arrhythmic events, particularly in left ventricular disease. Here, we sought to determine the clinical value of HRV assessment in PH. Sixty-four patients were allocated to different PH-subgroups in this prospectively conducted trial: 25 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), 11 patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH), and 28 patients with COPD-induced PH. All patients underwent 24-h Holter electrocardiogram for HRV assessment by time- and frequency-domain analysis. Arrhythmic burden was evaluated by manual analysis and complementary automatic measurement of premature atrial and ventricular contractions. The results were compared to 31 healthy controls. The PAH patients offered a significantly higher mean heart rate (78.6 ± 10.4 bpm vs. 70.1 ± 10.3 bpm, p = 0.04), a higher burden of premature ventricular contractions (p < 0.01), and decreases in HRV (SDNN: p < 0.01; SDANN: p < 0.01; very low frequency: p < 0.01; low frequency/high frequency ratio: p < 0.01; total power: p = 0.02). In CTEPH patients, only the amount of premature ventricular contractions differed from controls (p < 0.01), whereas in COPD both premature atrial contraction count and frequency-domain-based HRV manifested significant differences. In conclusion, PAH appears to be primarily affected by HRV alterations and ventricular arrhythmic burden, indicating a high risk for malignant arrhythmic events. PMID:27241509

  11. Effect of Acupuncture on Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Yan, Vincent C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To summarize all relevant trials and critically evaluate the effect of acupuncture on heart rate variability (HRV). Method. This was a systematic review with meta-analysis. Keyword search was conducted in 7 databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data extraction and risk of bias were done. Results. Fourteen included studies showed a decreasing effect of acupuncture on low frequency (LF) and low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) of HRV for nonhealthy subjects and on normalized low frequency (LF norm) for healthy subjects. The overall effect was in favour of the sham/control group for high frequency (HF) in nonhealthy subjects and for normalized high frequency (HF norm) in healthy subjects. Significant decreasing effect on HF and LF/HF ratio of HRV when acupuncture was performed on ST36 among healthy subjects and PC6 among both healthy and nonhealthy subjects, respectively. Discussion. This study partially supports the possible effect of acupuncture in modulating the LF of HRV in both healthy and nonhealthy subjects, while previous review reported that acupuncture did not have any convincing effect on HRV in healthy subjects. More published work is needed in this area to determine if HRV can be an indicator of the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. PMID:24693326

  12. Resting high frequency heart rate variability selectively predicts cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Bret, Amélie G; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial

    2016-10-01

    This study explores whether the vagal connection between the heart and the brain is involved in prosocial behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory postulates that vagal activity underlies prosocial tendencies. Even if several results suggest that vagal activity is associated with prosocial behaviors, none of them used behavioral measures of prosociality to establish this relationship. We recorded the resting state vagal activity (reflected by High Frequency Heart Rate Variability, HF-HRV) of 48 (42 suitale for analysis) healthy human adults and measured their level of cooperation during a hawk-dove game. We also manipulated the consequence of mutual defection in the hawk-dove game (severe vs. moderate). Results show that HF-HRV is positively and linearly related to cooperation level, but only when the consequence of mutual defection is severe (compared to moderate). This supports that i) prosocial behaviors are likely to be underpinned by vagal functioning ii) physiological disposition to cooperate interacts with environmental context. We discuss these results within the theoretical framework of the Polyvagal Theory. PMID:27343804

  13. Nonlinear control of heart rate variability in human infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, G; Allan, W; Sobel, D; Allan, K D

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation greater than or equal to 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation > or = to 27 weeks) where parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A.L., Rigney, D.R. & West, B.J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states. PMID:8637921

  14. Kubios HRV--heart rate variability analysis software.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Mika P; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Lipponen, Jukka A; Ranta-Aho, Perttu O; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2014-01-01

    Kubios HRV is an advanced and easy to use software for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The software supports several input data formats for electrocardiogram (ECG) data and beat-to-beat RR interval data. It includes an adaptive QRS detection algorithm and tools for artifact correction, trend removal and analysis sample selection. The software computes all the commonly used time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters and several nonlinear parameters. There are several adjustable analysis settings through which the analysis methods can be optimized for different data. The ECG derived respiratory frequency is also computed, which is important for reliable interpretation of the analysis results. The analysis results can be saved as an ASCII text file (easy to import into MS Excel or SPSS), Matlab MAT-file, or as a PDF report. The software is easy to use through its compact graphical user interface. The software is available free of charge for Windows and Linux operating systems at http://kubios.uef.fi. PMID:24054542

  15. Kubios HRV--heart rate variability analysis software.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Mika P; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Lipponen, Jukka A; Ranta-Aho, Perttu O; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2014-01-01

    Kubios HRV is an advanced and easy to use software for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The software supports several input data formats for electrocardiogram (ECG) data and beat-to-beat RR interval data. It includes an adaptive QRS detection algorithm and tools for artifact correction, trend removal and analysis sample selection. The software computes all the commonly used time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters and several nonlinear parameters. There are several adjustable analysis settings through which the analysis methods can be optimized for different data. The ECG derived respiratory frequency is also computed, which is important for reliable interpretation of the analysis results. The analysis results can be saved as an ASCII text file (easy to import into MS Excel or SPSS), Matlab MAT-file, or as a PDF report. The software is easy to use through its compact graphical user interface. The software is available free of charge for Windows and Linux operating systems at http://kubios.uef.fi.

  16. Sleep apnea detection using time-delayed heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Nano, Marina-Marinela; Xi Long; Werth, Jan; Aarts, Ronald M; Heusdens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder distinguished by repetitive absence of breathing. Compared with the traditional expensive and cumbersome methods, sleep apnea diagnosis or screening with physiological information that can be easily acquired is needed. This paper describes algorithms using heart rate variability (HRV) to automatically detect sleep apneas as long as it can be easily acquired with unobtrusive sensors. Because the changes in cardiac activity are usually hysteretic than the presence of apneas with a few minutes, we propose to use the delayed HRV features to identify the episodes with sleep apneic events. This is expected to help improve the apnea detection performance. Experiments were conducted with a data set of 23 sleep apnea patients using support vector machine (SVM) classifiers and cross validations. Results show that using eleven HRV features with a time delay of 1.5 minutes rather than the features without time delay for SA detection, the overall accuracy increased from 74.9% to 76.2% and the Cohen's Kappa coefficient increased from 0.49 to 0.52. Further, an accuracy of 94.5% and a Kappa of 0.89 were achieved when applying subject-specific classifiers.

  17. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    PubMed Central

    Chouchou, Florian; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: (1) non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS), characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: (1) the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, (2) differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and (3) the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25565936

  18. Extraction of Heart Rate Variability from Smartphone Photoplethysmograms

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong-Chao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG). In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG) obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2) from PPG were highly correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.001) with those from ECG, and 7 parameters (AVNN, TP, VLF, LF, HF, nLF, and nHF) from PPG were in good agreement with those from ECG within the acceptable limits. In addition, five different algorithms to detect the characteristic points of PPG wave were also investigated: peak point (PP), valley point (VP), maximum first derivative (M1D), maximum second derivative (M2D), and tangent intersection (TI). The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement. PMID:25685174

  19. A systematic review on heart rate variability in Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Stephanie K V; Feeling, Nicole R; Vögele, Claus; Kaess, Michael; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders are associated with alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Among other indices, heart rate variability (HRV) provides a readily available index of ANS function. While ANS dysfunction indexed by HRV in Anorexia Nervosa has been addressed in previous reviews, here we aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in Bulimia Nervosa (BN). A systematic literature search in Web of Science, PsycInfo, Scopus, and PubMed identified 17 studies reporting HRV in patients with BN. Studies described (i) differences in resting state HRV in patients compared to controls, (ii) alterations in the stress response in BN indexed by HRV, and (iii) treatment effects on HRV in patients with BN. Despite a number of conflicting results, we conclude that BN is characterized by increased resting state vagally-mediated HRV and an impaired stress-response. Intervention-studies suggest that altered ANS-activity in BN is at least partially reversible. Future studies on the complex relation between BN and HRV should investigate the effect of comorbid disorders, subtypes of BN, and mechanisms affecting treatment outcome. PMID:26828568

  20. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation <= 27 weeks) where parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A. L., Rigney, D. R. & West, B. J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states.

  1. Resting high frequency heart rate variability selectively predicts cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Bret, Amélie G; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial

    2016-10-01

    This study explores whether the vagal connection between the heart and the brain is involved in prosocial behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory postulates that vagal activity underlies prosocial tendencies. Even if several results suggest that vagal activity is associated with prosocial behaviors, none of them used behavioral measures of prosociality to establish this relationship. We recorded the resting state vagal activity (reflected by High Frequency Heart Rate Variability, HF-HRV) of 48 (42 suitale for analysis) healthy human adults and measured their level of cooperation during a hawk-dove game. We also manipulated the consequence of mutual defection in the hawk-dove game (severe vs. moderate). Results show that HF-HRV is positively and linearly related to cooperation level, but only when the consequence of mutual defection is severe (compared to moderate). This supports that i) prosocial behaviors are likely to be underpinned by vagal functioning ii) physiological disposition to cooperate interacts with environmental context. We discuss these results within the theoretical framework of the Polyvagal Theory.

  2. Effects of different training amplitudes on heart rate and heart rate variability in young rowers.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Marcelo S; Picanço, Luan M; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system recovery and the psychological response as a result of 3 training amplitudes on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in rowing. Eight young rowers (16.8 ± 1.4 years) performed, in a randomized fashion, 2 sessions of high-intensity interval training, with high and low amplitude and a continuous training (CT) session, with the same exercise duration (10 minutes) and mean intensity (60% of maximal stroke test). The data of HR, HRV, and RPE were collected 5 minutes before, immediately after each session, and 24 hours later. High amplitude promoted higher impact in maximum HR (p ≤ 0.05) and RPE (p < 0.001) when compared with CT. For the time domain HRV variable, there was a statistically significant difference between moments of rest (pretraining or post 24 hours) and posttraining in all training sessions. Originally, we conclude that training with higher load variation between effort and recovery impacts HRV, HR, and RPE with greater intensity, but the younger rowers were ready for new training sessions 24 hours after either training method. Coaches can use the polarized training method, observing the stimulus nature and time required for recovery, because it may be an adequate strategy for the development of rower's conditioning. PMID:24736775

  3. Exercise Training Improves Heart Rate Variability after Methamphetamine Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Brett A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A.; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent MD participants with age-matched, drug free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the MD participants. Methods In 50 participants (MD=28; DF=22) resting heart rate (R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency-domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice weekly exercise training (ME=14) or equal attention without training (MC=14) over 8 weeks. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. Results Participant characteristics were matched between groups: age 33±6 years; body mass 82.7±12 kg, BMI 26.8±4.1 kg•min−2, mean±SD. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting heart rate (P<0.05), LFnu, and LF/HF (P<0.001) as well as lower SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50 and HFnu (all P<0.001). At randomization, HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P<0.001) increased SDNN (+14.7±2.0 ms, +34%), RMSSD (+19.6±4.2 ms, +63%), pNN50 (+22.6±2.7%, +173%), HFnu (+14.2±1.9, +60%) and decreased HR (−5.2±1.1 beats·min−1, −7%), LFnu (−9.6±1.5, −16%) and LF/HF (−0.7±0.3, −19%). These measures did not change from baseline in the MC group. Conclusion HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase of HRV representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance. PMID:24162556

  4. LF/(LF+HF) index in ventricular repolarization variability correlated and uncorrelated with heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Altuve, M; Wong, S; Passariello, G; Carrault, G; Hernandez, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, was to asses whether LF/(LF+HF) obtained from ventricular repolarization variability (VRV) reflects the state of sympathovagal balance. The VRV time series and heart rate variability (HRV) time series from seventy two electrocardiogram (ECG) records in four different autonomic nervous system (ANS) profiles (athletes, cardiac transplant patient, heart failure patients and normal subjects) were extracted. A dynamic linear parametric model was applied to separate the VRV in two parts, VRV correlated with HRV (VRV(r)) and VRV uncorrelated with HRV (VRV(u)). Spectral indices were obtained from HRV, VRV, VRV(u) and VRV(u) time series. Changes of these indicators from rest to tilt position were analyzed. Results showed that: i) only LF/(LF+HF) from HRV time series increases significantly from rest to tilt in all ANS profiles, this information could not be retrieved in the other three series (VRV, VRV (u) and VRV(u)) ii) LF/(LF+HF) index in HRV series are significantly different between normal subjects and heart failure patients, while cardiac transplant patients show a low coherence between HRV and VRV power spectra and iii) HF rhythm in VRV series seem to be related to the mechanical effect of respiration.

  5. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Tetschke, Florian; Nowack, Samuel; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Kynass, Isabelle; Bode, Franziska; Tegtmeyer, Janine; Kumm, Kathrin; Moraru, Liviu; Götz, Theresa; Haueisen, Jens; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although HRP analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG), however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are: (i) to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS) approach with that of CTG based Dawes-Redman methodology; and (ii) to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and HRP. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation. In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV) of R2 = 0.200 (coefficient of determination) in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R2 = 0.648 in 30 min recordings, R2 = 0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 min, and R2 = 0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 min. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations (AC) and decelerations (DC) in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R2 = 0.706. According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures. PMID:25505399

  6. 12 CFR 226.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... mortgage and variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage transactions subject to RESPA—(1)(i) Time of... no later than consummation or settlement. (b) Certain variable-rate transactions. 45a If the...

  7. 12 CFR 226.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... mortgage and variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage transactions subject to RESPA—(1)(i) Time of... no later than consummation or settlement. (b) Certain variable-rate transactions. 45a If the...

  8. Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

  9. Hierarchical Structure of Heart Rate Variability in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X. Z.; Ching, E. S. C.; Lin, D. C.

    2004-03-01

    We show a hierarchical structure (HS) of the She-Leveque form in the beat-to-beat RR intervals of heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. This structure, first found as an empirical law in turbulent fluid flows, implies further details in the HRV multifractal scaling. We tested HS using daytime RRi data from healthy subjects and heart diseased patients with congestive heart failure and found a universal law C(b) where b characterizes the multifractality of HRV and C is related to a co-dimension parameter of the most violent events in the fluctuation. The potential of diagnosis is discussed based on the characteristics of this finding. To model the HRV phenomenology, we propose a local-feedback-global-cascade (LFGC) model based on the She-Waymire (SW) cascade solution to the HS in fluid turbulence. This model extends from the previous work in that it integrates additive law multiplicatively into the cascade structure. It is an attempt to relate to the cardiovascular physiology which consists of numerous feedback controls that function primarily on the principle of additive law. In particular, the model is based on the same philosophy as the SW cascade that its multifractal dynamics consists of a singular and a modulating component. In the LFGC model, we introduce local feedback to model the dynamics of the modulating effect. The novelty of our model is to incorporate the cascade structure in the scheduling for the feedback control. This model also represents an alternative solution to the HS. We will present the simulation results by the LFGC model and discuss its implication in physiology terms.

  10. Heart rate variability in familial Mediterranean fever patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hakan; Süner, Arif; Köroğlu, Sedat; Akçay, Ahmet; Türkbeyler, İbrahim Halil; Köleoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease, presenting with the attacks of fever and inflammation of serous membranes. One of the leading causes of death in autoimmune rheumatologic diseases is cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of FMF on the autonomic nerve and cardiovascular systems by measuring the indices of heart rate variability (HRV). Material and Methods Thirty FMF patients and the same number of healthy volunteers were enrolled to the study. Standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN), the square root of the sum of the square of the differences between successive R-R intervals (RMSSD), standard deviation of 5-minute mean values of R-R interval (SDANN), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) were measured. Results Time domain indices (SDNN, SDANN, and RMSSD) were: 124.67±40.79, 129.87±36.43 (p=0.605); 11.43±38.41, 11.23±38.98 (p=0.984); and 33.43±17.39, 38.17±12.8 (p=0.235) for FMF patients and controls, respectively, and similar in both groups. Frequency domain indices (HF, LF, and LF/HF) were: 290.41±290.25, 322.20±222.54 (p=0.639); 596.16±334.07, 805.80±471.00 (p=0.051); and 3.57±2.57, 3.05±1.40 (p=0.338) for FMF patients and controls, respectively, and similar in both groups. Conclusion The HRV parameters were similar in both groups. However, studies including larger populations and using different methods are required to clarify if autonomic dysfunction exists in patients with FMF.

  11. Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction. PMID:26081002

  12. Estimating hydraulic properties of volcanic aquifers using constant-rate and variable-rate aquifer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Gingerich, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the ground-water demand of the population of the island of Maui, Hawaii, has significantly increased. To ensure prudent management of the ground-water resources, an improved understanding of ground-water flow systems is needed. At present, large-scale estimations of aquifer properties are lacking for Maui. Seven analytical methods using constant-rate and variable-rate withdrawals for single wells provide an estimate of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity for 103 wells in central Maui. Methods based on constant-rate tests, although not widely used on Maui, offer reasonable estimates. Step-drawdown tests, which are more abundantly used than other tests, provide similar estimates as constant-rate tests. A numerical model validates the suitability of analytical solutions for step-drawdown tests and additionally provides an estimate of storage parameters. The results show that hydraulic conductivity is log-normally distributed and that for dike-free volcanic rocks it ranges over several orders of magnitude from 1 to 2,500 m/d. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median values of hydraulic conductivity are respectively 520, 280, and 370 m/d for basalt and 80, 50, and 30 m/d for sediment. A geostatistical approach using ordinary kriging yields a prediction of hydraulic conductivity on a larger scale. Overall, the results are in agreement with values published for other Hawaiian islands. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  13. Testing the effect of metabolic rate on DNA variability at the intra-specific level.

    PubMed

    McGaughran, Angela; Holland, Barbara R

    2010-01-01

    We tested the metabolic rate hypothesis (whereby rates of mtDNA evolution are postulated to be mediated primarily by mutagenic by-products of respiration) by examining whether mass-specific metabolic rate was correlated with root-to-tip distance on a set of mtDNA trees for the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus travei from sub-Antarctic Marion Island.Using Bayesian analyses and a novel application of the comparative phylogenetic method, we did not find significant evidence that contemporary metabolic rates directly correlate with mutation rate (i.e., root-to-tip distance) once the underlying phylogeny is taken into account. However, we did find significant evidence that metabolic rate is dependent on the underlying mtDNA tree, or in other words, lineages with related mtDNA also have similar metabolic rates.We anticipate that future analyses which apply this methodology to datasets with longer sequences, more taxa, or greater variability will have more power to detect a significant direct correlation between metabolic rate and mutation rate. We conclude with suggestions for future analyses that would extend the preliminary approach applied here, in particular highlighting ways to tease apart oxidative stress effects from the effects of population size and/or selection coefficients operating on the molecular evolutionary rate. PMID:20300626

  14. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE UNDER-APPRECIATED AND IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND HEART RATE

    PubMed Central

    Monfredi, Oliver; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Johnsen, Anne-Berit; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Heiko; Wang, Ruoxi; Nirmalan, Mahesh; Wisloff, Ulrik; Maltsev, Victor A; Lakatta, Edward G; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (beat-to-beat changes in the RR interval) has attracted considerable attention over the last 30+ years (PubMed currently lists >17,000 publications). Clinically, a decrease in heart rate variability is correlated to higher morbidity and mortality in diverse conditions, from heart disease to foetal distress. It is usually attributed to fluctuation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity. We calculated heart rate variability parameters from a variety of cardiac preparations (including humans, living animals, Langendorff-perfused heart and single sinoatrial nodal cell) in diverse species, combining this with data from previously published papers. We show that regardless of conditions, there is a universal exponential decay-like relationship between heart rate variability and heart rate. Using two biophysical models, we develop a theory for this, and confirm that heart rate variability is primarily dependent on heart rate and cannot be used in any simple way to assess autonomic nerve activity to the heart. We suggest that the correlation between a change in heart rate variability and altered morbidity and mortality is substantially attributable to the concurrent change in heart rate. This calls for re-evaluation of the findings from many papers that have not adjusted properly or at all for heart rate differences when comparing heart rate variability in multiple circumstances. PMID:25225208

  15. Bouts of Responding: The Relation between Bout Rate and the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.; Bennett, J. Adam

    2004-01-01

    By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable- interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of the variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was…

  16. Assessment of pulse rate variability by the method of pulse frequency demodulation

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Junichiro; Barros, Allan Kardec; Kamiya, Atsunori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Yasuma, Fumihiko

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to its easy applicability, pulse wave has been proposed as a surrogate of electrocardiogram (ECG) for the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). However, its smoother waveform precludes accurate measurement of pulse-to-pulse interval by fiducial-point algorithms. Here we report a pulse frequency demodulation (PFDM) technique as a method for extracting instantaneous pulse rate function directly from pulse wave signal and its usefulness for assessing pulse rate variability (PRV). Methods Simulated pulse wave signals with known pulse interval functions and actual pulse wave signals obtained from 30 subjects with a trans-dermal pulse wave device were analyzed by PFDM. The results were compared with heart rate and HRV assessed from simultaneously recorded ECG. Results Analysis of simulated data revealed that the PFDM faithfully demodulates source interval function with preserving the frequency characteristics of the function, even when the intervals fluctuate rapidly over a wide range and when the signals include fluctuations in pulse height and baseline. Analysis of actual data revealed that individual means of low and high frequency components of PRV showed good agreement with those of HRV (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.997 and 0.981, respectively). Conclusion The PFDM of pulse wave signal provides a reliable assessment of PRV. Given the popularity of pulse wave equipments, PFDM may open new ways to the studies of long-term assessment of cardiovascular variability and dynamics. PMID:16259639

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A.

    2007-03-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

  18. Who Uses Physician-Rating Websites? Differences in Sociodemographic Variables, Psychographic Variables, and Health Status of Users and Nonusers of Physician-Rating Websites

    PubMed Central

    Bidmon, Sonja; Röttl, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of physician-rating websites (PRWs) is rising rapidly, but usage is still poor. So far, there has been little discussion about what kind of variables influence usage of PRWs. Objective We focused on sociodemographic variables, psychographic variables, and health status of PRW users and nonusers. Methods An online survey of 1006 randomly selected German patients was conducted in September 2012. We analyzed the patients’ knowledge and use of online PRWs. We also analyzed the impact of sociodemographic variables (gender, age, and education), psychographic variables (eg, feelings toward the Internet, digital literacy), and health status on use or nonuse as well as the judgment of and behavior intentions toward PRWs. The survey instrument was based on existing literature and was guided by several research questions. Results A total of 29.3% (289/986) of the sample knew of a PRW and 26.1% (257/986) had already used a PRW. Younger people were more prone than older ones to use PRWs (t 967=2.27, P=.02). Women used them more than men (χ2 1=9.4, P=.002), the more highly educated more than less educated people (χ2 4=19.7, P=.001), and people with chronic diseases more than people without (χ2 1=5.6, P=.02). No differences were found between users and nonusers in their daily private Internet use and in their use of the Internet for health-related information. Users had more positive feelings about the Internet and other Web-based applications in general (t 489=3.07, P=.002) than nonusers, and they had higher digital literacy (t 520=4.20, P<.001). Users ascribed higher usefulness to PRWs than nonusers (t 612=11.61, P<.001) and users trusted information on PRWs to a greater degree than nonusers (t 559=11.48, P<.001). Users were also more likely to rate a physician on a PRW in the future (t 367=7.63, P<.001) and to use a PRW in the future (t 619=15.01, P<.001). The results of 2 binary logistic regression analyses demonstrated that sociodemographic

  19. Emissions variability processor (EMVAP): design, evaluation, and application.

    PubMed

    Paine, Robert; Szembek, Carlos; Heinold, David; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh

    2014-12-01

    emission rate that would still provide protection for the NAAQS under consideration. This paper reports on the design of EMVAP and its evaluation on several field databases that demonstrate that EMVAP produces a suitably modest overestimation of design concentrations. We also provide an example of an EMVAP application that involves a case in which a new emission limitation needs to be considered for a hypothetical emission unit that has infrequent higher-than-normal SO2 emissions. Implications: Emissions of pollutants from combustion sources can vary widely depending on fuel sulfur content, load, and transient conditions such as startup and shutdown. While monitoring will automatically reflect this variability on measured concentrations, dispersion modeling is typically conducted with a single peak emission rate assumed to occur continuously. To realistically account for emissions variability in addressing probabilistic 1-hr ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NO2, the authors have developed a statistical technique, the Emissions Variability Processor (EMVAP), which can account for emissions variability in dispersion modeling through Monte Carlo sampling from a specified frequency distribution of emission rates.

  20. The effect of heart rate on the heart rate variability response to autonomic interventions.

    PubMed

    Billman, George E

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR) or heart period (R-R interval), has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20) or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9) autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD) and the high frequency (HF) variability (HF, 0.24-1.04 Hz) were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec)(2) for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF) while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation) even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  1. Role of Editing of R–R Intervals in the Analysis of Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Mirja A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods used for editing of the R–R interval time series and how this editing can influence the results of heart rate (HR) variability analyses. Measurement of HR variability from short and long-term electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings is a non-invasive method for evaluating cardiac autonomic regulation. HR variability provides information about the sympathetic-parasympathetic autonomic balance. One important clinical application is the measurement of HR variability in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction. However, HR variability signals extracted from R–R interval time series from ambulatory ECG recordings often contain different amounts of artifact. These false beats can be either of physiological or technical origin. For instance, technical artifact may result from poorly fastened electrodes or be due to motion of the subject. Ectopic beats and atrial fibrillation are examples of physiological artifact. Since ectopic and other false beats are common in the R–R interval time series, they complicate the reliable analysis of HR variability sometimes making it impossible. In conjunction with the increased usage of HR variability analyses, several studies have confirmed the need for different approaches for handling false beats present in the R–R interval time series. The editing process for the R–R interval time series has become an integral part of these analyses. However, the published literature does not contain detailed reviews of editing methods and their impact on HR variability analyses. Several different editing and HR variability signal pre-processing methods have been introduced and tested for the artifact correction. There are several approaches available, i.e., use of methods involving deletion, interpolation or filtering systems. However, these editing methods can have different effects on HR variability measures. The effects of editing are dependent on the study setting, editing method, parameters used

  2. Inverse Correlation between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Demonstrated by Linear and Nonlinear Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Henggui; Aziz, Wajid; Monfredi, Oliver; Abbas, Syed Ali; Shah, Saeed Arif; Kazmi, Syeda Sobia Hassan; Butt, Wasi Haider

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations in the rhythms of biological systems provide valuable information about the underlying functioning of these systems. During the past few decades analysis of cardiac function based on the heart rate variability (HRV; variation in R wave to R wave intervals) has attracted great attention, resulting in more than 17000-publications (PubMed list). However, it is still controversial about the underling mechanisms of HRV. In this study, we performed both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear analysis of HRV data acquired from humans and animals to identify the relationship between HRV and heart rate (HR). The HRV data consists of the following groups: (a) human normal sinus rhythm (n = 72); (b) human congestive heart failure (n = 44); (c) rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC; n = 67); (d) conscious rat (n = 11). In both human and animal data at variant pathological conditions, both linear and nonlinear analysis techniques showed an inverse correlation between HRV and HR, supporting the concept that HRV is dependent on HR, and therefore, HRV cannot be used in an ordinary manner to analyse autonomic nerve activity of a heart. PMID:27336907

  3. Heart rate and heart rate variability modification in chronic insomnia patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Dittoni, Serena; Colicchio, Salvatore; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Gnoni, Valentina; Di Blasi, Chiara; Brunetti, Riccardo; Contardi, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent in the general population, provoking personal distress and increased risk for psychiatric and medical disorders. Autonomic hyper-arousal could be a pathogenic mechanism of chronic primary insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate autonomic activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia by means of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Eighty-five consecutive patients affected by chronic primary insomnia were enrolled (38 men and 47 women; mean age: 53.2 ± 13.6). Patients were compared with a control group composed of 55 healthy participants matched for age and gender (23 men and 32 women; mean age: 54.2 ± 13.9). Patients underwent an insomnia study protocol that included subjective sleep evaluation, psychometric measures, and home-based polysomnography with evaluation of HRV in wake before sleep, in all sleep stages, and in wake after final awakening. Patients showed modifications of heart rate and HRV parameters, consistent with increased sympathetic activity, while awake before sleep and during Stage-2 non-REM sleep. No significant differences between insomniacs and controls could be detected during slow-wave sleep, REM sleep, and post-sleep wake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autonomic hyper-arousal is a major pathogenic mechanism in primary insomnia, and confirm that this condition is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  4. Inverse Correlation between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Demonstrated by Linear and Nonlinear Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Zaki Hassan; Zhang, Henggui; Aziz, Wajid; Monfredi, Oliver; Abbas, Syed Ali; Shah, Saeed Arif; Kazmi, Syeda Sobia Hassan; Butt, Wasi Haider

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations in the rhythms of biological systems provide valuable information about the underlying functioning of these systems. During the past few decades analysis of cardiac function based on the heart rate variability (HRV; variation in R wave to R wave intervals) has attracted great attention, resulting in more than 17000-publications (PubMed list). However, it is still controversial about the underling mechanisms of HRV. In this study, we performed both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear analysis of HRV data acquired from humans and animals to identify the relationship between HRV and heart rate (HR). The HRV data consists of the following groups: (a) human normal sinus rhythm (n = 72); (b) human congestive heart failure (n = 44); (c) rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC; n = 67); (d) conscious rat (n = 11). In both human and animal data at variant pathological conditions, both linear and nonlinear analysis techniques showed an inverse correlation between HRV and HR, supporting the concept that HRV is dependent on HR, and therefore, HRV cannot be used in an ordinary manner to analyse autonomic nerve activity of a heart. PMID:27336907

  5. Variable wavelength selection devices: Physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianyu, Haiqing

    Variable wavelength selection (VWS) achieved by implementing tunability to wavelength discriminating devices has generated great interest in basic science, applied physics, and technology. This thesis focuses on the underlying physics and application of several novel wavelength discriminating devices. Holographical polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) are switchable volume gratings formed by exposing a photopolymerizable monomer and liquid crystal mixture to interfering monochromatic light beams. An HPDLCs wavelength discriminating ability along with its switchability, allow it to be utilized in VWS devices. A novel mode HPDLC, total internal reflection (TIR) HPDLC, has been developed as a wavelength selective filter. The grating planes in this device are tilted so that the diffracted light experiences total internal reflection at the glass-air interface and is trapped in the cell until it eventually escapes from an edge. A VWS device is demonstrated by stacking TIR HPDLCs operating at different wavelengths. Converging or diverging recording beams are employed to fabricate chirped reflection HPDLCs with a pitch gradient along the designated direction, creating chirped switchable reflection gratings (CSRGs). A pixelated version of the CSRG is developed herein, and a dynamic spectral equalizer is presented by combining the pixelated CSRG with a prism (for wavelength discrimination). A switchable circular to point converter (SCPC), which enables the random selection of the wavelength bands divided by the Fabry-Perot interferometer utilizing the controllable beam steering capability of transmission HPDLCs, is demonstrated. A random optical cross-switch (TIROL) can be created by integrating a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a stack of SCPC units. The in-plane electric field generated by the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to elongate the helical pitch of a cholesteric liquid crystal and thereby induces a red shift of the transmission reflection peak

  6. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  7. On the nature of heart rate variability in a breathing normal subject: A stochastic process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Teodor; Petelczyc, Monika; Żebrowski, Jan J.; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Kabat, Marek; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Piotrowska, Anna Justyna; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2009-06-01

    Human heart rate is moderated by the autonomous nervous system acting predominantly through the sinus node (the main cardiac physiological pacemaker). One of the dominant factors that determine the heart rate in physiological conditions is its coupling with the respiratory rhythm. Using the language of stochastic processes, we analyzed both rhythms simultaneously taking the data from polysomnographic recordings of two healthy individuals. Each rhythm was treated as a sum of a deterministic drift term and a diffusion term (Kramers-Moyal expansion). We found that normal heart rate variability may be considered as the result of a bidirectional coupling of two nonlinear oscillators: the heart itself and the respiratory system. On average, the diffusion (noise) component measured is comparable in magnitude to the oscillatory (deterministic) term for both signals investigated. The application of the Kramers-Moyal expansion may be useful for medical diagnostics providing information on the relation between respiration and heart rate variability. This interaction is mediated by the autonomous nervous system, including the baroreflex, and results in a commonly observed phenomenon—respiratory sinus arrhythmia which is typical for normal subjects and often impaired by pathology.

  8. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  9. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Murray, Carien; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardization and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators, and HR normalized HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval, and pNN50 showed significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.03) correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator) added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalized indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%). Thus, HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max) phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value. PMID:24312058

  10. Interaction Between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate in Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Pawłowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Dąbrowski, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is primarily heart rate (HR) dependent, and therefore, different HR may exert different impact on HRV. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of HR on HRV in children and to determine whether HRV indices normalized to HR are sex- and age-related. Methods: Short-term ECG recordings were performed in 346 healthy children. Standard time and frequency domain HRV parameters and HR were analyzed in four age subgroups (6–7, 8–9, 10–11, and 12–13 years old). To investigate the HR impact on HRV, standard HRV parameters were normalized to prevailing HR. Results: Standard HRV measures did not differ between age subgroups, however, HR significantly decreased with subjects age and turned out to be the strongest determinant of HRV. The normalization of HRV to prevailing HR allowed to show that sex-related differences in standard HRV resulted from differences in HR between boys and girls. The normalized HRV significantly decreased with age—before the normalization this effect was masked by age-related HR alterations. Conclusions: HR significantly impacts HRV in pediatric population and turns out to be the strongest determinant of all standard HRV indices. The differences in standard HRV between boys and girls result from differences in their HR. The normalized HRV is decreasing with age in healthy children and it is accompanied by the reduction of HR—as a net result, the standard HRV is constant in children at different ages. This may reflect the maturation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26733878

  11. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  12. Variable rates of evolution among Drosophila opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Carulli, J P; Hartl, D L

    1992-09-01

    DNA sequences and chromosomal locations of four Drosophila pseudoobscura opsin genes were compared with those from Drosophila melanogaster, to determine factors that influence the evolution of multigene families. Although the opsin proteins perform the same primary functions, the comparisons reveal a wide range of evolutionary rates. Amino acid identities for the opsins range from 90% for Rh2 to more than 95% for Rh1 and Rh4. Variation in the rate of synonymous site substitution is especially striking: the major opsin, encoded by the Rh1 locus, differs at only 26.1% of synonymous sites between D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster, while the other opsin loci differ by as much as 39.2% at synonymous sites. Rh3 and Rh4 have similar levels of synonymous nucleotide substitution but significantly different amounts of amino acid replacement. This decoupling of nucleotide substitution and amino acid replacement suggests that different selective pressures are acting on these similar genes. There is significant heterogeneity in base composition and codon usage bias among the opsin genes in both species, but there are no consistent relationships between these factors and the rate of evolution of the opsins. In addition to exhibiting variation in evolutionary rates, the opsin loci in these species reveal rearrangements of chromosome elements.

  13. An integrated crop- and soil-based strategy for variable-rate nitrogen management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Darrin F.

    Nitrogen (N) management in cereal crops has been the subject of considerable research and debate for several decades. Historic N management practices have contributed to low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Low NUE can be caused by such things as poor synchronization between soil N supply and crop demand, uniform application rates of fertilizer N to spatially variable landscapes, and failure to account for temporally variable influences on soil N supply and crop N need. Active canopy reflectance sensors and management zones (MZ) have been studied separately as possible plant- and soil-based N management tools to increase NUE. Recently, some have suggested that the integration of these two approaches would provide a more robust N management strategy that could more effectively account for soil and plant effects on crop N need. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop an N application strategy that would account for spatial variability in soil properties and use active canopy reflectance sensors to determine in-season, on-the-go N fertilizer rates, thereby increasing NUE and economic return for producers over current N management practices. To address this overall goal, a series of studies were conducted to better understand active canopy sensor use and explore the possibility of integrating spatial soil data with active canopy sensors. Sensor placement to assess crop N status was first examined. It was found that the greatest reduction in error over sensing each individual row for a hypothetical 24-row applicator was obtained with 2-3 sensors estimating an average chlorophyll index for the entire boom width. Next, use of active sensor-based soil organic matter (OM) estimation was compared to more conventional aerial image-based soil OM estimation. By adjusting regression intercept values for each field, OM could be predicted using either a single sensor or image data layer. The final study consisted of validation of the active sensor algorithm

  14. Use of a prototype pulse oximeter for time series analysis of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Erika; López, Jehú; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Velázquez, Víctor; Del Moral, Jésica

    2015-05-01

    This work presents the development of a low cost pulse oximeter prototype consisting of pulsed red and infrared commercial LEDs and a broad spectral photodetector used to register time series of heart rate and oxygen saturation of blood. This platform, besides providing these values, like any other pulse oximeter, processes the signals to compute a power spectrum analysis of the patient heart rate variability in real time and, additionally, the device allows access to all raw and analyzed data if databases construction is required or another kind of further analysis is desired. Since the prototype is capable of acquiring data for long periods of time, it is suitable for collecting data in real life activities, enabling the development of future wearable applications.

  15. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-02-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t=0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A Bayesian classification of heart rate variability data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, R. J.; Puff, R. D.

    2004-05-01

    We propose a simple Bayesian method for the classification of time series signals originating from mutually exclusive sources. In particular, the method is used to address the question of whether a 24-h recording of human heart rate data is produced by a normally functioning heart or by one exhibiting symptoms of congestive heart failure. Our method correctly classifies 18 of 18 normal heart data sets, and 38 of 44 congestive failure data sets.

  17. Multiport solid-state imager characterization at variable pixel rates

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.A.; Turko, B.T.

    1993-08-01

    The imaging performance of an 8-port Full Frame Transfer Charge Coupled Device (FFT CCD) as a function of several parameters including pixel clock rate is presented. The device, model CCD- 13, manufactured by English Electric Valve (EEV) is a 512 {times} 512 pixel array designed with four individual programmable bidirectional serial registers and eight output amplifiers permitting simultaneous readout of eight segments (128 horizontal {times} 256 vertical pixels) of the array. The imager was evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High-Speed Solid-State Imager Test Station at true pixel rates as high as 50 MHz for effective imager pixel rates approaching 400 MHz from multiporting. Key response characteristics measured include absolute responsivity, Charge-Transfer-Efficiency (CTE), dynamic range, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and electronic and optical crosstalk among the eight video channels. Preliminary test results and data obtained from the CCD-13 will be presented and the versatility/capabilities of the test station will be reviewed.

  18. Modeling of atmospheric OH reaction rates using newly developed variable distance weighted zero order connectivity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelj, Jernej; Pompe, Matevž

    2016-04-01

    A new variable distance weighted zero order connectivity index was used for development of structure-activity relationship for modeling reactivity of OH radical with alkanes and non-conjugated alkenes in the atmosphere. The proposed model is based on the assumptions that the total reaction rate can be obtained by summing all partial reaction rates and that all reaction sites are interrelated by influencing each other. The results suggest that these assumptions are justified. The model was compared with the EPA implemented model in the studied application domain and showed superior prediction capabilities. Further, optimized values of the weights that were used in our model permit some insight into mechanisms that govern the reaction OH + alkane/alkene. The most important conclusion is that the branching degree of the forming radical seems to play a major role in site specific reaction rates. Relative qualitative structural interpretation is possible, e.g. allylic site is suggested to be much more reactive than even tertiary sp3 carbon. Novel modeling software MACI, which was developed in our lab and is now available for research purposes, was used for calculations. Various variable topological indices that are again starting to be recognized because of their great potentials in simplicity, fast calculations, very good correlations and structural information, were implemented in the program.

  19. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  20. Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Manja; Buskas, Julia; Altimiras, Jordi; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person). That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test. Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could be shown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were tested in four sessions (of 20s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases (1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying resting in a quiet familiar room. A new method of 'stitching' short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis. When testing different stimuli, no significant differences were observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power in low frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarly for all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associated with the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the person or eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympathetic deactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction

  1. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented. PMID:26078960

  2. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  3. 26 CFR 26.2641-1 - Applicable rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Applicable rate of tax. 26.2641-1 Section 26... GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2641-1 Applicable rate of tax. The rate of tax applicable to any GST (applicable rate) is determined by...

  4. Emergence of dynamical complexity related to human heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-12-01

    We apply the refined composite multiscale entropy (MSE) method to a one-dimensional directed small-world network composed of nodes whose states are binary and whose dynamics obey the majority rule. We find that the resulting fluctuating signal becomes dynamically complex. This dynamical complexity is caused (i) by the presence of both short-range connections and long-range shortcuts and (ii) by how well the system can adapt to the noisy environment. By tuning the adaptability of the environment and the long-range shortcuts we can increase or decrease the dynamical complexity, thereby modeling trends found in the MSE of a healthy human heart rate in different physiological states. When the shortcut and adaptability values increase, the complexity in the system dynamics becomes uncorrelated.

  5. 12 CFR 1026.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.19 Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage... disclose all the changed terms no later than consummation or settlement. (b) Certain...

  6. 12 CFR 1026.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.19 Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage... disclose all the changed terms no later than consummation or settlement. (b) Certain...

  7. 12 CFR 1026.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions... (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 1026.19 Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions. (a) Mortgage... disclose all the changed terms no later than consummation or settlement. (b) Certain...

  8. Variable speed pumping: A guide to successful applications - Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This document is the result of a collaboration between the Hydraulic Institute, Europump, and the U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program, and describes the cost and energy savings potential of pumping applications with variable duty requirements.

  9. 44 CFR 61.8 - Applicability of risk premium rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of risk premium... COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.8 Applicability of risk premium rates. Risk premium rates are applicable to all... which the chargeable rates prescribed by this part would exceed the risk premium rates....

  10. Variability in docking success rates due to dataset preparation.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Christopher R; Williams, Christopher I; Labute, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The results of cognate docking with the prepared Astex dataset provided by the organizers of the "Docking and Scoring: A Review of Docking Programs" session at the 241st ACS national meeting are presented. The MOE software with the newly developed GBVI/WSA dG scoring function is used throughout the study. For 80 % of the Astex targets, the MOE docker produces a top-scoring pose within 2 Å of the X-ray structure. For 91 % of the targets a pose within 2 Å of the X-ray structure is produced in the top 30 poses. Docking failures, defined as cases where the top scoring pose is greater than 2 Å from the experimental structure, are shown to be largely due to the absence of bound waters in the source dataset, highlighting the need to include these and other crucial information in future standardized sets. Docking success is shown to depend heavily on data preparation. A "dataset preparation" error of 0.5 kcal/mol is shown to cause fluctuations of over 20 % in docking success rates. PMID:22566074

  11. A new approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transfer rates with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A rational approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transport rates, applicable to many commonly encountered laminar flow conditions with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties, is outlined. The correlation scheme builds upon already available constant property blowing/suction solutions by introducing appropriate correction factors to account for the additional ('pseudo' blowing and source) effects identified with variable properties and thermal diffusion. Applications of the scheme to the particular laminar boundary layer mass transfer problems considered herein (alkali and transition metal compound vapor transport) indicates satisfactory accuracy up to effective blowing factors equivalent to about one third of the 'blow off' value. As a useful by-product of the variable property correlation, we extend the heat-mass transfer analogy, for a wide range of Lewis numbers, to include variable property effects.

  12. Variable stiffness materials for reconfigurable surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Geoff; Henry, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Reconfigurable and morphing structures can potentially provide a range of new functionalities including system optimization over broad operational conditions and multi-mission capability. Previous efforts in morphing surfaces have generally focused on small deformation of high stiffness structural materials (e.g. aluminum, CFRP) or large deformation of low stiffness non-structural materials (e.g. elastomers). This paper introduces a new approach to achieving large strains in materials with high elastic moduli (5 to 30+ GPa). The work centers on creating variable stiffness composite materials which exhibit a controllable change in elastic modulus (bending or axial) and large reversible strains (5-15%). Several prototype materials were prepared using a commercial shape memory polymer, and measurements on these materials indicate a controllable change in stiffness as a function of temperature along with large reversible strain accommodation. We have fabricated and tested several design variations of laminar morphing materials which exhibit structural stiffness values of 8-12 GPa, changes in modulus of 15-77x, and large reversible bending strain and recovery of 2% area change in specific sample types. Results indicate that significant controllable changes in stiffness are possible.

  13. Application of variable metric methods to structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Powell (1977, 1978), Biggs (1972, 1975), and Han (1976, 1977) have developed a class of variable metric methods which create an explicit, quadratic, subproblem which is to be solved for finding a search direction for design improvement. A one-dimensional search is then performed. The present paper has the objective to present this variable metric approach in the context of structural synthesis. The variable metric algorithm is modified for application to the structural synthesis problem. The application of the new procedure is illustrated with the aid of examples, taking into account a 10-bar planar truss, a 17-bar planar tower, and a cantilever beam.

  14. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  15. [Body composition and heart rate variability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pulmonary rehabilitation candidates].

    PubMed

    Curilem Gatica, Cristian; Almagià Flores, Atilio; Yuing Farías, Tuillang; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Body composition is a non-invasive method, which gives us information about the distribution of tissues in the body structure, it is also an indicator of the risk of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heart rate variability is a technique that gives us information of autonomic physiological condition, being recognized as an indicator which is decreased in a number of diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition and heart rate variability. The methodology used is that of Debora Kerr (1988) endorsed by the International Society for advances in Cineantropometría for body composition and heart rate variability of the guidelines described by the American Heart Association (1996). Roscraff equipment, caliper Slimguide and watch Polar RS 800CX was used. , BMI 26.7 ± 3.9 kg / m²; Muscle Mass 26.1 ± 6.3 kg ; Bone Mass 1.3 kg ± 8.1 76 ± 9.9 years Age : 14 candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation patients were evaluated , Adipose mass 16.4 ± 3.6 kg ; FEV1 54 ± 14%. Increased waist circumference and waist hip ratio was associated with a lower overall heart rate variability. The bone component was positively related to the variability of heart rate and patients with higher forced expiratory volume in one second had lower high frequency component in heart rate variability. In these patients, the heart rate variability is reduced globally and is associated with cardiovascular risk parameters.

  16. Conventional heart rate variability analysis of ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings fails to predict imminent ventricular fibrillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vybiral, T.; Glaeser, D. H.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Hess, K. R.; Mietus, J.; Skinner, J. E.; Francis, M.; Pratt, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this report was to study heart rate variability in Holter recordings of patients who experienced ventricular fibrillation during the recording. BACKGROUND. Decreased heart rate variability is recognized as a long-term predictor of overall and arrhythmic death after myocardial infarction. It was therefore postulated that heart rate variability would be lowest when measured immediately before ventricular fibrillation. METHODS. Conventional indexes of heart rate variability were calculated from Holter recordings of 24 patients with structural heart disease who had ventricular fibrillation during monitoring. The control group consisted of 19 patients with coronary artery disease, of comparable age and left ventricular ejection fraction, who had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia but no ventricular fibrillation. RESULTS. Heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups, and no consistent trends in heart rate variability were observed before ventricular fibrillation occurred. CONCLUSIONS. Although conventional heart rate variability is an independent long-term predictor of adverse outcome after myocardial infarction, its clinical utility as a short-term predictor of life-threatening arrhythmias remains to be elucidated.

  17. smRithm: Graphical user interface for heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Nara, Sanjeev; Kaur, Manvinder; Datta, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, Heart rate variability (HRV) has become a non-invasive research and clinical tool for indirectly carrying out investigation of both cardiac and autonomic system function in both healthy and diseased. It provides valuable information about a wide range of cardiovascular disorders, pulmonary diseases, neurological diseases, etc. Its primary purpose is to access the functioning of the nervous system. The source of information for HRV analysis is the continuous beat to beat measurement of inter-beat intervals. The electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is considered as the best way to measure inter-beat intervals. This paper proposes an open source Graphical User Interface (GUI): smRithm developed in MATLAB for HRV analysis that will apply effective techniques on the raw ECG signals to process and decompose it in a simpler manner to obtain more useful information out of signals that can be utilized for more powerful and efficient applications in the near future related to HRV.

  18. Rates of elementary reactions - Measurement and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques used for characterizing elementary chemical reaction kinetics are explored. Flash- or laser-photolysis (FP) involves producing reactive species on the psec time scale and monitoring the changes spectroscopically. In the discharge flow (DF) method, reactive species are produced continuously in a flow of an inert gas containing the reactants. FP avoids surface and transport effects, while DF allows several reactions to be studied in different regions of one flow. Transport and surface boundary layer models are defined for DF calculations and sample calculations are carried out to illustrate the difficulties inherent in theoretically defining the rate constants for elementary reactions. Applications of the models thus far derived in atmospheric science and combustion studies are discussed.

  19. The effect of rate of reinforcement and time in session on preference for variability.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Frances K; Kowal, Benjamin P; Murphy, Eric S

    2003-08-01

    Pigeons pecked keys on concurrent-chains schedules that provided a variable interval 30-sec schedule in the initial link. One terminal link provided reinforcers in a fixed manner; the other provided reinforcers in a variable manner with the same arithmetic mean as the fixed alternative. In Experiment 1, the terminal links provided fixed and variable interval schedules. In Experiment 2, the terminal links provided reinforcers after a fixed or a variable delay following the response that produced them. In Experiment 3, the terminal links provided reinforcers that were fixed or variable in size. Rate of reinforcement was varied by changing the scheduled interreinforcer interval in the terminal link from 5 to 225 sec. The subjects usually preferred the variable option in Experiments 1 and 2 but differed in preference in Experiment 3. The preference for variability was usually stronger for lower (longer terminal links) than for higher (shorter terminal links) rates of reinforcement. Preference did not change systematically with time in the session. Some aspects of these results are inconsistent with explanations for the preference for variability in terms of scaling factors, scalar expectancy theory, risk-sensitive models of optimal foraging theory, and habituation to the reinforcer. Initial-link response rates also changed within sessions when the schedules provided high, but not low, rates of reinforcement. Within-session changes in responding were similar for the two initial links. These similarities imply that habituation to the reinforcer is represented differently in theories of choice than are other variables related to reinforcement.

  20. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  1. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel E; Castro, Mariana N; Dörpinghaus, Andrea; Weidema, Hylke; Cardinali, Daniel P; Siri, Leonardo Nicola; Rovira, Bernardo; Fahrer, Rodolfo D; Nogués, Martín; Leiguarda, Ramón C; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa often have signs of autonomic dysfunction potentially deleterious to the heart. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nonlinear properties of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders. A group of 33 women with eating disorders (14 anorexia, 19 bulimia) and 19 healthy controls were included in the study. Conventional time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability measurements, along with nonlinear heart rate variability measurements including the short-term fractal scaling exponent alpha and approximate entropy (ApEn) were calculated. Anorexia nervosa patients exhibited decreased values of alpha, while bulimia nervosa patients had decreased values of ApEn. Low-frequency heart rate variability was decreased in patients with anorexia. In conclusion, these results are compatible with the view that a more severe alteration of cardiac autonomic function is present in anorexia than in bulimia.

  2. Effects of head-down bed rest on complex heart rate variability: Response to LBNP testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Rigney, David R.; Wood, Margie L.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1994-01-01

    Head-down bed rest is used to model physiological changes during spaceflight. We postulated that bed rest would decrease the degree of complex physiological heart rate variability. We analyzed continuous heart rate data from digitized Holter recordings in eight healthy female volunteers (age 28-34 yr) who underwent a 13-day 6 deg head-down bed rest study with serial lower body negative pressure (LBNP) trials. Heart rate variability was measured on a 4-min data sets using conventional time and frequency domain measures as well as with a new measure of signal 'complexity' (approximate entropy). Data were obtained pre-bed rest (control), during bed rest (day 4 and day 9 or 11), and 2 days post-bed rest (recovery). Tolerance to LBNP was significantly reduced on both bed rest days vs. pre-bed rest. Heart rate variability was assessed at peak LBNP. Heart rate approximate entropy was significantly decreased at day 4 and day 9 or 11, returning toward normal during recovery. Heart rate standard deviation and the ratio of high- to low-power frequency did not change significantly. We conclude that short-term bed rest is associated with a decrease in the complex variability of heart rate during LBNP testing in healthy young adult women. Measurement of heart rate complexity, using a method derived from nonlinear dynamics ('chaos theory'), may provide a sensitive marker of this loss of physiological variability, complementing conventional time and frequency domain statistical measures.

  3. Highly variable spread rates in replicated biological invasions: fundamental limits to predictability.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Brett A; Hastings, Alan

    2009-09-18

    Although mean rates of spread for invasive species have been intensively studied, variance in spread rates has been neglected. Variance in spread rates can be driven exogenously by environmental variability or endogenously by demographic or genetic stochasticity in reproduction, survival, and dispersal. Endogenous variability is likely to be important in spread but has not been studied empirically. We show that endogenously generated variance in spread rates is remarkably high between replicated invasions of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum in laboratory microcosms. The observed variation between replicate invasions cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, which indicates inherent limitations to predictability in even the simplest ecological settings.

  4. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects' body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  5. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects’ body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  6. Wide Variability in Emergency Physician Admission Rates: A Target to Reduce Costs Without Compromising Quality

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Jeffrey J.; Lundberg, Scott R.; Scheib, Geoffrey P.; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G.; Richman, Mark J.; Wang, Chien-Ju; Talan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attending physician judgment is the traditional standard of care for emergency department (ED) admission decisions. The extent to which variability in admission decisions affect cost and quality is not well understood. We sought to determine the impact of variability in admission decisions on cost and quality. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of patients presenting to a university-affiliated, urban ED from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. The main outcome measures were admission rate, fiscal indicators (Medicaid-denied payment days), and quality indicators (15- and 30-day ED returns; delayed hospital admissions). We asked each Attending to estimate their inpatient admission rate and correlated their personal assessment with actual admission rates. Results Admission rates, even after adjusting for known confounders, were highly variable (15.2%–32.0%) and correlated with Medicaid denied-payment day rates (p=0.038). There was no correlation with quality outcome measures (30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission). There was no significant correlation between actual and self-described admission rate; the range of mis-estimation was 0% to 117%. Conclusion Emergency medicine attending admission rates at this institution are highly variable, unexplained by known confounding variables, and unrelated to quality of care, as measured by 30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission. Admission optimization represents an important untapped potential for cost reduction through avoidable hospitalizations, with no apparent adverse effects on quality. PMID:27625720

  7. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. Results The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (±4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. Conclusions The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing. PMID:26391336

  8. Wide Variability in Emergency Physician Admission Rates: A Target to Reduce Costs Without Compromising Quality

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Jeffrey J.; Lundberg, Scott R.; Scheib, Geoffrey P.; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G.; Richman, Mark J.; Wang, Chien-Ju; Talan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attending physician judgment is the traditional standard of care for emergency department (ED) admission decisions. The extent to which variability in admission decisions affect cost and quality is not well understood. We sought to determine the impact of variability in admission decisions on cost and quality. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of patients presenting to a university-affiliated, urban ED from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. The main outcome measures were admission rate, fiscal indicators (Medicaid-denied payment days), and quality indicators (15- and 30-day ED returns; delayed hospital admissions). We asked each Attending to estimate their inpatient admission rate and correlated their personal assessment with actual admission rates. Results Admission rates, even after adjusting for known confounders, were highly variable (15.2%–32.0%) and correlated with Medicaid denied-payment day rates (p=0.038). There was no correlation with quality outcome measures (30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission). There was no significant correlation between actual and self-described admission rate; the range of mis-estimation was 0% to 117%. Conclusion Emergency medicine attending admission rates at this institution are highly variable, unexplained by known confounding variables, and unrelated to quality of care, as measured by 30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission. Admission optimization represents an important untapped potential for cost reduction through avoidable hospitalizations, with no apparent adverse effects on quality.

  9. Effects of propellant composition variables on acceleration-induced burning-rate augmentation of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    This work was conducted to define further the effects of propellant composition variables on the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation of solid propellants. The rate augmentation at a given acceleration was found to be a nonlinear inverse function of the reference burning rate and not controlled by binder or catalyst type at a given reference rate. A nonaluminized propellant and a low rate double-base propellant exhibited strong transient rate augmentation due to surface pitting resulting from the retention of hot particles on the propellant surface.

  10. Burn rate variability requirements for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, S. S.; Jordan, F. W.; Stockham, L. W.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) for the Space Shuttle has exceptionally stringent burn rate requirements. These requirements are indirectly expressed in specifications on thrust versus time trace shape and on thrust imbalance during flight for a pair of motors in a flight set. To translate these specifications into burn rate variability requirements, a series of studies was performed in which the burn rate was varied in several different ways. First, motor mean burn rate was varied in an ASRM model, and the resulting thrust imbalance calculated between that motor and a nominal motor. The burn rate was iterated until the thrust imbalance reached the specification limit, establishing the maximum allowed motor mean burn rate difference between motors of a flight set. In two related studies, individual segment burn rates and longitudinal burn rate functions were varied to determine their effect on individual motor thrust and on motor pair thrust imbalance. As a result of these analyses, an allowable 3 sigma motor mean burn rate variability of 0.62 percent, and an allowable 3 sigma localized (segment or smaller) burn rate variability of 2.0 percent have been established. These two burn rate limits provide guidance for manufacturing process control and assure meeting ASRM flight performance objectives.

  11. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  12. A knitted garment using intarsia technique for Heart Rate Variability biofeedback: Evaluation of initial prototype.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, F; Ji, G; Lu, K; Rödby, K; Seoane, F

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is a method based on paced breathing at specific rate called resonance frequency by giving online feedbacks from user respiration and its effect on HRV. Since the HRV is also influence by different factors like stress and emotions, stress related to an unfamiliar measurement device, cables and skin electrodes may cover the underling effect of such kind of intervention. Wearable systems are usually considered as intuitive solutions which are more familiar to the end-user and can help to improve usability and hence reducing the stress. In this work, a prototype of a knitted garment using intarsia technique is developed and evaluated. Results show the satisfactory level of quality for Electrocardiogram and thoracic electrical bioimpedance i.e. for respiration monitoring as a part of HRV biofeedback system. Using intarsia technique and conductive yarn for making the connection instead of cables will reduce the complexity of fabrication in textile production and hence reduce the final costs in a final commercial product. Further development of garment and Android application is ongoing and usability and efficiency of final prototype will be evaluated in detail.

  13. ATMS Snowfall Rate Product and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, H.; Kongoli, C.; Dong, J.; Wang, N. Y.; Ferraro, R. R.; Zavodsky, B.; Banghua Yan, B.

    2015-12-01

    A snowfall rate (SFR) algorithm has been developed for the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) aboard S-NPP and future JPSS satellites. The product is based on the NOAA/NESDIS operational Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) SFR but with several key advancements. The algorithm has benefited from continuous development to improve accuracy and snowfall detection efficiency. The enhancements also expand the applicable temperature range for the algorithm and allow significantly more snowfall to be detected than the operational SFR. Another major improvement is the drastically reduced product latency by using Direct Broadcast (DB) data. The new developments have also been implemented in the MHS SFR to ensure product consistency across satellites. Currently, there are five satellites that carry either ATMS or MHS: S-NPP, NOAA-18/-19 and Metop-A/-B. The combined satellites deliver up to ten SFR estimates a day at any location over land in mid-latitudes. The product provides much needed winter precipitation estimates for applications such as weather forecasting and hydrology. Both ATMS and MHS SFR serve as input to a global precipitation analysis product, the NOAA/NCEP CMORPH-Snow. SFR is the sole satellite-based snowfall estimates in the blended product. In addition, ATMS and MHS SFR was assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and NESDIS/Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) for its operational values in winter 2015. This is a joint effort among NASA/SPoRT, NOAA/NESDIS, University of Maryland/CICS, and the WFOs. The feedback from the assessment indicated that SFR provides useful information for snowfall forecast. It is especially valuable for areas with poor radar coverage and ground observations. The feedback also identified some limitations of the product such as inadequate detection of shallow snowfall. The algorithm developers will continue to improve product quality as well as developing SFR for new microwave sensors and over ocean in a project

  14. [Clinical and diagnostic value of heart rate variabilities in workers exposed to noise and vibration].

    PubMed

    Serebriakov, P V; Melent'ev, A V; Demina, I D

    2010-01-01

    Noise and vibration cause disorders of vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system. Daily ECG monitoring with heart rate variabilities analysis enables quanitative evaluation of disordered vegetative control over heart rate and diagnosis of cardioneuropathy caused by long occupational exposure to noise and vibration. PMID:20857555

  15. [Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].

    PubMed

    Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

    1995-11-01

    The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates. PMID:8745997

  16. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  17. [Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].

    PubMed

    Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

    1995-11-01

    The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates.

  18. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV. PMID:26279313

  19. Cooled variable nozzle radial turbine for rotor craft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, small 2.27 kb/sec (5 lbs/sec), high temperature, variable area radial turbine was studied for a rotor craft application. Variable capacity cycles including single-shaft and free-turbine engine configurations were analyzed to define an optimum engine design configuration. Parametric optimizations were made on cooled and uncooled rotor configurations. A detailed structural and heat transfer analysis was conducted to provide a 4000-hour life HP turbine with material properties of the 1988 time frame. A pivoted vane and a moveable sidewall geometry were analyzed. Cooling and variable geometry penalties were included in the cycle analysis. A variable geometry free-turbine engine configuration with a design 1477K (2200 F) inlet temperature and a compressor pressure ratio of 16:1 was selected. An uncooled HP radial turbine rotor with a moveable sidewall nozzle showed the highest performance potential for a time weighted duty cycle.

  20. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L.; Brink, Carsten

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Elekta accelerators controlled by the current clinically used accelerator control system, Desktop 7.01 (D7), uses binned variable dose rate (BVDR) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The next version of the treatment control system (Integrity) supports continuously variable dose rate (CVDR) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency, and dosimetric accuracy between the two systems were investigated. Methods: Single parameter tests were designed to expose differences in the way the two systems control the movements of the accelerator. In these tests, either the jaws, multi leaf collimators (MLCs), or gantry moved at constant speed while the dose rate was changed in discrete steps. The positional errors of the moving component and dose rate were recorded using the control systems with a sampling frequency of 4 Hz. The clinical applicability of Integrity was tested using 15 clinically used VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5 H and N, and 5 lung) generated by the SmartArc algorithm in PINNACLE. The treatment time was measured from beam-on to beam-off and the accuracy of the dose delivery was assessed by comparing DELTA4 measurements and PINNACLE calculated doses using gamma evaluation. Results: The single parameter tests showed that Integrity had an improved feedback between gantry motion and dose rate at the slight expense of MLC control compared to D7. The single parameter test did not reveal any significant differences in the control of either jaws or backup jaws between the two systems. These differences in gantry and MLC control together with the use of CVDR gives a smoother Integrity VMAT delivery compared to D7 with less abrupt changes in accelerator motion. Gamma evaluation (2% of 2 Gy and 2 mm) of the

  1. Associations between Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Housing- and Individual-Related Variables in Dairy Cows Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bakony, Mikolt; Hufnágel, Levente; Tőzsér, János; Jurkovich, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and some housing- and individual-related variables using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCOA) method in lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. We collected a total of 5200 5-min interbeat interval (IBI) samples from 260 animals on five commercial dairy farms [smaller-scale farms with 70 (Farm 1, n = 50) and 80 cows per farm (Farm 2, n = 40), and larger-scale farms with 850 (Farm 3, n = 66), 1900 (Farm 4, n = 60) and 1200 (Farm 5, n = 45) cows. Dependent variables included HRV parameters, which reflect the activity of the autonomic nervous system: heart rate (HR), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in IBIs, the standard deviation 1 (SD1), the high frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and the HF parameter (LF/HF). Explanatory variables were group size, space allowance, milking frequency, parity, daily milk yield, body condition score, locomotion score, farm, season and physical activity (lying, lying and rumination, standing, standing and rumination and feeding). Physical activity involved in standing, feeding and in rumination was associated with HRV parameters, indicating a decreasing sympathetic and an increasing vagal tone in the following order: feeding, standing, standing and rumination, lying and rumination, lying. Objects representing summer positioned close to HR and LF and far from SD1, RMSSD and HF indicate a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity. Objects representing autumn, spring and winter associated with increasing vagal activity, in this order. Time-domain measures of HRV were associated with most of the housing- and individual-related explanatory variables. Higher HR and lower RMSSD and SD1 were associated with higher group size, milking frequency, parity and milk yield, and low space allowance. Higher parity and milk yield were associated with higher sympathetic activity as well (higher LF

  2. Associations between Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Housing- and Individual-Related Variables in Dairy Cows Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Bakony, Mikolt; Hufnágel, Levente; Tőzsér, János; Jurkovich, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and some housing- and individual-related variables using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCOA) method in lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. We collected a total of 5200 5-min interbeat interval (IBI) samples from 260 animals on five commercial dairy farms [smaller-scale farms with 70 (Farm 1, n = 50) and 80 cows per farm (Farm 2, n = 40), and larger-scale farms with 850 (Farm 3, n = 66), 1900 (Farm 4, n = 60) and 1200 (Farm 5, n = 45) cows. Dependent variables included HRV parameters, which reflect the activity of the autonomic nervous system: heart rate (HR), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in IBIs, the standard deviation 1 (SD1), the high frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and the HF parameter (LF/HF). Explanatory variables were group size, space allowance, milking frequency, parity, daily milk yield, body condition score, locomotion score, farm, season and physical activity (lying, lying and rumination, standing, standing and rumination and feeding). Physical activity involved in standing, feeding and in rumination was associated with HRV parameters, indicating a decreasing sympathetic and an increasing vagal tone in the following order: feeding, standing, standing and rumination, lying and rumination, lying. Objects representing summer positioned close to HR and LF and far from SD1, RMSSD and HF indicate a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity. Objects representing autumn, spring and winter associated with increasing vagal activity, in this order. Time-domain measures of HRV were associated with most of the housing- and individual-related explanatory variables. Higher HR and lower RMSSD and SD1 were associated with higher group size, milking frequency, parity and milk yield, and low space allowance. Higher parity and milk yield were associated with higher sympathetic activity as well (higher LF

  3. Heart rate variability in 1-day-old infants born at 4330 m altitude.

    PubMed

    Mortola, J P; León-Velarde, F; Aguero, L; Frappell, P B

    1999-02-01

    In fetuses and newborn infants heart rate variability changes in conditions of acute and chronic hypoxia; we therefore asked whether heart rate variability of infants born at high altitude differed from that of low-altitude infants. Short-term recordings (4-5 min) of inter-beat intervals were obtained in 19 infants in Lima (50 m altitude) and in 15 infants in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m, barometric pressure approximately 450 mmHg, inspired oxygen pressure approximately 94 mmHg) during quiet rest in warm conditions (ambient temperature, Ta, approximately 35 degrees C). In 12 infants from each group recordings were also obtained during cooling (Ta approximately 26 degrees C). Heart rate variability was evaluated from 512 consecutive inter-beat intervals, with analysis based on time-domain and frequency-domain methods. At warm Ta, heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups. During cooling, heart rate increased only in the low-altitude group. As in the warm, during cooling most parameters of heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups. The only exception was the inter-beat interval power of the high-frequency range of the spectrum (0.15-0.4 Hz), which, at least in adults, is believed to be a reflection of vagal activity, and was greater in the high-altitude group. It is concluded that gestation at high altitude, despite its blunting effects on fetal growth, does not have a major impact on heart rate variability of the newborn. Nevertheless, the possibility that differences in response to cooling may reflect some limitation in heart rate control needs to be examined further.

  4. Spatial Variability in Biodegradation Rates as Evidenced by Methane Production from an Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Neal R.; Robinson, Joseph A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate predictions of carbon and energy cycling rates in the environment depend on sampling frequencies and on the spatial variability associated with biological activities. We examined the variability associated with anaerobic biodegradation rates at two sites in an alluvial sand aquifer polluted by municipal landfill leachate. In situ rates of methane production were measured for almost a year, using anaerobic wells installed at two sites. Methane production ranged from 0 to 560 μmol · m-2 · day-1 at one site (A), while a range of 0 to 120,000 μmol · m-2 · day-1 was measured at site B. The mean and standard deviations associated with methane production at site A were 17 and 57 μmol · m-2 · day-1, respectively. The comparable summary statistics for site B were 2,000 and 9,900 μmol · m-2 · day-1. The coefficients of variation at sites A and B were 340 and 490%, respectively. Despite these differences, the two sites had similar seasonal trends, with the maximal rate of methane production occurring in summer. However, the relative variability associated with the seasonal rates changed very little. Our results suggest that (i) two spatially distinct sites exist in the aquifer, (ii) methanogenesis is a highly variable process, (iii) the coefficient of variation varied little with the rate of methane production, and (iv) in situ anaerobic biodegradation rates are lognormally distributed. PMID:16349410

  5. Effect of flow rate on environmental variables and phytoplankton dynamics: results from field enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiping; Chen, Ruihong; Li, Feipeng; Chen, Ling

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of flow rate on phytoplankton dynamics and related environment variables, a set of enclosure experiments with different flow rates were conducted in an artificial lake. We monitored nutrients, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorophyll- a and phytoplankton levels. The lower biomass in all flowing enclosures showed that flow rate significantly inhibited the growth of phytoplankton. A critical flow rate occurred near 0.06 m/s, which was the lowest relative inhibitory rate. Changes in flow conditions affected algal competition for light, resulting in a dramatic shift in phytoplankton composition, from blue-green algae in still waters to green algae in flowing conditions. These findings indicate that critical flow rate can be useful in developing methods to reduce algal bloom occurrence. However, flow rate significantly enhanced the inter-relationships among environmental variables, in particular by inducing higher water turbidity and vegetative reproduction of periphyton ( Spirogyra). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in underwater light intensity, which consequently inhibited the photosynthetic intensity of phytoplankton. These results warn that a universal critical flow rate might not exist, because the effect of flow rate on phytoplankton is interlinked with many other environmental variables.

  6. Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Zabala, Mikel; Morales, Esther; Mateo-March, Manuel; Sanabria, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relation between cognitive performance and heart rate variability as a function of fitness level. We measured the effect of three cognitive tasks (the psychomotor vigilance task, a temporal orienting task, and a duration discrimination task) on the heart rate variability of two groups of participants: a high-fit group and a low-fit group. Two major novel findings emerged from this study. First, the lowest values of heart rate variability were found during performance of the duration discrimination task, compared to the other two tasks. Second, the results showed a decrement in heart rate variability as a function of the time on task, although only in the low-fit group. Moreover, the high-fit group showed overall faster reaction times than the low-fit group in the psychomotor vigilance task, while there were not significant differences in performance between the two groups of participants in the other two cognitive tasks. In sum, our results highlighted the influence of cognitive processing on heart rate variability. Importantly, both behavioral and physiological results suggested that the main benefit obtained as a result of fitness level appeared to be associated with processes involving sustained attention. PMID:23437276

  7. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  8. Short-term Heart Rate Turbulence Analysis Versus Variability and Baroreceptor Sensitivity in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy1

    PubMed Central

    Bauernschmitt, Robert; Meyerfeldt, Udo; Schirdewan, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    New methods for the analysis of arrhythmias and their hemodynamic consequences have been applied in risk stratification, in particular to patients after myocardial infarction. This study investigates the suitability of short-term heart rate turbulence (HRT) analysis in comparison to heart rate and blood pressure variability as well as baroreceptor sensitivity analyses to characterise the regulatory differences between patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and healthy controls. In this study, 30 minutes data of non-invasive continuous blood pressure and ECGs of 37 DCM patients and 167 controls measured under standard resting conditions were analysed. The results show highly significant differences between DCM patients and controls in heart rate and blood pressure variability as well as in baroreceptor sensitivity parameters. Applying a combined heart rate-blood pressure trigger, ventricular premature beats were detected in 24.3% (9) of the DCM patients and 11.3% (19) of the controls. This fact demonstrates the limited applicability of short-term HRT analyses. However, the HRT parameters showed significant differences in this subgroup with ventricular premature beats (turbulence onset: DCM: 1.80±2.72, controls: - 4.34±3.10, p<0.001; turbulence slope: DCM: 6.75±5.50, controls: 21.30±17.72, p=0.021). Considering all (including HRT) parameters in the subgroup with ventricular beats, a discrimination rate between DCM patients and controls of 88.0% was obtained (max. 6 parameters). The corresponding value obtained for the total group was 86.3% (without HRT parameters). Comparable classification rates and high correlations between heart rate turbulence and variability and baroreflex parameters point to a more universal applicability of the latter methods. PMID:16943930

  9. 77 FR 74231 - Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and.... Applicants: Hatteras Variable Trust (``Trust'') and Hatteras Alternative Mutual Funds (``Hatteras... account supporting variable life insurance contracts (``VLI Accounts'') holds shares of an...

  10. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example--generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently--with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications. PMID:22225213

  11. Determining the causes of fault slip rate variability for Northern Apennine thrusts on intermediate timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, K. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Documenting fault slip rate variability on intermediate (10^4-10^5 yr) timescales is crucial for understanding the process-linkages of short-term (10^1-10^3 yr) and long-term (10^6 yr) patterns of deformation; however, the lack of long records of fault slip with 10^4-10^5 yr resolution presents a major barrier to understanding the underlying process responsible for slip rate variability at those timescales. Taking advantage of spectacular, continuous exposure of growth strata, we document 10^4-10^5 yr resolution records of unsteady fault slip for the past 3.0 myr for three unconnected, shallow blind thrust anticlines growing along the Northern Apennine mountain front, Italy. Fault slip rates for these thrusts were determined from progressive restorations of marine and continental growth strata deposited on the anticlinal limbs. These restorations were supported by subsurface corre-lations of the measured growth sections in order to constrain the fold geometries and kin-ematics. Magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) burial dating, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) burial dating provided the high-resolution age models for the growth sections. Slip histories determined from our pro-gressive restorations indicate that all three of the thrust faults exhibited high-frequency slip rate variability. This variability is typically manifest by longer periods of decelerated fault slip punctuated by shorter periods of accelerated fault slip, typically lasting between 80-200 kyr. During times when slip rates were slow, growth strata geometries show ac-celerated slip was accommodated by more foreland structures, suggesting slip partitioning at 10^4-10^5 yr timescales. This high frequency variability is superimposed on a low frequency slip rate variability manifest by an overall deceleration in slip on the shallow thrusts since 3.0 myr. Major decelerations in slip rates were coincident with the activation of thick-skinned thrusting in the

  12. 75 FR 11585 - Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust, et al.; Notice of Application March 5, 2010. AGENCY...: Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust (``Trust'') and Lincoln Investment Advisors Corporation... Companies'') as the underlying investment vehicles for the variable life insurance and variable...

  13. Heart rate and blood pressure variability in cardiac diseases: pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Cloarec-Blanchard, L

    1997-01-01

    Even at rest, blood pressure and heart fluctuate continuously around their mean values. Considerable interest has recently focused on the assessment of spontaneous in fluctuations in heart rate and blood pressure, i.e., heart rate and blood pressure variability, using time or frequency domain indexes. Heart rate variability has been extensively studied in cardiovascular disease and has emerged as a valuable parameter for detecting abnormalities in autonomic cardiovascular control, evaluating the prognosis and assessing the impact of drug therapy on the autonomic nervous system in patients with myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or a heart transplant. In contrast, until the recent development of noninvasive methods for continuous blood pressure recording, blood pressure variability received little attention, and this parameter remains to be evaluated in cardiovascular disease.

  14. A guideline for the use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion in medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    George, S; Dale, J; Stanisstreet, D

    2015-06-01

    The present paper summarizes the key recommendations in a recent publication produced by the Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care on the use of variable rate i.v. insulin infusion in 'medical' inpatients. The full guideline is available at http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS/JBDS_IP_VRIII.pdf and is designed to be a practical guide that can used by any healthcare professional who manages medical inpatients with hyperglycaemia. Its main aim is to allow variable rate i.v. insulin infusion to be used safely, effectively and efficiently for this specific group of inpatients.

  15. Ablation of swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia affects heart rate variability: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Rintaro; Fukamizu, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tae; Hayashi, Takekuni; Komiyama, Kota; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Tejima, Tamotsu; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2014-05-01

    A 47-year-old man underwent slow pathway ablation for slow-fast atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Following the procedure, he felt palpitations while swallowing, and swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia was diagnosed. Swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia arose from the right atrium-superior vena cava junction and was cured by catheter ablation. After the procedure, the patient's heart rate variability changed significantly, indicating suppression of parasympathetic nerve activity. In this case, swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia was related to the vagal nerve reflex. Analysis of heart rate variability may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia.

  16. Enhancing angular sampling rate of integral floating display using dynamically variable apertures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jisoo; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2012-04-23

    Two novel methods are proposed which enhance the angular sampling rate of the integral floating display by adopting dynamically variable apertures in front of the lenslet array or the floating lens. Adopted dynamically variable apertures are opened sequentially in synchronization with proper elemental images to subdivide the angular sampling step by time-multiplexing method. Our proposed method can enhance the angular sampling rate, which is related to an expressible longitudinal range, without sacrificing other visual quality factors in tradeoff relationship. Especially, our proposed method with apertures on the floating lens provides two-dimensional/three-dimensional convertible feature to integral floating display system.

  17. Automatic detection and quantification of sleep apnea using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Babaeizadeh, Saeed; White, David P; Pittman, Stephen D; Zhou, Sophia H

    2010-01-01

    Detection of sleep apnea using electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters is noninvasive and inexpensive. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that the patient's sleep-wake cycle during episodes of sleep apnea modulates heart rate (HR) oscillations. These HR oscillations appear as low-frequency fluctuations of instantaneous HR (IHR) and can be detected using HR variability analysis in the frequency domain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our ECG-based algorithm for sleep apnea detection and quantification. The algorithm first detects normal QRS complexes and R-R intervals used to derive IHR and to estimate its spectral power in several frequency ranges. A quadratic classifier, trained on the learning set, uses 2 parameters to classify the 1-minute epoch in the middle of each 6-minute window as either apneic or normal. The windows are advanced by 1-minute steps, and the classification process is repeated. As a measure of quantification, the algorithm correctly classified 84.7% of all the 1-minute epochs in the evaluation database; and as a measure of the accuracy of apnea classification, the algorithm correctly classified all 30 test recordings in the evaluation database either as apneic or normal. Our sleep apnea detection algorithm based on analysis of a single-lead ECG provides accurate apnea detection and quantification. Because of its noninvasive and low-cost nature, this algorithm has the potential for numerous applications in sleep medicine.

  18. Quantifying variable erosion rates to understand the coupling of surface processes in the Teton Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranel, Lisa M.; Spotila, James A.; Binnie, Steven A.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term geomorphic processes (fluvial, glacial, and hillslope erosion) and long-term exhumation control transient alpine landscapes. Long-term measurements of exhumation are not sufficient to capture the processes driving transient responses associated with short-term climatic oscillations, because of high variability of individual processes across space and time. This study compares the efficacy of different erosional agents to assess the importance of variability in tectonically active landscapes responding to fluctuations in Quaternary climate. We focus on the Teton Range, where erosional mechanisms include hillslope, glacial, and fluvial processes. Erosion rates were quantified using sediment accumulation and cosmogenic dating (bedrock and stream sediments). Results show that rates of erosion are highly variable, with average short-term rockfall rates (0.8 mm/y) occurring faster than either apparent basin-averaged (0.2 mm/y) and long-term ridge erosion rates (0.02 mm/y). Examining erosion rates separately also demonstrates the coupling between glacial, fluvial, and hillslope processes. Apparent basin-averaged erosion rates amalgamate valley wall and ridge erosion with stream and glacial rates. Climate oscillations drive the short-term response of a single erosional process (e.g., rockfalls or other mass wasting) that may enhance or limit the erosional efficiency of other processes (glacial or fluvial). While the Teton landscape may approach long-term equilibrium, stochastic processes and rapid response to short-term climate change actively perpetuate the transient ruggedness of the topography.

  19. A variable inductor for power applications using coupled circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Lashine, A.E. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a variable inductor suitable for power system applications is presented. The inductor variation is based on varying the number of turns in a secondary circuit using triac switches. Unlike thyristor-controlled reactors, the inductance of the proposed reactor is varied in steps but without causing distortion in the inductor current. Mathematical expression for the effective impedance of the reactor is developed. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally using a test model.

  20. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  1. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  2. Heart rate variability during "alarm stage" of burnout syndrome in emergency doctors.

    PubMed

    Kotov, A V; Revina, N E

    2012-09-01

    The parameters of heart rate variations were examined in emergency care doctors that demonstrated the initial signs of defensive psychological burnout syndrome related to their professional activity. These parameters were compared within each of two groups with different individual typological features. The differences in the heart rate variability parameters were revealed between the examinees that were at the compensation or alarm stages of the burnout syndrome.

  3. The Successful E-Rate Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The E-rate regulations are complex, and the guidance and rules seem to change each year. There are many deadlines stakeholders need to know about and compliance issues that are important to understand. In this article, the author presents a few quick tips that should help with this process.

  4. Estimation of heart rate variability using a compact radiofrequency motion sensor.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norihiro; Matsuoka, Narumi; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Homma, Noriyasu; Otake, Hideharu; Kim, Junghyun; Ohtaki, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Physiological indices that reflect autonomic nervous activity are considered useful for monitoring peoples' health on a daily basis. A number of such indices are derived from heart rate variability, which is obtained by a radiofrequency (RF) motion sensor without making physical contact with the user's body. However, the bulkiness of RF motion sensors used in previous studies makes them unsuitable for home use. In this study, a new method to measure heart rate variability using a compact RF motion sensor that is sufficiently small to fit in a user's shirt pocket is proposed. To extract a heart rate related component from the sensor signal, an algorithm that optimizes a digital filter based on the power spectral density of the signal is proposed. The signals of the RF motion sensor were measured for 29 subjects during the resting state and their heart rate variability was estimated from the measured signals using the proposed method and a conventional method. A correlation coefficient between true heart rate and heart rate estimated from the proposed method was 0.69. Further, the experimental results showed the viability of the RF sensor for monitoring autonomic nervous activity. However, some improvements such as controlling the direction of sensing were necessary for stable measurement.

  5. Estimation of heart rate variability using a compact radiofrequency motion sensor.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norihiro; Matsuoka, Narumi; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Homma, Noriyasu; Otake, Hideharu; Kim, Junghyun; Ohtaki, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Physiological indices that reflect autonomic nervous activity are considered useful for monitoring peoples' health on a daily basis. A number of such indices are derived from heart rate variability, which is obtained by a radiofrequency (RF) motion sensor without making physical contact with the user's body. However, the bulkiness of RF motion sensors used in previous studies makes them unsuitable for home use. In this study, a new method to measure heart rate variability using a compact RF motion sensor that is sufficiently small to fit in a user's shirt pocket is proposed. To extract a heart rate related component from the sensor signal, an algorithm that optimizes a digital filter based on the power spectral density of the signal is proposed. The signals of the RF motion sensor were measured for 29 subjects during the resting state and their heart rate variability was estimated from the measured signals using the proposed method and a conventional method. A correlation coefficient between true heart rate and heart rate estimated from the proposed method was 0.69. Further, the experimental results showed the viability of the RF sensor for monitoring autonomic nervous activity. However, some improvements such as controlling the direction of sensing were necessary for stable measurement. PMID:26603507

  6. Heart rate variability and particulate exposure in vehicle maintenance workers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Rosenthal, Frank S

    2004-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure to PM(2.5) and heart rate variability was investigated in a repeated measures, longitudinal study of vehicle maintenance workers occupationally exposed to automobile emissions. Five subjects were monitored for occupational exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on 6 workdays using an aerosol photometer, validated with side-by-side sampling with a gravimetric method. End-of-day heart rate variability statistics were derived using short-term electrocardiogram recordings for each participant. Workplace carbon monoxide and outdoor, ambient fine particulate matter were also monitored. Regression statistics were used to investigate associations between same-day PM(2.5) levels and heart rate variability statistics using mixed-effects multiple regression of pooled data. No statistically significant associations were observed between occupational PM(2.5) and measures of heart rate variability. A statistically significant increase in total spectral power was associated with ambient PM(2.5) (p < 0.05). The data suggest a threshold below which no degradation in cardiac autonomic control of healthy workers occurs when challenged by occupational PM(2.5) exposure. This study was limited in population, exposure level, and type of particulate exposures. Additional studies are recommended on broader occupational populations. PMID:15238301

  7. The Effect of Listening to Specific Musical Genre Selections on Measures of Heart Rate Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2011-01-01

    University students (N = 30) individually listened to the Billboard 100 top-ranked musical selection for their most and least liked musical genre. Two minutes of silence preceded each musical listening condition, and heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded throughout. All HRV measures decreased during music listening as compared with silence.…

  8. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES IN DETROIT ALTERS HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevations in airborne particulate matter (PM) are linked to increased mortality and morbidity in humans with cardiopulmonary disease. Clinical studies show that PM is associated with altered heart rate variability (HRV) and suggests that loss of autonomic control may underlie ca...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  10. Childhood Psychopathology and Autonomic Dysregulation: Exploring the Links Using Heart Rate Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2007-01-01

    Changes in cardiovascular reactivity have been used as a psychophysiological marker of various emotional states in both children and adults. Recent decades have seen increasing use of heart rate variability as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic function and of central processes involved in autonomic function regulation. Developmental…

  11. Use of heart rate variability differentiates between physical and psychological states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing differing states of physi...

  12. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  13. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  14. Crop water stress indices correlated with soil water storage: Implications for variable rate irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water sensing methods are now coming to be used for irrigation scheduling of whole fields. However, newly introduced variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems require information about soil water content in many areas of a field, each called an irrigation management zone. Commonly available soil w...

  15. Field Validity of Heart Rate Variability Metrics Produced by QRSTool and CMetX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Anita S.; Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in heart rate variability (HRV) metrics as markers of physiological and psychological health continues to grow beyond those with psychophysiological expertise, increasing the importance of developing suitable tools for researchers new to the field. Allen, Chambers, and Towers (2007) developed QRSTool and CMetX software as simple,…

  16. Evaluation of a laser scanning sensor for variable-rate tree sprayer development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate canopy measurement capabilities are prerequisites to automate variable-rate sprayers. A 270° radial range laser scanning sensor was tested for its scanning accuracy to detect tree canopy profiles. Signals from the laser sensor and a ground speed sensor were processed with an embedded comput...

  17. Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex and Heart Rate Variability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daluwatte, Chathuri; Miles, Judith H.; Christ, Shawn E.; Beversdorf, David Q.; Takahashi, T. Nicole; Yao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated pupillary light reflex (PLR) in 152 children with ASD, 116 typically developing (TD) children, and 36 children with non-ASD neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured simultaneously to study potential impairments in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) associated with ASD. The results showed that…

  18. Fetal Heart Rate and Variability: Stability and Prediction to Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Costigan, Kathleen; Achy-Brou, Aristide

    2007-01-01

    Stability in cardiac indicators before birth and their utility in predicting variation in postnatal development were examined. Fetal heart rate and variability were measured longitudinally from 20 through 38 weeks gestation (n = 137) and again at age 2 (n = 79). Significant within-individual stability during the prenatal period and into childhood…

  19. Heart rate variability and particulate exposure in vehicle maintenance workers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Rosenthal, Frank S

    2004-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure to PM(2.5) and heart rate variability was investigated in a repeated measures, longitudinal study of vehicle maintenance workers occupationally exposed to automobile emissions. Five subjects were monitored for occupational exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on 6 workdays using an aerosol photometer, validated with side-by-side sampling with a gravimetric method. End-of-day heart rate variability statistics were derived using short-term electrocardiogram recordings for each participant. Workplace carbon monoxide and outdoor, ambient fine particulate matter were also monitored. Regression statistics were used to investigate associations between same-day PM(2.5) levels and heart rate variability statistics using mixed-effects multiple regression of pooled data. No statistically significant associations were observed between occupational PM(2.5) and measures of heart rate variability. A statistically significant increase in total spectral power was associated with ambient PM(2.5) (p < 0.05). The data suggest a threshold below which no degradation in cardiac autonomic control of healthy workers occurs when challenged by occupational PM(2.5) exposure. This study was limited in population, exposure level, and type of particulate exposures. Additional studies are recommended on broader occupational populations.

  20. Heart rate variability in relation to stress in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Vézina-Audette, Raphaël; Herry, Christophe; Burns, Patrick; Frasch, Martin; Chave, Emmanuelle; Theoret, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a safe, reliable, and accessible means to measure heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and evaluates the use of HRV as a physiological correlate of stress in the Asian elephant. A probabilistic model indicates that HRV measurements may adequately distinguish between stressed and non-stressed elephants. PMID:26933266

  1. HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN RODENTS — USES AND CAVEATS IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of cardiac pacing dynamics that has recently garnered a great deal of interest in environmental health studies. While the use of these measures has become popular, much uncertainty remains in the interpretation of results, both in terms ...

  2. Heart rate variability in relation to stress in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Vézina-Audette, Raphaël; Herry, Christophe; Burns, Patrick; Frasch, Martin; Chave, Emmanuelle; Theoret, Christine

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a safe, reliable, and accessible means to measure heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and evaluates the use of HRV as a physiological correlate of stress in the Asian elephant. A probabilistic model indicates that HRV measurements may adequately distinguish between stressed and non-stressed elephants. PMID:26933266

  3. Multiscale multifractal analysis of heart rate variability recordings with a large number of occurrences of arrhythmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierałtowski, J.; Żebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

    2012-02-01

    Human heart rate variability, in the form of time series of intervals between heart beats, shows complex, fractal properties. Recently, it was demonstrated many times that the fractal properties vary from point to point along the series, leading to multifractality. In this paper, we concentrate not only on the fact that the human heart rate has multifractal properties but also that these properties depend on the time scale in which the multifractality is measured. This time scale is related to the frequency band of the signal. We find that human heart rate variability appears to be far more complex than hitherto reported in the studies using a fixed time scale. We introduce a method called multiscale multifractal analysis (MMA), which allows us to extend the description of heart rate variability to include the dependence on the magnitude of the variability and time scale (or frequency band). MMA is relatively immune to additive noise and nonstationarity, including the nonstationarity due to inclusions into the time series of events of a different dynamics (e.g., arrhythmic events in sinus rhythm). The MMA method may provide new ways of measuring the nonlinearity of a signal, and it may help to develop new methods of medical diagnostics.

  4. Dynamic prescription maps for site-specific variable rate irrigation of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prescription map is a set of instructions that controls a variable rate irrigation (VRI) system. These maps, which may be based on prior yield, soil texture, topography, or soil electrical conductivity data, are often manually applied at the beginning of an irrigation season and remain static. The...

  5. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  6. Response-Time Variability Is Related to Parent Ratings of Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Martin, Cristina Dominguez; Mairena, Maria Angeles; Di Martino, Adriana; Wang, Jing; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Isquith, Peter K.; Gioia, Gerard; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD are often characterized as inconsistent across many contexts. ADHD is also associated with deficits in executive function. We examined the relationships between response time (RT) variability on five brief computer tasks to parents' ratings of ADHD-related features and executive function in a group of children with…

  7. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  8. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  9. Variability of Phyllochron, Plastochron and Rate of Increase in Height in Photoperiod-sensitive Sorghum Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Clerget, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Gozé, E.; Rattunde, H. F. W.; Ney, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims West African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties are generally highly photoperiod-sensitive, which is a necessary adaptation to the variable onset date of the rainy season and the variable dates of sowing in the savannah zone. Depending on sowing date, plants can produce from 12 to >40 leaves on the main culm, with height varying from 1 m to more than 5 m. The present study aimed to better understand the complex phenology of these variables. Methods A 2-year series of monthly sowings of three West African sorghum varieties was conducted near Bamako, Mali. Drought stress was avoided by supplemental irrigation. Rate of initiation of primordia at the stem apex was recorded, together with rate of leaf emergence and increase in plant height. Key Results Leaf initiation and appearance rates (plastochron−1 and phyllochron−1) were constant for a given sowing date in cases where less than 20 leaves were produced (generally observed with late sowing dates). In contrast, rates were bilinear for early sowing dates, for which plants produced more than 20 leaves. The secondary rates, which occurred from the 20th leaf onwards, were only half of the initial rate. Plastochron and phyllochron showed large variations among sowing dates, and were correlated with the rate of plant height increase. The initial plastochron and phyllochron were positively correlated with soil temperature and negatively correlated with both day length and day-to-day change of day length prevailing at plant emergence, but these factors explained only half of the variation observed. Conclusions Although they belong to different genetic groups and have different height and photoperiod sensitivity, the three varieties studied exhibited similar response patterns of development rates among phenological phases and seasons, with the local landrace showing the greatest variation due to its longer vegetative phase and longer stem internodes. The possible adaptive advantages in African

  10. [Validation of simultaneously acquired blood pressure data by statistical coincidence determination of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability].

    PubMed

    Hopfe, J; Schütze, J; Voss, A

    2002-01-01

    We report on the comparison of simultaneous non-invasive measurements of finger blood pressure obtained at both hands with two Portapres systems. We investigated the impact of altering the measurement location on heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV,BPV) parameters. Two 30 minutes recordings were done twice in 21 volunteers swapPing the systems. HRV and BPV parameters meanNN, sdNN, HF/P and Fw-Shannon were determined. Left and right side corresponding parameters were compared by U-test and correlations. Coincidence matrices were analysed by Mahalanobis distance. The minimal total divergence in HRV was 4.8%, in systolic BPV 6.7% and diastolic BPV 12.1%. These estimates recommend those parameters for multi-center studies that are insensitive to the measurement location. PMID:12465313

  11. Effects of Stimulant Medication, Incentives, and Event Rate on Reaction Time Variability in Children With ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Brinkman, William B; Froehlich, Tanya; Langberg, Joshua M; Narad, Megan E; Antonini, Tanya N; Shiels, Keri; Simon, John O; Altaye, Mekibib

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on reaction time (RT) variability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a broad battery of computerized tasks, and both conventional and ex-Gaussian indicators of RT variability, in addition to within-task manipulations of incentive and event rate (ER), this study comprehensively examined the breadth, specificity, and possible moderators of effects of MPH on RT variability. A total of 93 children with ADHD completed a 4-week within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of MPH to identify an optimal dosage. Children were then randomly assigned to receive either their optimal MPH dose or placebo after which they completed five neuropsychological tasks, each allowing trial-by-trial assessment of RTs. Stimulant effects on RT variability were observed on both measures of the total RT distribution (ie, coefficient of variation) as well as on an ex-Gaussian measure examining the exponential portion of the RT distribution (ie, τ). There was minimal, if any, effect of MPH on performance accuracy or RT speed. Within-task incentive and ER manipulations did not appreciably affect stimulant effects across the tasks. The pattern of significant and pervasive effects of MPH on RT variability, and few effects of MPH on accuracy and RT speed suggest that MPH primarily affects RT variability. Given the magnitude and breadth of effects of MPH on RT variability as well as the apparent specificity of these effects of MPH on RT variability indicators, future research should focus on neurophysiological correlates of effects of MPH on RT variability in an effort to better define MPH pharmacodynamics. PMID:21248722

  12. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  13. Skinfold thickness is related to cardiovascular autonomic control as assessed by heart rate variability and heart rate recovery.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Williford, Henry N; Olson, Michele S

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are related to maximal aerobic fitness and selected body composition measurements. Fifty men (age = 21.9 ± 3.0 years, height = 180.8 ± 7.2 cm, weight = 80.4 ± 9.1 kg, volunteered to participate in this study. For each subject, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the sum of skinfolds across the chest, abdomen, and thigh regions (SUMSF) were recorded. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed during a 5-minute period while the subjects rested in a supine position. The following frequency domain parameters of HRV were recorded: normalized high-frequency power (HFnu), and low-frequency to high-frequency power ratio (LF:HF). To determine maximal aerobic fitness (i.e., VO2max), each subject performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was recorded 1 (HRR1) and 2 (HRR2) minutes during a cool-down period. Mean VO2max and BMI for all the subjects were 49.5 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 24.7 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), respectively. Although VO2max, WC, and SUMSF was each significantly correlated to HRR and HRV, only SUMSF had a significant independent correlation to HRR1, HRR2, HFnu, LF:HF (p < 0.01). The results of the regression procedure showed that SUMSF accounted for the greatest variance in HRR1, HRR2, HFnu, and LF:HF (p < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that cardiovascular autonomic modulation is significantly related to maximal aerobic fitness and body composition. However, SUMSF appears to have the strongest independent relationship with HRR and HRV, compared to other body composition parameters and VO2max.

  14. Electrowetting Variable Optics for Visible and Infrared Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Alexander Maxwell

    Miniaturized variable optical devices are important for the fields of medical technology, optical communication, and consumer imaging devices. Areas ranging from endoscopy and optogenetics to atomic clocks and imaging all benefit from versatile optical systems. These applications all require precise and rapid control of imaging focal depth and lateral scanning. Electrowetting variable optics is one emergent technology that has the capability to provide focus tuning, beam steering, and even phase modulation in a small and robust package which requires no moving parts. Furthermore, electrowetting based devices there are attractive due to their transmissive nature, polarization insensitivity, low insertion loss, low electrical power requirements, and high optical quality. These features mean that electrowetting adaptive optical components are an attractive solution, compared with MEMS and liquid crystal optical components. Electrowetting is a technique that enables control of the shape of a liquid droplet with applied voltage. A conductive droplet on a dielectric surface alters its contact angle due to charges that build up between an underlying electrode and the surface of the droplet. This effect can be used to tune the curvature and tilt of liquids within cavities. The liquid boundary creates a high quality surface to use for lensing or steering applications. This thesis will focus on the development of electrowetting based lenses and prisms and applications in imaging for both visible and infrared wavelengths. Within this dissertation is the first demonstration of electrowetting lenses for phase control, as well as the investigation of non-aqueous electrowetting lens liquids for electrowetting lenses operation in the infrared. Key considerations that affect the performance and reliability are dielectric material and thickness, liquid selection and source of ionic conduction. The optical devices presented herein utilize judicious selection of dielectric material

  15. A Conceptual Evaluation of Sustainable Variable-Rate Agricultural Residue Removal

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have near-term potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but their removal must be managed carefully to maintain soil health and productivity. Recent studies have shown that subfield scale variability in soil properties (e.g., slope, texture, and organic matter content) that affect grain yield significantly affect the amount of residue that can be sustainably removed from different areas within a single field. This modeling study examines the concept of variable-rate residue removal equipment that would be capable of on-the-fly residue removal rate adjustments ranging from 0 to 80%. Thirteen residue removal rates (0% and 25–80% in 5% increments) were simulated using a subfield scale integrated modeling framework that evaluates residue removal sustainability considering wind erosion, water erosion, and soil carbon constraints. Three Iowa fields with diverse soil, slope, and grain yield characteristics were examined and showed sustainable, variable-rate agricultural residue removal that averaged 2.35, 7.69, and 5.62 Mg ha-1, respectively. In contrast, the projected sustainable removal rates using rake and bale removal for the entire field averaged 0.0, 6.40, and 5.06 Mg ha-1, respectively. The modeling procedure also projected that variable-rate residue harvest would result in 100% of the land area in all three fields being managed in a sustainable manner, whereas Field 1 could not be sustainably managed using rake and bale removal, and only 83 and 62% of the land area in Fields 2 and 3 would be managed sustainably using a rake and bale operation for the entire field. In addition, it was found that residue removal adjustments of 40 to 65% are sufficient to collect 90% of the sustainably available agricultural residue.

  16. Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.

    PubMed

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy

  17. 19 CFR 141.69 - Applicable rates of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable rates of duty. 141.69 Section 141.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.69 Applicable rates of...

  18. Optimal Spray Application Rates for Ornamental Nursery Liner Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray deposition and coverage at different application rates for nursery liners of different sizes were investigated to determine the optimal spray application rates. Experiments were conducted on two and three-year old red maple liners. A traditional hydraulic sprayer with vertical booms was used t...

  19. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  20. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  1. How policy variables influence the timing of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance.

    PubMed

    Burkhauser, R V; Butler, J S; Weathers, R R

    This article analyzes the impact of policy variables--employer accommodations, state Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) allowance rates, and DI benefits--on the timing of an application for DI benefits by workers with a work-limiting health condition starting when their health condition first begins to bother them. The analysis uses a rich mixture of personal and employer characteristics from the Health and Retirement Study linked to Social Security administrative records. We find that most workers do not apply immediately for DI benefits when they are first bothered by a health condition. On the contrary, the median working-age man with a work-limiting condition waits 7 years after that time before applying, and the median working-age woman waits 8 years. Although the risk of applying for benefits is greatest in the year following onset, only 16 percent of men and 13 percent of women in our sample apply within the first year, and the risk of application falls thereafter. That finding suggests that institutional factors, in addition to health factors, may play a role in the timing of DI applications. Using kernel density estimates of the distribution of application and nonapplication ordered by state allowance rates (the rate of acceptance per DI determination in each state), we find that both men and women who live in states with high allowance rates are disproportionately more likely to apply for benefits in the first year after their condition begins to bother them than are those in states with low allowance rates. Using life-table analysis, we also find that men and women who are accommodated by their employers are significantly less likely to apply for DI benefits in each of the first few years after their condition begins to bother them than are those who are not accommodated. On the basis of this evidence, we include these policy variables in a model of the timing of DI application that controls for other socioeconomic variables as well as health

  2. The effects of auditory stimulation with music on heart rate variability in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Adriano L.; Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Campos, Mônica F.; Knap, André; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas L.; Ferreira, Celso; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women. METHODS: We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21), who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19), who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB). A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB). The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio), low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. RESULTS: The triangular index and the standard deviation of the long-term RR

  3. [Application of variable magnetic fields in medicine--15 years experience].

    PubMed

    Sieroń, Aleksander; Cieślar, Grzegorz

    2003-01-01

    The results of 15-year own experimental and clinical research on application of variable magnetic fields in medicine were presented. In experimental studies analgesic effect (related to endogenous opioid system and nitrogen oxide activity) and regenerative effect of variable magnetic fields with therapeutical parameters was observed. The influence of this fields on enzymatic and hormonal activity, free oxygen radicals, carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism, dielectric and rheological properties of blood as well as behavioural reactions and activity of central dopamine receptor in experimental animals was proved. In clinical studies high therapeutic efficacy of magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation in the treatment of osteoarthrosis, abnormal ossification, osteoporosis, nasosinusitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spastic paresis, diabetic polyneuropathy and retinopathy, vegetative neurosis, peptic ulcers, colon irritable and trophic ulcers was confirmed. PMID:15049208

  4. School Counselors as Social Capital: The Effects of High School College Counseling on College Application Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Using social capital theory as a framework, the authors examined data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2004) to investigate how student contact with high school counselors about college information and other college-related variables influence students' college application rates. In addition…

  5. A New Method for Quantifying Compaction Rates and Their Spatial Variability in the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Shen, Z.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Mauz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the rates and drivers of subsidence in deltas is essential to manage subaerial land in these naturally ephemeral settings. Subsidence in deltaic settings may be driven by deep crustal processes including isostasy and faulting, compaction of Holocene deposits, and anthropogenic activities such as groundwater management and fluid withdrawal. Here, we offer a new method to measure compaction rates and their spatial variability in the Mississippi Delta (MD) to test the null hypotheses that compaction increases seaward and is a major driver of subsidence. Late Holocene compaction rates are measured using the mouthbar-overbank stratigraphic boundary. This boundary generally corresponds to mean low tide level; therefore its present-day height relative to coeval mean low tide level is a measure of compaction since the formation of this boundary. The age of this boundary is established through quartz OSL dating, and Holocene relative sea level history in the MD has been well-established. The common occurrence of the mouthbar-overbank boundary in progradational fluviodeltaic successions in the MD makes it possible to study the spatial variability of compaction rates. We also compare displacement rates for this boundary directly north and south of two coast-parallel normal faults. Results show that late Holocene compaction rates in the Lafourche subdelta of the MD are on the order of a few mm/yr, significantly lower than historical surface subsidence rates for the region. Therefore, the elevated historical surface subsidence rates are likely the result of human alteration of the delta such as fluid withdrawal and groundwater management. Compaction rates do not increase seaward as generally assumed, and instead seem to be driven primarily by the thickness of sediments overlying the mouthbar sands. Thus, the highest rates are documented relatively inland. In addition, we do not find a significant increase in subsidence across normal faults in our study area

  6. Effect of Mild, Asymptomatic Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Daytime Heart Rate Variability and Impedance Cardiography Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Jay S.; Bakker, Jessie P.; Rahangdale, Shilpa; Yim-Yeh, Susie; Mietus, Joseph E.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Malhotra, Atul

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system dynamics is important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Heart rate variability (HRV) and impedance cardiography measures can estimate autonomic activity but have not gained traction clinically. We hypothesized that, even in a cohort of mild, asymptomatic OSA patients without overt cardiovascular disease, daytime HRV metrics and impedance cardiography measurements of pre-ejection period (PEP) would demonstrate increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation compared with matched controls. Obese individuals (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) without any known cardiovascular or inflammatory comorbidities were recruited from the community. Subjects underwent standard in-laboratory polysomnograms (PSG), followed by simultaneous electrocardiography (ECG) and impedance cardiography recordings while supine, supine with paced breathing, and after standing. 74 subjects were studied, and 59% had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10episodes/hr) with a median AHI of 25.8/hr. OSA subjects had significantly decreased daytime time- and frequency-domain HRV indices, but not significantly different PEP, when compared to controls. AHI was a significant independent predictor of time-domain HRV measures in all awake conditions, after controlling for age, gender, blood pressure, fasting cholesterol levels and hemoglobin A1C. In conclusion, our results demonstrate reductions in cardiac vagal modulation, as measured by multiple daytime time-domain markers of HRV, among asymptomatic OSA patients versus controls. Further prospective outcomes-based studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of these metrics for noninvasive screening of obese asymptomatic OSA patients, prior to the onset of overt cardiovascular disease. PMID:21945139

  7. Effect of mild, asymptomatic obstructive sleep apnea on daytime heart rate variability and impedance cardiography measurements.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Jay S; Bakker, Jessie P; Rahangdale, Shilpa; Yim-Yeh, Susie; Mietus, Joseph E; Goldberger, Ary L; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system dynamics is important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Heart rate variability (HRV) and impedance cardiography measures can estimate autonomic activity but have not gained traction clinically. The hypothesis of this study was that even in a cohort of patients with mild, asymptomatic OSA without overt cardiovascular disease, daytime HRV metrics and impedance cardiography measurements of preejection period would demonstrate increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation compared to matched controls. Obese subjects (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) without any known cardiovascular or inflammatory co-morbidities were recruited from the community. Subjects underwent standard in-laboratory polysomnography followed by simultaneous electrocardiographic and impedance cardiographic recordings while supine, supine with paced breathing, and after standing. Seventy-four subjects were studied, and 59% had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥10 events/hour), with a median apnea-hypopnea index of 25.8 events/hour. Subjects with OSA had significantly decreased daytime time- and frequency-domain HRV indexes, but not significantly different preejection periods, compared to controls. Apnea-hypopnea index was a significant independent predictor of time-domain HRV measures in all awake conditions, after controlling for age, gender, blood pressure, fasting cholesterol levels and glycosylated hemoglobin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate reductions in cardiac vagal modulation, as measured by multiple daytime time-domain markers of HRV, in patients with asymptomatic OSA compared to controls. Further prospective outcomes-based studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of these metrics for noninvasive screening of obese patients with asymptomatic OSA, before the onset of overt cardiovascular disease.

  8. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p < 0.0001). The α2 index also reduced in T2 compared to T3 (p = 0.0035). There was an increase in the α1/α2 ratio in T4 compared to T2 and T3 (p = 0.0003). It was found that 0V% was significantly lower in T2 (p = 0.002), while 2UV% was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to other points in time. In conclusion, HRV is reduced during endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation.

  9. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p < 0.0001). The α2 index also reduced in T2 compared to T3 (p = 0.0035). There was an increase in the α1/α2 ratio in T4 compared to T2 and T3 (p = 0.0003). It was found that 0V% was significantly lower in T2 (p = 0.002), while 2UV% was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to other points in time. In conclusion, HRV is reduced during endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation. PMID:26910016

  10. Structure of growing microtubule ends: two-dimensional sheets close into tubes at variable rates

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Observation of microtubule growth at different rates by cryo-electron microscopy reveals that the ends range from blunt to long, gently curved sheets. The mean sheet length increases with the growth rate while the width of the distributions increases with the extent of assembly. The combination of a concentration dependent growth rate of the tubulin sheet with a variable closure rate of the microtubule cylinder, results in a model in which stochastic fluctuations in sheet length and tubulin conformation confine GTP-tubulins to microtubule ends. We propose that the variability of microtubule growth rate observed by video microscopy (Gildersleeve, R. F., A. R. Cross, K. E. Cullen, A. P. Fagen, and R. C. Williams. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 7995- 8006, and this study) is due to the variation in the rate of cylinder closure. The curvature of the sheets at the end of growing microtubules and the small oligomeric structures observed at the end of disassembling microtubules, indicate that tubulin molecules undergo conformational changes both during assembly and disassembly. PMID:7775577

  11. 19 CFR 141.69 - Applicable rates of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The rates of duty applicable to merchandise shall be the rates in effect at time of entry, as... following cases: (a) Warehouse entries. Merchandise entered for warehouse is dutiable at the rates in effect at the time withdrawal from warehouse for consumption is made in accordance with § 141.68(g)....

  12. 19 CFR 141.69 - Applicable rates of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The rates of duty applicable to merchandise shall be the rates in effect at time of entry, as... following cases: (a) Warehouse entries. Merchandise entered for warehouse is dutiable at the rates in effect at the time withdrawal from warehouse for consumption is made in accordance with § 141.68(g)....

  13. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Dairy Cows with Different Temperament and Behavioural Reactivity to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tőzsér, János; Szenci, Ottó; Póti, Péter; Pajor, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    From the 1990s, extensive research was started on the physiological aspects of individual traits in animals. Previous research has established two extreme (proactive and reactive) coping styles in several animal species, but the means of reactivity with the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has not yet been investigated in cattle. The aim of this study was the characterization of cardiac autonomic activity under different conditions in cows with different individual characteristics. For this purpose, we investigated heart rate and ANS-related heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of dairy cows (N = 282) on smaller- and larger-scale farms grouped by (1) temperament and (2) behavioural reactivity to humans (BRH). Animals with high BRH scores were defined as impulsive, while animals with low BRH scores were defined as reserved. Cardiac parameters were calculated for undisturbed lying (baseline) and for milking bouts, the latter with the presence of an unfamiliar person (stressful situation). Sympathetic tone was higher, while vagal activity was lower in temperamental cows than in calm animals during rest both on smaller- and larger-scale farms. During milking, HRV parameters were indicative of a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity of temperamental cows as compared to calm ones in farms of both sizes. Basal heart rate did not differ between BRH groups either on smaller- or larger-scale farms. Differences between basal ANS activity of impulsive and reserved cows reflected a higher resting vagal and lower sympathetic activity of reserved animals compared to impulsive ones both on smaller- and larger-scale farms. There was no difference either in heart rate or in HRV parameters between groups during milking neither in smaller- nor in larger-scale farms. These two groupings allowed to draw possible parallels between personality and cardiac autonomic activity during both rest and milking in dairy cows. Heart rate and HRV seem to be useful for

  14. Characterization of air profiles impeded by plant canopies for a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preferential design for variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers relies on tree structure to control liquid and air flow rates. Demand for this advanced feature has been incremental as the public demand on reduction of pesticide use. A variable-rate, air assisted, five-port sprayer had been in...

  15. Understanding the physiology of mindfulness: aortic hemodynamics and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Bamber, Mandy; Seibert, Gregory S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Leonard, Joseph T; Salsbury, Rebecca A; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Data were collected to examine autonomic and hemodynamic cardiovascular modulation underlying mindfulness from two independent samples. An initial sample (N = 185) underwent laboratory assessments of central aortic blood pressure and myocardial functioning to investigated the association between mindfulness and cardiac functioning. Controlling for religiosity, mindfulness demonstrated a strong negative relationship with myocardial oxygen consumption and left ventricular work but not heart rate or blood pressure. A second sample (N = 124) underwent a brief (15 min) mindfulness inducing intervention to examine the influence of mindfulness on cardiovascular autonomic modulation via blood pressure variability and heart rate variability. The intervention had a strong positive effect on cardiovascular modulation by decreasing cardiac sympathovagal tone, vasomotor tone, vascular resistance and ventricular workload. This research establishes a link between mindfulness and cardiovascular functioning via correlational and experimental methodologies in samples of mostly female undergraduates. Future directions for research are outlined.

  16. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    PubMed

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (<20 episodes), intermediate (20-29 episodes), or high (>30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  17. Necessary conditions for the optimality of variable rate residual vector quantizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Smith, Mark J. T.; Barnes, Christopher F.

    1993-01-01

    Residual vector quantization (RVQ), or multistage VQ, as it is also called, has recently been shown to be a competitive technique for data compression. The competitive performance of RVQ reported in results from the joint optimization of variable rate encoding and RVQ direct-sum code books. In this paper, necessary conditions for the optimality of variable rate RVQ's are derived, and an iterative descent algorithm based on a Lagrangian formulation is introduced for designing RVQ's having minimum average distortion subject to an entropy constraint. Simulation results for these entropy-constrained RVQ's (EC-RVQ's) are presented for memory less Gaussian, Laplacian, and uniform sources. A Gauss-Markov source is also considered. The performance is superior to that of entropy-constrained scalar quantizers (EC-SQ's) and practical entropy-constrained vector quantizers (EC-VQ's), and is competitive with that of some of the best source coding techniques that have appeared in the literature.

  18. Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH): recommendations to advance research communication

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, D S; Alvares, G A; Heathers, J A J

    2016-01-01

    The number of publications investigating heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatry and the behavioral sciences has increased markedly in the last decade. In addition to the significant debates surrounding ideal methods to collect and interpret measures of HRV, standardized reporting of methodology in this field is lacking. Commonly cited recommendations were designed well before recent calls to improve research communication and reproducibility across disciplines. In an effort to standardize reporting, we propose the Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH), a checklist with four domains: participant selection, interbeat interval collection, data preparation and HRV calculation. This paper provides an overview of these four domains and why their standardized reporting is necessary to suitably evaluate HRV research in psychiatry and related disciplines. Adherence to these communication guidelines will help expedite the translation of HRV research into a potential psychiatric biomarker by improving interpretation, reproducibility and future meta-analyses. PMID:27163204

  19. Heart rate variability during plateau waves of intracranial pressure: A pilot descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Luís, A; Santos, A S; Dias, C; Almeida, R; Rocha, A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe heart rate variability during the first episode of plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in order to characterize and identify at bedside this cerebrovascular phenomenon. The general behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV) spectral measures expressed in the medians across patients is concordant with an increased HRV in the latter part of the baseline and plateau wave, followed by a decrease after the event and a new increase during the recovery. In low and high frequency bands the same increase is more marked in the parametric analysis. Interpretation of HRV may help clinicians to better identify the plateau waves and allow earlier management. PMID:26737694

  20. Activation of peripheral opioid receptors has no effect on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ellidokuz, Ender; Kaya, Dayimi; Uslan, Ihsan; Celik, Ataç; Esen, Ali Metin; Barutça, Irfan

    2008-06-01

    Opioid receptors involved in regulating the motility of the gastrointestinal tract have been localized in both contractile and neuronal tissues. Trimebutine, a peripheral opioid receptor agonist, modulates gastrointestinal motor activity in both directions and also may act on cardiac tissue. This study investigated the effects of trimebutine in clinical doses on cardiac autonomic functions with heart rate variability. The effect of trimebutine on cardiac autonomic outflows was evaluated in 11 healthy subjects. Trimebutine (200 mg) or placebo was administered orally at random in a double-blind, cross-over manner. Continuous electrocardiography recordings were obtained before and after drug administration during three states: rest, controlled breathing, and a hand grip exercise. Heart rate variability analysis showed that there was no significant difference between subjects administered with placebo or trimebutine throughout rest, controlled breathing, or the hand grip exercise. We concluded that trimebutine, in clinical doses, has no significant effect on cardiac autonomic functions. PMID:18449593

  1. Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH): recommendations to advance research communication.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Alvares, G A; Heathers, J A J

    2016-01-01

    The number of publications investigating heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatry and the behavioral sciences has increased markedly in the last decade. In addition to the significant debates surrounding ideal methods to collect and interpret measures of HRV, standardized reporting of methodology in this field is lacking. Commonly cited recommendations were designed well before recent calls to improve research communication and reproducibility across disciplines. In an effort to standardize reporting, we propose the Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH), a checklist with four domains: participant selection, interbeat interval collection, data preparation and HRV calculation. This paper provides an overview of these four domains and why their standardized reporting is necessary to suitably evaluate HRV research in psychiatry and related disciplines. Adherence to these communication guidelines will help expedite the translation of HRV research into a potential psychiatric biomarker by improving interpretation, reproducibility and future meta-analyses. PMID:27163204

  2. Long range correlations in the heart rate variability following the injury of cardiac arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Shanbao; Jiang, Dineng; Wang, Ziming; Zhu, Yisheng; Geocadin, Romeryko G.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2007-07-01

    Cardiovascular and neurological recovery following cardiac arrest (CA) largely influence the morbidity and mortality of the patients. Monitoring the cardiovascular system has been an important clinical issue in intensive care unit (ICU). On the other hand, the rhythms of the heart rate variability following CA are still not fully understood, and there are limited number of literatures reporting the cardiovascular function recovery following CA. In this paper, we studied the scaling properties of heart rate variability (HRV) after CA by centered-moving-average-based detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Our results showed that the scaling factor of the baseline HRV is close to that of Brownian motion, and after a CA event it shifts to a 1/f noise-like rhythm. DFA could be a promising tool in evaluating the cardiovascular long term recovery following CA injury.

  3. Pilot study employing heart rate variability biofeedback training to decrease anxiety in patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, a technique which encourages slow meditative breathing, was offered to 25 in-patients with various eating disorder diagnoses-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. We found that this modality had no serious side effects, and was subjectively useful to most participants. An enhanced ability to generate highly coherent HRV patterns in patients with recent onset anorexia nervosa was observed. PMID:24917934

  4. [Heart rate variability analysis: a new approach in clinical research methodology for neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Rizzotti, Alina; Agüero, Guillermo

    2011-08-01

    The knowledge on neonatal sepsis has increase significantly, but a clinical or biochemical marker is not available for an early and appropriate diagnosis. This fact results of an inadequate analysis which might be missing important quantum of biological information. A new method of nonlinear analysis have been proposed to investigate time series of physiological data, particularly heart rate variability analysis, that apparently would detect abnormal changes which precedes clinical or biochemical signs of infection by as much as 12-24 hours.

  5. Measures of heart rate variability in women following a meditation technique.

    PubMed

    An, Hyorim; Kulkarni, Ravi; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, Hr

    2010-01-01

    Certain time domain, frequency domain and a nonlinear measure of heart rate variability are studied in women following a meditative practice called cyclic meditation. The nonlinear measure studied is the sampling entropy. We show that there is an increase in the sampling entropy in the meditative group as compared to the control group. The time domain measure called pNNx is shown to be useful in distinguishing between the meditative state and a normal resting state.

  6. Increase in the embedding dimension in the heart rate variability associated with left ventricular abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, D. S.; Irurzun, I. M.; Mitelman, J.; Mola, E. E.

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the authors report evidence that the existence of premature ventricular contractions increases the embedding dimension of the cardiac dynamics. They also analyze patients with congestive heart failure, a severe clinical condition associated with abnormal left ventricular function. Results also show an increase in the embedding dimension of the heart rate variability. They used electrocardiograms collected by themselves with quality standards that make them comparable with other databases.

  7. Pilot study employing heart rate variability biofeedback training to decrease anxiety in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I; Keane, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, a technique which encourages slow meditative breathing, was offered to 25 in-patients with various eating disorder diagnoses-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. We found that this modality had no serious side effects, and was subjectively useful to most participants. An enhanced ability to generate highly coherent HRV patterns in patients with recent onset anorexia nervosa was observed. PMID:24917934

  8. Effects of Variable Inflationary Conditions on AN Inventory Model with Inflation-Proportional Demand Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl

    2009-08-01

    The inflation rate in the most of the previous researches has been considered constant and well-known over the time horizon, although the future rate of inflation is inherently uncertain and unstable, and is difficult to predict it accurately. Therefore, A time varying inventory model for deteriorating items with allowable shortages is developed in this paper. The inflation rates (internal and external) are time-dependent and demand rate is inflation-proportional. The inventory level is described by differential equations over the time horizon and present value method is used. The numerical example is given to explain the results. Some particular cases, which follow the main problem, will discuss and the results will compare with the main model by using the numerical examples. It has been achieved which shortages increases considerably in comparison with the case of without variable inflationary conditions.

  9. Assessment of heart rate variability based on mobile device for planning physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.

  10. Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, Thomas; Siebert, Torsten; Härtel, Romano; Klemme, Dietmar; Lauritsen, Kristian; Erdmann, Rainer

    2013-02-01

    An freely triggerable picosecond visible supercontinuum laser source is presented that allows for a uniform spectral profile and equivalent pulse characteristics over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40MHz. The system features PM Yb3+-doped fiber amplification of a picosecond gain-switched seed diode at 1062 nm. The pump power in the multi-stage amplifier is actively adjusted by a microcontroller for a consistent peak power of the amplified signal in the full range of repetition rates. The length of the PCF is scaled to deliver a homogeneous spectrum and minimized distortion of the temporal pulse shape.

  11. Effects of caffeine on linear and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability before and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Yeragani, Vikram K; Krishnan, Siddartha; Engels, Hermann J; Gretebeck, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Caffeine intake is associated with an increase in heart rate (HR) variability. This study sought to examine the effects of caffeine on HR variability measures before and during progressive exercise in 11 healthy volunteers in a double-blind randomized and counterbalanced placebo-controlled paradigm. As expected, there were significant increases in HR and decreases in HR variability after exercise during both placebo and caffeine conditions; however, pre-exercise caffeine condition was associated with a significant increase of HR variability, especially in the high-frequency range (0.15-0.5 Hz), and also approximate entropy (APEN), which is usually attributed to cardiac vagal function. But during progressive exercise, caffeine intake resulted in a greater decrease of HF power as well as HR APEN. Caffeine also was associated with significantly higher LF power during exercise compared to the placebo condition. These results suggest that caffeine may have different effects on HR variability at rest, compared to exercise. These findings may have implications for patients with cardiac illness and anxiety, depression, and psychotic disorders who use beverages containing excessive caffeine.

  12. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

  13. Association between Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Autonomic Activity in Cyclic Alternating Pattern during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Design: Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten healthy males. Measurements and Results: The increase in HR (median [first quartile – third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1. Citation: Kondo H; Ozone M; Ohki N; Sagawa Y; Yamamichi K; Fukuju M; Yoshida T; Nishi C; Kawasaki; Mori; Kanbayashi T; Izumi M; Hishikawa Y; Nishino S; Shimizu T. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep

  14. Timing and Variability of Galactose Metabolic Gene Activation Depend on the Rate of Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bo; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of gene network activity allows cells to respond to changes in environmental conditions. For example, the galactose utilization network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by the presence of galactose but repressed by glucose. If both sugars are present, the yeast will first metabolize glucose, depleting it from the extracellular environment. Upon depletion of glucose, the genes encoding galactose metabolic proteins will activate. Here, we show that the rate at which glucose levels are depleted determines the timing and variability of galactose gene activation. Paradoxically, we find that Gal1p, an enzyme needed for galactose metabolism, accumulates more quickly if glucose is depleted slowly rather than taken away quickly. Furthermore, the variability of induction times in individual cells depends non-monotonically on the rate of glucose depletion and exhibits a minimum at intermediate depletion rates. Our mathematical modeling suggests that the dynamics of the metabolic transition from glucose to galactose are responsible for the variability in galactose gene activation. These findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics can determine the phenotypic outcome at both the single-cell and population levels. PMID:26200924

  15. Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and QT dynamicity parameters in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Dural, Muhammet; Kabakcı, Giray; Cınar, Neşe; Erbaş, Tomris; Canpolat, Uğur; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oto, Ali; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Levent; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Aytemir, Kudret

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However, there is little data regarding cardiac autonomic functions in these patients. Herein, we aimed to investigate several parameters of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with acromegaly compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 20 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients (55% female, age:45.7 ± 12.6 years) and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent 24 h Holter recording. Heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated by subtracting 1st, 2nd and 3rd minute heart rates from maximal heart rate. All patients underwent heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dynamicity analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar except diabetes mellitus and hypertension among groups. Mean HRR1 (29.2 ± 12.3 vs 42.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.001), HRR2 (43.5 ± 15.6 vs 61.1 ± 10.8, p = 0.001) and HRR3 (46.4 ± 16.2 vs 65.8 ± 9.8, p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in control group. HRV parameters as, SDNN [standard deviation of all NN intervals] (p = 0.001), SDANN [SD of the 5 min mean RR intervals] (p = 0.001), RMSSD [root square of successive differences in RR interval] (p = 0.001), PNN50 [proportion of differences in successive NN intervals >50 ms] (p = 0.001) and high-frequency [HF] (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly; but low frequency [LF] (p = 0.046) and LF/HF (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in acromegaly patients. QTec (p = 0.009), QTac/RR slope (p = 0.017) and QTec/RR slope (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly. Additionally, there were significant negative correlation of disease duration with HRR2, HRR3, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, variability index. Our study results suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are impaired in patients with acromegaly. Further large scale studies are needed to exhibit the prognostic significance of impaired autonomic functions in patients with

  16. Reducing Application Runtime Variability on Jaguar XT5

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Wang, Feiyi; Dillow, David A; Miller, Ross G; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Becklehimer, Jeffrey L; Larkin, Jeffrey M; Henseler, David

    2010-01-01

    Operating system (OS) noise is defined as interference generated by the OS that prevents a compute core from performing ``useful'' work. Compute node kernel daemons, network interfaces, and other OS related services are major sources of such interference. This interference on individual compute cores can vary in duration and frequency, and can cause de-synchronization (jitter) in collective communication tasks and thus results in variable (degraded) overall parallel application performance. This behavior is more observable in large-scale applications using certain types of collective communication primitives, such as MPI\\_Allreduce. This paper presents our effort towards reducing the overall effect of OS noise on our large-scale parallel applications. Our tests were performed on the quad-core Jaguar, the Cray XT5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). At the time of these tests, Jaguar was a 1.4 PFLOPS supercomputer with 149,504 compute cores and 8 cores per node. We aggregated OS noise sources onto a single core for each node. The scientific application was then run on six of the remaining cores in each node. Our results show that we were able to improve the MPI_Allreduce performance by two orders of magnitude. We demonstrated up to a 30% boost in the performance of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) using this technique.

  17. Sleep-Mediated Heart Rate Variability after Bilateral Carotid Body Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Niemeijer, Nicolasine D.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; Reijntjes, Robert H.A.M.; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J. Gert; Thijs, Roland D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The carotid bodies are thought to play an important role in sleep-dependent autonomic changes. Patients who underwent resection of bilateral carotid body tumors have chronically attenuated baroreflex sensitivity. These subjects provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the baroreflex during sleep. Design: One-night ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) recording. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Nine patients with bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) (four women, mean age 50.4 ± 7.2 years) and nine controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Sleep parameters were obtained from PSG. Heart rate (HR) and its variability were calculated using 30-s epochs. Results: In bCBR patients, HR was slightly but not significantly increased during wake and all sleep stages. The effect of sleep on HR was similar for patients and controls. Low frequency (LF) power of the heart rate variability spectrum was significantly lower in bCBR patients in active wakefulness, sleep stage 1 and REM sleep. No differences were found between patients and controls for high frequency (HF) power and the LF/HF ratio. Conclusions: Bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) is associated with decreased low frequency power during sleep, suggesting impaired baroreflex function. Despite this, sleep-related heart rate changes were similar between bCBR patients and controls. These findings suggest that the effects of sleep on heart rate are predominantly generated through central, non-baroreflex mediated pathways. Citation: Niemeijer ND, Corssmit EP, Reijntjes RH, Lammers GJ, van Dijk JG, Thijs RD. Sleep-mediated heart rate variability after bilateral carotid body tumor resection. SLEEP 2015;38(4):633–639. PMID:25325476

  18. High-Intensity Inspiratory Protocol Increases Heart Rate Variability in Myocardial Revascularization Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Flavia Cristina Rossi; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Reis, Michel Silva; Guizilini, Solange; Alves, Vera Lucia dos Santos; Papa, Valeria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate heart rate variability during an inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at three different load levels [30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure], in patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Nineteen late postoperative myocardial revascularization patients participating in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program were studied. Maximal inspiratory pressure maneuvers were performed. An inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure was applied for four minutes each, in random order. Heart rate and RR intervals were recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed by time (RMSSD-the mean of the standard deviations for all R-R intervals, and RMSM-root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals) and frequency domains indices (high and low frequency) in normalized units. ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to compare heart rate variability indices and Student t-test was used to compare the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values. Results: Heart rate increased during performance of maximal respiratory pressures maneuvers, and the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure mean values were significantly lower than predicted values (P<0.05). RMSSD increased significantly at 80% in relation to rest and 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure and RMSM decreased at 30% and 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to rest (P<0.05). Additionally, there was significant and progressive decrease in low frequency and increase in high frequency at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to the resting condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that respiratory muscle training at high intensities can promote greater parasympathetic activity and it may confer important benefits during a rehabilitation program in post-coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:27074273

  19. Heart Rate Variability and the Efficacy of Biofeedback in Heroin Users with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Mei; Ko, Jiun-Min; Fan, Sheng-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been confirmed in heroin users, but the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback in heroin users remain unknown. This study examined (1) correlations between depression and HRV indices; (2) group differences in HRV indices among a heroin-user group, a group with major depressive disorder but no heroin use, and healthy controls; and (3) the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiratory rates within the heroin group. Methods All participants completed a depression questionnaire and underwent electrocardiogram measurements, and group differences in baseline HRV indices were examined. The heroin group underwent electrocardiogram and respiration rate measurements at baseline, during a depressive condition, and during a happiness condition, before and after which they took part in the heart-rate-variability–biofeedback program. The effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiration rates were examined. Results There was a negative correlation between depression and high frequency of HRV, and a positive correlation between depression and low frequency to high frequency ratio of HRV. The heroin group had a lower overall and high frequency of HRV, and a higher low frequency/high frequency ratio than healthy controls. The heart-rate-variability–biofeedback intervention increased HRV indices and decreased respiratory rates from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Conclusion Reduced parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activations were found in heroin users. Heart-rate-variability–biofeedback was an effective non-pharmacological intervention to restore autonomic balance. PMID:27121428

  20. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  1. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  2. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eva Charlotte; Staab, Johanna; Fuest, Matthias; Witt, Katharina; Voss, Andreas; Plange, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma. PMID:26495136

  3. Decreased baseline variability on fetal heart rate pattern in a fetus with heterotaxy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryutaro; Takei, Kohta; Kaneshi, Yosuke; Morikawa, Mamoru; Cho, Kazutoshi; Minakami, Hisanori

    2015-12-01

    In a fetus with suspected heterotaxy syndrome, a decreased/absent baseline variability of fetal heart rate pattern developed at gestational week 36(+5) and continued for 5 days until birth at gestational week 37(+2), while repeat biophysical profile scorings with ultrasound were consistently unremarkable. This neonate weighing 2404 g with Apgar scores of 7 (1-min) and 8 (5-min) and umbilical arterial cord blood pH of 7.28 with base deficit of 3.9 mmol/L, showed a heart rate of 120 b.p.m. for 3 h after birth, but subsequently developed sinus bradycardia (84 b.p.m.) unresponsive to crying. Isoproterenol initiated 9 h after birth was effective in the increase of heart rate to 120 b.p.m. in this neonate. Brain magnetic resonance imaging at 16 days of age was unremarkable. The decreased/absent baseline variability of fetal heart rate pattern was speculated to have been caused by sinus node dysfunction, and not by reduced fetal oxygenation in this case. PMID:26421346

  4. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  5. Hemorheology and heart rate variability in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Velcheva, Irena; Damianov, Petar; Mantarova, Stefka; Antonova, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between hemorheological parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Hemorheological variables, including hematocrit (Ht), fibrinogen (Fib), whole blood (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) at shear rates of 0.0237 s(-1) to 128.5 s(-1) were examined in 20 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and in 10 control subjects. They all underwent non-invasive short-term monitoring of heart rate at rest and after passive head-up tilt. Measurement of the R-R intervals and calculation of the time domain parameters and the power spectral data were performed by our softwear, using fast Fourier transformation. Significant increase of Fib and WBV in the patients in comparison to controls was found within the range of shear rates 0.0237 s(-1) to 128.5 s(-1). In the diabetic patients parallel decrease of the total power (TP), the low frequency spectral power (LF) and of the mean RR and mild increase of the low frequency-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) at rest were established. This tendency was kept after the passive tilt. In patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 the increased blood viscosity was associated with reduced HRV.

  6. 19 CFR 152.12 - Applicable rates of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., which provides in general that the rates of duty applicable to merchandise shall be those in effect on the date of entry or withdrawal for consumption, except for certain merchandise covered by an...

  7. 19 CFR 152.12 - Applicable rates of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., which provides in general that the rates of duty applicable to merchandise shall be those in effect on the date of entry or withdrawal for consumption, except for certain merchandise covered by an...

  8. Drop size distributions and kinetic energy rates in variable intensity rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    Temporal variability in rainfall intensity reflects on the drop size distribution (DSD), and affects the rainfall kinetic energy during the event. Smith et al. (2009) reported on 1-min interval rainfall intensity and corresponding DSD variability during a storm on the 22/7/06 at Princeton, NJ. They reported also on DSDs characteristics of heavy convective rainfall events during the whole summer. Applying the DSD model of Assouline and Mualem (1997), it is shown that: (a) a similar relationship between the mean drop size and the rainfall intensity characterized the local rainfall at both the seasonal and the single storm scale; (b) using the mean drop size as a scaling factor of the DSD removes the rainfall intensity dependence at the intrastorm scale, providing a powerful tool to deal with temporal variability of rainfall rates during rainfall events. For a storm characterized by a given temporal variability of intensities, three different ways of evaluating kinetic energy per unit mass or time were applied. By comparison to estimates accounting for rainfall temporal variability and related full DSDs, representing the storm by mean intensity and drop diameter tends to overestimate kinetic energy for low intensities and underestimate it for the higher ones. The relative error for the kinetic energy per unit of mass is ±45% and shifts from negative to positive sign for I>25 mm/h. For the kinetic energy per unit of time, the relative error ranges from -100% to +210% and changes sign for I>45 mm/h. When temporal variation of intensity is accounted for but drops are characterized by their mean values instead of the full DSD, kinetic energy is underestimated by 20% on average. Consequently, accounting for temporal variability in rainfall intensity during a storm has a notable impact on the erosive power of the rainfall.

  9. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Two-photon polymerization with variable repetition rate bursts of femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Snider, Scott; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2012-12-31

    We describe fabrication of microstructures by two-photon polymerization using bursts of femtosecond laser pulses. With the aid of an acousto-optic modulator driven by a function generator, two-photon polymerization is performed at variable burst repetition rates. We investigate how the time between the bursts of laser pulses influences the ultimate dimensions of lines written in a photosensitive resin. We observe that when using the same laser fluence, polymer lines fabricated at different burst repetition rates have different dimensions. In particular, the widths of two-photon polymerized lines become smaller with decreasing burst repetition rates. Based on the thermal properties of the resin and experimental writing conditions, we attribute this effect to localized heat accumulation. PMID:23388815

  11. Microgravity alters respiratory sinus arrhythmia and short-term heart rate variability in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migeotte, P-F; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, M.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We studied heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in four male subjects before, during, and after 16 days of spaceflight. The electrocardiogram and respiration were recorded during two periods of 4 min controlled breathing at 7.5 and 15 breaths/min in standing and supine postures on the ground and in microgravity. Low (LF)- and high (HF)-frequency components of the short-term HRV (< or =3 min) were computed through Fourier spectral analysis of the R-R intervals. Early in microgravity, HR was decreased compared with both standing and supine positions and had returned to the supine value by the end of the flight. In microgravity, overall variability, the LF-to-HF ratio, and RSA amplitude and phase were similar to preflight supine values. Immediately postflight, HR increased by approximately 15% and remained elevated 15 days after landing. LF/HF was increased, suggesting an increased sympathetic control of HR standing. The overall variability and RSA amplitude in supine decreased postflight, suggesting that vagal tone decreased, which coupled with the decrease in RSA phase shift suggests that this was the result of an adaptation of autonomic control of HR to microgravity. In addition, these alterations persisted for at least 15 days after return to normal gravity (1G).

  12. The tropical Pacific as a key pacemaker of the variable rates of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Global mean surface temperature change over the past 120 years resembles a rising staircase: the overall warming trend was interrupted by the mid-twentieth-century big hiatus and the warming slowdown since about 1998. The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation has been implicated in modulations of global mean surface temperatures, but which part of the mode drives the variability in warming rates is unclear. Here we present a successful simulation of the global warming staircase since 1900 with a global ocean-atmosphere coupled model where tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures are forced to follow the observed evolution. Without prescribed tropical Pacific variability, the same model, on average, produces a continual warming trend that accelerates after the 1960s. We identify four events where the tropical Pacific decadal cooling markedly slowed down the warming trend. Matching the observed spatial and seasonal fingerprints we identify the tropical Pacific as a key pacemaker of the warming staircase, with radiative forcing driving the overall warming trend. Specifically, tropical Pacific variability amplifies the first warming epoch of the 1910s-1940s and determines the timing when the big hiatus starts and ends. Our method of removing internal variability from the observed record can be used for real-time monitoring of anthropogenic warming.

  13. Rates of ingestion and their variability between individual calanoid copepods: Direct observations

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Lewis, K.D.; Bundy, M.H. |; Metz, C.

    1995-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine rates of ingestion and fecal pellet release, and their variability, for individual planktonic copepods over extended periods of time (>20 min). Ingestions and rejections of individual cells of the diatom Thalassiosira eccentrica by a adult females of the calanoid Paracalanus aculeatus were directly quantified by observing individual copepods continuously at cell concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Average ingestion rates increased with increasing food concentration, but were not significantly different between 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1} (9.8 and 32.7 {mu}g Cl{sup {minus}1}) of T.eccentrica. Rates of cell rejections were low and similar at 0.1 and 0.3. but were significantly higher at 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. The coefficients of variation for average ingestion rates of individual copepods hardly differed between food concentrations, ranging from 17 to 22%, and were close to those for average fecal pellet release intervals which ranged from 15 to 21%. A comparison between individuals at each food concentration found no significant differences at 1.0; at 0.1 and 0.3 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}, respectively, ingestion rates of four out of five females did not differ significantly from each other. Average intervals between fecal pellet releases were similar at 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Fecal pellet release intervals between individuals were significantly different at each food concentration; these significant differences were attributed to rather narrow ranges of pellet release intervals of each individual female. Potential sources/causes of variability in the sizes and rates of copepods in the ocean are evaluated.

  14. Students' Ways of Thinking about Two-Variable Functions and Rate of Change in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of four students' ways of thinking about functions of two variables and rate of change of those two-variable functions. Most secondary, introductory algebra, pre-calculus, and first and second semester calculus courses do not require students to think about functions of more than one variable. Yet…

  15. Validity of (Ultra-)Short Recordings for Heart Rate Variability Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, M. Loretto; van Roon, Arie; Riese, Harriëtte; Thio, Chris; Oostenbroek, Emma; Westrik, Iris; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Gansevoort, Ron; Lefrandt, Joop

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In order to investigate the applicability of routine 10s electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings for time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) calculation we explored to what extent these (ultra-)short recordings capture the “actual” HRV. Methods The standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were measured in 3,387 adults. SDNN and RMSSD were assessed from (ultra)short recordings of 10s(3x), 30s, and 120s and compared to 240s–300s (gold standard) measurements. Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r), Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement and Cohen’s d statistics were used as agreement analysis techniques. Results Agreement between the separate 10s recordings and the 240s-300s recording was already substantial (r = 0.758–0.764/Bias = 0.398–0.416/d = 0.855–0.894 for SDNN; r = 0.853–0.862/Bias = 0.079–0.096/d = 0.150–0.171 for RMSSD), and improved further when three 10s periods were averaged (r = 0.863/Bias = 0.406/d = 0.874 for SDNN; r = 0.941/Bias = 0.088/d = 0.167 for RMSSD). Agreement increased with recording length and reached near perfect agreement at 120s (r = 0.956/Bias = 0.064/d = 0.137 for SDNN; r = 0.986/Bias = 0.014/d = 0.027 for RMSSD). For all recording lengths and agreement measures, RMSSD outperformed SDNN. Conclusions Our results confirm that it is unnecessary to use recordings longer than 120s to obtain accurate measures of RMSSD and SDNN in the time domain. Even a single 10s (standard ECG) recording yields a valid RMSSD measurement, although an average over multiple 10s ECGs is preferable. For SDNN we would recommend either 30s or multiple 10s ECGs. Future research projects using time-domain HRV parameters, e.g. genetic epidemiological studies, could calculate HRV from (ultra-)short ECGs enabling such projects to be performed at a large scale. PMID:26414314

  16. Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity During Speech Repetition Tasks: Heart Rate Variability and Skin Conductance.

    PubMed

    Mackersie, Carol L; Calderon-Moultrie, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional challenges may elicit a physiological stress response that can include arousal of the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response) and withdrawal of the parasympathetic nervous system (responsible for recovery and rest). This article reviews studies that have used measures of electrodermal activity (skin conductance) and heart rate variability (HRV) to index sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during auditory tasks. In addition, the authors present results from a new study with normal-hearing listeners examining the effects of speaking rate on changes in skin conductance and high-frequency HRV (HF-HRV). Sentence repetition accuracy for normal and fast speaking rates was measured in noise using signal to noise ratios that were adjusted to approximate 80% accuracy (+3 dB fast rate; 0 dB normal rate) while monitoring skin conductance and HF-HRV activity. A significant increase in skin conductance level (reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal) and a decrease in HF-HRV (reflecting parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal) were observed with an increase in speaking rate indicating sensitivity of both measures to increased task demand. Changes in psychophysiological reactivity with increased auditory task demand may reflect differences in listening effort, but other person-related factors such as motivation and stress may also play a role. Further research is needed to understand how psychophysiological activity during listening tasks is influenced by the acoustic characteristics of stimuli, task demands, and by the characteristics and emotional responses of the individual. PMID:27355761

  17. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). PMID:25194815

  18. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Evaluation of Applications Nominating Renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Evaluation of Applications Nominating Renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  20. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Evaluation of Applications Nominating Renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Evaluation of Applications Nominating Renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 599.303 - Rating of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Evaluation of Applications Nominating Renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rating of applications. 599.303 Section 599.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. Segmentation and classification of capnograms: application in respiratory variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Herry, C L; Townsend, D; Green, G C; Bravi, A; Seely, A J E

    2014-12-01

    Variability analysis of respiratory waveforms has been shown to provide key insights into respiratory physiology and has been used successfully to predict clinical outcomes. The current standard for quality assessment of the capnogram signal relies on a visual analysis performed by an expert in order to identify waveform artifacts. Automated processing of capnograms is desirable in order to extract clinically useful features over extended periods of time in a patient monitoring environment. However, the proper interpretation of capnogram derived features depends upon the quality of the underlying waveform. In addition, the comparison of capnogram datasets across studies requires a more practical approach than a visual analysis and selection of high-quality breath data. This paper describes a system that automatically extracts breath-by-breath features from capnograms and estimates the quality of individual breaths derived from them. Segmented capnogram breaths were presented to expert annotators, who labeled the individual physiological breaths into normal and multiple abnormal breath types. All abnormal breath types were aggregated into the abnormal class for the purpose of this manuscript, with respiratory variability analysis as the end-application. A database of 11,526 breaths from over 300 patients was created, comprising around 35% abnormal breaths. Several simple classifiers were trained through a stratified repeated ten-fold cross-validation and tested on an unseen portion of the labeled breath database, using a subset of 15 features derived from each breath curve. Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and Naive Bayes classifiers were close in terms of performance (AUC of 90%, 89% and 88% respectively), while using 7, 4 and 5 breath features, respectively. When compared to airflow derived timings, the 95% confidence interval on the mean difference in interbreath intervals was ± 0.18 s. This breath classification system provides a fast and robust pre

  4. Identification of building applications for a variable-conductance insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T F; Tuluca, A

    1992-07-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed the feasibility of controllable, reversible disabling of a vacuum insulation panel, which may result in the development of energy-efficient building envelope components. These components could extend the managed energy exchange through the building envelope from about 30% (typical with fenestration systems in commercial buildings), to as much as 90% of the gross wall and roof areas. Further investigation will be required to optimized the thermal response and the magnitude of the R-value swing (from a difference between insulating and conducting insulating values of 4 to as high as a factor of 100). The potential for energy reduction by using the variable-conductance insulation in the building envelope is discussed, and other potential building applications are mentioned.

  5. Next generation of variable frequency drives and application guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, P.K.; Gjorvad, S.

    1999-11-01

    With the advent in power electronics, increase in power handling capacity of silicone controlled rectifiers and other power electronic devices and the use of high speed digital signal processor (DSP), new and better control principles are now utilized for the design of numerous variable frequency drives (VFDs) for large induction motors. One of the latest technologies developed is the direct torque control (DTC) devices which utilizes the electromagnetic state of the motor to control the flux in the magnetic core and hence, the torque. The response of the drive to changes in the required torque is dramatically improved. DTC provides a precise torque control without the need for a feedback device, such as an encoder or tachogenerator. This paper will discuss the next generation of VFDs utilizing DTC and its application considerations in electric power industry.

  6. Analysis of heart rate variability in individuals subjected to different positive end expiratory pressure levels using expiratory positive airway pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Thiago Lorentz; Costa, Ivan Peres; Kawaguchi, Leandro Yukio Alves; de Carvalho, Flávio Aimbire Soares; de Carvalho, Regiane Albertini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increase in the number of studies has led to greater security in the application of this method and the determination of its effectiveness in adults.. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart rate variability in healthy individuals submitted to different levels of positive expiratory pressure using an expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device. Material and methods The study involved 27 healthy male individuals ranging in age from 20 to 35 years. Patient histories were taken and the subjects were submitted to a physical examination. The volunteers were monitored using the Polar 810s® and submitted to the EPAP experiment. Analyses were performed on variables of the frequency domain. Sympathetic and parasympathetic bands and their relationship with sympathovagal response were also analyzed. Results The mean value of this variable was 526.89 (55.50) ms2 in the first period, 2811.0 (721.10) ms2 in the fourth period and 726.52 (123.41) ms2 in the fifth period. Regarding the parasympathetic area, significant differences were detected when Periods 1 and 5 (no load) were compared with periods in which the individuals were subjected to the use of the therapy. Sympathetic and parasympathetic areas together, a significant difference was detected regarding the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio in the comparison between Periods 1 and 4 (p < 0.01) as well as Periods 2 and 4 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that the therapeutic use of EPAP significantly alters the parameters of heart rate variability in the frequency domain, highlighting the importance of monitoring and care during the practice of EPAP. PMID:24049524

  7. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    SciTech Connect

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  8. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation. PMID:27182948

  9. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation.

  10. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P < 0.1). The result in this study can suggest that the leading horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  11. Variability in temporary emigration rates of individually marked female Weddell seals prior to first reproduction.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Glenn E; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    In many species, temporary emigration (TE) is a phenomenon, often indicative of life-history characteristics such as dormancy, skipped reproduction, or partial migration, whereby certain individuals in a population are temporarily unobservable at a particular site. TE may be a flexible condition-dependent strategy that allows individuals to mitigate effects of adverse conditions. Consequently, TE rates ought to be highly variable, but sources of variations are poorly understood for most species. We used data from known-aged female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) tagged in Erebus Bay, Antarctica, to investigate sources of variation in TE rates prior to reproduction and to evaluate possible implications for age-specific probability of first reproduction. TE rates were near 1 the year after birth, decreased to an average of 0.15 (SE = 0.01) by age 8, and were similar thereafter. TE rates varied substantially from year-to-year and were lower for seals that attended reproductive colonies the previous year than for seals that did not attend (e.g., ψ(i,age 8)(UU) - ψ(i, age 8)(PU) = 0.22). Recruitment rates were marginally greater for seals that did attend than for seals that did not attend colonies the previous year. For Weddell seals specifically, our results suggest that (1) motivation to attend colonies varied temporally, (2) as seals grew older they had increased motivation to attend even before reproductive maturity, and (3) seals appear to follow various attendance strategies. More broadly, our results support the idea of TE as a variable, condition-dependent strategy, and highlight the utility of TE models for providing population and life-history insights for diverse taxa.

  12. High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Linked to Affiliation with a New Group

    PubMed Central

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that high levels of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) predisposes individuals to affiliate with new groups. Resting cardiac physiological recordings were taken before and after experimental sessions to measure trait high-frequency heart rate variability as an index of dispositional autonomic influence on heart rate. Following an experimental manipulation of priming of caring-related words, participants engaged in a minimal group paradigm, in which they imagined being a member of one of two arbitrary groups, allocated money to members of the two groups, and rated their affiliation with the groups. High levels of HF-HRV were associated with ingroup favouritism while allocating money, an effect largely attributable to a positive relationship between HF-HRV and allocation of money to the ingroup, and less due to a negative relationship between HF-HRV and money allocation to the outgroup. HF-HRV was also associated with increased self-reported affiliation feelings for the ingroup but was unrelated to feelings towards the outgroup. These effects remained substantial even after controlling for age, gender, BMI, mood, caffeine consumption, time of day of data collection, smoking and alcohol behaviour, and respiration rate. Further, the effects were observed regardless of whether participants were primed with caring-related words or not. This study is the first to bridge a long history of research on ingroup favouritism to the relatively recent body of research on cardiac vagal tone by uncovering a positive association between HF-HRV and affiliation with a novel group. PMID:26106891

  13. High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Linked to Affiliation with a New Group.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that high levels of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) predisposes individuals to affiliate with new groups. Resting cardiac physiological recordings were taken before and after experimental sessions to measure trait high-frequency heart rate variability as an index of dispositional autonomic influence on heart rate. Following an experimental manipulation of priming of caring-related words, participants engaged in a minimal group paradigm, in which they imagined being a member of one of two arbitrary groups, allocated money to members of the two groups, and rated their affiliation with the groups. High levels of HF-HRV were associated with ingroup favouritism while allocating money, an effect largely attributable to a positive relationship between HF-HRV and allocation of money to the ingroup, and less due to a negative relationship between HF-HRV and money allocation to the outgroup. HF-HRV was also associated with increased self-reported affiliation feelings for the ingroup but was unrelated to feelings towards the outgroup. These effects remained substantial even after controlling for age, gender, BMI, mood, caffeine consumption, time of day of data collection, smoking and alcohol behaviour, and respiration rate. Further, the effects were observed regardless of whether participants were primed with caring-related words or not. This study is the first to bridge a long history of research on ingroup favouritism to the relatively recent body of research on cardiac vagal tone by uncovering a positive association between HF-HRV and affiliation with a novel group. PMID:26106891

  14. Heart rate variability on antihypertensive drugs in black patients living in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osakwe, Chukwunomso E.; Jacobs, Lotte; Anisiuba, Benedict C.; Ndiaye, Mouhamado B.; Lemogoum, Daniel; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.; Kamdem, Marius M.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boombhi, Hilaire J.; Kaptue, Joseph; Kolo, Philip M.; Mipinda, Jean B.; Odili, Augustine N.; Ezeala-Adikaibe, Birinus; Kingue, Samuel; Omotoso, Babatunde A.; Ba, Serigne A.; Ulasi, Ifeoma I.; M’buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-Rene

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with Caucasians, African Americans have lower heart rate variability (HRV) in the high-frequency domain, but there are no studies in blacks born and living in Africa. Methods In the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients trial (NCT01030458), patients (30–69 years) with uncomplicated hypertension (140–179/90–109 mmHg) were randomized to single-pill combinations of bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (R) or amlodipine/valsartan (E). 72 R and 84 E patients underwent 5-min ECG recordings at randomization and 8, 16 and 24 weeks. HRV was determined by fast Fourier transform and autoregressive modelling. Results Heart rate decreased by 9.5 beats/min in R patients with no change in E patients (− 2.2 beats/min). R patients had reduced total (− 0.13 ms²; p = 0.0038) and low-frequency power (− 3.6 nu; p = 0.057), higher high-frequency (+ 3.3 nu; p = 0.050) and a reduced low- to high-frequency ratio (− 0.08; p = 0.040). With adjustment for heart rate, these differences disappeared, except for the reduced low-frequency power in the R group (− 4.67 nu; p = 0.02). Analyses confined to 39 R and 47 E patients with HRV measurements at all visits or based on autoregressive modelling were confirmatory. Conclusion In native black African patients, antihypertensive drugs modulate HRV, an index of autonomous nervous tone. However, these effects were mediated by changes in heart rate except for low-frequency variability, which was reduced on beta blockade independent of heart rate. PMID:24066715

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death

    PubMed Central

    Conci, F; Di, R; Castiglioni, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death.
METHODS—Spontaneous variability of arterial blood pressure and heart rate—estimated by power spectra of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse interval (PI)—and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)—estimated by the alpha index and the sequence technique—were evaluated in 11 patients twice: shortly before and 1 hour after the onset of brain death.
RESULTS—Significant spectral changes occurred after brain death: a general power reduction in PI spectra; a shift of SBP, DBP and PI powers toward the lower frequencies, resulting in a greater slope of the "1/f" spectral trends; and a marked reduction of SBP and DBP powers (-93%) and of SBP-PI coherence (−63%) at 0.1Hz. The estimated average BRS was relatively high before brain death (around 11 ms/mm Hg), and fell close to 0 or even was not detectable at all after brain death.
CONCLUSIONS—Parameters describing spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and indexes reflecting the baroreflex function, which were relatively normal up to a few hours before brain death, underwent marked changes with the onset of brain death. All the changes found are likely to reflect the cessation of activity of the cardiovascular brain stem centres. These findings indicate that techniques of blood pressure and heart rate spectral analysis and of dynamic assessment of baroreflex sensitivity may be useful to complement the diagnosis of brain stem death.

 PMID:11606674

  16. Intelligent real-time CCD data processing system based on variable frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Su-ting

    2009-07-01

    In order to meet the need of image shooting with CCD in unmanned aerial vehicles, a real-time high resolution CCD data processing system based on variable frame rate is designed. The system is consisted of three modules: CCD control module, data processing module and data display module. In the CCD control module, real-time flight parameters (e.g. flight height, velocity and longitude) should be received from GPS through UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) and according to the corresponding flight parameters, the variable frame rate is calculated. Based on the calculated variable frame rate, CCD external synchronization control impulse signal is generated in the control of FPGA and then CCD data is read out. In the data processing module, data segmentation is designed to extract ROI (region of interest), whose resolution is equal to valid data resolution of HDTV standard conforming to SMPTE (1080i). On one hand, Ping-pong SRAM storage controller is designed in FPGA to real-time store ROI data. On the other hand, according to the need of intelligent observing, changeable window position is designed, and a flexible area of interest is obtained. In the real-time display module, a special video encoder is used to accomplish data format conversion. Data after storage is packeted to HDTV format by creating corresponding format information in FPGA. Through inner register configuration, high definition video analog signal is implemented. The entire system has been implemented in FPGA and validated. It has been used in various real-time CCD data processing situations.

  17. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on performance psychology of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya

    2012-06-01

    Coping with pressure and anxiety is an ineluctable demand of sports performance. Heart rate variability (HRV) Biofeedback (BFB) shall be used as a tool for self regulating physiological responses resulting in improved psycho physiological interactions. For further analysis, the present study has been designed to examine the relationship between anxiety and performance and also effectiveness of biofeedback protocol to create stress-eliciting situation in basketball players. Thirty basketball players of university level and above (both male and female) aged 18-28 years, who scored a minimum of 20 in state trait anxiety inventory, were randomly divided into three equal groups- Experimental (Biofeedback) group, Placebo group and Control (No Treatment) group. The BFB group received HRV BFB training for 10 consecutive days for 20 min that included breathing at individual's resonant frequency through a pacing stimulus; Placebo group was shown motivational video clips for 10 consecutive days for 10 min, whereas No Treatment Control group was not given any intervention. Two way repeated measure ANOVA was applied to analyze the differences within and between the groups. Anxiety, coping self-efficacy, heart rate variability, respiration rate, and performance (dribbling, passing and shooting) at session 1, 10 and 1 month follow up were statistically significant in each group along with interaction of group and time (p < 0.001). Also, all the measures showed statistically significant inter group difference (p < 0.05). The findings are harmonious with existing data on HRV BFB as a strategy for dealing with anxiety. The Placebo group showed improvement in self efficacy and performance post training. The Control group showed no change in any variable except performance. The results of the study support the idea that HRV BFB lowers the anxiety and thus there seems to be a potential association between HRV BFB and performance optimization. PMID:22402913

  18. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on performance psychology of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya

    2012-06-01

    Coping with pressure and anxiety is an ineluctable demand of sports performance. Heart rate variability (HRV) Biofeedback (BFB) shall be used as a tool for self regulating physiological responses resulting in improved psycho physiological interactions. For further analysis, the present study has been designed to examine the relationship between anxiety and performance and also effectiveness of biofeedback protocol to create stress-eliciting situation in basketball players. Thirty basketball players of university level and above (both male and female) aged 18-28 years, who scored a minimum of 20 in state trait anxiety inventory, were randomly divided into three equal groups- Experimental (Biofeedback) group, Placebo group and Control (No Treatment) group. The BFB group received HRV BFB training for 10 consecutive days for 20 min that included breathing at individual's resonant frequency through a pacing stimulus; Placebo group was shown motivational video clips for 10 consecutive days for 10 min, whereas No Treatment Control group was not given any intervention. Two way repeated measure ANOVA was applied to analyze the differences within and between the groups. Anxiety, coping self-efficacy, heart rate variability, respiration rate, and performance (dribbling, passing and shooting) at session 1, 10 and 1 month follow up were statistically significant in each group along with interaction of group and time (p < 0.001). Also, all the measures showed statistically significant inter group difference (p < 0.05). The findings are harmonious with existing data on HRV BFB as a strategy for dealing with anxiety. The Placebo group showed improvement in self efficacy and performance post training. The Control group showed no change in any variable except performance. The results of the study support the idea that HRV BFB lowers the anxiety and thus there seems to be a potential association between HRV BFB and performance optimization.

  19. Short-term heart rate variability in a population-based sample of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Séguin, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Paradis, Gilles; Séguin, Jean R

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic function derived from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Normative HRV values and development factors have not been established in pediatric populations. The objective was to derive referent time- and frequency-domain HRV values for a population-based sample of children. Children aged 9-11 years (N = 1,036) participated in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development cohort cardiovascular health screening. Registered nurses measured anthropometrics (height, weight) and children wore an ambulatory Holter monitor to continuously record an ECG signal. HRV variables included time (SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, SDANN) and frequency (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) domain variables. Normative HRV values, stratified by age, sex, and heart rate, are presented. Greater heart rate (β avg  = -0.60, R avg (2)  = 0.39), pubertal maturation (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01), later ECG recording times (β avg = -0.19, R avg (2)  = 0.07), and higher diastolic blood pressure (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01) were significantly associated with reduced HRV in 10-year-old children. The normative HRV values permit clinicians to monitor, describe, and establish pediatric nosologies in primary care and research settings, which may improve treatment of diseases associated with HRV in children. By better understanding existing values, the practical applicability of HRV among clinicians will be enhanced. Lastly, developmental (e.g., puberty) and procedural (e.g., recording time) factors were identified that will improve recording procedures and interpretation of results. PMID:25056158

  20. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability in the horse and its rider: different responses to training and performance.

    PubMed

    von Lewinski, Mareike; Biau, Sophie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Faure, Jean-Michel; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Although some information exists on the stress response of horses in equestrian sports, the horse-rider team is much less well understood. In this study, salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals) were analysed in horses and their riders (n=6 each) at a public performance and an identical rehearsal that was not open to the public. Cortisol concentrations increased in both horses and riders (P<0.001) but did not differ between performance and rehearsal. HR in horses and riders increased during the rehearsal and the public performance (P<0.001) but the increase in HR was more pronounced (P<0.01) in riders than in their horses during the public performance (from 91 ± 10 to 150 ± 15 beats/min) compared to the rehearsal (from 94 ± 10 to 118 ± 12 beats/min). The SDRR decreased significantly during the equestrian tasks in riders (P<0.001), but not in their horses. The RMSSD decreased in horses and riders (P<0.001) during rehearsal and performance, indicating a decrease in parasympathetic tone. The decrease in RMSSD in the riders was more pronounced (P<0.05) during the performance (from 32.6 ± 6.6 to 3.8 ± 0.3 ms) than during the rehearsal (from 27.5 ± 4.2 to 6.6 ± 0.6 ms). The study has shown that the presence of spectators caused more pronounced changes in cardiac activity in the riders than it did in their horses.

  1. [Influence of different combination of mental activity and respiratory cycle on heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Sun, F L; Li, D M; Li, G Y

    1996-03-01

    By means of spectral analysis of P-R interval, different characteristics of heart rate variability in different form of respiratory exercise was observed. The results of observation on 32 volunteers showed that mental activity that affected respiration can influence the function of autonomic nerve system in a different way. When the mind was concentrated at the inspiration, the function of autonomic nerve system was kept in balance, and both the sympathetic and the vagal activities enhanced significantly and while mind concentrated at the expiration could induce a reduction of vagal activity so as to produce marked change in the sympathovagal balance.

  2. [Heart rate variability analysis: a new approach in clinical research methodology for neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Rizzotti, Alina; Agüero, Guillermo

    2011-08-01

    The knowledge on neonatal sepsis has increase significantly, but a clinical or biochemical marker is not available for an early and appropriate diagnosis. This fact results of an inadequate analysis which might be missing important quantum of biological information. A new method of nonlinear analysis have been proposed to investigate time series of physiological data, particularly heart rate variability analysis, that apparently would detect abnormal changes which precedes clinical or biochemical signs of infection by as much as 12-24 hours. PMID:21829875

  3. Controlling Variable Emittance (MEMS) Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, D.; Schneider, W.; Osiander, R.; Champion, J. L.; Darrin, A. G.; Douglas, Donya; Swanson, Ted D.

    2003-01-01

    Small spacecraft, including micro and nanosats, as they are envisioned for future missions, will require an alternative means to achieve thermal control due to their small power and mass budgets. One of the proposed alternatives is Variable Emittance (Vari-E) Coatings for spacecraft radiators. Space Technology-5 (ST-5) is a technology demonstration mission through NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) that will utilize Vari-E Coatings. This mission involves a constellation of three (3) satellites in a highly elliptical orbit with a perigee altitude of approximately 200 kilometers and an apogee of approximately 38,000 kilometers. Such an environment will expose the spacecraft to a wide swing in the thermal and radiation environment of the earth's atmosphere. There are three (3) different technologies associated with this mission. The three technologies are electrophoretic, electrochromic, and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). The ultimate goal is to make use of Van-E coatings, in order to achieve various levels of thermal control. The focus of this paper is to highlight the Vari-E Coating MEMS instrument, with an emphasis on the Electronic Control Unit responsible for operating the MEMS device. The Test & Evaluation approach, along with the results, is specific for application on ST-5, yet the information provides a guideline for future experiments and/or thermal applications on the exterior structure of a spacecraft.

  4. Considerations in the assessment of heart rate variability in biobehavioral research

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Daniel S.; Heathers, James A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to various methods of assessing the beat-to-beat variation in the heart over time, in order to draw inference on the outflow of the autonomic nervous system. Easy access to measuring HRV has led to a plethora of studies within emotion science and psychology assessing autonomic regulation, but significant caveats exist due to the complicated nature of HRV. Firstly, both breathing and blood pressure regulation have their own relationship to social, emotional, and cognitive experiments – if this is the case are we observing heart rate (HR) changes as a consequence of breathing changes? Secondly, experiments often have poor internal and external controls. In this review we highlight the interrelationships between HR and respiration, as well as presenting recommendations for researchers to use when collecting data for HRV assessment. Namely, we highlight the superior utility of within-subjects designs along with the importance of establishing an appropriate baseline and monitoring respiration. PMID:25101047

  5. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F / # systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. The repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100 nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  6. Synoptic-scale variability of satellite-derived sea-ice deformation rates in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A.; Głowacki, O.

    2012-04-01

    Observational data show that deformation of the compact sea ice covering the central Arctic takes place within elongated, narrow zones separating semi-rigid floes. Localization of deformation, and a related intermittent character of internal stress in the ice, cannot be satisfactorily reproduced with present state-of-the-art numerical models, especially those based on various versions of viscous-plastic rheology. Similarly, sea-ice models do not reproduce properly the observed power-law tails of deformation-rate probability distributions (pdfs), with a slope depending on the scale of the observation. In order to be able to improve the models, one needs: (i) relevant quantitative measures of ice deformation rates that the models should aim to reproduce; (ii) a better understanding of the time variability of those measures (existing studies are usually limited to the analysis of single events) and their dependence on changes of the external forcing and of the properties of the ice itself. In this study, we use gridded sea-ice total deformation rates from the RGPS data provided by the RADARSAT-1 satellite, available for 11 winter seasons with a time resolution of 3 days and a spatial resolution of 12.55 km. The analysis is based on deformation-rate pdfs obtained by means of a rank-order analysis of the data for each snapshot in the dataset. We analyze the time variability of: (i) the slope of the power-law tails of the pdfs, estimated with a maximum-likelihood method; and (ii) the moments of the pdfs for a range of exponents q and spatial scales L from the original mesh size to approximately 1000 km. In all analyzed cases, the slope of the moments as a function of the length scale L increases (faster than linearly) with increasing power q. However, the tempo of this increase can be very different. Generally, there are two distinct, dominating patterns of variability, with the first pattern describing the overall level of deformation, and the second one being generally

  7. Fixed-quality/variable bit-rate on-board image compression for future CNES missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarero, Roberto; Delaunay, Xavier; Thiebaut, Carole

    2012-10-01

    The huge improvements in resolution and dynamic range of current [1][2] and future CNES remote sensing missions (from 5m/2.5m in Spot5 to 70cm in Pleiades) illustrate the increasing need of efficient on-board image compressors. Many techniques have been considered by CNES during the last years in order to go beyond usual compression ratios: new image transforms or post-transforms [3][4], exceptional processing [5], selective compression [6]. However, even if significant improvements have been obtained, none of those techniques has ever contested an essential drawback in current on-board compression schemes: fixed-rate (or compression ratio). This classical assumption provides highly-predictable data volumes that simplify storage and transmission. But on the other hand, it demands to compress every image-segment (strip) of the scene within the same amount of data. Therefore, this fixed bit-rate is dimensioned on the worst case assessments to guarantee the quality requirements in all areas of the image. This is obviously not the most economical way of achieving the required image quality for every single segment. Thus, CNES has started a study to re-use existing compressors [7] in a Fixed-Quality/Variable bit-rate mode. The main idea is to compute a local complexity metric in order to assign the optimum bit-rate to comply with quality requirements. Consequently, complex areas are less compressed than simple ones, offering a better image quality for an equivalent global bit-rate. "Near-lossless bit-rate" of image segments has revealed as an efficient image complexity estimator. It links quality criteria and bit-rates through a single theoretical relationship. Compression parameters are thus automatically computed in accordance with the quality requirements. In addition, this complexity estimator could be implemented in a one-pass compression and truncation scheme.

  8. When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gerteis, Ann Kathrin S; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health. PMID:27137911

  9. When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gerteis, Ann Kathrin S; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability within independent frequency components during the sleep-wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel E; Dominguez, Javier; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Scaramal, Mariano; Ruffa, Eduardo; Solernó, Juan; Siri, Leonardo Nicola; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2010-04-19

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a complex signal that results from the contribution of different sources of oscillation related to the autonomic nervous system activity. Although linear analysis of HRV has been applied to sleep studies, the nonlinear dynamics of HRV underlying frequency components during sleep is less known. We conducted a study to evaluate nonlinear HRV within independent frequency components in wake status, slow-wave sleep (SWS, stages III or IV of non-rapid eye movement sleep), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM). The sample included 10 healthy adults. Polysomnography was performed to detect sleep stages. HRV was studied globally during each phase and then very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components were separated by means of the wavelet transform algorithm. HRV nonlinear dynamics was estimated with sample entropy (SampEn). A higher SampEn was found when analyzing global variability (Wake: 1.53+/-0.28, SWS: 1.76+/-0.32, REM: 1.45+/-0.19, p=0.005) and VLF variability (Wake: 0.13+/-0.03, SWS: 0.19+/-0.03, REM: 0.14+/-0.03, p<0.001) at SWS. REM was similar to wake status regarding nonlinear HRV. We propose nonlinear HRV is a useful index of the autonomic activity that characterizes the different sleep-wake cycle stages.

  11. Music can enhance exercise-induced sympathetic dominancy assessed by heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Kayoko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2005-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted on physiological responses of music, yielding controversial results. In the present study, we examined whether music affects the exercise-induced changes in the autonomic nervous system activity in twelve healthy female college students. On the first day, the subjects were asked to rest, exercise, and then rest for 15 min, respectively. On the second day, they were asked to rest with music, exercise, and then rest with music for 15 min, respectively. Heart rate variability was measured for the pre- and post-exercise periods. Music was given according to subjects' preferences using a vibroacoustic apparatus (body sonic system), i.e. a chair on which subjects laid and felt low-pitch sounds by their body in addition to listening music. With music, ratio of low frequency to high frequency component of heart rate variability (LH/HF) was significantly increased after exercise as compared with before exercise (p < 0.01). By contrast, the changes in LH/HF were not significant without music (p > 0.05). It is suggested that after exercise in which sympathetic nerve activity is dominant, preferred music synchronizes with the activated physical response, further promoting the response and increasing sympathetic nerve activity. Combining music with exercise is therefore not only enjoyable in terms of mood but also may promote physiological excitation and enhance physical activation. PMID:15942147

  12. The Relationship between Serum Lipid Fractions and Heart Rate Variability in Diabetic Patients with Statin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    BADEA, ANAMARIA RALUCA; NEDELCU, LAURENTIU; VALEANU, MADALINA; ZDRENGHEA, DUMITRU

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study is to identify and highlight the relationship between serum lipid fractions and heart rate variability in diabetic patients receiving statin therapy. Patients and methods The study was performed in a group of 87 type 2 diabetic patients on statin associated therapy. All patients were on Holter ECG 24 hours monitored with three channel monitor (Labtech ECG Holter monitor), and data were analyzed on a commercially available software (Cardiospy PC SW/EV 5.02.06.02). Concentrations of biochemical parameters were determined using specific enzymatic assays on an autoanalyzer Olympus AU 680. In the studied patients, we analyzed Holter/24 hours monitoring reports with respect to heart rate variability indexes, arrhythmic events and myocardial ischemia. Results It was noticed that the mean values of serum TG were slightly elevated, TC levels were close to the limits specified by the guidelines for diabetic patients and for patients with cardiovascular diseases, with no significant differences between males and females. After analyzing the HRV in both time and frequency domains, we found no strong correlations between any of the HRV indexes and any of the lipid fractions. Conclusions The results suggest that statin therapy may reduce the autonomic impairment secondary to dyslipidemia. PMID:26528015

  13. Variability in venom volume, flow rate and duration in defensive stings of five scorpion species.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Coelho, Pedro; Rasko, Mykola

    2015-06-15

    Scorpions have been shown to control their venom usage in defensive encounters, depending on the perceived threat. Potentially, the venom amount that is injected could be controlled by reducing the flow speed, the flow duration, or both. We here investigated these variables by allowing scorpions to sting into an oil-filled chamber, and recording the accreting venom droplets with high-speed video. The size of the spherical droplets on the video can then be used to calculate their volume. We recorded defensive stings of 20 specimens representing 5 species. Significant differences in the flow rate and total expelled volume were found between species. These differences are likely due to differences in overall size between the species. Large variation in both venom flow speed and duration are described between stinging events of single individuals. Both venom flow rate and flow duration correlate highly with the total expelled volume, indicating that scorpions may control both variables in order to achieve a desired end volume of venom during a sting.

  14. Variability in venom volume, flow rate and duration in defensive stings of five scorpion species.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Coelho, Pedro; Rasko, Mykola

    2015-06-15

    Scorpions have been shown to control their venom usage in defensive encounters, depending on the perceived threat. Potentially, the venom amount that is injected could be controlled by reducing the flow speed, the flow duration, or both. We here investigated these variables by allowing scorpions to sting into an oil-filled chamber, and recording the accreting venom droplets with high-speed video. The size of the spherical droplets on the video can then be used to calculate their volume. We recorded defensive stings of 20 specimens representing 5 species. Significant differences in the flow rate and total expelled volume were found between species. These differences are likely due to differences in overall size between the species. Large variation in both venom flow speed and duration are described between stinging events of single individuals. Both venom flow rate and flow duration correlate highly with the total expelled volume, indicating that scorpions may control both variables in order to achieve a desired end volume of venom during a sting. PMID:25911958

  15. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints. PMID:26111942

  16. Analysis of heart rate variability signal in meditation using second-order difference plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Damodar Prasad; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Bhattacharya, Dilip Kumar

    2011-06-01

    In this article, the heart rate variability signal taken from subjects practising different types of meditations have been investigated to find the underlying similarity among them and how they differ from the non-meditative condition. Four different groups of subjects having different meditation techniques are involved. The data have been obtained from the Physionet and also collected with our own ECG machine. For data analysis, the second order difference plot is applied. Each of the plots obtained from the second order differences form a single cluster which is nearly elliptical in shape except for some outliers. In meditation, the axis of the elliptical cluster rotates anticlockwise from the cluster formed from the premeditation data, although the amount of rotation is not of the same extent in every case. This form study reveals definite and specific changes in the heart rate variability of the subjects during meditation. All the four groups of subjects followed different procedures but surprisingly the resulting physiological effect is the same to some extent. It indicates that there is some commonness among all the meditative techniques in spite of their apparent dissimilarity and it may be hoped that each of them leads to the same result as preached by the masters of meditation. The study shows that meditative state has a completely different physiology and that it can be achieved by any meditation technique we have observed. Possible use of this tool in clinical setting such as in stress management and in the treatment of hypertension is also mentioned.

  17. Heart Rate Variability in Sleeping Preterm Neonates Exposed to Cool and Warm Thermal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

  18. Short-term heart rate variability in older patients with newly diagnosed depression.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jee Hyun; Park, Soyeon; Yoon, Daehyun; Kim, Byungsu

    2015-04-30

    Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system has been considered to be a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term heart rate variability (HRV) in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MDD. Thirty MDD patients over 60 years old newly diagnosed by a structured interview were enrolled, free from antidepressants. Socio-demographic data, blood tests, and heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from 5-min ECG were gathered. The MDD group showed significantly lower very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, and total power in frequency domain. In time domain analysis, the MDD group showed a significantly smaller standard deviation of the NN, root mean square of the differences of the successive NN, and NN50/total number of all NNs. These findings demonstrated a lower HRV in older patients who were newly diagnosed with depression without a history of CVD and antidepressants effect, compared with the control subjects. Low HRV may be an important predictor of both MDD and CVD in elderly. The use of HRV in elderly depressive patients could be a meaningful screening method for risk of CVD. PMID:25747680

  19. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kanthak, Magdalena K; Chen, Frances S; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K; Thayer, Julian F; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system. PMID:26903384

  20. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

  1. Heart rate variability in sleeping preterm neonates exposed to cool and warm thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kanthak, Magdalena K; Chen, Frances S; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K; Thayer, Julian F; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system.

  3. The Forgotten Role of Central Volume in Low Frequency Oscillations of Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Manuela; Moissl, Ulrich; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna N.; Tetta, Ciro; Signorini, Maria G.; Ronco, Claudio; Grassmann, Aileen; Cerutti, Sergio; Guzzetti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that central volume plays a key role in the source of low frequency (LF) oscillations of heart rate variability (HRV) was tested in a population of end stage renal disease patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (HD) treatment, and thus subject to large fluid shifts and sympathetic activation. Fluid overload (FO) in 58 chronic HD patients was assessed by whole body bioimpedance measurements before the midweek HD session. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was measured using 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings starting before the same HD treatment. Time domain and frequency domain analyses were performed on HRV signals. Patients were retrospectively classified in three groups according to tertiles of FO normalized to the extracellular water (FO/ECW%). These groups were also compared after stratification by diabetes mellitus. Patients with the low to medium hydration status before the treatment (i.e. 1st and 2nd FO/ECW% tertiles) showed a significant increase in LF power during last 30 min of HD compared to dialysis begin, while no significant change in LF power was seen in the third group (i.e. those with high pre-treatment hydration values). In conclusion, several mechanisms can generate LF oscillations in the cardiovascular system, including baroreflex feedback loops and central oscillators. However, the current results emphasize the role played by the central volume in determining the power of LF oscillations. PMID:25793464

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sharon Del Bem Velloso; da Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Lataro, Renata Maria; Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Simões, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo; Fazan, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure induced by myocardial infarct (MI) attenuates the heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity, which are important risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events. Therapies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results after MI. However, the effects of MSCs on hemodynamic (heart rate and arterial pressure) variability and baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) following MI have not been evaluated thus far. Male Wistar rats received MSCs or saline solution intravenously 1 week after ligation of the left coronary artery. Control (noninfarcted) rats were also evaluated. MI size was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography. Four weeks after MSC injection, the animals were anesthetized and instrumented for chronic ECG recording and catheters were implanted in the femoral artery to record arterial pressure. Arterial pressure and HRVs were determined in time and frequency domain (spectral analysis) while HRV was also examined using nonlinear methods: DFA (detrended fluctuation analysis) and sample entropy. The initial MI size was the same among all infarcted rats but was reduced by MSCs. CHF rats exhibited increased myocardial interstitial collagen and sample entropy combined with the attenuation of the following cardiocirculatory parameters: DFA indices, LVEF, baroreflex sensitivity, and HRV. Nevertheless, MSCs hampered all these alterations, except the LVEF reduction. Therefore, 4 weeks after MSC therapy was applied to CHF rats, MI size and myocardial interstitial fibrosis decreased, while baroreflex sensitivity and HRV improved. PMID:26059001

  5. Influence of type 2 diabetes on symbolic analysis and complexity of heart rate variability in men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with diabetes may develop cardiac autonomic dysfunction that may be evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV). The aim was evaluated heart rate variability (HRV) of individuals with type 2 diabetes, without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), in response to active postural maneuver by means of nonlinear analysis (symbolic analysis, Shannon and conditional entropy) and correlate HRV parameters between them, glycated hemoglobin and diabetes duration. Methods Nineteen men with type 2 diabetes without CAN (T2D) and nineteen healthy men (CG), age-range from 40 to 60 years were studied. We assessed HRV in supine and orthostatic position using symbolic analysis (0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV%), Shannon and conditional entropy (SE and NCI). Results In supine position T2D presented higher sympathetic modulation (0V%) than CG. However, there was not any difference between groups for indexes of complexity (SE and NCI). Furthermore, T2D presented a preserved response of cardiac autonomic modulation after active postural maneuver. Conclusions The present study showed that individuals with type 2 diabetes without CAN presented higher cardiac sympathetic modulation. However, the complexity of HRV was not influenced by imbalance of the autonomic modulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In addition, the response of autonomic nervous system in the heart remains preserved after active postural maneuver in individuals with type 2 diabetes, possibly due to the lack of CAN in this group. PMID:24485048

  6. Interpretation of Normalized Spectral Heart Rate Variability Indices In Sleep Research: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    The normalized spectral heart rate variability (HRV) measures low-frequency (LF)nu and high-frequency (HF)nu are frequently used in contemporary sleep research studies to quantify modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this tutorial and methodologic critique is to concisely demonstrate the structural algebraic redundancy inherent in the normalized spectral HRV measures with respect to each other, and also with respect to the well-known HRV index of sympathovagal balance, LF:HF ratio. The statistical problems and interpretational paradoxes related to the mathematical definitions of LFnu and HFnu are briefly outlined. Examples of use of normalized spectral HRV measures in recent articles from the sleep-relevant research literature are critically reviewed. LFnu, HFnu, and LF:HF ratio should be considered equivalent carriers of information about sympathovagal balance. Citation: Burr RL. Interpretation of normalized spectral heart rate variability indices in sleep research: a critical review. SLEEP 2007;30(7):913-919. PMID:17682663

  7. Sleep Quality Estimation based on Chaos Analysis for Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Wakuda, Yuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Arai, Fumihito; Kawaguchi, Mitsuo; Noda, Akiko

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based on a heart rate variability using chaos analysis. Polysomnography(PSG) is a conventional and reliable system to diagnose sleep disorder and to evaluate its severity and therapeatic effect, by estimating sleep quality based on multiple channels. However, a recording process requires a lot of time and a controlled environment for measurement and then an analyzing process of PSG data is hard work because the huge sensed data should be manually evaluated. On the other hand, it is focused that some people make a mistake or cause an accident due to lost of regular sleep and of homeostasis these days. Therefore a simple home system for checking own sleep is required and then the estimation algorithm for the system should be developed. Therefore we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based only on a heart rate variability which can be measured by a simple sensor such as a pressure sensor and an infrared sensor in an uncontrolled environment, by experimentally finding the relationship between chaos indices and sleep quality. The system including the estimation algorithm can inform patterns and quality of own daily sleep to a user, and then the user can previously arranges his life schedule, pays more attention based on sleep results and consult with a doctor.

  8. Heart rate variability in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: relation to disease severity and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, G.; Goldman, J. H.; Keeling, P. J.; Reardon, M.; McKenna, W. J.; Malik, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical importance of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Time domain analysis of 24 hour HRV was performed in 64 patients with DCM, 19 of their relatives with left ventricular enlargement (possible early DCM), and 33 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Measures of HRV were reduced in patients with DCM compared with controls (P < 0.05). HRV parameters were similar in relatives and controls. Measures of HRV were lower in DCM patients in whom progressive heart failure developed (n = 28) than in those who remained clinically stable (n = 36) during a follow up of 24 (20) months (P = 0.0001). Reduced HRV was associated with NYHA functional class, left ventricular end diastolic dimension, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak exercise oxygen consumption (P < 0.05) in all patients. DCM patients with standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals calculated over the 24 hour period (SDNN) < 50 ms had a significantly lower survival rate free of progressive heart failure than those with SDNN > 50 ms (P = 0.0002, at 12 months; P = 0.0001, during overall follow up). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that SDNN < 50 ms identified, independently of other clinical variables, patients who were at increased risk of developing progressive heart failure (P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: HRV is reduced in patients with DCM and related to disease severity. HRV is clinically useful as an early non-invasive marker of DCM deterioration. PMID:9068391

  9. Effects of caffeine on heart rate and QT variability during sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Michael; Tancer, Manuel; Uhde, Thomas; Yeragani, Vikram K

    2005-01-01

    Administration of caffeine in the evening produces poor sleep. Patients with insomnia have characteristic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, including increased heart rate (HR), increased sympathetic activity, and decreased parasympathetic activity. Fifteen young adult normal subjects slept in the laboratory for several nights prior to randomization into a caffeine protocol where subjects received caffeine 400 mg 30 min prior to one night of sleep and placebo randomly prior to another night. ECG was sampled at a rate of 500 Hz and recorded onto a PC. Data samples of 256-s periods of the ECG trace were taken from wake (before sleep), stage II, and REM for placebo and caffeine conditions. A peak detection algorithm was used to identify the R-R intervals (in milliseconds) from the ECG. A common QT variability algorithm was used to find the QT interval for each beat using the time-stretch model. The powers for HR and QT series were integrated in the bands of LF (low frequency: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and HF (high frequency: 0.15-0.5 Hz) bands. There was a significant caffeine by sleep stage interaction for LF/HF ratios (F = 4.0; df = 2, 18; P = .04). LF/HF ratios were significantly higher during REM following caffeine administration. There was also a significant caffeine by sleep stage interaction for QTvi (QT variability normalized for mean QT interval divided by HR variability normalized for mean HR; F = 5.6; df = 2, 12; P = .02). QTvi was also significantly higher during REM following caffeine administration. The higher LF/HF ratios and QTvi during REM are most likely due to the sympathetic effects of caffeine. These findings suggest that excessive caffeine intake may result in adverse cardiovascular events in vulnerable subjects.

  10. Inclusion of Respiratory Frequency Information in Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Stress Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Lazaro, Jesus; Gil, Eduardo; Arza, Adriana; Garzon, Jorge Mario; Lopez-Anton, Raul; de la Camara, Concepcion; Laguna, Pablo; Aguilo, Jordi; Bailon, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory rate and heart rate variability (HRV) are studied as stress markers in a database of young healthy volunteers subjected to acute emotional stress, induced by a modification of the Trier Social Stress Test. First, instantaneous frequency domain HRV parameters are computed using time-frequency analysis in the classical bands. Then, the respiratory rate is estimated and this information is included in HRV analysis in two ways: 1) redefining the high-frequency (HF) band to be centered at respiratory frequency; 2) excluding from the analysis those instants where respiratory frequency falls within the low-frequency (LF) band. Classical frequency domain HRV indices scarcely show statistical differences during stress. However, when including respiratory frequency information in HRV analysis, the normalized LF power as well as the LF/HF ratio significantly increase during stress ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test), revealing higher sympathetic dominance. The LF power increases during stress, only being significantly different in a stress anticipation stage, while the HF power decreases during stress, only being significantly different during the stress task demanding attention. Our results support that joint analysis of respiration and HRV obtains a more reliable characterization of autonomic nervous response to stress. In addition, the respiratory rate is observed to be higher and less stable during stress than during relax ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test) being the most discriminative index for stress stratification (AUC = 88.2 % ). PMID:27093713

  11. Inclusion of Respiratory Frequency Information in Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Stress Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Lazaro, Jesus; Gil, Eduardo; Arza, Adriana; Garzon, Jorge Mario; Lopez-Anton, Raul; de la Camara, Concepcion; Laguna, Pablo; Aguilo, Jordi; Bailon, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory rate and heart rate variability (HRV) are studied as stress markers in a database of young healthy volunteers subjected to acute emotional stress, induced by a modification of the Trier Social Stress Test. First, instantaneous frequency domain HRV parameters are computed using time-frequency analysis in the classical bands. Then, the respiratory rate is estimated and this information is included in HRV analysis in two ways: 1) redefining the high-frequency (HF) band to be centered at respiratory frequency; 2) excluding from the analysis those instants where respiratory frequency falls within the low-frequency (LF) band. Classical frequency domain HRV indices scarcely show statistical differences during stress. However, when including respiratory frequency information in HRV analysis, the normalized LF power as well as the LF/HF ratio significantly increase during stress ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test), revealing higher sympathetic dominance. The LF power increases during stress, only being significantly different in a stress anticipation stage, while the HF power decreases during stress, only being significantly different during the stress task demanding attention. Our results support that joint analysis of respiration and HRV obtains a more reliable characterization of autonomic nervous response to stress. In addition, the respiratory rate is observed to be higher and less stable during stress than during relax ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test) being the most discriminative index for stress stratification (AUC = 88.2 % ).

  12. Statistical variability and confidence intervals for planar dose QA pass rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Attwood, Kristopher; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The most common metric for comparing measured to calculated dose, such as for pretreatment quality assurance of intensity-modulated photon fields, is a pass rate (%) generated using percent difference (%Diff), distance-to-agreement (DTA), or some combination of the two (e.g., gamma evaluation). For many dosimeters, the grid of analyzed points corresponds to an array with a low areal density of point detectors. In these cases, the pass rates for any given comparison criteria are not absolute but exhibit statistical variability that is a function, in part, on the detector sampling geometry. In this work, the authors analyze the statistics of various methods commonly used to calculate pass rates and propose methods for establishing confidence intervals for pass rates obtained with low-density arrays. Methods: Dose planes were acquired for 25 prostate and 79 head and neck intensity-modulated fields via diode array and electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and matching calculated dose planes were created via a commercial treatment planning system. Pass rates for each dose plane pair (both centered to the beam central axis) were calculated with several common comparison methods: %Diff/DTA composite analysis and gamma evaluation, using absolute dose comparison with both local and global normalization. Specialized software was designed to selectively sample the measured EPID response (very high data density) down to discrete points to simulate low-density measurements. The software was used to realign the simulated detector grid at many simulated positions with respect to the beam central axis, thereby altering the low-density sampled grid. Simulations were repeated with 100 positional iterations using a 1 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, a 2 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, and similar random detector grids. For each simulation, %/DTA composite pass rates were calculated with various %Diff/DTA criteria and for both local and global %Diff normalization

  13. Increase Effect of Available Transfer Capability by Dynamic Rating Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masaki; Satoh, Takuya; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Kurihara, Ikuo

    As the deregulated environment of power systems has been spread in the world, it is essential to operate power systems efficiently and economy. Under the environments, with the advance of communication technologies and sensors, the so-called dynamic rating is now to be realized. The dynamic rating is a method which determines accurate ratings by utilizing real-time information such as conductor temperatures, ambient temperatures and wind speeds. The dynamic rating is considered to increase the thermal capacities of overhead transmission lines and therefore take on importance in the deregulated electric power industry. The importance of the dynamic rating lies mainly in the area of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) improvement. In this paper, the validity of the proposed dynamic rating application is shown from the viewpoint of ATC, especially, ATC with thermal constraints. In addition, the possibilities of ATC estimations using sensitivities are verified on the purpose of reducing calculating time, considering the importance of real time simulation of ATC.

  14. Temporal slip rate variability in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Ryan; Kuebler, Simon; Friedrich, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Low strain regions may be characterized by long periods of seismic quiescence, punctuated by periods of clustered earthquake activity. This type of non-periodic recurrence behavior challenges accurate seismic hazard analysis. The Lower Rhine Embayment in the German-Belgium-Netherland border region presents a unique opportunity to characterize the long-term record of faulting to evaluate the periodicity of earthquake occurrence in a low strain region. The Lower Rhine Embayment is covered by a high-resolution record of Quaternary terraces associated with the Rhine and Maas (Meuse) Rivers and their tributaries. These terraces are cut by numerous NW-trending faults and record cumulative displacements that exceed 100 m in numerous locations. In this study, we exploit this rich record of faulted fluvial terraces and find convincing evidence for temporally varying rates of Quaternary fault movement across the Lower Rhine Embayment. First, we document a significant increase in vertical fault slip rates since 700 ka, compared to the average slip rate since the start of the Quaternary using the top and base of the Main Terrace, respectively. Increases in slip rate exceed 500% along many of the faults, including the Swist/Erft, Stockheim, Viersen, Sandgewand, and Kirspenich fault systems. This increase in fault slip rate corresponds to a regional period of increased tectonic uplift of the Rhenish Massif, increased volcanism in Eifel, and incision of the Rhine River. In a second and related analysis, we synthesize terrace offset and age information from the Feldbiss fault system along the western boundary of the Lower Rhine Embayment, which transects a flight of Quaternary terraces associated with the Mass river. This analysis reveals evidence for secular variation in slip rate. In particular, we identify two periods of higher slip rate (800-400 ka and 130-100 ka), where fault slip rate exceeds the longer-term average slip rate of 0.04-0.05 mm/yr by as much as a factor of two

  15. The Accretion Rates and White Dwarf Components of Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusawa, Trisha; Merritt, J.; Bonaro, M.; Foran, S.; Plumberg, C.; Stewart, H.; Wiley, T.; Ballouz, R.; Sion, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a multi-component synthetic spectral analysis of the archival far ultraviolet spectra of several key nova-like variables including members of the SW Sex, RW Tri, UX UMa and VY Scl subclasses: KR Aur, V795 Her, BP Lyn, V825 Her, HL Aqr, RW Tri and V425 Cas. Accretion rates as well as the flux contribution of the accreting white dwarf are included in our analysis. Except for RW Tri which has a reliable trigonometric parallax, we computed the distances to the nova-like systems using the method of Knigge(2006, MNRAS, 373, 484). For KR Aur, we find that the white dwarf has T_eff = 29,000 +/- 2000K, log g = 8.4 and contributes 18% of the FUV flux while an accretion disk with accretion rate Mdot = 3 x 10-10 Msun/yr at an inclination of 41 degrees, contributes the remainder. Our analysis of seven archival IUE spectra of RW Tri at its parallax distance consistently yields a low mass (0.4 Msun) white dwarf and an average accretion rate, Mdot = 6.3 x 10-9 Msun/yr. We find that an accreting white dwarf rather than accretion disk dominates the far UV spectrum of V425 Cas while HL Aqr's and V825 Her's FUV spectra are dominated by an accretion disk with Mdot = 1 x 10-9 Msun/yr and 3 x 10-9 Msun/yr, respectively. For BP Lyn we find Mdot = 1 x 10-8 Msun/yr and we explore the possiblity that V795 Her is an intermediate polar. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolutionary status of nova-like variables. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0807892 to Villanova University and by the Delaware Space Grant Consortium

  16. Repeatability of heart rate variability in congenital hypothyroidism as analysed by detrended fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, J C; Solís, L I; Pérez, J E; Gaitán, M J; Rivera, I R; Mandujano, M; Sánchez, M C; González-Camarena, R

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of heart rate fluctuations, or heart rate variability (HRV), may be applied to explore children's neurodevelopment. However, previous studies have reported poor reliability (repeatability) of HRV measures in children at rest and during light exercise. Whether the reliability can be improved by controlling variables such as physical activity, breathing rate and tidal volume, or by selecting non-conventional techniques for analysing the data remains as an open question. We evaluated the short-term repeatability of RR-interval data from medicated children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The alpha(1) exponents, obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), from the data of 21 children collected at two different sessions were compared. Elapsed days between sessions were 59 +/- 33, and data were obtained during 10 min, trying to restrict the children's activity while being seated. We found statistical agreement between the means of alpha(1) exponents for each session (p = 0.94) and no bias with a low-coefficient variation (9.1%); an intraclass correlation coefficient ri = 0.48 ([0.14 0.72], 95% confidence interval) was also estimated. These findings, which were compared with results obtained by conventional time and frequency techniques, indicate the existence of agreement between the alpha(1) exponents obtained at each session, thereby providing support concerning the repeatability of HRV data as analysed by DFA in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Of particular interest was also the agreement found by using the central frequency of the high-frequency band and the parameter pNN20, both showing better or similar ri than alpha(1) (0.77 [0.57 0.89] and 0.51 [0.17 0.74], respectively), yet considerably better repeatability than other conventional time and frequency parameters.

  17. Heart rate variability and cardiac reflexes in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Taylor, Barry J; Bolton, David P G; Sayers, Rachel M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the influence of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac reflexes, we studied 27 healthy small for gestational age (SGA) and 23 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants during a nap study. Resting HRV was assessed by point dispersion of Poincaré plots for overall (SDRR) and instantaneous beat-to-beat variability (SDDeltaRR) and the ratio (SDRR/SDDeltaRR). Heart rate reflex and arousal responses to a 60 degrees head-up tilt were determined. All tests/measures were repeated twice in quiet and active sleep and in prone and supine sleep positions at 1 and 3 mo of age. SGA infants exhibited higher resting sympathetic tone [SDRR/SDDeltaRR: 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.0) and 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.8) in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.046] and a tendency for a smaller tachycardic reflex response to the tilt [Deltaheart rate: 24 beats/min (95% confidence interval: 20, 28) and 30 (95% confidence interval: 25, 34)] in SGA and AGA, respectively; P=0.06]. HRV indexes were reduced in the prone compared with supine position (P<0.0001), but reflex tilt responses were unchanged with position. SGA/AGA differences were independent of sleep position. Gestational age weight status did not influence the likelihood of arousal, but prone sleeping per se reduced the odds 2.5-fold. The findings suggest reduced autonomic activity and cardiac reflexes in SGA infants. The finding that the sympathetic component of the control of HRV was higher in SGA infants could link with findings in adulthood of an association between being born SGA and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16306252

  18. Sleep Apnea in Heart Failure Increases Heart Rate Variability and Sympathetic Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Szollosi, Irene; Krum, Henry; Kaye, David; Naughton, Matthew T.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in heart failure and ventilation is known to influence heart rate. Our aims were to assess the influence of SDB on heart rate variability (HRV) and to determine whether central sleep apnea (CSA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) produced different patterns of HRV. Methods and Results: Overnight polysomnography was performed in 21 patients with heart failure and SDB. Two 10-minute segments each of SDB and stable breathing from each patient were visually identified and ECG signal exported for HRV analysis. SDB increased total power (TP) with very low frequency (VLF) power accounting for the greatest increase (1.89±0.54 vs 2.96±0.46 ms2, P <0.001); LF/HF ratio increased during SDB (1.2±1.0 vs 2.7±2.1, P <0.001). Compared to OSA, CSA was associated with lower absolute LF (2.10±0.47 vs 2.52±0.55 ms2, P = 0.049) and HF power (1.69±0.41 vs 2.34±0.58 ms2, P = 0.004), increased VLF% (78.9%±13.4% vs 60.9%±19.2%, P = 0.008), decreased HF% (6.9%±7.8% vs 16.0%±11.7%, P = 0.046) with a trend to higher LF/HF ratio. Conclusions: SDB increases HRV in the setting of increased sympathetic dominance. HRV in CSA and OSA have unique HRV patterns which are likely to reflect the different pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Citation: Szollosi I; Krum H; Kaye D; Naughton MT. Sleep apnea in heart failure increases heart rate variability and sympathetic dominance. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1509-1514. PMID:18041483

  19. Do Lambs Perceive Regular Human Stroking as Pleasant? Behavior and Heart Rate Variability Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Peyrat, Julie; Chandèze, Hervé; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. At 8 weeks of age, the lambs were individually tested in their home pen but in a 1×1m open-barred pen after a 15h period of habituation to physical separation from peers while remaining in visual and auditory contact. Half of the lambs received stroking by their caregiver for 8min and half were exposed to their caregiver’s immobile presence. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value (HR), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats (SDNN). Behavioral responses (ear postures of the lamb and time spent in contact with the familiar caregiver, on the knees of the familiar caregiver, and moving) were recorded throughout the test. Lamb HR decreased continuously while in the presence of their caregiver. Lambs being stroked showed slower HR and higher RMSSD which reflected positive emotional states compared to lambs left unstroked. All behavioral variables were highly correlated with the main component axis of the PCA analyses: the more the animals stayed in contact with their caregiver, the less they moved and the more their ears were hanging. This first component clearly differentiates lambs being stroked or not. Behavioral and physiological observations support the hypothesis that gentle physical contact with the caregiver is perceived positively by lambs. PMID:25714604

  20. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine spatial scale. Our objective was...

  1. A variable reaction rate model for chlorine decay in drinking water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Hua, Pei; Vasyukova, Ekaterina; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    A second order kinetic model for simulating chlorine decay in bulk water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was developed. It takes into account the decreasing reactivity of dissolved organic matter using a variable reaction rate coefficient (VRRC) which decreases with an increasing conversion. The concentration of reducing species is surrogated by the maximum chlorine demand. Temperature dependency, respectively, is described by the Arrhenius-relationship. The accuracy and adequacy of the proposed model to describe chlorine decay in bulk water were evaluated and shown for very different waters and different conditions such as water mixing or rechlorination by applying statistical tests. It is thus very well suited for application in water quality modeling for distribution systems.

  2. Steady-state rate analysis: application to biological transport.

    PubMed

    Wagg, J; Chapman, J B

    1995-05-01

    A novel method for defining the steady-state unidirectional rates of complex reactions has previously been developed (Wagg, 1988 Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Australia). This methodology is based upon the method of Wagg (1987, J. theor. Biol. 128, 375-385) for defining the steady-state unidirectional fluxes of chemical species through branched chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reactions. It offers a number of distinct advantages over existing approaches to steady-state rate analysis: it is relatively simple to apply to complex reactions and is readily amenable to computer-based application. The method is demonstrated by direct application to a number of hypothetical models for biological transport phenomena.

  3. Clinical review: A review and analysis of heart rate variability and the diagnosis and prognosis of infection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial infection leading to organ failure is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients. Early diagnosis and expeditious treatment is a cornerstone of therapy. Evaluating the systemic host response to infection as a complex system provides novel insights: however, bedside application with clinical value remains wanting. Providing an integrative measure of an altered host response, the patterns and character of heart rate fluctuations measured over intervals-in-time may be analysed with a panel of mathematical techniques that quantify overall fluctuation, spectral composition, scale-free variation, and degree of irregularity or complexity. Using these techniques, heart rate variability (HRV) has been documented to be both altered in the presence of systemic infection, and correlated with its severity. In this review and analysis, we evaluate the use of HRV monitoring to provide early diagnosis of infection, document the prognostic implications of altered HRV in infection, identify current limitations, highlight future research challenges, and propose improvement strategies. Given existing evidence and potential for further technological advances, we believe that longitudinal, individualized, and comprehensive HRV monitoring in critically ill patients at risk for or with existing infection offers a means to harness the clinical potential of this bedside application of complex systems science. PMID:20017889

  4. 78 FR 17724 - Ivy Funds Variable Insurance Portfolios, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Ivy Funds Variable Insurance Portfolios, et al.; Notice of Application March 15, 2013 . AGENCY... Variable Insurance Portfolios (the ``Trust''), Waddell & Reed Investment Management Company...

  5. Decoding Continuous Variables from Neuroimaging Data: Basic and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica R.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Sabb, Fred W.; Bilder, Robert M.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of statistical machine learning techniques to neuroimaging data has allowed researchers to decode the cognitive and disease states of participants. The majority of studies using these techniques have focused on pattern classification to decode the type of object a participant is viewing, the type of cognitive task a participant is completing, or the disease state of a participant's brain. However, an emerging body of literature is extending these classification studies to the decoding of values of continuous variables (such as age, cognitive characteristics, or neuropsychological state) using high-dimensional regression methods. This review details the methods used in such analyses and describes recent results. We provide specific examples of studies which have used this approach to answer novel questions about age and cognitive and disease states. We conclude that while there is still much to learn about these methods, they provide useful information about the relationship between neural activity and age, cognitive state, and disease state, which could not have been obtained using traditional univariate analytical methods. PMID:21720520

  6. Evaluation of simulated photolysis rates and their response to solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhodolov, Timofei; Rozanov, Eugene; Ball, William T.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Tourpali, Kleareti; Shapiro, Alexander I.; Telford, Paul; Smyshlyaev, Sergey; Fomin, Boris; Sander, Rolf; Bossay, Sébastien; Bekki, Slimane; Marchand, Marion; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Dhomse, Sandip; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Schmutz, Werner

    2016-05-01

    The state of the stratospheric ozone layer and the temperature structure of the atmosphere are largely controlled by the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) through its influence on heating and photolysis rates. This study focuses on the uncertainties in the photolysis rate response to solar irradiance variability related to the choice of SSI data set and to the performance of the photolysis codes used in global chemistry-climate models. To estimate the impact of SSI uncertainties, we compared several photolysis rates calculated with the radiative transfer model libRadtran, using SSI calculated with two models and observed during the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite mission. The importance of the calculated differences in the photolysis rate response for ozone and temperature changes has been estimated using 1-D a radiative-convective-photochemical model. We demonstrate that the main photolysis reactions, responsible for the solar signal in the stratosphere, are highly sensitive to the spectral distribution of SSI variations. Accordingly, the ozone changes and related ozone-temperature feedback are shown to depend substantially on the SSI data set being used, which highlights the necessity of obtaining accurate SSI variations. To evaluate the performance of photolysis codes, we compared the results of eight, widely used, photolysis codes against two reference schemes. We show that, in most cases, absolute values of the photolysis rates and their response to applied SSI changes agree within 30%. However, larger errors may appear in specific atmospheric regions because of differences, for instance, in the treatment of Rayleigh scattering, quantum yields, or absorption cross sections.

  7. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  8. Bivalve growth rate and isotopic variability across the Barents Sea Polar Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael L.; Ambrose, William G.; Locke V, William L.; Ryan, Stuart K.; Johnson, Beverly J.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of bivalve shell increments provides a means to reconstruct long-term patterns in growth histories and assess factors that regulate marine ecosystems, while tissue stable isotopes are indicators of food sources and trophic dynamics. We examined shell growth patterns and tissue stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) of the hairy cockle (Ciliatocardium ciliatum) in the northwest Barents Sea to evaluate the influence of different water masses and the Polar Front on growth rates and food sources and to assess the influence of climatic variability on ecological processes over seasonal to decadal scales. Shell growth rates were highest in Atlantic water, intermediate in Arctic water, and lowest at the Polar Front. Temporal patterns of ontogenetically-adjusted growth (SGI) were negatively correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), local precipitation and ice-free days. The highest growth occurred during colder periods with more sea ice, while lower growth was associated with warmer periods and less sea ice. Stable isotope values of lipid-extracted tissues from Atlantic water cockles were enriched in δ13C by up to 2.1‰ and δ15N by 1.5‰ compared to animals from Arctic waters. Distinct seasonal and water mass variations in stable isotopic values reflect spatial and temporal variability in food supplies to the bivalves in this region on small spatial scales. Overall, Atlantic waters supported the highest growth rates, the most complex trophic webs, and the greatest sensitivity to interannual variability in environmental conditions. Bivalves from Arctic waters were the most distinct of the three groups in their response to regional climate forcing and local environmental manifestations of those conditions. The Polar Front exhibits growth and isotopic characteristics predominantly of the Atlantic domain. These results demonstrate that integrating results of sclerochronological and stable isotopic analyses of benthic bivalves provide

  9. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  10. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  11. Heart rate variability and non-linear dynamics in risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Perkiömäki, Juha S

    2011-01-01

    The time-domain measures and power-spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) are classic conventional methods to assess the complex regulatory system between autonomic nervous system and heart rate and are most widely used. There are abundant scientific data about the prognostic significance of the conventional measurements of HRV in patients with various conditions, particularly with myocardial infarction. Some studies have suggested that some newer measures describing non-linear dynamics of heart rate, such as fractal measures, may reveal prognostic information beyond that obtained by the conventional measures of HRV. An ideal risk indicator could specifically predict sudden arrhythmic death as the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy can prevent such events. There are numerically more sudden deaths among post-infarction patients with better preserved left ventricular function than in those with severe left ventricular dysfunction. Recent data support the concept that HRV measurements, when analyzed several weeks after acute myocardial infarction, predict life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with moderately depressed left ventricular function. However, well-designed prospective randomized studies are needed to evaluate whether the ICD therapy based on the assessment of HRV alone or with other risk indicators improves the patients' prognosis. Several issues, such as the optimal target population, optimal timing of HRV measurements, optimal methods of HRV analysis, and optimal cutpoints for different HRV parameters, need clarification before the HRV analysis can be a widespread clinical tool in risk stratification. PMID:22084633

  12. Bistable behavior in a model of the lac operon in Escherichia coli with variable growth rate.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M

    2008-03-15

    This work is a continuation from another study previously published in this journal. Both the former and the present works are dedicated to investigating the bistable behavior of the lac operon in Escherichia coli from a mathematical modeling point of view. In the previous article, we developed a detailed mathematical model that accounts for all of the known regulatory mechanisms in this system, and studied the effect of inducing the operon with lactose instead of an artificial inducer. In this article, the model is improved to account, in a more detailed way, for the interaction of the repressor molecules with the three lac operators. A recently discovered cooperative interaction between the CAP molecule (an activator of the lactose operon) and Operator 3 (which influences DNA folding) is also included in this new version of the model. The growth rate dependence on the rate of energy entering the bacteria (in the form of transported glucose molecules and of metabolized lactose molecules) is also considered. A large number of numerical experiments is carried out with this improved model. The results are discussed in regard to the bistable behavior of the lactose operon. Special attention is paid to the effect that a variable growth rate has on the system dynamics. PMID:18065471

  13. Heart Rate Variability and Non-Linear Dynamics in Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Perkiömäki, Juha S.

    2011-01-01

    The time-domain measures and power–spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) are classic conventional methods to assess the complex regulatory system between autonomic nervous system and heart rate and are most widely used. There are abundant scientific data about the prognostic significance of the conventional measurements of HRV in patients with various conditions, particularly with myocardial infarction. Some studies have suggested that some newer measures describing non-linear dynamics of heart rate, such as fractal measures, may reveal prognostic information beyond that obtained by the conventional measures of HRV. An ideal risk indicator could specifically predict sudden arrhythmic death as the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy can prevent such events. There are numerically more sudden deaths among post-infarction patients with better preserved left ventricular function than in those with severe left ventricular dysfunction. Recent data support the concept that HRV measurements, when analyzed several weeks after acute myocardial infarction, predict life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with moderately depressed left ventricular function. However, well-designed prospective randomized studies are needed to evaluate whether the ICD therapy based on the assessment of HRV alone or with other risk indicators improves the patients’ prognosis. Several issues, such as the optimal target population, optimal timing of HRV measurements, optimal methods of HRV analysis, and optimal cutpoints for different HRV parameters, need clarification before the HRV analysis can be a widespread clinical tool in risk stratification. PMID:22084633

  14. Inward-attention meditation increases parasympathetic activity: a study based on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shr-Da; Lo, Pei-Chen

    2008-10-01

    Phenomenon of the heart rate variability (HRV) during various meditation techniques has been reported. However, most of these techniques emphasized the skill of slow breathing (<0.15 Hz). This paper reports our study on HRV during meditation which emphasizes inward attention. Inward attention has been an important approach for the Zen-meditation practitioners to enter into transcendental consciousness. Two groups of subjects were investigated, 10 experimental subjects with Zen-meditation experience and 10 control subjects without any meditation experience. We analyzed HRV both in time and frequency domains. The results revealed both common and different effects on HRV between inward-attention meditation and normal rest. The major difference of effects between two groups were the decrease of LF/HF ratio and LF norm as well as the increase of HF norm, which suggested the benefit of a sympathovagal balance toward parasympathetic activity. Moreover, we observed regular oscillating rhythms of the heart rate when the LF/HF ratio was small under meditation. According to previous studies, regular oscillations of heart rate signal usually appeared in the low-frequency band of HRV under slow breathing. Our findings showed that such regular oscillations could also appear in the high-frequency band of HRV but with smaller amplitude.

  15. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Wong, Janet Y.H.; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Joanne W.Y.; Lee, Y.M.; Chow, Lina P.Y.; Luk, W.S.; Ng, Shamay S.M.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was expressed in terms of normalised low frequency (LF) power, normalised high frequency (HF) power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. [Results] Both the LF-power and the HF-power components had significant time effects. However, the time effect of the LF/HF power ratio was not significant. Post hoc contrast analysis revealed a significant decrease in LF power and a concomitant increase in HF power during the 4th minute and 5th minute of the TC Qigong exercise. [Conclusion] Five minutes of TC Qigong exercise was found to improve HRV by increasing HF power and decreasing LF power, but these effects were transient. TC Qigong might be an appropriate exercise for improving the ANS function and psychological and cardiac health of survivors of NPC. PMID:26157266

  16. Design and optimization for variable rate selective excitation using an analytic RF scaling function.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Zur, Yuval

    2007-11-01

    At higher B(0) fields, specific absorption rate (SAR) deposition increases. Due to maximum SAR limitation, slice coverage decreases and/or scan time increases. Conventional selective RF pulses are played out in conjunction with a time independent field gradient. Variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) is a technique that modifies the original RF and gradient waveforms such that slice profile is unchanged. The drawback is that the slice profile for off-resonance spins is distorted. A new VERSE algorithm based on modeling the scaled waveforms as a Fermi function is introduced. It ensures that system related constraints of maximum gradient amplitude and slew rate are not exceeded. The algorithm can be used to preserve the original RF pulse duration while minimizing SAR and peak b1 or to minimize the RF pulse duration. The design is general and can be applied to any symmetrical or asymmetrical RF waveform. The algorithm is demonstrated by using it to (a) minimize the SAR of a linear phase RF pulse, (b) minimize SAR of a hyperbolic secant RF pulse, and (c) minimize the duration of a linear phase RF pulse. Images with a T1-FLAIR (T1 FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) sequence using a conventional and VERSE adiabatic inversion RF pulse are presented. Comparison of images and scan parameters for different anatomies and coils shows increased scan coverage and decreased SAR with the VERSE inversion RF pulse, while image quality is preserved.

  17. Heart rate and heart rate variability in multiparous dairy cows with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Aubin-Wodala, M; Albert, E; Choukeir, A; Szelényi, Z; Szenci, O

    2015-02-01

    Behavioural changes before calving can be monitored on farms; however, predicting the onset of calving is sometimes difficult based only on clinical signs. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as non-invasive measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were investigated in Holstein-Friesian cows (N=20) with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period to predict the onset of calving and assess the stress associated with calving. R-R-intervals were analysed in 5-min time windows during the following three main periods of measurement: 1) between 0 and 96 h before the onset of calving restlessness (prepartum period); 2) during four stages of calving: (I) early first stage; between the onset of calving restlessness and the first abdominal contractions; (II) late first stage (between the first abdominal contractions and the appearance of the amniotic sac); (III) early second stage (between the appearance of the amniotic sac and the appearance of the foetal hooves); (IV) late second stage (between the appearance of the foetal hooves and delivery of the calf), and 3) over 48 h following calving (postpartum period). Data collected between 72 and 96 h before calving restlessness was used as baseline. Besides HR, Poincaré measures [standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) and SD2/SD1 ratio], the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals, the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. Heart rate increased only following the onset of the behavioural signs, peaked before delivery of the calf, then decreased immediately after calving. Parasympathetic indices of HRV (RMSSD, HFnorm and SD1) decreased, whereas sympathovagal indices (LF/HF ratio and SD2/SD1 ratio) increased significantly from baseline between 12 and 24 before the onset of calving restlessness. The same pattern was observed between 0 and 1h before calving restlessness. Following

  18. Calculation of vaporization rates assuming various rate determining steps: Application to the resistojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The various steps that could control the vaporization rate of a material are discussed. These steps include the actual vaporization, flow rate of matrix gas, chemical reaction, gas diffusion, and solid state diffusion. The applicable equations have been collected from diverse appropriate sources, and their use is explained. Rate equations are derived for conditions where more than one step is rate controlling. Calculations are made for two model materials: rhenium which vaporizes congruently, and tantalum carbide which vaporizes incongruently. The case of vaporization under thermal gradient conditions is also treated. The existence of a thermal gradient in the resistojet means that the vaporization rate of a material may be only one thousandth of that predicted under isothermal conditions. Calculations show that rhenium might have a 100,000 hr lifetime at temperature in a 2500 C resistojet. Tantalum carbide would have a life of only 660 sec under similar conditions.

  19. The Sensitivity of Response Rate to the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement for Pigeons and Rats: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between the rate of a response ("B") and the rate of its reinforcement ("R") is well known to be approximately hyperbolic: B = kR/(R + R[subscript o]), where k represents the maximum response rate, and R[subscript o] indicates the rate of reinforcers that will engender a response rate equal to half its maximum value. A review of data…

  20. Individual Variability in Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity Correlates With the Rate of Early Visuomotor Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Ruitenberg, M.; Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Riascos, R.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation is a type of procedural motor learning that enables individuals to preserve accurate movements in the presence of external or internal perturbations. Adaptation learning can be divided into an early, more cognitively demanding stage, and a later, more automatic stage. In recent years, several investigations have identified significant associations between sensorimotor adaptation and brain structure and function. However, the question of whether individual variability in functional connectivity strength is predictive of sensorimotor adaptation performance has been largely unaddressed. In the present study, we investigate whether such variability in early sensorimotor adaptation is associated with individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity. We used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to estimate functional connectivity strength using hypothesis-driven (seed-to-voxel) and hypothesis-free (voxel-to-voxel) approaches. For the hypothesis-driven analysis, we selected several regions of interest (ROIs) from sensorimotor and default mode networks of the brain. We then correlated these connectivity measures with the rate of early learning during a visuomotor adaptation task in 16 healthy participants. For this task, participants lay supine in the MRI scanner and moved an MRI-compatible dual axis joystick with their right hand to hit targets presented on a screen. Each movement was initiated from the central position on the display screen. Participants were instructed to move the cursor to the target as quickly as possible by moving the joystick, and to hold the cursor within the target until it disappeared. They were then instructed to release the joystick handle after target disappearance, allowing the cursor to re-center for the next trial. Performance was assessed by measuring direction error (DE), defined as the angle between the line from the start to the target position, and the line from the start

  1. Pan-Svalbard growth rate variability and environmental regulation in the Arctic bivalve Serripes groenlandicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael L.; Ambrose, William G.; Levin, Benjamin S.; Locke V, William L.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Hop, Haakon; Renaud, Paul E.

    2011-11-01

    Growth histories contained in the shells of bivalves provide continuous records of environmental and biological information over lifetimes spanning decades to centuries, thereby linking ecosystem responses to both natural and anthropogenic climatic variations over a range of scales. We examined growth rates and temporal growth patterns of 260 individuals of the circumpolar Greenland Smooth Cockle ( Serripes groenlandicus) collected between 1997 and 2009 from 11 sites around the Svalbard Archipelago. These sites encompass a range of oceanographic and environmental conditions, from strongly Atlantic-influenced conditions on the west coast to high-Arctic conditions in northeast Svalbard. Absolute growth was up to three times greater at the most strongly Atlantic-influenced locations compared to the most Arctic-influenced areas, and growth performance was highest at sites closest to the West Spitsbergen Current. We also developed growth chronologies up to 34 years in length extending back to 1974. Standardized growth indices (SGI) exhibited substantial inter-site variability, but there were also common temporal features including steadily increasing growth from the late 1980's to the mid-1990's followed by a marked shift from relatively greater to poorer growth in the mid-1990's and from 2004 to 2008. This pattern was consistent with phase-shifts in large-scale climatic drivers. Interannual variability in SGI was also related to local manifestations of the large-scale drivers, including sea temperature and sea ice extent. The temporal growth pattern at Rijpfjorden, on northeast Svalbard, was broadly representative (R = 0.81) of the entire dataset. While there were site-related differences in the specific relationships between growth and environmental parameters, the aggregated dataset indicated an overriding regional driver of bivalve growth: the Arctic Climate Regime Index (ACRI). These results demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective

  2. Relationship between post-exercise heart rate variability and skinfold thickness.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Williford, Henry N

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to determine if groupings based upon sum of skinfold thickness (SF) would reflect the differences in heart rate variability (HRV) measured for up to 30-minutes following maximal exercise, and to determine the extent in variation in post-exercise HRV that could be accounted for between the following independent variables: SF, body mass index (BMI) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). SF and BMI measurements were performed on fifty-four men who completed maximal exercise testing to determine VO2max. HRV was evaluated for five-minutes before (Pre), at 0-5 minutes post- (Post1) and 25-30 minutes post-exercise (Post2), and analyzed by frequency domain [high frequency (HF) power, and HF to low frequency power ratio (LF:HF)). Two groups were formed based on being above or below the sample mean value of SF. HF and LF:HF were significantly higher and lower, respectively, at Pre and Post 2 in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (p < 0.05), which remained after controlling for VO2max and BMI. Furthermore, there was a significant trend toward baseline in post-exercise HRV in Group 1 (p < 0.05) but not in Group 2 (p > 0.05). In addition, SF was the only variable to significantly relate to the post-exercise HRV parameters (p < 0.05). The findings of this investigation suggest greater SF is related to a delayed return of HRV toward baseline from maximal exercise. The association between SF and HRV is independent of VO2max and BMI.

  3. Optimized ion acceleration using high repetition rate, variable thickness liquid crystal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Patrick; Willis, Christopher; Cochran, Ginevra; Andereck, C. David; Schumacher, Douglass

    2015-11-01

    Laser-based ion acceleration is a widely studied plasma physics topic for its applications to secondary radiation sources, advanced imaging, and cancer therapy. Recent work has centered on investigating new acceleration mechanisms that promise improved ion energy and spectrum. While the physics of these mechanisms is not yet fully understood, it has been observed to dominate for certain ranges of target thickness, where the optimum thickness depends on laser conditions including energy, pulse width, and contrast. The study of these phenomena is uniquely facilitated by the use of variable-thickness liquid crystal films, first introduced in P. L. Poole et al. PoP21, 063109 (2014). Control of the formation parameters of these freely suspended films such as volume, temperature, and draw speed allows on-demand thickness variability between 10 nanometers and several 10s of microns, fully encompassing the currently studied thickness regimes with a single target material. The low vapor pressure of liquid crystal enables in-situ film formation and unlimited vacuum use of these targets. Details on the selection and optimization of ion acceleration mechanism with target thickness will be presented, including recent experiments on the Scarlet laser facility and others. This work was performed with support from the DARPA PULSE program through a grant from AMRDEC and by the NNSA under contract DE-NA0001976.

  4. Wavelet-based correlations of impedance cardiography signals and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podtaev, Sergey; Dumler, Andrew; Stepanov, Rodion; Frick, Peter; Tziberkin, Kirill

    2010-04-01

    The wavelet-based correlation analysis is employed to study impedance cardiography signals (variation in the impedance of the thorax z(t) and time derivative of the thoracic impedance (- dz/dt)) and heart rate variability (HRV). A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. The modulus of wavelet-correlation function shows the level of correlation, and the phase indicates the mean phase shift of oscillations at the given scale (frequency). Significant correlations essentially exceeding the values obtained for noise signals are defined within two spectral ranges, which correspond to respiratory activity (0.14-0.5 Hz), endothelial related metabolic activity and neuroendocrine rhythms (0.0095-0.02 Hz). Probably, the phase shift of oscillations in all frequency ranges is related to the peculiarities of parasympathetic and neuro-humoral regulation of a cardiovascular system.

  5. [Analysis of scalp potential activity and heart rate variability during volitional control of heart beat].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Bao; Wang, Jue

    2009-07-01

    In the study the changes of scalp potential and cardiac autonomic nervous system during volitional control of heart beat are explored with the wavelet packet parameters and approximate entropy (ApEn) of Electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability. The results show that volition can control heart beat and the changes of brain activity are earlier than that of autonomic activity. But its control of heart beat is very different from the motor nervous system because different cortical positions are respectively concerned during the quick and slow control of heart beat. The pre-central areas of brain are correlated with parasympathetic activity by which HR is controlled to slow down. The post-central areas of brain are correlated with sympathetic activity by which HR is controlled to accelerate.

  6. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals. PMID:25571461

  7. Instantaneous monitoring of sleep fragmentation by point process heart rate variability and respiratory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Citi, Luca; Bianchi, Matt T; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel, automatic point-process approach that is able to provide continuous, instantaneous estimates of heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in long duration data recordings such as those during an entire night of sleep. We analyze subjects with and without sleep apnea who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. The proposed algorithm is able to quantify multi-scale high time resolution autonomic signatures of sleep fragmentation, such as arousals and stage transitions, throughout an entire night. Results demonstrate the ability of our methods to track fast dynamic transitions from sleep to wake and between REM sleep and other sleep stages, providing resolution details not available in sleep scoring summaries. An automatic threshold-based procedure is further able to detect brief arousals, with the instantaneous indices characterizing specific arousal dynamic signatures.

  8. Effects of Acupuncture on Heart Rate Variability in Beagles; Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Shi, Xian; Jiang, Yue Bo; Wang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based animal experimental research concerning the effects of acupuncture on autonomic function was performed by two research teams from China and Austria. This study describes measurements in beagles. Heart rate variability (HRV) recordings were performed under stable conditions in Beijing, China, and the data analysis and interpretation were completed in Graz, Austria. The electrocardiograms were recorded during bilateral body acupuncture (PC6, Neiguan). Power of the low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and the ratio (LF/HF) changed significantly during acupuncture stimulation in beagles after injection of atropine and β-blocker. However, there was no significant change in HF power after needling the Neiguan acupoint when a cervical vagotomy has been performed. Our findings show that acupuncture can mediate the HRV even after pharmaceutical blocking of autonomic function. Acupuncture effects on HRV should rely not only on autonomic nervous system but on complete central nervous system. PMID:23606880

  9. Visibility graph analysis of very short-term heart rate variability during sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.

  10. Emotion-related changes in heart rate and its variability during performance and perception of music.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Obata, Satoshi; Masuko, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of emotions evoked by music on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) during the playing of music on the piano compared to those in persons listening to the same music. Thirteen elite pianists underwent experiments under expressive piano playing, nonexpressive piano playing, expressive listening, and nonexpressive listening conditions. The expressive conditions produced significantly higher levels of HR and low-frequency component of HRV, as well as a lower level of its high-frequency component. A greater modulation of these was also revealed for performance than perception. The findings suggested that musical performance would lead to a greater effect of emotion-related modulation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity than musical perception.

  11. [Design of a Front-end Device of Heart Rate Variability Analysis System Based on Photoplethysmography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Sun, Peng; Pang, Yu; Luo, Zhiyong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yanxiang

    2016-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is the difference between the successive changes in the heartbeat cycle, and it is produced in the autonomic nervous system modulation of the sinus node of the heart. The HRV is a valuable indicator in predicting the sudden cardiac death and arrhythmic events. Traditional analysis of HRV is based on a multielectrocardiogram (ECG), but the ECG signal acquisition is complex, so we have designed an HRV analysis system based on photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG signal is collected by a microcontroller from human's finger, and it is sent to the terminal via USB-Serial module. The terminal software not only collects the data and plot waveforms, but also stores the data for future HRV analysis. The system is small in size, low in power consumption, and easy for operation. It is suitable for daily care no matter whether it is used at home or in a hospital. PMID:27382733

  12. From Prediction to Prescription: Intelligent Decision Support for Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Raymond Keith; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard

    2001-07-01

    We describe the use of machine learning methods in the analysis of spatial soil fertility, soil physical characteristics, and yield data, with a particular objective of determining local (field- to farm-scale) crop response patterns. For effective prescriptive use, the output of these tools is augmented with economic data and operational constraints, and recast as a rulebased decision support tool to maximize economic return in variable rate fertilization systems. We describe some of the practical issues addressed in development of one such system, including data preparation, adaptation of regression tree output for use in a rule-based expert system, and incorporation of real-world limits on system recommendations. Results from various field trials of this system are summarized.

  13. Acute effects of caffeine on heart rate variability in habitual caffeine consumers.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Robert; Burkert, Michaela; Siepmann, Martin; Mueck-Weymann, Michael

    2006-05-01

    During the last years, heart rate variability (HRV) has become a promising risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, the effect of caffeine on HRV in habitual caffeine consumers has barely been investigated. Therefore, we treated 30 male habitual caffeine users in a randomized double-blinded crossover study design with either placebo, 100 or 200 mg caffeine orally and determined parameters of HRV under resting conditions and metronomic breathing. As result, we could not detect significant differences in HRV parameters up to 90 min after drug ingestion. We conclude that modest amounts of caffeine do not reveal negative nor positive effects on HRV within the first 90 min after drug ingestion in young and healthy habitual caffeine consumers. However, further research is necessary to determine the effects of caffeine on HRV in habitual caffeine users, healthy as well as suffering from diabetes, hypertension and postmyocardial infarction.

  14. The effect of chicken extract on mood, cognition and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David; Carter, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Chicken extract, which is rich in anserine and carnosine, has been widely taken in Asian countries as a traditional remedy with various aims, including attenuation of psychological fatigue. The effects of consuming BRAND'S Essence of Chicken (EOC) or a placebo on 46 young adults' responses to a standard psychological "stressor" were considered. Heart rate variability (HRV), cortisol responses, mood and cognition were measured at baseline and after ten days supplementation. EOC resulted in feeling less anxious, depressed and confused and more agreeable and clearheaded. A decrease in HRV was observed after EOC but only in females. Cognition and cortisol levels were not influenced by EOC. Findings suggest that EOC may be a promising supplement to improve mood in a healthy population. PMID:25642970

  15. Time-dependent sleep stage transition model based on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toki; Mizuno, Osamu; Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    A new model is proposed to automatically classify sleep stages using heart rate variability (HRV). The generative model, based on the characteristics that the distribution and the transition probabilities of sleep stages depend on the elapsed time from the beginning of sleep, infers the sleep stage with a Gibbs sampler. Experiments were conducted using a public data set consisting of 45 healthy subjects and the model's classification accuracy was evaluated for three sleep stages: wake state, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep. Experimental results demonstrated that the model provides more accurate sleep stage classification than conventional (naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine) models that do not take the above characteristics into account. Our study contributes to improve the quality of sleep monitoring in the daily life using easy-to-wear HRV sensors. PMID:26736763

  16. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  17. Measuring heart rate variability by means of information entropies based on Choi-Williams distribution.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clariá, Francesc; Melia, Umberto; Bayés de Luna, Antonio; Caminal, Pere

    2015-08-01

    The Shannon entropy theory was applied to the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) of cardiac time series (RR series) in order to extract entropy information in both time and frequency domains. From this distribution, four indexes were defined: (1) instantaneous partial entropy; (2) spectral partial entropy; (3) instantaneous complete entropy; (4) spectral complete entropy. These indexes were used for analyzing the heart rate variability of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients (ICM) with different sudden cardiac death risk. The results have shown that the values of these indexes tend to decrease, with different proportion, when the severity of pathological condition increases. Statistical differences (p-value < 0.0005) of these indexes were found comparing low risk and high risk of cardiac death during night and between daytime and nighttime periods of ICM patients. Finally, these indexes have demonstrated to be useful tools to quantify the different complex components of the cardiac time series.

  18. The Effect of Chicken Extract on Mood, Cognition and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David; Carter, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Chicken extract, which is rich in anserine and carnosine, has been widely taken in Asian countries as a traditional remedy with various aims, including attenuation of psychological fatigue. The effects of consuming BRAND’S Essence of Chicken (EOC) or a placebo on 46 young adults’ responses to a standard psychological “stressor” were considered. Heart rate variability (HRV), cortisol responses, mood and cognition were measured at baseline and after ten days supplementation. EOC resulted in feeling less anxious, depressed and confused and more agreeable and clearheaded. A decrease in HRV was observed after EOC but only in females. Cognition and cortisol levels were not influenced by EOC. Findings suggest that EOC may be a promising supplement to improve mood in a healthy population. PMID:25642970

  19. Helping from the heart: Voluntary upregulation of heart rate variability predicts altruistic behavior.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Boris; Kok, Bethany E; Böckler, Anne; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Our various daily activities continually require regulation of our internal state. These regulatory processes covary with changes in High Frequency Heart Rate Variability (HF-HRV), a marker of parasympathetic activity. Specifically, incidental increases in HF-HRV accompany positive social engagement behavior and prosocial action. Little is known about deliberate regulation of HF-HRV and the role of voluntary parasympathetic regulation in prosocial behavior. Here, we present a novel biofeedback task that measures the ability to deliberately increase HF-HRV. In two large samples, we find that a) participants are able to voluntarily upregulate HF-HRV, and b) variation in this ability predicts individual differences in altruistic prosocial behavior, but not non-altruistic forms of prosociality, assessed through 14 different measures. Our findings suggest that self-induction of parasympathetic states is involved in altruistic action. The biofeedback task may provide a measure of deliberate parasympathetic regulation, with implications for the study of attention, emotion, and social behavior.

  20. Attenuation of the influence of cardiolocomotor coupling in heart rate variability interpretation during exercise test.

    PubMed

    Hernando, A; Hernando, D; Garatachea, N; Casajus, J A; Bailon, R

    2015-08-01

    During exercise test, cardiolocomotor coupling related components appear in heart rate variability (HRV), blurring its interpretation as autonomic nervous system (ANS) marker. These cardiolocomotor coupling related components are centered at the pedalling and running stride frequency, as well as at their aliases, and may overlap with the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of HRV. In this work cardiolocomotor-related HRV components are studied during maximal exercise test on treadmill and cycle ergometer. Power in the bands related to cardiolocomotor coupling increases with exercise intensity in cycle ergometer but not in treadmill exercise test, where it displays higher values for all exercise intensities. A method is proposed to reduce the effect of this coupling in the interpretation of HRV. Evolution of the power in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands are studied after the proposed reduction of cardiolocomotor coupling, showing more significant changes with exercise intensity than before the method is applied. PMID:26736557