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Sample records for variceal bleeding patient

  1. Prediction of esophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rockey, Don C; Elliott, Alan; Lyles, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), identifying those with esophageal variceal hemorrhage prior to endoscopy would be clinically useful. This retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with UGIB used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR) and Lok index (all non-invasive blood markers) as predictors of variceal bleeding in (1) all patients with UGIB and (2) patients with cirrhosis and UGIB. 2233 patients admitted for UGIB were identified; 1034 patients had cirrhosis (46%) and of these, 555 patients (54%) had acute UGIB due to esophageal varices. In all patients with UGIB, the platelet count (cut-off 122,000/mm(3)), APRI (cut-off 5.1), AAR (cut-off 2.8) and Lok index (cut-off 0.9) had area under the curve (AUC)s of 0.80 0.82, 0.64, and 0.80, respectively, for predicting the presence of varices prior to endoscopy. To predict varices as the culprit of bleeding, the platelet count (cut-off 69,000), APRI (cut-off 2.6), AAR (cut-off 2.5) and Lok Index (0.90) had AUCs of 0.76, 0.77, 0.57 and 0.73, respectively. Finally, in patients with cirrhosis and UGIB, logistic regression was unable to identify optimal cut-off values useful for predicting varices as the culprit bleeding lesion for any of the non-invasive markers studied. For all patients with UGIB, non-invasive markers appear to differentiate patients with varices from those without varices and to identify those with a variceal culprit lesion. However, these markers could not distinguish between a variceal culprit and other lesions in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  2. Circadian occurrence of variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Siringo, S; Bolondi, L; Sofia, S; Hermida, R C; Gramantieri, L; Gaiani, S; Piscaglia, F; Carbone, C; Misitano, B; Corinaldesi, R

    1996-12-01

    Several clinical events have a rhythmicity over the 24 h period. We assessed the presence of periodic rhythm in the occurrence of haematemesis in patients with liver cirrhosis under different daylight regimens, namely during standard time and during daylight savings. Over a 48 month period there were 212 consecutive admissions of 118 cirrhotics with variceal bleeding. Complete data were available for 181 episodes of bleeding: 121 (66.9%) started with haematemesis and 60 (33.1%) started with melaena. One hundred and two (56%) episodes occurred during daylight savings and 79 (44%) occurred during standard time. The cosinor test showed a 24 h biphasic peak for the occurrence of haematemesis (09.45 and 21.45 h). Moreover, a biphasic diurnal asymmetric frequency was also found by multiple component rhythmometry. The time peaks of onset of variceal haemorrhage did not change significantly during standard time and daylight savings. Patients with more than one haematemesis episode significantly bled over the same time interval. The present study confirms that over the 24 h period variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients occurs with a predictable rhythmicity that does not seem to be under the control of the light-dark cycle. The finding of a chronorisk for variceal haemorrhage addresses specific questions for pathophysiological studies as well as for new treatment strategies.

  3. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients in Nile Delta.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Mamdouh Ahmed; Tawfik, Mohamed Abd El-Raouf; El-Sawy, Abd Allah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in cirrhotic patients occurs mainly from esophageal and gastric varices; however, quite a large number of cirrhotic patients bleed from other sources as well. The aim of the present work is to determine the prevalence of non-variceal UGIB as well as its different causes among the cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients in Nile Delta. Emergency upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for AUGIB was done in 650 patients. Out of these patients, 550 (84.6%) patients who were proved to have cirrhosis were the subject of the present study. From all cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients, 415 (75.5%) bled from variceal sources (esophageal and gastric) while 135 (24.5%) of them bled from non-variceal sources. Among variceal sources of bleeding, esophageal varices were much more common than gastric varices. Peptic ulcer was the most common non-variceal source of bleeding. Non-variceal bleeding in cirrhosis was not frequent, and sources included peptic ulcer, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and erosive disease of the stomach and duodenum.

  4. Bleeding esophageal varices

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated with medicines and medical procedures to prevent future bleeding. These include: Drugs called beta blockers, such ... Future problems caused by varices may include: Narrowing or stricture of the esophagus due to scarring after ...

  5. First bleeding episode from oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients: a prospective study of endoscopic predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Colombo, E; Casiraghi, M A; Minoli, G; Prada, A; Terruzzi, V; Bortoli, A; Carnovali, M; Gullotta, R; Imperiali, G; Comin, U

    1995-09-01

    Two hundred patients affected by liver cirrhosis and oesophageal varices were studied in 9 Gastrointestinal Units in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in order to assess factors possibly related to variceal bleeding. Only patients without any previous episode of gastrointestinal bleeding were included in the prospective evaluation. For each patient demographic data, aetiology of cirrhosis, various clinical and biochemical parameters able to group patients into the three Child-Pugh Classes, endoscopic items for calculation of Beppu's and of NIEC prognostic scores were recorded on computerized cards. Patients were regularly interviewed every three months for one year and underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at enrollment, after six months and in case of bleeding. Within the twelve-month follow-up period, 29 out of the 200 patients (14%) bled and 52 out of 200 died (26%). In 16 of the 52 patients who died (59% of bleeding patients) death was directly related to gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding from oesophageal varices was endoscopically proven in 19/29 patients, in another 9 bleeding was classified as from unknown source and in one patient a bleeding gastric ulcer was diagnosed. Univariate analysis of all the recorded clinical, biochemical and endoscopic parameters, performed by Chi-square method and Fisher exact test showed that the presence of RWM (p < 0.001) was the only factor significantly associated to variceal bleeding within one year. Relationship between size of varices and bleeding was very close to the statistical significance but did not achieve it (p = 0.058).

  6. Management of acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Jorge L

    2014-05-01

    Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Advances in the management of AVB have resulted in decreased mortality. To minimize mortality, a multidisciplinary approach addressing airway safety, prompt judicious volume resuscitation, vasoactive and antimicrobial pharmacotherapy, and early endoscopy to obliterate varices is necessary. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been used as rescue therapy for patients failing initial attempts at hemostasis. Patients who have a high likelihood of failing initial attempts at hemostasis may benefit from a more aggressive approach using TIPS earlier in their management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of a variceal source among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Ahmad; Almadi, Majid; Barkun, Alan; Martel, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require an early, tailored approach best guided by knowledge of the bleeding lesion, especially a variceal versus a nonvariceal source. To identify, by investigating a large national registry, variables that would be predictive of a variceal origin of UGIB using clinical parameters before endoscopic evaluation. A retrospective study was conducted in 21 Canadian hospitals during the period from January 2004 until the end of May 2005. Consecutive charts for hospitalized patients with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of UGIB were reviewed. Data regarding demographics, including historical, physical examination, initial laboratory investigations, endoscopic and pharmacological therapies administered, as well as clinical outcomes, were collected. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed to identify clinical predictors of a variceal source of bleeding. The patient population included 2020 patients (mean [± SD] age 66.3±16.4 years; 38.4% female). Overall, 215 (10.6%) were found to be bleeding from upper gastrointestinal varices. Among 26 patient characteristics, variables predicting a variceal source of bleeding included history of liver disease (OR 6.36 [95% CI 3.59 to 11.3]), excessive alcohol use (OR 2.28 [95% CI 1.37 to 3.77]), hematemesis (OR 2.65 [95% CI 1.61 to 4.36]), hematochezia (OR 3.02 [95% CI 1.46 to 6.22]) and stigmata of chronic liver disease (OR 2.49 [95% CI 1.46 to 4.25]). Patients treated with antithrombotic therapy were more likely to experience other causes of hemorrhage (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.78]). Presenting historical and physical examination data, and initial laboratory tests carry significant predictive ability in discriminating variceal versus nonvariceal sources of bleeding.

  8. Validation of prognostic scores for clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Motola-Kuba, Miguel; Escobedo-Arzate, Angélica; Tellez-Avila, Félix; Altamirano, José; Aguilar-Olivos, Nancy; González-Angulo, Alberto; Zamarripa-Dorsey, Felipe; Uribe, Misael; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C

    Background. The Rockall, Glasgow-Blatchford, and AIMS65 are useful and validated scoring systems for predicting the outcomes of patients with nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there are no validated evidence for using them to predict outcomes on variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the prognostic accuracy of different nonvariceal bleeding scores with other liver-specific scoring systems in cirrhotic patients. A retrospective multicenter study that included 160 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding. The AUROC's to predict in-hospital mortality, and rebleeding, were analyzed for each scoring system. Overall in-hospital mortality occurred in 13% and in-hospital rebleeding in 12% of patients. The systems with the best AUROC value for predicting mortality were MELD (0.828; 95% CI 0.748-0.909), and AIMS65 (0.817; 95% CI 0.724-0.909). The best score systems for predicting rebleeding were Glasgow-Blatchford (0.756; 95% CI 0.640- 0.827), and Rockall (0.691; 95% CI 0.580-0.802). In addition to liver-specific scores, the AIMS65 score is accurate for predicting in-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding. Other scoring systems might be useful for predicting significant clinical outcomes in these patients.

  9. [Recurrent variceal bleeding in a patient with portal and splenic vein thrombosis secondary to complex thrombophilia].

    PubMed

    Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Marlicz, Wojciech; Białek, Andrzej; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Lubikowski, Jerzy; Wójcicki, Maciej; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2008-08-01

    Thrombophilia in adults is one of main causes of portal vein thrombosis. Esophageal and gastric varices, ascites and hypersplenism are well known complications of portal hypertension. There are controversial issues on the management, especially anticoagulant therapy and surgical treatment of these patients. We present a 42-years old woman with a history of three acute coronary episodes suffering from recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal and splenic vein thrombosis in the course of myeloproliferative disorder and protein C deficiency. It was 10 months delay of diagnosis. She was successfully treated with medical and surgical treatment (esophageal stapler transection, cardial devascularization, and splenectomy). In the paper we discuss complexity of diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  10. Two surgical procedures for esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Yuan, Li-Juan; Dong, Rui; Yin, Ji-Kai; Wang, Qing; Li, Tao; Li, Jiang-Bin; Du, Xi-Lin; Lu, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the clinical value of a splenorenal shunt plus pericardial devascularization (PCVD) in portal hypertension (PHT) patients with variceal bleeding. METHODS: From January 2008 to November 2012, 290 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension were treated surgically in our department for the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding: 207 patients received a routine PCVD procedure (PCVD group), and 83 patients received a PCVD plus a splenorenal shunt procedure (combined group). Changes in hemodynamic parameters, rebleeding, encephalopathy, portal vein thrombosis, and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: The free portal pressure decreased to 21.43 ± 4.35 mmHg in the combined group compared with 24.61 ± 5.42 mmHg in the PCVD group (P < 0.05). The changes in hemodynamic parameters were more significant in the combined group (P < 0.05). The long-term rebleeding rate was 7.22% in the combined group, which was lower than that in the PCVD group (14.93%), (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Devascularization plus splenorenal shunt is an effective and safe strategy to control esophagogastric variceal bleeding in PHT. It should be recommended as a first-line treatment for preventing bleeding in PHT patients when surgical interventions are considered. PMID:24409071

  11. Assessing the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Sempere, L; Palazón, J M; Sánchez-Payá, J; Pascual, S; de Madaria, E; Poveda, M J; Carnicer, F; Zapater, P; Pérez-Mateo, M

    2009-04-01

    to evaluate the efficacy of various indicators in predicting short- and long-term survival in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. prognostic indicators were calculated for a cohort of 201 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding hospitalized in our center, a third-level teaching hospital. The studied variables were: age, sex, etiology of cirrhosis, endoscopic findings, previous variceal bleeding episodes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), infection during episode, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores within 24 hours of bleeding onset. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months until death, liver transplantation, or end of observation. median follow-up was 66.85 weeks (range 0-432.4). The 6-week, 3-month, 12-month and 36-month mortality rates were 22.9, 24.9, 34.3, and 39.8%, respectively. Age >= 65 years, presence of HCC, CTP score >=10, and MELD score >= 18 were the variables associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The accuracy of MELD scores as predictors of 6-week, 3-month, 12-month, and 36-month mortality was better than that of CTP scores (c-statistics: 6 week MELD 0.804, CTP 0.762; 3-month MELD 0.794, CTP 0.760; 12-month MELD 0.766, CTP 0.741; 36 month MELD 0.737, CTP 0.717). MELD and CTP scores together with age and a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma are useful indicators to assess the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with acute variceal bleeding.

  12. Successful Management of Neobladder Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Atwal, Dinesh; Chatterjee, Kshitij, E-mail: kchatterjee@uams.edu; Osborne, Scott

    Hematuria from a neobladder can occur due to a variety of pathologies including tumors, stones, and fistulas. Variceal bleeding in a neobladder is a very rare condition with only one case reported in literature. We present a case of a patient with cirrhosis and portal hypertension and an ileocolic orthotopic neobladder presenting with hematuria. Computed tomographic angiography showed dilated varices around the neobladder which were successfully embolized. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report case of variceal bleeding in a neobladder successfully managed with the combination of TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) procedure and embolization.

  13. Direct Percutaneous Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, Sailen G., E-mail: naidu.sailen@mayo.ed; Castle, Erik P.; Kriegshauser, J. Scott

    2010-02-15

    Stomal variceal bleeding can develop in patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Most patients are best treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation because this addresses the underlying problem of portal hypertension. However, some patients are not good candidates for TIPS creation because they have end-stage liver disease or encephalopathy. We describe such a patient who presented with recurrent bleeding stomal varices, which was successfully treated with percutaneous coil embolization. The patient had bleeding-free survival for 1 month before death from unrelated causes.

  14. Jejunal variceal bleeding after esophageal transection in a patient with idiopathic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Migou, S; Hashizume, M; Tsugawa, K; Kishihara, F; Kawanaka, H; Ohta, M; Tanoue, K; Kuroiwa, T; Kawamoto, K; Sugimachi, K

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a 38-year-old man with massive gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal varices. He had been previously diagnosed to have idiopathic portal hypertension and esophageal varices, and had undergone an esophageal transection 8 years earlier. The pre-operative diagnosis was a suspected hemorrhage from the small intestine as visualized by 99mTc-HSAD scintigraphy (technetium 99m-labeled human serum albumin D-type) and was not considered to be repeated massive lower GI tract bleeding. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and intra-operative endoscopy revealed active bleeding from the jejunal varices. A partial resection of the small intestine resulted in a complete resolution of the bleeding. A review of the literature thereafter disclosed twelve previously reported cases of jejunal variceal bleeding.

  15. Variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients: What is the best prognostic score?

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Asmaa N; Morsy, Khairy H; Ali, Moustafa A

    2016-09-01

    To find the most accurate, suitable, and applicable scoring system for the prediction of outcome in cirrhotic patients with bleeding varices. A prospective study was conducted comprising 120 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding who were admitted to Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology Department in Sohag University Hospital, over a 1-year period (1/2015 to 1/2016). The clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic parameters were studied. Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification score, Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and AIMS65 score were calculated for all patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for all the measured parameters and scores. Of the 120 patients (92 male) admitted during the study period, eight patients (6.67%) died in the hospital. Advanced age, the presence of encephalopathy, rebleeding, and higher serum bilirubin were independent factors associated with higher hospital mortality. The largest area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) was obtained for the AIMS65 score and SOFA score, followed by the MELD score and APACHEII score, then CTP score, all of which achieved very good performance (AUROC>0.8). AIMS65 score showed the best sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values. Although the AIMS65 score was not significantly different from the MELD, SOFA, and APACHEII scores, it was the optimum among them in terms of the prediction of mortality. AIMS65 score is the best simple and applicable scoring system for independently predicting mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding.

  16. Costs and clinical outcomes of primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: a decision analytic model.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; DeRosa, Vincent; Nieto, Jose; Durazo, Francisco; Han, Steven; Roth, Bennett

    2003-04-01

    Current guidelines recommend upper endoscopic screening for patients with hepatic cirrhosis and primary prophylaxis with a nonselective beta-blocker for those with large varices. However, only 25% of cirrhotics develop large varices. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the most cost-effective approach for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage. Using a Markov model, we compared the costs and clinical outcomes of three strategies for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In the first strategy, patients were given a beta-blocker without undergoing upper endoscopy. In the second strategy, patients underwent upper endoscopic screening; those found to have large varices were treated with a beta-blocker. In the third strategy, no prophylaxis was used. Selected sensitivity analyses were performed to validate outcomes. Our results show screening prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $37,300 and 5.72 quality-adjusted life yr (QALYs). Universal prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $34,100 and 6.65 QALYs. The no prophylaxis strategy was associated with a cost of $36,600 and 4.84 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $800/QALY for the endoscopic strategy relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. Screening endoscopy was cost saving when the compliance, bleed risk without beta-blocker, and variceal bleed costs were increased, and when the discount rate, bleed risk on beta-blockers, and cost of upper endoscopy were decreased. In contrast, the universal prophylaxis strategy was persistently cost saving relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. In comparing the strategies, sensitivity analysis on the death rates from variceal hemorrhage did not alter outcomes. Our results provide economic and clinical support for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Universal prophylaxis with beta-blocker is preferred because it is consistently associated with the lowest costs and highest QALYs.

  17. Severe bleeding from esophageal varices resistant to endoscopic treatment in a non cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Caronna, Roberto; Bezzi, Mario; Schiratti, Monica; Cardi, Maurizio; Prezioso, Giampaolo; Benedetti, Michele; Papini, Federica; Mangioni, Simona; Martino, Gabriele; Chirletti, Piero

    2008-01-01

    A non cirrhotic patient with esophageal varices and portal vein thrombosis had recurrent variceal bleeding unsuccessfully controlled by endoscopy and esophageal transection. Emergency transhepatic portography confirmed the thrombosed right branch of the portal vein, while the left branch appeared angulated, shifted and stenotic. A stent was successfully implanted into the left branch and the collateral vessels along the epatoduodenal ligament disappeared. In patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage and portal thrombosis if endoscopy fails, emergency esophageal transection or nonselective portocaval shunting are indicated. The rare patients with only partial portal thrombosis can be treated directly with stenting through an angioradiologic approach. PMID:18644135

  18. Liver stiffness and platelet count for identifying patients with compensated liver disease at low risk of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Marot, Astrid; Trépo, Eric; Doerig, Christopher; Schoepfer, Alain; Moreno, Christophe; Deltenre, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The 2015 Baveno VI guidelines recommend against performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with compensated cirrhosis who have a liver stiffness <20 kPa and a platelet count >150 000/mm³ because of a low prevalence of varices at risk of bleeding in this population. The aim was to synthesize the available evidence on the usefulness of the combined use of liver stiffness and platelet count to identify patients without oesophageal varices. Meta-analysis of trials evaluating the usefulness of a given cut-off for liver stiffness and platelet count to rule out the presence of oesophageal varices. Fifteen studies were included. All studies excepting five used the Baveno VI criteria. Compared to patients with either high liver stiffness or low platelet count, those with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count had a lower risk of varices at risk of bleeding (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.13-0.39, P<.001) with low heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =21%). They also had a lower risk of varices (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.17-0.32, P<.001) with moderate heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =28%). In patients with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count, the pooled estimate rates for varices at risk of bleeding was 0.040 (95% CI=0.027-0.059) with low heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =3%). Patients with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count have a lower risk of varices than those with either high liver stiffness or low platelet count. Varices at risk of bleeding are found in no more than 4% of patients when liver stiffness is <20 kPa and platelet count is normal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  20. Prospective comparison of three risk scoring systems in non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Thanapirom, Kessarin; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Thungsuk, Rattikorn; Noophun, Phadet; Wongjitrat, Chatchawan; Luangjaru, Somchai; Vedkijkul, Padet; Lertkupinit, Comson; Poonsab, Swangphong; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Hansomburana, Piyathida; Pornthisarn, Bubpha; Thongbai, Thirada; Mahachai, Varocha; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat

    2016-04-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS), full Rockall score (FRS) and pre-endoscopic Rockall scores (PRS) in comparing non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) are limited. Our aim was to determine the performance of these three risk scores in predicting the need for treatment, mortality, and re-bleeding among patients with non-variceal and variceal UGIB. During January, 2010 and September, 2011, patients with UGIB from 11 hospitals were prospectively enrolled. The GBS, FRS, and PRS were calculated. Discriminative ability for each score was assessed using the receiver operated characteristics curve (ROC) analysis. A total of 981 patients presented with acute UGIB, 225 patients (22.9%) had variceal UGIB. The areas under the ROC (AUC) of the GBS, FRS, and PRS for predicting the need for treatment were 0.77, 0.69, and 0.61 in non-variceal versus 0.66, 0.66, and 0.59 in variceal UGIB. The AUC for predicting mortality and re-bleeding during admission were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.76 in non-variceal versus 0.63, 0.57, and 0.63 in variceal UGIB. AUC score was not statistically significant for predicting need for therapy and clinical outcome in variceal UGIB. The GBS ≤ 2 and FRS ≤ 1 identified low-risk non-variceal UGIB patients for death and re-bleeding during hospitalization. In contrast to non-variceal UGIB, the GBS, FRS, and PRS were not precise scores for assessing the need for therapy, mortality, and re-bleeding during admission in variceal UGIB. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Predictive factors for rebleeding and death in alcoholic cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Krige, Jake E J; Kotze, Urda K; Distiller, Greg; Shaw, John M; Bornman, Philippus C

    2009-10-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is a leading cause of death in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The aim of the present single-center study was to identify risk factors predictive of variceal rebleeding and death within 6 weeks of initial treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 310 prospectively documented alcoholic cirrhotic patients with acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) who underwent 786 endoscopic variceal injection treatments between January 1984 and December 2006. All injections were administered during the first 6 weeks after the patients were treated for their first variceal bleed. Seventy-five (24.2%) patients experienced a rebleed, 38 within 5 days of the initial treatment and 37 within 6 weeks of their initial treatment. Of the 15 variables studied and included in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model, a bilirubin level >51 mmol/l and transfusion of >6 units of blood during the initial hospital admission were predictors of variceal rebleeding within the first 6 weeks. Seventy-seven (24.8%) patients died, 29 (9.3%) within 5 days and 48 (15.4%) between 6 and 42 days after the initial treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that six variables were predictors of death within the first 6 weeks: encephalopathy, ascites, bilirubin level >51 mmol/l, international normalized ratio (INR) >2.3, albumin <25 g/l, and the need for balloon tube tamponade. Survival was influenced by the severity of liver failure, with most deaths occurring in Child-Pugh grade C patients. Patients with AVH and encephalopathy, ascites, bilirubin levels >51 mmol/l, INR >2.3, albumin <25 g/l and who require balloon tube tamponade are at increased risk of dying within the first 6 weeks. Bilirubin levels >51 mmol/l and transfusion of >6 units of blood were predictors of variceal rebleeding.

  2. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan, E-mail: arulraas@yahoo.com; Mangat, Kamarjit S., E-mail: Kamarjit.mangat@uhb.nhs.uk; Tripathi, Dhiraj, E-mail: d.tripathi@bham.ac.uk

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  3. Endoscopic variceal ligation-induced ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding. The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established. A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397). The patients who had endoscopically confirmed EVL-induced ulcer bleeding were included in the bleeding group. EVL-induced ulcer bleeding occurred in 7.7% (n = 33) of the patients. In a multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >10 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–10.64), concomitant GV F3 (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 2.84–71.43), and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 2.55–25.64) were independent predictive factors of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. Various endoscopic modalities were attempted for hemostasis (EVL in 8 cases [24.2%], endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in 6 cases [18.2%], argon plasma coagulation [APC] in 1 case (3%), Sengstaken–Blakemore (SB) tube in 3 cases [9.1%]), and proton pump inhibitor therapy only in 15 cases (45.5%). MELD score >10, concomitant GV F3, and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy are risk factors for EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. PMID:28614248

  4. A MELD-based model to determine risk of mortality among patients with acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Reverter, Enric; Tandon, Puneeta; Augustin, Salvador; Turon, Fanny; Casu, Stefania; Bastiampillai, Ravin; Keough, Adam; Llop, Elba; González, Antonio; Seijo, Susana; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Ma, Mang; Genescà, Joan; Bosch, Jaume; García-Pagán, Joan Carles; Abraldes, Juan G

    2014-02-01

    Patients with cirrhosis with acute variceal bleeding (AVB) have high mortality rates (15%-20%). Previously described models are seldom used to determine prognoses of these patients, partially because they have not been validated externally and because they include subjective variables, such as bleeding during endoscopy and Child-Pugh score, which are evaluated inconsistently. We aimed to improve determination of risk for patients with AVB. We analyzed data collected from 178 patients with cirrhosis (Child-Pugh scores of A, B, and C: 15%, 57%, and 28%, respectively) and esophageal AVB who received standard therapy from 2007 through 2010. We tested the performance (discrimination and calibration) of previously described models, including the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and developed a new MELD calibration to predict the mortality of patients within 6 weeks of presentation with AVB. MELD-based predictions were validated in cohorts of patients from Canada (n = 240) and Spain (n = 221). Among study subjects, the 6-week mortality rate was 16%. MELD was the best model in terms of discrimination; it was recalibrated to predict the 6-week mortality rate with logistic regression (logit, -5.312 + 0.207 • MELD; bootstrapped R(2), 0.3295). MELD values of 19 or greater predicted 20% or greater mortality, whereas MELD scores less than 11 predicted less than 5% mortality. The model performed well for patients from Canada at all risk levels. In the Spanish validation set, in which all patients were treated with banding ligation, MELD predictions were accurate up to the 20% risk threshold. We developed a MELD-based model that accurately predicts mortality among patients with AVB, based on objective variables available at admission. This model could be useful to evaluate the efficacy of new therapies and stratify patients in randomized trials. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding taking antithrombotic agents.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Shimoda, Ryo; Higuchi, Toru; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the features and management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in Japanese patients taking antithrombotic agents. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 560 patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for UGIB from 2002 to 2013. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, antithrombotic agent use; and group NA, no antithrombotic agent use. We compared clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and causes of UGIB between the groups. We also investigated management with antithrombotics. Of 560 patients with UGIB, 27.5% were taking antithrombotics, and this proportion gradually increased during the study period. Mean hemoglobin levels on admission were significantly lower in group A (8.0 ± 1.7 g/dL) than in group NA (8.9 ± 2.9 g/dL) (P < 0.001). Patients in group A developed more gastric ulcers and multiple ulcers than did patients in group NA. Incidence of Forrest Ia-type bleeding was lower in group A than in group NA (P < 0.001), and the rate of endoscopic hemostasis was significantly higher in group A (98.7%) than in group NA (94.3%) (P = 0.022). After the release of the 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society guidelines, the antithrombotic agent cessation periods were significantly shortened (P < 0.001). Among patients with UGIB, those taking antithrombotics exhibited more severe clinical signs. However spurting hemorrhage was rare. Antithrombotics may be resumed early after endoscopic hemostasis. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY IN GASTRO-ESOPAGEAL VARICEAL BLEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of management of bleeding varices. It requires attention to technique and the appropriate choice of therapy for a given patient at a given point in time. Subjects must be monitored continuously after initiation of therapy for control of bleeding and second line definitive therapies introduced quickly if endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment fails. PMID:26142034

  7. Acute Variceal Bleeding: Does Octreotide Improve Outcomes in Patients with Different Functional Hepatic Reserve?

    PubMed

    Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos A; González-González, José A; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco J; Silva-Ramos, Héctor N; García-Flores, Jorge A; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J

    2018-01-01

    Current guidelines do not differentiate in the utilization of vasoactive drugs in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB) depending on liver disease severity. In this retrospective study, clinical outcomes in 100 patients receiving octreotide plus endoscopic therapy (ET) and 216 patients with ET alone were compared in terms of failure to control bleeding, in-hospital mortality, and transfusion requirements stratifying the results according to liver disease severity by Child-Pugh (CP) score and MELD. In patients with CP-A or those with MELD < 10 octreotide was not associated with a better outcome compared to ET alone in terms of hospital mortality (CP-A: 0.0 vs. 0.0%; MELD < 10: 0.0 vs. 2.9%, p = 1.00), failure to control bleeding (CP-A: 8.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.58; MELD < 10: 5.3 vs. 4.3%, p = 1.00) and need for transfusion (CP-A: 39.1 vs. 61.1%, p = 0.09; MELD < 10: 63.2 vs. 62.9%, p = 1.00). Those with severe liver dysfunction in the octreotide group showed better outcomes compared to the non-octreotide group in terms of hospital mortality (CP-B/C: 3.9 vs. 13.0%, p = 0.04; MELD ≥ 10: 3.9 vs. 13.3%, p = 0.03) and need for transfusion (CP-B/C: 58.4 vs. 71.6%, p = 0.05; MELD ≥ 10: 50.6 vs. 72.7%, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, octreotide was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.028) and need for transfusion (p = 0.008) only in patients with severe liver dysfunction (CP-B/C or MELD ≥ 10). Patients with cirrhosis and AVB categorized as CP-A or MELD < 10 had similar clinical outcomes during hospitalization whether or not they received octreotide.

  8. Variceal bleeding and portal hypertension: new lights on old horizon.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, D K; Siyad, I

    2004-02-01

    New clinical, endoscopic, and imaging modalities for diagnosing varices and predicting bleeding are being investigated. Transnasal endoscopy and ultrathin battery-powered esophagoscopes are being used to improve patient comfort and compliance. Patients who respond to portal pressure-reducing drugs not only have a reduced risk of bleeding, but also a reduced risk of developing other complications, with improved survival. Nitrates have been shown to have no definite role in primary prophylaxis against variceal bleeding. The hemodynamic response to treatment has an independent prognostic value for the risk of variceal bleeding. Newer drugs have been investigated for reducing the hepatic venous pressure gradient, but with little success. Survival after bleeding has increased due to improved patient care and technological advances. Combined radiographic and endoscopic management of gastric varices is evolving and appears to be promising. Nonvariceal bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is increasingly being recognized as a potential cause of bleeding in patients with portal hypertension, and pharmacotherapy with octreotide appears to be promising for the treatment of this condition. Variceal band ligation in children has been found to be as safe and effective as in adults.

  9. Creatinine-modified Child-Turcotte-Pugh score is a good predictor of a short-term survival in patients with bleeding from esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Radisavljević, Mirjana; Bjelaković, Goran; Jović, Jasna; Radovanović-Dinić, Biljana; Benedoto-Stojanov, Danijela; Brzački, Vesna; Marković-Živković, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is a significant factor in mortality of patients with terminal liver cirrhosis. This complication is a major health problem for recipients on the list for liver transplant. In that regard, studying predictors of variceal bleeding episode is very important. Also, it is important to find the best survival predictor among prognostic scores. The aim of the study was to compare validity of prognostic scores in assessment of survival in hospital-treated patients after bleeding from esophageal varices, and to compare validity of baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and Modul for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores with CTP creatinine modified (CTP-crea) I and II scores in assessment of survival in patients within a long-term follow-up period after the episode of bleeding from esophageal varices. The study included a total of 126 patients suffering from terminal liver cirrhosis submited to testing CTP score score I and II, MELD score, MELD Na score, integrated MELD score, MELD sodium (MESO) index, United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) score and updated MELD score. Patients with bleeding from esophageal varices most often had CTP score rank C (46,9%). CTP score rank B had 37.5% patients, while the smallest percentage of patients had CTP rank A, 15.6% of them. Patients who have values of CTP score higher than 10.50 and bleeding from esophagus, have 3.2 times higher chance for death outcome compared to other patients. Patients who have values of CTP-crea I score higher than 10.50 and bleeding from esophagus, have 3.1 times higher chance for death out-come than other patients. Patients who have values of CTP-crea II score higher than 11.50 and bleeding from esophagus, have 3,7 times higher chance for death outcome compared to other patients. Survival of patients with bleeding from esophageal varices in the short-term follow up can be predicted by following CTP score and creatinine modified CTP scores. Patients with bleeding

  10. Management for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients: the experience of a tertiary university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kurumi, Hiroki; Takeda, Yohei; Yashima, Kazuo; Isomoto, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Background Peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is the main cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Endoscopic treatment and acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are most important in the management of PUB and these treatments have reduced mortality. However, elderly patients sometimes have a poor prognostic outcome due to severe comorbidities. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 504 cases with acute non-variceal UGIB who were examined in our hospital, in order to reveal the risk factor of a poor outcome in elderly patients. Results Two hundred and thirty-four cases needed hemostasis; 11 cases had unsuccessful endoscopic treatments; 31 cases had re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis. Forty-three cases died within 30 days after the initial urgent endoscopy, but only seven cases died from bleeding. Elderly patients aged over 65 years had more severe comorbidities, and were prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents, more frequently, compared with non-elderly patients. The significant risk factor of needing hemostatic therapy was the taking of two or more NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents. The most important risk of a poor outcome in elderly patients was various kinds of severe comorbidities. And so, it is important to predict such an outcome in these cases. AIMS65 is a simple and relatively useful scoring system that predicts the risk of a poor outcome in UGIB. High-score patients via AIMS65 were associated with a high mortality rate because of death from comorbidities. Conclusions The elderly patients in whom were prescribed two or more NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents, should have UGIB prevented using a PPI. The most significant risk of a poor outcome in elderly patients was severe comorbidities. We recommend that elderly patients with UGIB should be estimated as having a poor outcome as soon as possible via the

  11. Management for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients: the experience of a tertiary university hospital.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Kurumi, Hiroki; Takeda, Yohei; Yashima, Kazuo; Isomoto, Hajime

    2017-04-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is the main cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Endoscopic treatment and acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are most important in the management of PUB and these treatments have reduced mortality. However, elderly patients sometimes have a poor prognostic outcome due to severe comorbidities. A retrospective study was performed on 504 cases with acute non-variceal UGIB who were examined in our hospital, in order to reveal the risk factor of a poor outcome in elderly patients. Two hundred and thirty-four cases needed hemostasis; 11 cases had unsuccessful endoscopic treatments; 31 cases had re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis. Forty-three cases died within 30 days after the initial urgent endoscopy, but only seven cases died from bleeding. Elderly patients aged over 65 years had more severe comorbidities, and were prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents, more frequently, compared with non-elderly patients. The significant risk factor of needing hemostatic therapy was the taking of two or more NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents. The most important risk of a poor outcome in elderly patients was various kinds of severe comorbidities. And so, it is important to predict such an outcome in these cases. AIMS65 is a simple and relatively useful scoring system that predicts the risk of a poor outcome in UGIB. High-score patients via AIMS65 were associated with a high mortality rate because of death from comorbidities. The elderly patients in whom were prescribed two or more NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation agents, should have UGIB prevented using a PPI. The most significant risk of a poor outcome in elderly patients was severe comorbidities. We recommend that elderly patients with UGIB should be estimated as having a poor outcome as soon as possible via the risk scoring system AIMS65.

  12. Alternative Treatment for Bleeding Peristomal Varices: Percutaneous Parastomal Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M., E-mail: waly.pr@duke.edu; Niemeyer, Matthew M.; Dasika, Narasimham L., E-mail: narasimh@med.umich.edu

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To describe how peristomal varices can be successfully embolized via a percutaneous parastomal approach. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent this procedure between December 1, 2000, and May 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Procedural details were recorded. Median fluoroscopy time and bleeding-free interval were calculated. Results: Seven patients underwent eight parastomal embolizations. The technical success rate was 88 % (one failure). All embolizations were performed with coils combined with a sclerosant, another embolizing agent, or both. Of the seven successful parastomal embolizations, there were three cases of recurrent bleeding; the median time to rebleeding was 45 daysmore » (range 26-313 days). The remaining four patients did not develop recurrent bleeding during the follow-up period; their median bleeding-free interval was 131 days (range 40-659 days). Conclusion: This case review demonstrated that percutaneous parastomal embolization is a feasible technique to treat bleeding peristomal varices.« less

  13. Emergency endoscopic variceal ligation in cirrhotic patients with blood clots in the stomach but no active bleeding or stigmata increases the risk of rebleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Su Bum; Hong, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Tae; Cho, Mong; Nam, Hyung Seok; Islam, Sm Bakhtiar Ui

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of emergency variceal ligation for the prevention of rebleeding in cirrhotic patients who are found on initial endoscopy to have blood clots in the stomach but no actively bleeding esophageal and gastric varices or stigmata. This study included 28 cirrhotic patients who underwent emergency prophylactic EVL and 41 who underwent an elective intervention between January 2009 and June 2014. Clinical outcomes were analyzed, including the rebleeding, 6-week mortality, and rebleeding-free survival rates. The rebleeding rate was higher in the emergency than in the elective group (28.6% vs. 7.3%, P =0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that emergency prophylactic EVL (odds ratio [OR] = 7.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.634.8, P =0.012) and Child-Pugh score C (OR=10.6, 95% CI=1.4-80.8, P =0.022) were associated with rebleeding. In the emergency group, the gastric varices were associated with rebleeding (OR=12.0, 95% CI=1.7-83.5, P =0.012). Emergency EVL may be associated with variceal rebleeding when blood clots are present in the stomach without active esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding or stigmata. Elective intervention should be considered as a safer strategy for preventing variceal rebleeding in this situation.

  14. Efficacy of carvedilol versus propranolol versus variceal band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Abd ElRahim, Ayman Yosry; Fouad, Rabab; Khairy, Marwa; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Fathalah, Waleed; Khatamish, Haytham; Khorshid, Omayma; Moussa, Mona; Seyam, Moataz

    2018-01-01

    Band ligation and propranolol are the current therapies for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Carvedilol is a rising nonselective beta-blocker used for reducing portal pressure with favorable outcome. The aim of this study to assess the efficacy of carvedilol, propranolol, and band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding based on the effect of each regimen on progression of Child score and portal hypertensive gastropathy after 1 year. The study included 264 cirrhotic patients with medium/large-sized varices who were candidates for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I: band ligation; group II: propranolol; group III: carvedilol. Group I showed higher success rate of 75 %, followed by group III with 70.2 % and group II with 65.2 %. Risk of bleeding was comparable between the three groups, with group II carrying the highest rate of complications (34.7 %) followed by group III (14.2 %) and finally group I (5.7 %). After 1 year of follow-up, Child score did not improve in any of the studied groups, while portal hypertensive gastropathy significantly increased in group I but decreased in groups II and III. Band ligation is the best treatment option for primary prevention of variceal bleeding with minimal complications. Carvedilol is a good pharmaceutical alternative medicine to propranolol with lesser side-effects. Progress of liver disease as represented by Child score is not affected by any of the primary variceal prophylactic regimens, although medical treatment reduces portal hypertensive gastropathy. Choice of treatment depends on patient will, compliance with treatment, and endoscopist competence.

  15. Bleeding Duodenal: Varices Treatment by TIPS and Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Arthurs, Blain; Scheuerman, Christian

    2008-03-15

    We describe our clinical experience in 4 patients with portal hypertension who presented with bleeding mesenteric varices originating from the superior mesenteric vein with retrograde filling of collaterals draining into the inferior vena cava. The clinical presentation, imaging findings, and potential therapeutic management are discussed.

  16. Bleeding due to ectopic varices in a urinary diversion: A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Eduardo Mariano Albers; Reyes, Alfonsi Friera; Menéndez, Ricardo Brime

    2015-01-01

    The ectopic varices in patients with portal hypertension are those that occur at any level of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regardless of the varices that occur at the esophageal level. These ectopic varices account for 2–5% of the causes of GI bleeding varices. The risk of bleeding is quadrupled compared to the esophagogastric area, with a mortality of up to 40%. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, should be considered in cases secondary to recurrent bleeding varices. We present a case report of an urological emergency of bleeding in a urinary diversion secondary to ectopic varices successfully treated through the placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The condition described here is rare, but important, as it can be a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. This kind of complication should be known by urologic surgeons managing patients with urinary diversions. PMID:26834901

  17. Gastric Varices Bleed at Lower Portosystemic Pressure Gradients than Esophageal Varices.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Joseph D; Mendoza-Elias, Nasya; Lipnik, Andrew J; Lokken, R Peter; Bui, James T; Ray, Charles E; Gaba, Ron C

    2018-05-01

    To quantify and compare portosystemic pressure gradients (PSGs) between bleeding esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). In a single-center, retrospective study, 149 patients with variceal bleeding (90 men, 59 women, mean age 52 y) with EV (n = 69; 46%) or GV (n = 80; 54%) were selected from 320 consecutive patients who underwent successful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation from 1998 to 2016. GV were subcategorized using the Sarin classification as gastroesophageal varices (GEV) (n = 57) or isolated gastric varices (IGV) (n = 23). PSG before TIPS was measured from the main portal vein to the right atrium. PSGs were compared across EV, GEV, and IGV groups using 1-way analysis of variance. Overall mean baseline PSG was 21 mm Hg ± 6. PSG was significantly higher in patients with EV versus GV (23 mm Hg vs 19 mm Hg; P < .001). Mean PSG was highest among EV (23 mm Hg) with lower PSGs identified for GEV (20 mm Hg) and IGV (16 mm Hg); this difference was statistically significant (P < .001). Among 95 acute bleeding cases, a similar pattern was evident (EV 23 mm Hg vs GEV mm Hg 20 vs IGV 17 mm Hg; P < .001). At baseline PSG < 12 mm Hg, 13% (3/23) of IGV bled versus 9% (5/57) of GEV and 3% (2/69) of EVs (P = .169). Mean final PSG after TIPS was 8 mm Hg (IGV 6 mm Hg vs EV and GEV 8 mm Hg; P = .005). GV bleed at lower PSGs than EV. EV, GEV, and IGV bleeding is associated with successively lower PSGs. These findings highlight distinct physiology, anatomy, and behavior of GV compared with EV. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dislodgement of variceal bands after esophageal balloon tamponade for variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Mogrovejo, Estela; Manickam, Palaniappan; Polidori, Gregg; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis underwent EGD for hematemesis which revealed bleeding, grade II, lower esophageal varices that were endoscopically ligated with 6 bands. All the bands remained attached to varices at the completion of EGD. Despite apparent initial hemostasis, balloon tamponade was performed one hour later for suspected continued bleeding. Due to suspected continuing bleeding, EGD was repeated 4 h after initial EGD, and 3 h after balloon tamponade. This EGD revealed the esophageal varices; none of the bands remaining on esophageal mucosa; multiple mucosal stigmata likely from trauma at initial site of variceal bands before dislodgement; and 3 dislodged bands in gastric body, duodenal bulb, or descending duodenum. The patient expired 17 h thereafter from hypovolemic shock. This single report may suggest an apparently novel, balloon tamponade complication: dislodgement of previously placed, endoscopic bands. The proposed pathophysiology is release of bands by stretching entrapped, esophageal mucosa during esophageal balloon tamponade. This complication, if confirmed, might render balloon tamponade a less desirable option very soon after band ligation.

  19. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  20. Short-Term Outcome of Patients with Cirrhosis and Concurrent Portal Cavernoma Presenting with Acute Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuefeng; Wang, Wanqin; Fan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Xiaoze; Yang, Jinlin; Yang, Li

    2018-01-01

    The outcome of cirrhotic patients with main portal vein occlusion and portal cavernoma after the first episode of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is unknown. We compared short-term outcomes after AVB in cirrhotic patients with and without portal cavernoma. Between January 2009 and September 2014, 28 patients with cirrhosis and portal cavernoma presenting with the first occurrence of AVB and 56 age-, sex-, and Child-Pugh score-matched cirrhotic patients without portal cavernoma were included. The primary endpoints were 5-day treatment failure and 6-week mortality. The 5-day treatment failure rate was higher in the cavernoma group than in the control group (32.1% versus 12.5%; p = 0.031). The 6-week mortality rate did not differ between the cavernoma and control group (25% versus 12.5%, p = 0.137). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed that 5-day treatment failure (HR = 1.223, 95% CI = 1.082 to 1.384; p = 0.001) independently predicted 6-week mortality. Cirrhotic patients with AVB and portal cavernoma have worse short-term prognosis than patients without portal cavernoma. The 5-day treatment failure was an independent risk factor for 6-week mortality in patients with cirrhosis and portal cavernoma.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2-5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

  2. Relevance of surgery in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Dango, S; Beißbarth, T; Weiss, E; Seif Amir Hosseini, A; Raddatz, D; Ellenrieder, V; Lotz, J; Ghadimi, B M; Beham, A

    2017-05-01

    Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention. Herein, we present one of the largest patient-based analysis assessing clinical parameters and outcome in patients undergoing endoscopy with an upper GI bleeding. Data were further analyzed to identify potential new risk factors and to investigate the role of surgery. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze outcome of patients with an UGIB and data were analyzed to identify potential new risk factors and the role of surgery. Data collection included demographic data, laboratory results, endoscopy reports, and details of management including blood administration, and surgery was carried out. Patient events were grouped and defined as "overall" events and "operated," "non-operated," and "operated and death" as well as "non-operated and death" where appropriate. Blatchford, clinical as well as complete Rockall-score analysis, risk stratification, and disease-related mortality rate were calculated for each group for comparison. Overall, 253 patients were eligible for analysis: endoscopy was carried out in 96% of all patients, 17% needed surgical intervention after endoscopic failure of bleeding control due to persistent bleeding, and the remaining 4% of patients were subjected directly to surgery. The median length of stay to discharge was 26 days. Overall mortality was 22%; out of them, almost 5% were operated and died. Anticoagulation was associated with a high in-hospital mortality risk (23%) and was increased once patients were taken to surgery (43

  3. Laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection for bleeding varices with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue D; Ye, Huan; Ye, Zai Y; Zhu, Yang W; Xie, Zhi J; Zhu, Jin H; Liu, Jin M; Zhao, Ting

    2008-02-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension. The ideal surgical procedure should control bleeding with as little impairment of liver function as possible and with low rates of encephalopathy. Recently, significant progress in laparoscopic technology has enabled laparoscopic splenectomy and devascularization of the lower esophagus and upper stomach in a less invasive way. In this paper, we present preliminary results for 25 patients in whom laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection were performed. Laparoscopic splenectomy and devascularization of the lower esophagus and upper stomach were performed in 25 patients with cirrhosis, bleeding portal hypertension, and secondary hypersplenism between January 2000 and October 2006. Among them, 5 patients underwent a laparoscopic modified Sugiura procedure, the lower esophagus was transected, and then reanastomosed with a circular stapler. Laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection were completed in all patients, except in 1 conversion, without significant morbidity. The operation time ranged from 4.0 to 5.5 hours and the blood loss was 100-400 mL. The postoperative hospital stay was 6-15 days. During a postoperative follow-up period of 3 months to 5 years in 22 patients, neither esophagus variceal bleeding nor encephalopathy has recurred. Laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection are feasible, effective, and safe surgical procedures, and have all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery for patients with bleeding portal hypertension and hypersplenism. Laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection offer a new operative method for treatment of bleeding portal hypertension with hypersplenism.

  4. [Can Glasgow-Blatchford Score and Pre-endoscopic Rockall Score Predict the Occurrence of Hypotension in Initially Normotensive Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding?].

    PubMed

    Kim, June Sung; Ko, Byuk Sung; Son, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon Seon; Lee, Jae Ho; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-25

    The aim of this study was to identify the ability of Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) and pre-endoscopic Rockall score (pre-E RS) to predict the occurrence of hypotension in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who are initially normotensive at emergency department. Retrospective observational study was conducted at Asan Medical Center emergency department (ED) in patients who presented with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013. Study population was divided according to the development of hypotension, and demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory findings were compared. GBS and pre-E RS were estimated to predict the occurrence of hypotension. A total of 747 patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included during the study period, and 120 (16.1%) patients developed hypotension within 24 hours after ED admission. The median values GBS and pre-E RS were statistically different according to the occurrence of hypotension (8.0 vs. 10.0, 2.0 vs. 3.0, respectively; p<0.001). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of hypotension development, the area under the curve of GBS and pre-E RS were 66% and 64%, respectively. The sensitivity and the specificity of GBS using optimal cut-off value were 81% and 46%, respectively, while those based on the pre-E RS were 74% and 46%, respectively. GBS and pre-E RS were both not sufficient for predicting the occurrence of hypotension in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Development of other scoring systems are needed.

  5. The Novel Scoring System for 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sejin; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Joong Goo; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, ByungIk; Park, Jung Bae; Park, Youn Sun

    2016-07-01

    Although the mortality rates for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) have recently decreased, it remains a significant medical problem. The main aim of this prospective multicenter database study was to construct a clinically useful predictive scoring system by using our predictors and compare its prognostic accuracy with that of the Rockall scoring system. Data were collected from consecutive patients with NVUGIB. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Each independent predictor was assigned an integral point proportional to the odds ratio (OR) and we used the area under the curve to compare the discrimination ability between the new predictive model and the Rockall score. The independent predictors of mortality included age >65 years [OR 2.627; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.298-5.318], hemodynamic instability (OR 2.217; 95 % CI 1.069-4.597), serum blood urea nitrogen level >40 mg/dL (OR 1.895; 95 % CI 1.029-3.490), active bleeding at endoscopy (OR 2.434; 95 % CI 1.283-4.616), transfusions (OR 3.811; 95 % CI 1.640-8.857), comorbidities (OR 3.481; 95 % CI 1.405-8.624), and rebleeding (OR 10.581; 95 % CI 5.590-20.030). The new predictive model showed a high discrimination capability and was significantly superior to the Rockall score in predicting the risk of death (OR 0.837;95 % CI 0.818-0.855 vs. 0.761; 0.739-0.782; P = 0.0123). The new predictive score was significantly more accurate than the Rockall score in predicting death in NVUGIB patients. We need to prospectively validate the accuracy of this score for predicting mortality in NVUGIB patients.

  6. Diagnosis and therapy of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz in the absence of oesophageal, gastric or duodenal varices. The clinical presentation varies according to the intensity of bleeding from occult bleeding to melena or haematemesis and haemorrhagic shock. Causes of UGIB are peptic ulcers, Mallory-Weiss lesions, erosive gastritis, reflux oesophagitis, Dieulafoy lesions or angiodysplasia. After admission to the hospital a structured approach to the patient with acute UGIB that includes haemodynamic resuscitation and stabilization as well as pre-endoscopic risk stratification has to be done. Endoscopy offers not only the localisation of the bleeding site but also a variety of therapeutic measures like injection therapy, thermocoagulation or endoclips. Endoscopic therapy is facilitated by acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. These drugs are highly effective but the best route of application (oral vs intravenous) and the adequate dosage are still subjects of discussion. Patients with ulcer disease are tested for Helicobacter pylori and eradication therapy should be given if it is present. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have to be discontinued if possible. If discontinuation is not possible, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in combination with PPI have the lowest bleeding risk but the incidence of cardiovascular events is increased. PMID:26558151

  7. [Acute liver ischaemia after gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Senosiain Lalastra, Carla; Arribas Anta, Julia; Moreira Vicente, Víctor; Martínez González, Javier; Maroto Castellanos, Maite; García Sánchez, María Concepción; Zaera de la Fuente, Celia; López Durán, Sergio; Cañete Ruiz, Ángel; Albillos Martínez, Agustín

    2016-11-01

    Variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) can trigger acute hypoxic hepatitis (AHH). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, associated risk factors and mortality of AHH after variceal UGIB. Retrospective study of cirrhotic patients with variceal UGIB, classified into 2 groups according to the development of AHH. AHH was diagnosed when AST and ALT reached levels 10 times above the upper limit of normal, after ruling out other causes of hepatitis. The standard initial treatment consisted of haemodynamic support, emergency endoscopy with rubber band ligation, somatostatin and antibiotics. In the case of failure of primary haemostasis, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was implanted. Both groups (AHH and non-AHH) were compared. Sixty-eight cirrhotic patients with variceal UGIB admitted to the gastroenterology department of Hospital Ramón y Cajal between January 2007 and March 2012 were analysed. Eleven of these patients (16.2%) developed AHH. Univariate analysis showed the following items as risk factors: diabetes (OR: 7.5; CI: 1.9-29), shock (OR: 8.5; CI: 2.06-34) and persistent bleeding (OR: 9.0, CI: 1.6-49, P=.03). However, multivariate analysis confirmed only diabetes (OR: 8.61; CI: 1.4-52.5) and shock (OR: 7.58; CI: 1.26-45.51) as risk factors. Mortality rate in the AHH group was 45%, compared to 10.5% in the non-HAA group (P=.012). AHH after variceal UGIB occurred in 16.2% of cirrhotic patients and was associated with a poorer prognosis, with a mortality rate of 45%. Our findings suggest that diabetes and shock are risk factors for the development of AHH. Early identification of at-risk patients could therefore help prevent AHH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu, E-mail: nktmnbohsu@jichi.ac.jp; Nakata, Waka, E-mail: waka-s@jichi.ac.jp; Isoda, Norio, E-mail: isodano1@jichi.ac.jp

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  9. The model for the end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh score in predicting prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis and esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Bjelaković, Goran; Stojanov, Dragan; Mladenović, Bojan; Djenić, Nebojsa

    2009-09-01

    Esophageal variceal bleeding is one of the most frequent and gravest complications of liver cirrhosis, directly life-threatening. By monitoring certain clinical and laboratory hepatocellular insufficiency parameters (Child-Pugh score), it is possible to determine prognosis in patients who are bleeding and evaluate further therapy. Recently, the Model for the End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been proposed as a tool to predict mortality risk in cirrhotic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate survival prognosis of cirrhotic patients by the MELD and Child-Pugh scores and to analyze the MELD score prognostic value in patients with both liver cirrhosis and variceal bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated the survival rate of a group of 100 cirrhotic patients of a median age of 57 years. The Child-Pugh score was calculated and the MELD score was computed according to the original formula for each patient. We also analysed clinical and laboratory hepatocellular insufficiency parameters in order to examine their connection with a 15-month survival. The MELD values were correlated with the Child-Pugh scores. The Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Twenty-two patients died within 15-months followup. Age and gender did not affect survival rate. The Child-Pugh and MELD scores, as well as ascites and encephalopathy significantly differed between the patients who survived and those who died (p < 0.0001). The International Normalized Ratio (INR) values, serum creatinine and bilirubin were significantly higher, and albumin significantly lower in the patients who died (p < 0.0001). The MELD score was significantly higher in the group of patients who died due to esophageal variceal bleeding (p < 0.0001). In cirrhotic patients the MELD score is an excellent survival predictor at least as well as the Child-Pugh score. Increase in the MELD score is associated with decrease in residual liver function. In the group of patients with liver cirrhosis and esophageal

  10. Severe gastric variceal bleeding successfully treated by emergency splenic artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Velayuthan, Sujithra; Vea, Romulo; Herbst, John

    2013-06-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices due to splenic vein obstruction is extremely rare in children, but it can be catastrophic. Reported herein is the case of a teenager with splenic vein thrombosis and chronic decompensated liver disease from autoimmune hepatitis who presented with massive gastric variceal bleeding. Standard medical management did not control the bleeding. Due to decompensated liver disease and continuous active bleeding, emergency partial splenic artery embolization was preferred over splenectomy or a shunt procedure. Bleeding was successfully controlled by partial splenic artery embolization by decreasing the inflow of blood into the portal system. It is concluded that emergency partial splenic artery embolization is a safer alternative life-saving procedure to manage severe gastric variceal bleeding due to splenic vein obstruction in a patient with high surgical risk. To our knowledge, only one other patient with similar management has been reported in the pediatric age group. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Endoscopic variceal ligation for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage in pre-liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eu Jin; Gow, Paul J; Angus, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is widely used to prevent esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis. However, the safety and efficacy of EVL in this setting have not been clearly established. This study included 300 adult patients with cirrhosis on our liver transplant waitlist who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Esophageal varices deemed to be at high risk of bleeding were banded until eradication or transplantation. A retrospective review of patient notes and endoscopy databases was undertaken, and the number of banding episodes, complications, and patient outcomes were recorded. Forty-two of 300 patients presented with or had previous variceal bleeding prior to referral and were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 258 patients, 101 underwent a total of 259 banding episodes (2.6 per patient) with a median follow-up post-banding of 18.4 months per patient (a total of 150 patient years). Failed prophylaxis occurred in 2 patients (2%), and there were 3 episodes (1.2%) of acute hematemesis from band-induced ulceration. One patient (1%) had mild esophageal stricturing post-banding without dysphagia. Four of 36 patients (11%) previously found to have moderately sized or larger varices that were not banded presented with hematemesis due to variceal bleeding and were subsequently banded. None of the patients that received banding died because of bleeding or failed to receive a transplant as a result of banding complications. This study shows that in liver transplant candidates, EVL is highly effective in preventing first variceal bleed. Although banding carries a small risk of band-induced bleeding, this rate is low in comparison with the predicted rate of variceal bleeding in this population.

  12. The International Normalized Ratio does not Reflect Bleeding Risk in Esophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hshieh, Tammy T.; Kaung, Aung; Hussain, Syed; Curry, Michael P.; Sundaram, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The international normalized ratio (INR) has not been validated as a predictor of bleeding risk in cirrhotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether elevation in the INR correlated with risk of esophageal variceal hemorrhage and whether correction of the INR prior to endoscopic therapy affects failure to control bleeding. Patients and Methods: Patient records were retrospectively reviewed from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Cases were cirrhotics admitted to the hospital due to bleeding esophageal varices. Controls were cirrhotics with a history of non-bleeding esophageal varices admitted with ascites or encephalopathy. All variceal bleeders were treated with octreotide, antibiotics, and band ligation. Failure to control bleeding was defined according to the Baveno V criteria. Results: We analyzed 74 cases and 74 controls. The mean INR at presentation was lower in those with bleeding varices compared to non-bleeders (1.61 vs 1.74, P = 0.03). Those with bleeding varices had higher serum sodium (136.1 vs 133.8, P = 0.02), lower hemoglobin (9.59 vs 11.0, P < 0.001), and lower total bilirubin (2.47 vs 5.50, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression showed total bilirubin to inversely correlate with bleeding (OR = 0.74). Bleeders received a mean of 1.14 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) prior to endoscopy (range 0-11 units). Of the 14 patients (20%) with failure to control bleeding, median INR (1.8 vs 1.5, P = 0.02) and median units of FFP transfused (2 vs 0, P = 0.01) were higher than those with hemostasis after the initial endoscopy. Conclusions: The INR reflects liver dysfunction, not bleeding risk. Correction of INR with FFP has little effect on hemostasis. PMID:26228370

  13. The international normalized ratio does not reflect bleeding risk in esophageal variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hshieh, Tammy T; Kaung, Aung; Hussain, Syed; Curry, Michael P; Sundaram, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    The international normalized ratio (INR) has not been validated as a predictor of bleeding risk in cirrhotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether elevation in the INR correlated with risk of esophageal variceal hemorrhage and whether correction of the INR prior to endoscopic therapy affects failure to control bleeding. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Cases were cirrhotics admitted to the hospital due to bleeding esophageal varices. Controls were cirrhotics with a history of non-bleeding esophageal varices admitted with ascites or encephalopathy. All variceal bleeders were treated with octreotide, antibiotics, and band ligation. Failure to control bleeding was defined according to the Baveno V criteria. We analyzed 74 cases and 74 controls. The mean INR at presentation was lower in those with bleeding varices compared to non-bleeders (1.61 vs 1.74, P = 0.03). Those with bleeding varices had higher serum sodium (136.1 vs 133.8, P = 0.02), lower hemoglobin (9.59 vs 11.0, P < 0.001), and lower total bilirubin (2.47 vs 5.50, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression showed total bilirubin to inversely correlate with bleeding (OR = 0.74). Bleeders received a mean of 1.14 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) prior to endoscopy (range 0-11 units). Of the 14 patients (20%) with failure to control bleeding, median INR (1.8 vs 1.5, P = 0.02) and median units of FFP transfused (2 vs 0, P = 0.01) were higher than those with hemostasis after the initial endoscopy. The INR reflects liver dysfunction, not bleeding risk. Correction of INR with FFP has little effect on hemostasis.

  14. Efficacy of ankaferd blood stopper application on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Gokhan; Goktepe, M Hakan; Biyik, Murat; Polat, Ilker; Tuna, Tuncer; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the hemostatic efficacy of the endoscopic topical use of ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) in active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system (GIS) bleeding. METHODS: Endoscopy was performed on 220 patients under suspiciency of GIS bleeding. Patients with active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) with a spurting or oozing type were included. Firstly, 8-10 cc of isotonic saline was sprayed to bleeding lesions. Then, 8 cc of ABS was applied on lesions in which bleeding continued after isotonic saline application. The other endoscopic therapeutic methods were applied on the lesions in which the bleeding did not stop after ABS. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had an active NVUGIB with a spurting or oozing type and 193 patients were excluded from the study since they did not have non-variceal active bleeding. 8 cc of ABS was sprayed on to the lesions of 26 patients whose bleeding continued after isotonic saline and in 19 of them, bleeding stopped after ABS. Other endoscopic treatment methods were applied to the remaining patients and the bleeding was stopped with these interventions in 6 of 7 patients. CONCLUSION: ABS is an effective method on NVUGIB, particularly on young patients with no coagulopathy. ABS may be considered as part of a combination treatment with other endoscopic methods. PMID:23293725

  15. Prognostic scores in oesophageal or gastric variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ohmann, C; Stöltzing, H; Wins, L; Busch, E; Thon, K

    1990-05-01

    Numerous scoring systems have been developed for the prediction of outcome of variceal bleeding; however, only a few have been evaluated adequately. The object of this study was to improve the classical Child-Pugh score (CPS) and to test other scores from the literature. Patients (n = 82) with endoscopically confirmed variceal bleeding and long-term sclerotherapy were included in the study. Linear logistic regression (LR) was applied to different sets of prognostic variables with regard to 30-day mortality. In addition, scores from the literature were evaluated on the data set. Performance was measured by the accuracy and receiver-operating characteristic curves. The application of LR to all five CPS variables (accuracy, 80%) was superior to the classical CPS (70%). LR with selection from the CPS variables or from other sets of variables resulted in no improvement. Compared with CPS only three scores from the literature, mainly based on subsets of the CPS variables, showed an improved accuracy. It is concluded that CPS is still a good scoring system; however, it can be improved by statistical analysis using the same variables.

  16. Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: Variceal and Nonvariceal.

    PubMed

    Lirio, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is generally defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, which leads to hematemesis. There are several causes of UGI bleeding necessitating a detailed history to rule out comorbid conditions, medications, and possible exposures. In addition, the severity, timing, duration, and volume of the bleeding are important details to note for management purposes. Despite the source of the bleeding, acid suppression with a proton-pump inhibitor has been shown to be effective in minimizing rebleeding. Endoscopy remains the interventional modality of choice for both nonvariceal and variceal bleeds because it can be diagnostic and therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coil-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (CARTO) for the Treatment of Portal Hypertensive Variceal Bleeding: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward W; Saab, Sammy; Gomes, Antoinette S; Busuttil, Ronald; McWilliams, Justin; Durazo, Francisco; Han, Steven-Huy; Goldstein, Leonard; Tafti, Bashir A; Moriarty, John; Loh, Christopher T; Kee, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the technical feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of coil-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (CARTO) in treating portal hypertensive non-esophageal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: From October 2012 to December 2013, 20 patients who received CARTO for the treatment of portal hypertensive non-esophageal variceal bleeding were retrospectively evaluated. All 20 patients had at least 6-month follow-up. All patients had detachable coils placed to occlude the efferent shunt and retrograde gelfoam embolization to achieve complete thrombosis/obliteration of varices. Technical success, clinical success, rebleeding, and complications were evaluated at follow-up. RESULTS: A 100% technical success rate (defined as achieving complete occlusion of efferent shunt with complete thrombosis/obliteration of bleeding varices and/or stopping variceal bleeding) was demonstrated in all 20 patients. Clinical success rate (defined as no variceal rebleeding) was 100%. Follow-up computed tomography after CARTO demonstrated decrease in size with complete thrombosis and disappearance of the varices in all 20 patients. Thirteen out of the 20 had endoscopic confirmation of resolution of varices. Minor post-CARTO complications, including worsening of esophageal varices (not bleeding) and worsening of ascites/hydrothorax, were noted in 5 patients (25%). One patient passed away at 24 days after the CARTO due to systemic and portal venous thrombosis and multi-organ failure. Otherwise, no major complication was noted. No variceal rebleeding was noted in all 20 patients during mean follow-up of 384±154 days. CONCLUSIONS: CARTO appears to be a technically feasible and safe alternative to traditional balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, with excellent clinical outcomes in treating portal hypertensive non-esophageal variceal bleeding. PMID:25273155

  18. Optimizing the time-frame for the definition of bleeding-related death after acute variceal bleeding in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Merkel, C; Gatta, A; Bellumat, A; Bolognesi, M; Borsato, L; Caregaro, L; Cavallarin, G; Cielo, R; Cristina, P; Cucci, E; Donada, C; Donadon, V; Enzo, E; Martin, R; Mazzaro, C; Sacerdoti, D; Torboli, P

    1996-01-01

    To identify the best time-frame for defining bleeding-related death after variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Prospective long-term evaluation of a cohort of 155 patients admitted with variceal bleeding. Eight medical departments in seven hospitals in north-eastern Italy. Non-linear regression analysis of a hazard curve for death, and Cox's multiple regression analyses using different zero-time points. Cumulative hazard plots gave two slopes, the first corresponding to the risk of death from acute bleeding, the second a baseline risk of death. The first 30 days were outside the confidence limits of the regression curve for the baseline risk of death. Using Cox's regression analysis, the significant predictors of overall mortality risk were balanced between factors related to severity of bleeding and those related to severity of liver disease. If only deaths occurring after 30 days were considered, only predictors related to the severity of liver disease were found to be of importance. Thirty days after bleeding is considered to be a reasonable time-frame for the definition of bleeding-related death in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding.

  19. Mesocaval Shunt Creation for Jejunal Variceal Bleeding with Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ja Kyung; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Do Yun; Han, Seok Joo

    2018-01-01

    The creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a widely performed technique to relieve portal hypertension, and to manage recurrent variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients where medical and/or endoscopic treatments have failed. However, portosystemic shunt creation can be challenging in the presence of chronic portal vein occlusion. In this case report, we describe a minimally invasive endovascular mesocaval shunt creation with transsplenic approach for the management of recurrent variceal bleeding in a portal hypertension patient with intra- and extrahepatic portal vein occlusion. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasonography predicts early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Men, Changjun; Zhang, Guoliang

    2017-04-01

    Bleeding esophageal and gastric varices constitute a serious complication in liver cirrhosis. Previous studies have shown that endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can be used to predict early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis. We report a case of a 46-year-old man with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (CTP score, 5; Child-Pugh class, A) who was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased appetite lasting 1 week. He was initially diagnosed with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan indicated a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT). Common endoscopic examination showed no evidence of gastroesophageal varices; EUS revealed distinct varices of the esophageal and gastric veins. Six months after discharge, the patient was rehospitalized because of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic ligation was implemented as well as esophageal varices loop ligature (EVL). Six months later, EUS showed obvious collateral and perforator veins. We should strongly recommend that patients with liver cirrhosis undergo EUS in addition to a routine endoscopic examination. EUS can play an important role in evaluating the risk for bleeding in PHT and can be used to assess the efficacy of EVL.

  1. Measuring the hemodynamic response to primary pharmacoprophylaxis of variceal bleeding: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Thomas F; Chalasani, Naga; Klein, Robert W

    2003-12-01

    The hemodynamic response to ss-blockers alone or with nitrates is highly predictive of efficacy in prevention of variceal bleeding. Hemodynamic monitoring (HDM) requires catheterization of the hepatic vein and measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient, the difference between wedged and free hepatic venous pressure. The aim of this study was to compare HDM with no HDM in patients considered for primary pharmacoprophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. A decision model was constructed to compare HDM with no HDM in cirrhotic patients with moderate to large esophageal varices. Patients intolerant to beta-blocker therapy would undergo endoscopic variceal ligation; those with an inadequate hemodynamic response (HDR) to beta-blocker therapy could have nitrates added before ligation was considered. Variceal bleeding was treated with ligation, with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) reserved for refractory bleeding. Probabilities of treatment responses as well as risks of bleeding and mortality were based on published literature. Only direct costs were considered during the 5-yr time horizon. Outcomes were cost in United States dollars, survival length in life-years, and proportions of patients who experienced variceal bleeding, TIPS insertion, and mortality from any cause. In the base case analysis, HDM was either cost-saving ($2,523 US dollars /life-year gained) or cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $5,200 US dollars/life-year saved) compared with no HDM, depending on whether nitrates were added to beta-blocker therapy. HDM reduced variceal bleeding by nearly 60% and had a small effect on all-cause mortality. In the sensitivity analysis, HDM was sensitive to the time horizon, as it was not cost-effective for a time horizon of <22 months and was not cost-saving before 49 months. The cost-effectiveness of HDM was not sensitive to reasonable variation in the probability of HDR to beta-blocker therapy, risk of bleeding, risk

  2. Different scoring systems to predict 6-week mortality in cirrhosis patients with acute variceal bleeding: a retrospective analysis of 202 patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Cui, Shu; Wang, Fengmei; Li, Fenghui; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Yanying; Lv, Hongmin

    2018-06-17

    Determine the optimal scoring system for evaluation of 6-week bleeding-related mortality in liver cirrhosis patients with acute variceal bleeding (AVB). Prediction effects of six scoring systems, AIMS65 score, Glasgow-Blatchford (GBS) score, full Rockall (FRS) score, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the MELD-Na model and the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score were analyzed in this study. A total of 202 liver cirrhosis patients with AVB were enrolled between 1 January 2014, and 31 December 2014. All subjects were scored according to AIMS65, GBS, FRS, MELD, MELD-Na and CTP scoring systems on the first day of admission. The primary endpoint of the study was 6-week mortality. The prediction effect of these scoring systems for 6-week mortality was compared by ROC curve and the area under the curve (AUC). The scores of nonsurvival group evaluated by the AIMS65, GBS, FRS, MELD, MELD-Na and CTP (2.6 ± 1.1, 12.9 ± 2.7, 6.6 ± 1.8, 26.9 ± 6.5, 31.6 ± 9.3, 9.6 ± 2.2, respectively) were higher than those of the survival group (1.2 ± 1.1, 10.2 ± 3.4, 5.1 ± 1.6, 21.0 ± 6.4, 22.8 ± 8.2, 7.7 ± 2.0, respectively) (p < .01). The values of AUC and Youden index of AIMS65 and MELD-Na scoring systems [(0.808, 0.453) and (0.781, 0.516), respectively] were superior to those of MELD (0.761, 0.454), CTP (0.748, 0.399), FRS (0.738, 0.358) and GBS scoring systems (0.726, 0.370). AIMS65 and MELD-Na scoring systems are recommended for evaluation of 6-week bleeding-related mortality in liver cirrhosis patients with AVB.

  3. Comparison of scoring systems and outcome of patients admitted to a liver intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre with severe variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Al-Freah, M A B; Gera, A; Martini, S; McPhail, M J W; Devlin, J; Harrison, P M; Shawcross, D; Abeles, R D; Taylor, N J; Auzinger, G; Bernal, W; Heneghan, M A; Wendon, J A

    2014-06-01

    Acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH) is associated with significant mortality. To determine outcome and factors associated with hospital mortality (HM) in patients with AVH admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare outcomes of patients requiring transfer to a tertiary ICU (transfer group, TG) to a local in-patient group (LG). A retrospective study of all adult patients (N = 177) admitted to ICU with AVH from 2000-2008 was performed. Median age was 48 years (16-80). Male represented 58%. Median MELD score was 16 (6-39), SOFA score was 8 (6-11). HM was higher in patients who had severe liver disease or critical illness measured by MELD, SOFA, APACHE II scores and number of failed organs (NFO), P < 0.05. Patients with day-1 lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L had increased HM (P < 0.001). MELD score performed as well as APACHE II, SOFA and NFO (P < 0.001) in predicting HM (AUROC = 0.84, 0.81, 0.79 and 0.82, respectively P > 0.05 for pair wise comparisons). Re-bleeding was associated with increased HM (56.9% vs. 31.6%, P = 0.002). The TG (n = 124) had less severe liver disease and critical illness and consequently had lower HM than local patients (32% vs. 57%, P = 0.002). TG patients with ≥2 endoscopies prior to transfer had increased 6-week mortality (P = 0.03). Time from bleeding to transfer ≥3 days was associated with re-bleeding (OR = 2.290, P = 0.043). MELD score was comparable to ICU prognostic models in predicting mortality. Blood lactate was also predictive of hospital mortality. Delays in referrals and repeated endoscopy were associated with increased re-bleeding and mortality in this group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Spleen and Liver Stiffness Is Positively Correlated with the Risk of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Buechter, Matthias; Kahraman, Alisan; Manka, Paul; Gerken, Guido; Jochum, Christoph; Canbay, Ali; Dechêne, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic liver disease and results in esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding, which is associated with a high mortality rate. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is considered the gold standard for diagnosing PH and estimating the risk of varices and bleeding. In contrast, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy (UGE) can reliably demonstrate the presence of varices and bleeding. Both measures are invasive, and HVPG is mainly restricted to tertiary centers. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods of assessing the severity of PH and the risk of variceal bleeding is warranted. We retrospectively examined the correlation of spleen stiffness (SSM) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) with the incidence of variceal bleeding among 143 patients who underwent combined liver and spleen elastography between 2013 and 2015. For 19 of 103 patients (16.8%), upper GI variceal bleeding was diagnosed and treated endoscopically. The median SSM of all patients was 35.3 kilopascals (kPa); the median LSM, 11.7 kPa. Patients with previous bleeding episodes had significantly higher SSM (75.0 kPa) and LSM (37.3 kPa) than those without a history of bleeding (SSM, 30.6 kPa; LSM, 8.2 kPa; p < 0.0001). Seventy-five patients (66.4%) underwent UGE in addition to SSM and LSM: 25 with no esophageal varices (EVs; SSM, 29.5 kPa; LSM, 11.4 kPa), 16 with EV grade 1 (SSM, 35.9 kPa; LSM, 33.4 kPa), 21 with EV grade 2 (SSM, 67.8 kPa; LSM, 27.0 kPa) and 13 with EV grade 3 (SSM, 75.0 kPa; LSM, 26.3 kPa). No statistically significant differences were found between respective grades of EV but were found between the presence and absence of varices. At a calculated cutoff level of 42.6 kPa (with application of 95% CI), SSM had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 64% in determining the risk of bleeding, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.97 (LSM sensitivity, 84%; LSM specificity, 80%; LSM NPV, 0.96 at LSM cutoff

  5. [Comparison of band ligation with sclerotherapy for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices].

    PubMed

    Ríos, Eddy; Sierralta, Armando; Abarzúa, Marigraciela; Bastías, Joaquín; Barra, María Inés

    2012-06-01

    Endoscopic band ligation is the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices. However it is not clear if this procedure is associated with less early and late mortality than sclerotherapy. To assess rates of re-bleeding and mortality in cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices treated with endoscopic injection or band ligation. Analysis of medical records and endoscopy reports of two cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices, treated between 1990 and 2010. Of these, 54 patients were treated with sclerotherapy and 90 patients with band ligation. A third cohort of 116 patients that did not require endoscopic treatment, was included. The mean analyzed follow up period was 2.5 years (range 1-16). Collection of data was retrospective for patients treated with sclerotherapy and prospective for patients treated with band ligation. Rates of re-bleeding and medium term mortality were assessed. During the month ensuing the first endoscopic treatment, re-bleeding was recorded in 39 and 72% of patients treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01). The relative risk of bleeding after band ligation was 0.53 (95% confidence limits 0.390.73). Death rates until the end of follow up were 20 and 48% among patients with treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01), with a relative risk of dying for patients subjected to band ligation of 0.41 (95% confidence limits 0.25-0.68). Band ligation was associated with lower rates of re-bleeding and mortality in these cohorts of patients.

  6. Guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kakushima, Naomi; Kato, Motohiko; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Hoteya, Shu; Kataoka, Mikinori; Shimaoka, Shunji; Yahagi, Naohisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2016-05-01

    Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES) has compiled a set of guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding using evidence-based methods. The major cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. As a result, these guidelines mainly focus on peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding, although bleeding from other causes is also overviewed. From the epidemiological aspect, in recent years in Japan, bleeding from drug-related ulcers has become predominant in comparison with bleeding from Helicobacter pylori (HP)-related ulcers, owing to an increase in the aging population and coverage of HP eradication therapy by national health insurance. As for treatment, endoscopic hemostasis, in which there are a variety of methods, is considered to be the first-line treatment for bleeding from almost all causes. It is very important to precisely evaluate the severity of the patient's condition and stabilize the patient's vital signs with intensive care for successful endoscopic hemostasis. Additionally, use of antisecretory agents is recommended to prevent rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, especially for gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. Eighteen statements with evidence and recommendation levels have been made by the JGES committee of these guidelines according to evidence obtained from clinical research studies. However, some of the statements that are supported by a low level of evidence must be confirmed by further clinical research. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. [Predicting very early rebleeding after acute variceal bleeding based in classification and regression tree analysis (CRTA).].

    PubMed

    Altamirano, J; Augustin, S; Muntaner, L; Zapata, L; González-Angulo, A; Martínez, B; Flores-Arroyo, A; Camargo, L; Genescá, J

    2010-01-01

    Variceal bleeding (VB) is the main cause of death among cirrhotic patients. About 30-50% of early rebleeding is encountered few days after the acute episode of VB. It is necessary to stratify patients with high risk of very early rebleeding (VER) for more aggressive therapies. However, there are few and incompletely understood prognostic models for this purpose. To determine the risk factors associated with VER after an acute VB. Assessment and comparison of a novel prognostic model generated by Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) with classic-used models (MELD and Child-Pugh [CP]). Sixty consecutive cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding. CART analysis, MELD and Child-Pugh scores were performed at admission. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the predictive performance of the models. Very early rebleeding rate was 13%. Variables associated with VER were: serum albumin (p = 0.027), creatinine (p = 0.021) and transfused blood units in the first 24 hrs (p = 0.05). The area under the ROC for MELD, CHILD-Pugh and CART were 0.46, 0.50 and 0.82, respectively. The value of cut analyzed by CART for the significant variables were: 1) Albumin 2.85 mg/dL, 2) Packed red cells 2 units and 3) Creatinine 1.65 mg/dL the ABC-ROC. Serum albumin, creatinine and number of transfused blood units were associated with VER. A simple CART algorithm combining these variables allows an accurate predictive assessment of VER after acute variceal bleeding. Key words: cirrhosis, variceal bleeding, esophageal varices, prognosis, portal hypertension.

  8. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of gastroesophageal varices combined with partial splenic embolization for the treatment of variceal bleeding and hypersplenism

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei-Dong; Xue, Ke; Chu, Yuan-Kui; Wang, Qing; Yang, Wei; Quan, Hui; Yang, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wu, Zhi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic embolization of gastroesophageal varices combined with partial splenic embolization in patients with liver cirrhosis, and to explore the role of this minimally invasive treatment as an alternative to surgery. 25 patients with liver cirrhosis were received percutaneous transhepatic embolization of gastroesophageal varices combined with partial splenic embolization. Another 25 patients with liver cirrhosis underwent Hassab’s operation. They were followed up, and received endoscopy, B ultrasound, liver function and hematologic examination at 24 months after the therapy. In minimal invasive group, before treatment and after 24 month following up after treatment, improved varices, improved portal hypertension and improved hypersplenism were showed comparing with the surgery group, and that they were measured by endoscopic visualization, ultrasound and blood counts. the white blood cell and platelet count were 2.33±0.65 (109/L) and 3.63±1.05 (1010/L), 7.98±3.0 (109/L) and 16.3±9.10 (1010/L) (P<0.05); the diameter of the portal vein were 1.47±0.25 cm, 1.31±0.23 cm (P<0.05). Esophageal varices passed from grade III to lower grade II in 11 patients, and from grade II to lower grade I in 6 patients at 24 month following up. In surgical group, the white blood cell and platelet count were 2.2±0.60 (109/L), 4.1±1.25 (1010/L) before treatment; 9.3±2.56 (109/L), 32.1±12.47 (1010/L) after the treatment at 24 month following up (P<0.05). The diameter of the portal vein were 1.43±0.22 cm before the treatment and 1.28±0.18 cm after the treatment (P<0.05). Esophageal varices passed from grade III to lower grade II in 13 patients, and from grade II to lower grade I in 7 patients. The combination of PGEV and PSE can be considered as an option for the treatment of variceal bleeding with hypersplenism. PMID:26770628

  9. Predictors of large esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, N; Imperiale, T F; Ismail, A; Sood, G; Carey, M; Wilcox, C M; Madichetty, H; Kwo, P Y; Boyer, T D

    1999-11-01

    Recent guidelines recommend that all cirrhotics undergo screening upper endoscopy to identify those patients at risk for bleeding from varices. However, this practice may not be cost effective as large esophageal varices are seen only in 9-36% of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical variables were predictive of the presence of large esophageal varices. This is a retrospective analysis of cirrhotics who had a screening upper endoscopy during an evaluation for liver transplantation at three different centers and who had not previously bled from varices. A multivariate model was derived on the combined cohort using logistic regression. Three hundred forty-six patients were eligible for the study. The prevalence of large esophageal varices was 20%. On multivariate analysis, splenomegaly detected by computed tomographic scan (odds ratio: 4.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-11.5) or by physical examination (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.8), and low platelet count were independent predictors of large esophageal varices. On the basis of these variables, cirrhotics were stratified into high- and low-risk groups for the presence of large esophageal varices. Patients with a platelet count of > or = 88,000/mm3 (median value) and no splenomegaly by physical examination had a risk of large esophageal varices of 7.2%. Those with splenomegaly or platelet count < 88,000/mm3 had a risk of large esophageal varices of 28% (p < 0.0001). Our data show that clinical predictors could be used to stratify cirrhotic patients for the risk of large esophageal varices and such stratification could be used to improve the cost effectiveness of screening endoscopy.

  10. Transcatheter arterial embolization for endoscopically unmanageable non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk; Ahn, Hyo Jun; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is a therapeutic option for endoscopically unmanageable upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We aimed to assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes of TAE for acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding and to identify predictors of recurrent bleeding within 30 days. Visceral angiography was performed in 66 patients (42 men, 24 women; mean age, 60.3 ± 12.7 years) who experienced acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding that failed to be controlled by endoscopy during a 7-year period. Clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes included technical success rates, complications, and 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates. TAE was feasible in 59 patients. The technical success rate was 98%. Rebleeding within 30 days was observed in 47% after an initial TAE and was managed with re-embolization in 8, by endoscopic intervention in 5, by surgery in 2, and by conservative care in 12 patients. The 30-day overall mortality rate was 42.4%. In the case of initial endoscopic hemostasis failure (n = 34), 31 patients underwent angiographic embolization, which was successful in 30 patients (96.8%). Rebleeding occurred in 15 patients (50%), mainly because of malignancy. Two factors were independent predictors of rebleeding within 30 days by multivariate analysis: coagulopathy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-15.29; p = 0.021) and embolization in ≥2 territories (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 1.43-17.04; p = 0.012). Catheterization-related complications included hepatic artery dissection and splenic embolization. TAE controlled acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding effectively. TAE may be considered when endoscopic therapy is unavailable or unsuccessful. Correction of coagulopathy before TAE is recommended.

  11. Safety of direct endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of transgastric direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) in patients with walled-off necrosis (WON) and gastric varices. METHODS: A single center retrospective study of consecutive DEN for WON was performed from 2012 to 2015. All DEN cases with gastric fundal varices noted on endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the admission for DEN were collected for analysis. In all cases, external urethral sphincter (EUS) with doppler was used to exclude the presence of intervening gastric varices or other vascular structures prior to 19 gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle access into the cavity. The tract was serially dilated to 20 mm and was entered with an endoscope for DEN. Pigtail stents were placed to facilitate drainage of the cavity. Procedure details were recorded. Comprehensive chart review was performed to evaluate for complications and WON recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients who underwent DEN for WON had gastric varices at the time of their procedure. All patients had an INR < 1.5 and platelets > 50. Of these patients, 11 had splenic vein thrombosis and 2 had portal vein thrombosis. Two patients had isolated gastric varices, type 1 and the remaining 13 had > 5 mm gastric submucosal varices on imaging by CT, MRI or EUS. No procedures were terminated without completing the DEN for any reason. One patient had self-limited intraprocedural bleeding related to balloon dilation of the tract. Two patients experienced delayed bleeding at 2 and 5 d post-op respectively. One required no therapy or intervention and the other received 1 unit transfusion and had an EGD which revealed no active bleeding. Resolution rate of WON was 100% (after up to 2 additional DEN in one patient) and no patients required interventional radiology or surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: In patients with WON and gastric varices, DEN using EUS and doppler guidance may be performed safely. Successful resolution

  12. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Persisting Esophageal Variceal Bleeding after Band Ligation or Injection-Therapy: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Seufferlein, Thomas; Perkhofer, Lukas; Wagner, Martin; Kleger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Despite a pronounced reduction of lethality rates due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, esophageal variceal bleeding remains a challenge for the endoscopist and still accounts for a mortality rate of up to 40% within the first 6 weeks. A relevant proportion of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding remains refractory to standard therapy, thus making a call for additional tools to achieve hemostasis. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) incorporate such a tool. We evaluated a total number of 582 patients admitted to our endoscopy unit with the diagnosis "gastrointestinal bleeding" according to our documentation software between 2011 and 2014. 82 patients suffered from esophageal variceal bleeding, out of which 11 cases were refractory to standard therapy leading to SEMS application. Patients with esophageal malignancy, fistula, or stricture and a non-esophageal variceal bleeding source were excluded from the analysis. A retrospective analysis reporting a series of clinically relevant parameters in combination with bleeding control rates and adverse events was performed. The initial bleeding control rate after SEMS application was 100%. Despite this success, we observed a 27% mortality rate within the first 42 days. All of these patients died due to non-directly hemorrhage-associated reasons. The majority of patients exhibited an extensive demand of medical care with prolonged hospital stay. Common complications were hepatic decompensation, pulmonary infection and decline of renal function. Interestingly, we found in 7 out of 11 patients (63.6%) stent dislocation at time of control endoscopy 24 h after hemostasis or at time of stent removal. The presence of hiatal hernia did not affect obviously stent dislocation rates. Refractory patients had significantly longer hospitalization times compared to non-refractory patients. Self-expandable metal stents for esophageal variceal bleeding seem to be safe and efficient after failed standard therapy. Stent migration

  13. [Comparison on Endoscopic Hemoclip and Hemoclip Combination Therapy in Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Patients Based on Clinical Practice Data: Is There Difference between Prospective Cohort Study and Randomized Study?].

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Hyun; Jung, Jin Tae; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Yang, Chang Heon; Park, Youn Sun; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic hemoclip application is an effective and safe method of endoscopic hemostasis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study on hemoclip and hemoclip combination therapy based on prospective cohort database in terms of hemostatic efficacy not in clinical trial but in real clinical practice. Data on endoscopic hemostasis for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) were prospectively collected from February 2011 to December 2013. Among 1,584 patients with NVUGIB, 186 patients treated with hemoclip were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 62), hemoclipping only; group 2 (n = 88), hemoclipping plus epinephrine injection; and group 3 (n = 36), hemocliping and epinephrine injection plus other endoscopic hemostatic modalities. Primary outcomes included rebleeding, other therapeutic management, hospitalization period, fasting period and mortality. Secondary outcomes were bleeding associated mortality and overall mortality. Active bleeding and peptic ulcer bleeding were more common in group 3 than in group 1 and in group 2 (p <œ 0.001). However, primary outcomes (rebleeding, other management, morbidity, hospitalization period, fasting period and mortality) and secondary outcomes (bleeding associated mortality and total mortality) were not different among groups. Combination therapy of epinephrine injection and other modalities with hemoclips did not show advantage over hemoclipping alone in this prospective cohort study. However, there is a tendency to perform combination therapy in active bleeding which resulted in equivalent hemostatic success rate, and this reflects the role of combination therapy in clinical practice.

  14. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Most patients bleed from esophageal or gastric varices, but bleeding from ectopic varices or portal hypertensive gastropathy is also possible. The management of acute bleeding has changed over the last years. Patients are managed with a combination of endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is variceal band ligation. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the time point of endoscopy. The first-line treatment for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding is nonselective beta blockers. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended for most patients; band ligation is an alternative in patients with contraindications for or intolerability of beta blockers. Treatment options for secondary prophylaxis include variceal band ligation, beta blockers, a combination of nitrates and beta blockers, and combination of band ligation and pharmacologic treatment. A clear superiority of one treatment over the other has not been shown. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy or ectopic varices is less common. Treatment options include beta blocker therapy, injection therapy, and interventional radiology. PMID:27335828

  15. Sclerosant extravasation as a complication of sclerosing endotherapy for bleeding gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-C; Cheng, P-N; Tsai, Y-M; Tsai, H-M; Chen, C-Y

    2004-03-01

    We report here the case of a 65-year-old woman who suffered intraperitoneal sclerosant leakage after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric varices. In total, 3 ml of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol mixture was injected. The patient developed mild fever and pain over the left upper quadrant and flank after the procedure. In addition to a Lipiodol-filled gastric varix, the imaging studies disclosed a wide spread of Lipiodol over the left peritoneal cavity. The patient was kept fasting with parenteral antibiotics and nutrition. She responded well to the treatment, and all of the symptoms had subsided 6 days later.

  16. A simplified clinical risk score predicts the need for early endoscopy in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Leonardo; Buda, Andrea; Di Paolo, Maria Carla; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Riccio, Elisabetta; Vassallo, Roberto; Caserta, Luigi; Anderloni, Andrea; Natali, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Pre-endoscopic triage of patients who require an early upper endoscopy can improve management of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To validate a new simplified clinical score (T-score) to assess the need of an early upper endoscopy in non variceal bleeding patients. Secondary outcomes were re-bleeding rate, 30-day bleeding-related mortality. In this prospective, multicentre study patients with bleeding who underwent upper endoscopy were enrolled. The accuracy for high risk endoscopic stigmata of the T-score was compared with that of the Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Overall, 602 patients underwent early upper endoscopy, and 472 presented with non-variceal bleeding. High risk endoscopic stigmata were detected in 145 (30.7%) cases. T-score sensitivity and specificity for high risk endoscopic stigmata and bleeding-related mortality was 96% and 30%, and 80% and 71%, respectively. No statistically difference in predicting high risk endoscopic stigmata between T-score and Glasgow Blatchford risk score was observed (ROC curve: 0.72 vs. 0.69, p=0.11). The two scores were also similar in predicting re-bleeding (ROC curve: 0.64 vs. 0.63, p=0.4) and 30-day bleeding-related mortality (ROC curve: 0.78 vs. 0.76, p=0.3). The T-score appeared to predict high risk endoscopic stigmata, re-bleeding and mortality with similar accuracy to Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Such a score may be helpful for the prediction of high-risk patients who need a very early therapeutic endoscopy. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although there has been significance improvement in the prognosis of variceal bleeding with advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for its management, mortality rate still remains high. Therefore, appropriate prevention and rapid, effective management of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is very important. Recently, various studies about management of gastoesophageal varices, including prevention of development and aggravation of varices, prevention of first variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding, and prevention of variceal rebleeding, have been published. The present article reviews published articles and practice guidelines to present the most optimal management of patients with gastroesophageal varices. PMID:29249128

  18. Portal hypertension in children: High-risk varices, primary prophylaxis and consequences of bleeding.

    PubMed

    Duché, Mathieu; Ducot, Béatrice; Ackermann, Oanez; Guérin, Florent; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Bernard, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Primary prophylaxis of bleeding is debated for children with portal hypertension because of the limited number of studies on its safety and efficacy, the lack of a known endoscopic pattern carrying a high-risk of bleeding for all causes, and the assumption that the mortality of a first bleed is low. We report our experience with these issues. From 1989 to 2014, we managed 1300 children with portal hypertension. Endoscopic features were recorded; high-risk varices were defined as: grade 3 esophageal varices, grade 2 varices with red wale markings, or gastric varices. Two hundred forty-six children bled spontaneously and 182 underwent primary prophylaxis. The results of primary prophylaxis were reviewed as well as bleed-free survival, overall survival and life-threatening complications of bleeding. High-risk varices were found in 96% of children who bled spontaneously and in 11% of children who did not bleed without primary prophylaxis (p<0.001), regardless of the cause of portal hypertension. Life-threatening complications of bleeding were recorded in 19% of children with cirrhosis and high-risk varices who bled spontaneously. Ten-year probabilities of bleed-free survival after primary prophylaxis in children with high-risk varices were 96% and 72% for non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. Ten-year probabilities of overall survival after primary prophylaxis were 100% and 93% in children with non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. In children with portal hypertension, bleeding is linked to the high-risk endoscopic pattern reported here. Primary prophylaxis of bleeding based on this pattern is fairly effective and safe. In children with liver disease, the risk of bleeding from varices in the esophagus is linked to their large size, the presence of congestion on their surface and their expansion into the stomach but not to the child's age nor to the cause of portal hypertension. Prevention of the first bleed in children with high-risk varices can

  19. Jejunal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in patients with post-liver transplant portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bass, Lee M; Kim, Stanley; Superina, Riccardo; Mohammad, Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2.8 g/dL (range 1.8-6.8 g/dL). Upper endoscopy was negative for significant esophageal varices, gastric varices, and bleeding portal gastropathy in all three children. All three patients had significant jejunal varices noted on CE in mid-jejunum. Jejunal varices were described as large prominent bluish vessels underneath visualized mucosa, one with evidence of recent bleeding. The results led to venoplasty of the portal vein in two patients and a decompressive shunt in one patient with resolution of GI bleed and anemia. CE is useful to diagnose intestinal varices in children with portal hypertension and GI bleeding following liver transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Asia-Pacific working group consensus on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: an update 2018.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joseph Jy; Chiu, Philip Cy; Chan, Francis K L; Lau, James Yw; Goh, Khean-Lee; Ho, Lawrence Hy; Jung, Hwoon-Young; Sollano, Jose D; Gotoda, Takuji; Reddy, Nageshwar; Singh, Rajvinder; Sugano, Kentaro; Wu, Kai-Chun; Wu, Chun-Yin; Bjorkman, David J; Jensen, Dennis M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lanas, Angel

    2018-04-24

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains an important emergency condition, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. As endoscopic therapy is the 'gold standard' of management, treatment of these patients can be considered in three stages: pre-endoscopic treatment, endoscopic haemostasis and post-endoscopic management. Since publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) 7 years ago, there have been significant advancements in the clinical management of patients in all three stages. These include pre-endoscopy risk stratification scores, blood and platelet transfusion, use of proton pump inhibitors; during endoscopy new haemostasis techniques (haemostatic powder spray and over-the-scope clips); and post-endoscopy management by second-look endoscopy and medication strategies. Emerging techniques, including capsule endoscopy and Doppler endoscopic probe in assessing adequacy of endoscopic therapy, and the pre-emptive use of angiographic embolisation, are attracting new attention. An emerging problem is the increasing use of dual antiplatelet agents and direct oral anticoagulants in patients with cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. Guidelines on the discontinuation and then resumption of these agents in patients presenting with NVUGIB are very much needed. The Asia-Pacific Working Group examined recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines in this updated consensus statement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. ALCOHOLIC VERSUS NONALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS IN A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF EMERGENCY THERAPY OF BLEEDING VARICES

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, Marshall J.; Isenberg, Jon I.; Wheeler, Henry O.; Haynes, Kevin S.; Jinich-Brook, Horacio; Rapier, Roderick; Vaida, Florin; Hye, Robert J.; Orloff, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that portal-systemic shunts be avoided in alcoholic cirrhotics because survival rate is allegedly lower in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. We examined this issue in a randomized controlled trial. Methods 211 unselected, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and bleeding esophageal varices were randomized to endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) (n=106) or emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) (105). Treatment was initiated within 8 hours. EST failure was treated by rescue PCS. 10-yr follow-up was 96%. Results Results strongly favored EPCS over EST (p<0.001). Among EPCS patients, 83% were alcoholic and 17% nonalcoholic. Outcomes were (1) permanent control of bleeding 100% vs. 100%; (2) 5-yr survival 71% vs.78%; (3) encephalopathy 14% vs. 19%; (4) yearly charges $38,300 vs. $43,000. Conclusions EPCS results were similar in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhotics. EPCS is an effective first line emergency treatment in all forms of cirrhosis, including alcoholic. PMID:21195430

  2. Endoscopic treatment of bleeding gastric varices with histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate): a South European single center experience.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Rosa, Albano; Maçôas, Fernanda; Lérias, Clotilde; Portela, Francisco; Amaro, Pedro; Ferreira, Manuela; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the current recommended treatment for gastric variceal bleeding. Despite the extensive worldwide use, there are still differences related to the technique, safety, and long term-results. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding. Between January 1998 and January 2010, 97 patients with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol(TM). Ninety-one patients had cirrhosis and 6 had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Child-Pugh score at presentation for cirrhotic patients was A-12.1 %; B-53.8 %; C-34.1 % and median MELD score at admission was 13 (3-26). Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate and complications were reviewed. Median time of follow up was 19 months (0.5-126). A median mixture volume of 1.5 mL (0.6 to 5 mL), in 1 to 8 injections, was used, with immediate hemostasis rate of 95.9 % and early rebleeding rate of 14.4 %. One or more complications occurred in 17.5 % and were associated with the use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube before cyanoacrylate and very early rebleeding (p < 0.05). Hospital mortality rate during initial bleeding episode was 9.3 %. Very early rebleeding was a strong and independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). Long-term mortality rate was 58.8 %, in most of the cases secondary to hepatic failure. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a rapid, easy and highly effective modality for immediate hemostasis of gastric variceal bleeding with an acceptable rebleeding rate. Patients with very early rebleeding are at higher risk of death.

  3. [Application of degree of portal systemic shunting in assessing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with schistosomiasis cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Shuai, Ju; Ying, Li; Chang-Xue, Ji; Biao, Zhang

    2017-03-27

    To discuss the application of the degree of portal systemic shunting in assessing the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis. Thirty-three patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hepatic schistosomiasis (a bleeding group) and 29 schistosomiasis cirrhosis patients without bleeding (a non-bleeding group) were enrolled as investigation subjects in Jinshan Hospital. The subjects were scanned by the 128 abdominal slice spiral CT. The portal systemic shunting vessels were reconstructed by using thin slab maximum intensity projection (TSMIP) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). The degrees of the shunting vessels of the subjects were evaluated and compared, and the relationship between upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the degree of the shunting was analyzed. In the bleeding group, the occurrence rates of the shunting vessels were found as follows: 86.4% in left gastric varices, 68.2% in short gastric varices, 50.0% in esophageal varices, 50.0% in para-esophageal varices, 37.9% in gastric varices, 69.7% in gastric-renal varices, 51.5% in spleen-renal varices, 25.8% in abdominal wall varices, 15.2% in omentum varices, 63.6% in para-splenic varices, 34.8% in umbilical varices, 40.9% in retroperitoneal-paravertebral varices, and 36.4% in mesenteric varices. In the bleeding group, the occurrence rates and the degree of shunt were significantly higher than those in the non-bleeding group in esophageal varices, esophageal vein, left gastric vein and gastric varices (all P < 0.05). CT portal vein reconstruction can accurately display the location, degree and walking of all kinds of shunting vessels. Esophageal varices, esophageal vein, left gastric vein and gastric varices can accurately predict the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis. The patents with higher degree of the shunting vessels have a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. [Comparison of predictive factors related to the mortality and rebleeding caused by variceal bleeding: Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and Rockall score].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja Young; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Soo Jin; Choi, Dae Rho; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Bum; Kim, Hak Yang; Yoo, Jae Young

    2002-12-01

    The first episode of variceal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh(CP) scoring system has been widely accepted for prognostic assessment. Recently, MELD has been known to be better than the CP scoring system for predicting mortality in patients with end-stage liver diseases. The Rockall risk scoring system was developed to predict the outcome of upper GI bleeding including variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the mortality rate of first variceal bleeding and the predictability of each scoring system. We evaluated the 6-week mortality rate, rebleeding rate, and 1-year mortality rate of all the 136 patients with acute variceal bleeding without previous episode of hemorrhage between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000. The CP score, MELD score, and Rockall score were estimated and analyzed. Among 136 patients, 35 patients with hepatoma and 8 patients with follow-up loss were excluded. Six-week mortality rate, 1-year mortality rate, and rebleeding rate of first variceal bleeding were 24.7%, 35.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. The c-statistics of CP, MELD, and Rockall score for predicting 6-week mortality rate were 0.809 (p<0.001, 95% CI, 0.720-0.898), 0.804 (p<0.001, 95% CI, 0.696-0.911), 0.787 (p<0.001, 95% CI, 0.683-0.890), respectively. For 1-year mortality rate, c-statistics were 0.765 (p<0.005, 95% CI, 0.665-0.865), 0.780 (p<0.005, 95% CI, 0.676-0.883), 0.730 (p<0.01, 95% CI, 0.627-0.834), respectively. The CP, MELD, and Rockall scores were reliable measures of mortality risk in patients with first variceal bleeding. The CP classification is useful in its easy applicability.

  5. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  6. Invasive and non-invasive techniques for detecting portal hypertension and predicting variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2014-02-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal, and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e. ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment, and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from non-bleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography, and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques.

  7. Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding - review the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis methods

    PubMed Central

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding is a condition that requires immediate medical intervention and has a high associated mortality rate (exceeding 10%). The vast majority of upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases are due to peptic ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. Endoscopic therapy has generally been recommended as the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding as it has been shown to reduce recurrent bleeding, the need for surgery and mortality. Early endoscopy (within 24 h of hospital admission) has a greater impact than delayed endoscopy on the length of hospital stay and requirement for blood transfusion. This paper aims to review and compare the efficacy of the types of endoscopic hemostasis most commonly used to control non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding by pooling data from the literature. PMID:26421105

  8. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (2015, Nanchang, China).

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Li, Zhao Shen

    2016-02-01

    Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) is one of the most common medical emergencies in China and worldwide. In 2009, we published the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" for the patients in China; however, during the past years numerous studies on the diagnosis and treatment of ANVUGIB have been conducted, and the management of ANVUGIB needs to be updated. The guidelines were updated after the databases including PubMed, Embase and CNKI were searched to retrieve the clinical trials on the management of ANVUGIB. The clinical trials were evaluated for high-quality evidence, and the advances in definitions, diagnosis, etiology, severity evaluation, treatment and prognosis of ANVUGIB were carefully reviewed, the recommendations were then proposed. After several rounds of discussions and revisions among the national experts of digestive endoscopy, gastroenterology, radiology and intensive care, the 2015 version of "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" was successfully developed by the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, National Medical Journal of China, Chinese Journal of Digestion and Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. It shall be noted that although much progress has been made, the clinical management of ANVUGIB still needs further improvement and refinement, and high-quality randomized trials are required in the future. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Cirrhotic portal hypertension: current and future medical therapy for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laleman, W; Nevens, F

    2006-08-01

    Portal hypertension (PHT) is the most common complication of chronic liver disease and develops in the vast majority of patients with cirrhosis. It is characterized by an increase of the portal vein pressure, and leads to the development of gastroesophageal varices, ascites, renal dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy. Over the years, it has become clear that a decrease in portal pressure is not only protective against the risk of variceal (re)bleeding but is also associated with a lower long-term risk of developing other complications and with an improved long-term survival. At present, non-selective b-blockers remain the medical treatment of choice for both primary and secondary prophylaxis. However, recent advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of cirrhotic PHT have directed future therapy towards the increased intrahepatic vascular resistance, which in part is determined by an increased hepatic vascular tone. This increased vasculogenic component provides the motivation to the use of therapies aimed at increasing intrahepatic vasorelaxing capacity on the one hand and at antagonizing excessive intrahepatic vasoconstrictor force on the other hand. This review covers current and future developments in the treatment of PHT with regard to primary and secondary prophylaxis.

  10. Excess Long-Term Mortality following Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Colin John; Card, Timothy Richard; West, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether an upper gastrointestinal bleed is an isolated gastrointestinal event or an indicator of a deterioration in a patient's overall health status. Therefore, we investigated the excess causes of death in individuals after a non-variceal bleed compared with deaths in a matched sample of the general population. Methods and Findings Linked longitudinal data from the English Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) data, General Practice Research Database (GPRD), and Office of National Statistics death register were used to define a cohort of non-variceal bleeds between 1997 and 2010. Controls were matched at the start of the study by age, sex, practice, and year. The excess risk of each cause of death in the 5 years subsequent to a bleed was then calculated whilst adjusting for competing risks using cumulative incidence functions. 16,355 patients with a non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleed were matched to 81,523 controls. The total 5-year risk of death due to gastrointestinal causes (malignant or non-malignant) ranged from 3.6% (≤50 years, 95% CI 3.0%–4.3%) to 15.2% (≥80 years, 14.2%–16.3%), representing an excess over controls of between 3.6% (3.0%–4.2%) and 13.4% (12.4%–14.5%), respectively. In contrast the total 5-year risk of death due to non-gastrointestinal causes ranged from 4.1% (≤50 years, 3.4%–4.8%) to 46.6% (≥80 years, 45.2%–48.1%), representing an excess over controls of between 3.8% (3.1%–4.5%) and 19.0% (17.5%–20.6%), respectively. The main limitation of this study was potential misclassification of the exposure and outcome; however, we sought to minimise this by using information derived across multiple linked datasets. Conclusions Deaths from all causes were increased following an upper gastrointestinal bleed compared to matched controls, and over half the excess risk of death was due to seemingly unrelated co-morbidity. A non-variceal bleed may therefore warrant a careful assessment of co

  11. Management of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: position statement of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    García-Iglesias, Pilar; Botargues, Josep-Maria; Feu Caballé, Faust; Villanueva Sánchez, Càndid; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Brullet Benedi, Enric; Cánovas Moreno, Gabriel; Fort Martorell, Esther; Gallach Montero, Marta; Gené Tous, Emili; Hidalgo Rosas, José-Manuel; Lago Macía, Amelia; Nieto Rodríguez, Ana; Papo Berger, Michel; Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Saló Rich, Joan; Campo Fernández de Los Ríos, Rafel

    2017-05-01

    In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Rescue treatment with a modified cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Grassia, Roberto; Capone, Pietro; Iiritano, Elena; Vjero, Katerina; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Mario; Rozzi, Gabriele; Buffoli, Federico

    2016-12-28

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified cyanoacrylate [N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate associated with methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA + MS)] to treat non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NV-UGIB). In our retrospective study we took into account 579 out of 1177 patients receiving endoscopic treatment for NV-UGIB admitted to our institution from 2008 to 2015; the remaining 598 patients were treated with other treatments. Initial hemostasis was not achieved in 45 of 579 patients; early rebleeding occurred in 12 of 579 patients. Thirty-three patients were treated with modified cyanoacrylate: 27 patients had duodenal, gastric or anastomotic ulcers, 3 had post-mucosectomy bleeding, 2 had Dieulafoy's lesions, and 1 had duodenal diverticular bleeding. Of the 45 patients treated endoscopically without initial hemostasis or with early rebleeding, 33 (76.7%) were treated with modified cyanoacrylate glue, 16 (37.2%) underwent surgery, and 3 (7.0%) were treated with selective transarterial embolization. The mean age of patients treated with NBCA + MS (23 males and 10 females) was 74.5 years. Modified cyanoacrylate was used in 24 patients during the first endoscopy and in 9 patients experiencing rebleeding. Overall, hemostasis was achieved in 26 of 33 patients (78.8%): 19 out of 24 (79.2%) during the first endoscopy and in 7 out of 9 (77.8%) among early rebleeders. Two patients (22.2%) not responding to cyanoacrylate treatment were treated with surgery or transarterial embolization. One patient had early rebleeding after treatment with cyanoacrylate. No late rebleeding during the follow-up or complications related to the glue injection were recorded. Modified cyanoacrylate solved definitively NV-UGIB after failure of conventional treatment. Some reported life-threatening adverse events with other formulations, advise to use it as last option.

  13. INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING PORTAL HYPERTENSION AND PREDICTING VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOSIS: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e., ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from nonbleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques. PMID:24328372

  14. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    PubMed

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  15. Downhill oesophageal variceal bleeding: A rare complication in Behçet's disease-related superior vena cava syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ennaifer, Rym; B'chir Hamzaoui, Saloua; Larbi, Thara; Romdhane, Hayfa; Abdallah, Maya; Bel Hadj, Najet; M'rad, Sander

    2015-03-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder that involves vessels of all sizes. Superior vena cava (SVC) thrombosis is a rare complication that can lead to the development of various collateral pathways. A 31-year-old man presented with SVC syndrome. He had a history of recurrent genital aphthosis. Computed tomography revealed extensive thrombosis of the right internal jugular, axillary, and subclavian veins with collateral circulation. The patient was diagnosed with BD, and he was started on anticoagulation and immunosuppressive therapy. One week later, he presented with haematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy disclosed varices in the upper third of the oesophagus with stigmata of recent bleeding. Portal hypertension was ruled out. Anticoagulation therapy was discontinued. He was discharged on immunosuppressive therapy. Bleeding from downhill oesophageal varices should be suspected in any patient presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a history of SVC syndrome due to BD. Copyright © 2015 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Circumferential suture technique for esophageal transection to treat esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jeng, L B; Chen, M F

    1993-01-01

    The EEA stapler has been used routinely for esophageal transection to treat esophageal variceal bleeding for some time. It carries the risk of postoperative leakage and is not suitable in those cases receiving recent sclerotherapy. The circumferential suture technique presented in this paper can be used in any situation requiring esophageal transection. It has been utilized by us in twenty-two emergent cases with good results.

  17. Successful Embolization of Bleeding Ileal Varices with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate via a Recanalized Paraumbilical Vein.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Oka, Shojiro; Fukumoto, Genki; Otani, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Naoko; Kawabata, Kazuna; Namikawa, Mio; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kimura, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-23

    A 48-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia and severe anemia. She had been hospitalized many times over the past year for hematochezia of unknown etiology. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated ileal varices, which were fed by several ileal veins. These feeding veins were selectively embolized with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) via a recanalized paraumbilical vein. The paraumbilical vein instead of the portal vein was punctured to decrease the risk of bleeding complications because she had coagulopathy and ascites. We consider antegrade embolization of ileal varices with NBCA to be a feasible and effective treatment. Access via a paraumbilical vein is an alternative to the transhepatic approach.Level of Evidence Level V, case report.

  18. Effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Using propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Yeong Jin; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jinae; Yang, Hyun Su; Kim, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Kyu Yeon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the application of hemostatic powder to the bleeding site has been used to treat active upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP) in patients with non-variceal UGIB. We reviewed prospectively collected 40 patients with UGIB treated with PHP therapy between April 2016 and January 2017 (PHP group) and 303 patients with UGIB treated with conventional therapy between April 2012 and October 2014 (conventional therapy group). We compared the rate of successful hemostasis and the rebleeding between the two groups after as well as before propensity score matching using the Glasgow-Blatchford score and Forrest classification. Thirty patients treated with the PHP and 60 patients treated with conventional therapy were included in the matched groups. Baseline patient characteristics including comorbidities, vital signs, and bleeding scores were similar in the matched groups. The rate of immediate hemostasis and 7-day and 30-day rebleeding were also similar in the two groups before and after matching. In the subgroup analysis, no significant differences in immediate hemostasis or rebleeding rate were noted between PHP in monotherapy and PHP combined with a conventional hemostatic method. At 30 days after the therapy, there were no significant PHP-related complications or mortality. Given its safety, the PHP proved feasible for endoscopic treatment of UGIB, having similar effectiveness as that of conventional therapy. The PHP may become a promising hemostatic method for non-variceal UGIB. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Long-term outcome of 154 patients receiving balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric fundal varices.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yukinori; Nakazawa, Manabu; Ando, Satsuki; Sugawara, Kayoko; Mochida, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to clarify the long-term outcome of therapeutic strategies including balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for patients with gastric fundal varices. The subjects were 154 patients with gastric fundal varices fulfilling the criteria for receiving B-RTO. In patients showing variceal bleeding, endoscopic therapies and/or balloon tamponade was performed to achieve hemostasis. B-RTO was accomplished with injection of 5% ethanolamine oleate through a standard balloon catheter except for patients with atypical varices, in whom a microballoon catheter was used to occlude drainage vessels other than a gastrorenal shunt. In patients complicated with esophageal varices at baseline, endoscopic therapies were performed following B-RTO. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration was performed successfully in 147 patients (95%), including 15 patients using a microballoon catheter. Complete variceal obliteration was achieved in all patients. Additional endoscopic therapies for esophageal varices were performed in 31 patients. Gastric varices did not recur in any of these patients. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after B-RTO were 91%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Child-Pugh scores and hepatocellular carcinoma complication were identified as prognostic factors associated with survival rates. The cumulative exacerbation rates of esophageal varices at 1, 3, and 5 years were 13%, 20%, and 27%, respectively, and rupture developed in six patients, which were successfully treated with endoscopic therapies. Therapeutic strategies including B-RTO with a microballoon catheter were useful to achieve a favorable outcome in patients with gastric fundal varices especially in those manifesting Child-Pugh class-A liver damage and/or those without hepatocellular carcinoma complication. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Medical and Endoscopic Management of Gastric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.; Caldwell, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, our understanding of the pathophysiology and management options among patients with gastric varices (GV) has changed significantly. GV are the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension after esophageal varices (EV) and generally have more severe bleeding than EV. In the United States, the majority of GV patients have underlying portal hypertension rather than splenic vein thrombosis. The widely used classifications are the Sarin Endoscopic Classification and the Japanese Vascular Classifications. The former is based on the endoscopic appearance and location of the varices, while the Japanese classification is based on the underlying vascular anatomy. In this article, the authors address the current concepts of classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and emerging management options of gastric varices. They describe the stepwise approach to patients with gastric varices, including the different available modalities, and the pearls, pitfalls, and stop-gap measures useful in managing patients with gastric variceal bleed. PMID:22942544

  1. Predictors of Shunt Dysfunction and Overall Survival in Patients with Variceal Bleeding Treated with Transjugular Portosystemic Shunt Creation Using the Fluency Stent Graft.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yue-Meng; Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Hua-Mei; Li, Ying-Chun; Wu, Xi-Nan; Yang, Jin-Hui

    2018-01-16

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an established method for portal hypertension. This study was to investigate the long-term safety, technical success, and patency of TIPS, and to determine the risk factors and clinical impacts of shunt dysfunction. A total of 154 consecutive patients undergoing embolotherapy of gastric coronary vein and/or short gastric vein and TIPS creation were prospectively studied. Follow-up data included technical success, patency and revision of TIPS, and overall survival of patients. During the study, the primary and secondary technical success rates were 98.7% and 100%, respectively. Sixty-three patients developed shunt dysfunction, 30 with shunt stenosis and 33 with shunt occlusion. The cumulative 60-month primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates were 19.6%, 43.0%, and 93.4%, respectively. The cumulative 60-month overall survival rates were similar between the TIPS dysfunction group and the TIPS non-dysfunction group (68.6% vs. 58.6%, P = .096). Baseline portal vein thrombosis (P < .001), use of bare stents (P = .018), and portal pressure gradient (PPG) (P = .020) were independent predictors for shunt dysfunction, hepatocellular carcinoma (P < .001), and ascites (P = .003) for overall survival. The accuracy of PPG for shunt dysfunction was statistically significant (P < .001), and a cutoff value of 8.5 had 77.8% sensitivity and 64.8% specificity. The long-term safety, technical success, and patency of TIPS were good; baseline portal vein thrombosis, use of bare stents, and PPG were significantly associated with shunt dysfunction; shunt dysfunction has little impact on patients' long-term survival because of high secondary patency rates. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Why Do Patients Bleed?

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, Jennifer; Pasalic, Leonardo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing surgical procedures can bleed for a variety of reasons. Assuming that the surgical procedure has progressed well and that the surgeon can exclude surgical reasons for the unexpected bleeding, then the bleeding may be due to structural (anatomical) anomalies or disorders, recent drug intake, or disorders of hemostasis, which may be acquired or congenital. The current review aims to provide an overview of reasons that patients bleed in the perioperative setting, and it also provides guidance on how to screen for these conditions, through consideration of appropriate patient history and examination prior to surgical intervention, as well as guidance on investigating and managing the cause of unexpected bleeding. PMID:28824979

  3. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] < 1.3), which identified patients who were low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. For the bootstrapped samples, the rule performed with 97% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 91%-100%) and 49% specificity (95% CI = 44%-53%). Although this derivation study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of <1.3 may be at very low risk for a variceal source of their upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation and Variceal Coil or Plug Embolization Ineffectively Attain Gastric Variceal Decompression or Occlusion: Results of a 26-Patient Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lakhoo, Janesh; Bui, James T; Lokken, R Peter; Ray, Charles E; Gaba, Ron C

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation with or without variceal coil and/or plug embolization in decompressing or occluding gastric varices (GVs). In this retrospective study, 78 patients with GV bleeding who underwent TIPS creation with or without embolotherapy with metallic coils and/or plugs from 1999 to 2014 were identified. Individuals who had a bare-metal TIPS and/or lacked post-TIPS imaging or endoscopic follow-up were excluded. The final cohort included 26 patients (16 men; median age, 54 y; median Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, 16). Variceal types, supplying vessels, and postprocedure GV patency on cross-sectional imaging or endoscopy were assessed. The primary study outcome measure was GV patency rate as a surrogate for efficacy of TIPS creation with or without embolization. GVs included gastroesophageal varix types 1 (n = 10) and 2 (n = 2), isolated GV types 1 (n = 4) and 2 (n = 2), and unspecified (n = 8). TIPS creation resulted in a median final portosystemic pressure gradient of 7 mm Hg. Multiple GV-supplying vessels (left/posterior/short gastric veins) were present in 65% of patients (n = 17). Embolization was performed in 69% (n = 18). Thirteen, four, and nine patients had imaging, endoscopic, or both imaging/endoscopic follow-up. GV patency rate was 65% (n = 17; 61%/75% with/without embolization) at a median of 128.5 days (range, 1-1,295 d) after TIPS creation. Incidence of recurrent bleeding was 27% (n = 7), and the 90-day mortality rate was 15% (n = 4). In this study, most GVs showed persistent patency despite TIPS decompression and variceal embolization, and the incidence of recurrent bleeding was high. The findings suggest suboptimal efficacy for GVs, and indicate a need for study of alternative or adjunctive approaches to GV treatment, such as chemical obliteration. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of esophageal variceal bleeding in B-viral liver cirrhosis using the P2/MS noninvasive index based on complete blood counts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Kyung; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Min Seok; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kwan Sik; Chon, Chae Yoon; Kim, Do Young

    2012-01-01

    Periodic endoscopy for esophageal varices (EVs) and prophylactic treatment of high-risk EVs, i.e., medium/large EVs, small EVs with the red-color sign or decompensation, are recommended in cirrhotic patients. We assessed the cumulative risks for future EV bleeding using the following simple P2/MS index: (platelet count)2/[monocyte fraction (%) × segmented neutrophil fraction (%)]. We enrolled 475 consecutive B-viral cirrhosis patients for 4 years, none of whom experienced EV bleeding. All underwent laboratory work-ups, endoscopy and ultrasonography. Those with EV bleeding took a nonselective β-blocker as prophylaxis. The major endpoint was the first occurrence of EV bleeding, analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Among patients with EV bleeding (n = 131), 25 experienced their first EV bleeding during follow-up. To differentiate the risk for EV bleeding, we divided them into two subgroups according to their P2/MS value (subgroup 1: P2/MS ≥9 and subgroup 2: P2/MS <9). The risk was significantly higher in subgroup 2 (p = 0.029). From multivariate analysis, a lower P2/MS (p = 0.040) remained a significant predictor for EV bleeding along with large varix size (p = 0.015), red-color sign (p = 0.041) and Child-Pugh classification B/C (p = 0.001). In subgroup 1, the risk for EV bleeding was similar to that of patients with low-risk EVs (p = 0.164). The P2/MS is a reliable predictor for the risk of EV bleeding among patients with EV bleeding. According to risk stratification, different prophylactic treatments should be considered for the subgroup with a P2/MS <9. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRROSIS.

    PubMed

    Hadayat, Rania; Jehangiri, Attique-ur-Rehman; Gul, Rahid; Khan, Adil Naseer; Said, Khalid; Gandapur, Asadullah

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastroduodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology & Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age 50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used, Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. The mean age was 57.84 +/- 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes.

  7. Clinicopathological Features and Treatment of Ectopic Varices with Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takahiro; Akaike, Jun; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding from ectopic varices, which is rare in patients with portal hypertension, is generally massive and life-threatening. Forty-three patients were hospitalized in our ward for gastrointestinal bleeding from ectopic varices. The frequency of ectopic varices was 43/1218 (3.5%) among portal hypertensive patients in our ward. The locations of the ectopic varices were rectal in thirty-two, duodenal in three, intestinal in two, vesical in three, stomal in one, and colonic in two patients. Endoscopic or interventional radiologic treatment was performed successfully for ectopic varices. Hemorrhage from ectopic varices should be kept in mind in patients with portal hypertension presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:21994879

  8. Outcomes of Propofol Sedation During Emergency Endoscopy Performed for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Han, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Although propofol-based sedation can be used during emergency endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), there is a potential risk of sedation-related adverse events, especially in patients with variceal bleeding. We compared adverse events related to propofol-based sedation during emergency endoscopy between patients with non-variceal and variceal bleeding. Clinical records of patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for UGIB under sedation were reviewed. Adverse events, including shock, hypoxia, and paradoxical reaction, were compared between the non-variceal and variceal bleeding groups. Of 703 endoscopies, 539 and 164 were performed for non-variceal and variceal bleeding, respectively. Shock was more common in patients with variceal bleeding compared to those with non-variceal bleeding (12.2 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001). All patients except one recovered from shock after normal saline hydration, and emergency endoscopy could be finished without interruption in most cases. The incidence of hypoxia and paradoxical reaction did not differ based on the source of bleeding (non-variceal bleeding vs. variceal bleeding: hypoxia, 3.5 vs. 1.8%, P = 0.275; paradoxical reaction interfering with the procedure, 4.1 vs. 5.5%, P = 0.442). Although shock was more common in patients with variceal bleeding compared to those with non-variceal bleeding, most cases could be controlled without procedure interruption. Paradoxical reaction, rather than shock or hypoxia, was the most common cause of procedure interruption in patients with variceal bleeding, but the rate did not differ between patients with non-variceal and variceal bleeding.

  9. Association of Oesophageal Varices and Splanchnic Vein Thromboses in Patients with JAK2-Positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Presentation of Two Cases and Data from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cornelia S.; Platzbecker, Uwe; Kroschinsky, Frank; Pannach, Sven; Thiede, Christian; Platzek, Ivan; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schuler, Markus K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oesophageal varices and gastrointestinal bleeding are common complications of liver cirrhosis. More rarely, oesophageal varices occur in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension that results from thromboses of portal or splanchnic veins. Case Report We describe 2 young men who initially presented with varices as a result of portal vein thromboses. In the clinical follow-up, both were tested positive for a JAK2 mutation and consequently diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In an attempt to characterise the frequency of gastrointestinal complications in patients with JAK2-positive MPNs, we retrospectively analysed all known affected patients from our clinic for the diagnosis of portal vein thromboses and oesophageal varices. Strikingly, 48% of those who had received an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy had detectable oesophageal or gastric varices, and 82% of those suffered from portal or splanchnic vein thromboses. Conclusion While the association between JAK2, myeloproliferative disease and thrombotic events is well established, patients with idiopathic oesophageal varices are not regularly tested for JAK2 mutations. However, the occurrence of oesophageal varices may be the first presenting symptom of a MPN with a JAK2 mutation, and affected patients may profit from a close haematological monitoring to assure the early detection of developing MPN. PMID:23898274

  10. Acute variceal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom: patient characteristics, management and outcomes in a nationwide audit.

    PubMed

    Jairath, Vipul; Rehal, Sunita; Logan, Richard; Kahan, Brennan; Hearnshaw, Sarah; Stanworth, Simon; Travis, Simon; Murphy, Michael; Palmer, Kelvin; Burroughs, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Despite advances in treatment, acute variceal haemorrhage remains life-threatening. To describe contemporary characteristics, management and outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal haemorrhage and risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. Multi-centre clinical audit conducted in 212 UK hospitals. In 526 cases of acute variceal haemorrhage, 66% underwent endoscopy within 24h with 64% (n=339) receiving endoscopic therapy. Prior to endoscopy, 57% (n=299) received proton pump inhibitors, 44% (n=232) vasopressors and 27% (n=144) antibiotics. 73% (n=386) received red cell transfusion, 35% (n=184) fresh frozen plasma and 14% (n=76) platelets, with widely varying transfusion thresholds. 26% (n=135) experienced further bleeding and 15% (n=80) died by day 30. The Model for End Stage Liver Disease score was the best predictor of mortality (area under the receiver operating curve=0.74, P<0.001). Neither the clinical nor full Rockall scores were useful predictors of outcome. Coagulopathy was strongly associated with rebleeding (odds ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.22-4.07, P=0.01, up to day 30) and mortality (odds ratio 3.06, 95% CI 1.29-7.26, P=0.01). Although mortality has improved following acute variceal haemorrhage, rebleeding rates remain appreciably high. There are notable deficiencies in the use of vasopressors and endoscopic therapy. More work is needed to understand the optimum transfusion strategies. Better risk stratification tools are required to identify patients needing more intensive support. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcome of non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to the time of endoscopy and the experience of the endoscopist: A two-year survey

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Fabrizio; Anderloni, Andrea; Bargiggia, Stefano; Imbesi, Venerina; Trabucchi, Emilio; Baratti, Cinzia; Gallus, Silvano; Porro, Gabriele Bianchi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the impact of time of endoscopy and endoscopist’s experience on the outcome of non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding patients in a large teaching hospital. METHODS: All patients admitted for non-variceal acute upper GI bleeding for over a 2-year period were potentially eligible for this study. They were managed by a team of seven endoscopists on 24-h call whose experience was categorized into two levels (high and low) according to the number of endoscopic hemostatic procedures undertaken before the study. Endoscopic treatment was standardized according to Forrest classification of lesions as well as the subsequent medical therapy. Time of endoscopy was subdivided into two time periods: routine (8 a.m.-5 p.m.) and on-call (5 p.m.-8 a.m.). For each category of experience and time periods rebleeding rate, transfusion requirement, need for surgery, length of hospital stay and mortality we compared. Multivariate analysis was used to discriminate the impact of different variables on the outcomes that were considered. RESULTS: Study population consisted of 272 patients (mean age 67.3 years) with endoscopic stigmata of hemorrhage. The patients were equally distributed among the endoscopists, whereas only 19% of procedures were done out of working hours. Rockall score and Forrest classification at admission did not differ between time periods and degree of experience. Univariate analysis showed that higher endoscopist’s experience was associated with significant reduction in rebleeding rate (14% vs 37%), transfusion requirements (1.8±0.6 vs 3.0±1.7 units) as well as surgery (4% vs 10%), but not associated with the length of hospital stay nor mortality. By contrast, outcomes did not significantly differ between the two time periods of endoscopy. On multivariate analysis, endoscopist’s experience was independently associated with rebleeding rate and transfusion requirements. Odds ratios for low experienced endoscopist

  12. Jejunal varices after choledochojejunostomy treated with laparotomic transcatheter variceal embolization.

    PubMed

    Waguri, Nobuo; Azumi, Rie; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Arao, Yoshihisa; Ikarashi, Shunzo; Sakai, Norihiro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Osaki, Akihiko; Sato, Munehiro; Aiba, Tsuneo; Yoneyama, Osamu; Furukawa, Koichi; Igarashi, Kentarou

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension induces collateral shunt formation between the portal and systemic circulation, decompressing the elevated portal pressure. Ectopic varices outside of the gastroesophageal region, such as jejunal varices, are rare conditions. This report describes the successful embolization of ruptured jejunal varices resulting from an extrahepatic portal obstruction. A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with recurrent massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Fourteen months earlier, he had undergone a choledochojejunostomy and pancreatic cystojejunostomy for bile duct stenosis with an enlarged pancreatic pseudocyst due to severe chronic pancreatitis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed jejunal intramural dilated vessels close to the choledochojejunal anastomosis, but extravasation was not observed. Due to the lack of a rapid definitive diagnosis, the patient required massive blood transfusions. Hemorrhagic scintigraphy using 99m Tc-HSAD finally identified the site of the hemorrhage. Angiography and double-balloon endoscopy revealed the anastomotic jejunal varices to be the result of an extrahepatic portal obstruction. Laparotomic transcatheter variceal embolization with microcoils was successful in halting the refractory gastrointestinal bleeding. This surgery preserved hepatopetal portal venous flow by another route, and no complications were observed. At present, 4 years post-surgery, there has been no recurrence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The development of jejunal varices is often associated with postoperative adhesions. Some patients with a history of hepatico- or choledochojejunostomy may experience portal hypertension resulting from extrahepatic portal obstruction, leading to the formation of jejunal varices as hepatopetal portal collaterals. The choice of therapy in each patient should be based on the individual hemodynamics of the ectopic varices.

  13. Prospective study of bacteremia rate after elective band ligation and sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate for esophageal varices in patients with advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Danielle Queiroz; Correia, Lucianna Motta; Monaghan, Marie; Lenz, Luciano; Santos, Marcus; Libera, Ermelindo Della

    2011-01-01

    Band ligation (BL) is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY) can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients submitted to diagnostic endoscopy, CY and BL for treatment of esophageal varices. A prospective study comprising the period from 2004 to 2007 was conducted at Hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil. Cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C) were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according treatment: BL Group (patients undergoing band ligation, n = 20) and CY Group (patients receiving cyanoacrylate injection for esophageal variceal, n = 18). Cirrhotic patients with no esophageal varices or without indication for endoscopic treatment were recruited as control (diagnostic group n = 20). Bacteremia was evaluated by blood culture at baseline and 30 minutes after the procedure. After 137 scheduled endoscopic procedures, none of the 58 patients had fever or any sign suggestive of infection. All baseline cultures were negative. No positive cultures were observed after CY or in the control group - diagnostic endoscopy. Three (4.6 %) positive cultures were found out of the 65 sessions of band ligation (P = 0.187). Two of these samples were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which could be regarded as a contaminant. The isolated microorganism in the other case was Klebsiella oxytoca. The patient in this case presented no evidence of immunodeficiency except liver disease. There was no significant difference in bacteremia rate between these three groups. BL or CY injection for non-bleeding esophageal varices may be considered

  14. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices: Concept, Basic Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with gastric variceal bleeding require a multidisciplinary team approach including hepatologists, endoscopists, diagnostic radiologists, and interventional radiologists. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the first-line diagnostic and management tool for bleeding gastric varices, as it is in all upper gastrointestinal bleeding scenarios. In the United States when endoscopy fails to control gastric variceal bleeding, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) traditionally is performed along the classic teachings of decompressing the portal circulation. However, TIPS has not shown the same effectiveness in controlling gastric variceal bleeding that it has with esophageal variceal bleeding. For the past 2 decades, the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) procedure has become common practice in Asia for the management of gastric varices. BRTO is gaining popularity in the United States. It has been shown to be effective in controlling gastric variceal bleeding with low rebleed rates. BRTO has many advantages over TIPS in that it is less invasive and can be performed on patients with poor hepatic reserve and those with encephalopathy (and may even improve both). However, its by-product is occlusion of a spontaneous hepatofugal (TIPS equivalent) shunt, and thus it is contradictory to the traditional American doctrine of portal decompression. Indeed, BRTO causes an increase in portal hypertension, with potential aggravation of esophageal varices and ascites. This article discusses the concept, technique, and outcomes of BRTO within the broader management of gastric varices. PMID:23729982

  15. Factors predicting the presence of esophageal or gastric varices in patients with advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zaman, A; Hapke, R; Flora, K; Rosen, H R; Benner, K

    1999-11-01

    Recently it has been recommended that all cirrhotic patients without previous variceal hemorrhage undergo endoscopic screening to detect varices and that those with large varices should be treated with beta-blockers (American College of Gastroenterology guidelines). However, endoscopic screening only of patients at highest risk for varices may be the most cost effective. Ninety-eight patients without a history of variceal hemorrhage underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy as part of a liver transplant evaluation. Univariate/multivariate analysis was used to evaluate associations between the presence of varices and patient characteristics including etiology of liver disease, Child-Pugh class, physical findings (spider angiomata, splenomegaly, and ascites), encephalopathy, laboratory parameters (prothrombin time, albumin, bilirubin, BUN, creatinine, and platelets), and abdominal ultrasound findings (portal vein diameter/flow, splenomegaly, and ascites). The causes of cirrhosis among the 67 men and 31 women (mean age, 48 yr) included 28% Hepatitis C/alcoholism, 25% Hepatitis C, 13% alcoholism, 9% primary sclerosing cholangitis/primary biliary cirrhosis, 9% cryptogenic, 6% Hepatitis B, 1% Hepatitis B and C, and 9% other. Patients were Child-Pugh class A 34%, B 51%, and C 15%. Endoscopic findings included esophageal varices in 68% of patients (30% were large), gastric varices in 15%, and portal hypertensive gastropathy in 58%. Platelet count <88,000 was the only parameter identified by univariate/multivariate analysis (p < 0.05) as associated with the presence of large esophageal varices (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.8-20.6) or gastric varices (odds ratio 5; 95% confidence interval 1.4-23). Platelet count <88,000 is associated with the presence of esophagogastric varices. A large prospective study is needed to verify and validate these findings and may allow identification of a group of patients who would most benefit from endoscopic screening for varices.

  16. Gastric Varices: An Overview for the Gastroenterology Nurse.

    PubMed

    Dale, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Gastric varices can occur in as many as one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Within the nursing literature, however, articles focus on the management of esophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding with few publications about management of gastric varices. Given the advancement in therapies, it is prudent for gastroenterology nurses to have an understanding of its management and treatment options. This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, and management of patients with gastric varices and outlines the importance of the nurse's role in the education and ongoing care for this patient group.

  17. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment. PMID:27956966

  18. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  19. Stratifying risk in the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage: Results of an individual patient meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Zamora, Javier; Martínez, Javier; Arroyo, David; Ahmad, Irfan; De-la-Peña, Joaquin; Garcia-Pagán, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Gin-Ho; Sarin, Shiv; Sharma, Barjesh; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaime; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation plus beta-blockers (EVL+BB) is currently recommended for variceal rebleeding prophylaxis, a recommendation that extends to all patients with cirrhosis with previous variceal bleeding irrespective of prognostic stage. Individualizing patient care is relevant, and in published studies on variceal rebleeding prophylaxis, there is a lack of information regarding response to therapy by prognostic stage. This study aimed at comparing EVL plus BB with monotherapy (EVL or BB) on all-source rebleeding and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and previous variceal bleeding stratified by cirrhosis severity (Child A versus B/C) by means of individual time-to-event patient data meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials. The study used individual data on 389 patients from three trials comparing EVL plus BB versus BB and 416 patients from four trials comparing EVL plus BB versus EVL. Compared with BB alone, EVL plus BB reduced overall rebleeding in Child A (incidence rate ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.89; P = 0.025) but not in Child B/C, without differences in mortality. The effect of EVL on rebleeding was different according to Child (P for interaction <0.001). Conversely, compared with EVL, EVL plus BB reduced rebleeding in both Child A and B/C, with a significant reduction in mortality in Child B/C (incidence rate ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.85; P = 0.013). Outcomes of therapies to prevent variceal rebleeding differ depending on cirrhosis severity: in patients with preserved liver function (Child A), combination therapy is recommended because it is more effective in preventing rebleeding, without modifying survival, while in patients with advanced liver failure (Child B/C), EVL alone carries an increased risk of rebleeding and death compared with combination therapy, underlining that BB is the key element of combination therapy. (Hepatology 2017;66:1219-1231). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of

  20. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6–12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6–50 months). Coils and

  1. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6-12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6-50 months). Coils and/or metallic vascular plugs were used to augment

  2. Use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting: A retrospective study of 182 cirrhotic portal hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yingmei; Zheng, Sheng; Yang, Jinhui; Bao, Weimin; Yang, Lihong; Li, Yingchun; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jing; Tong, Yuyun; Gao, Jinhang; Tang, Chengwei

    2017-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) is an effective treatment modality for refractory variceal bleeding and ascites in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension (CPH). Variceal rebleeding and shunt dysfunction are major post-TIPS morbidities. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative in patients with CPH undergoing TIPS. Between October 2006 and October 2011, 182 patients with CPH were retrospectively and consecutively hospitalized for elective TIPS with Fluency stenting. Concomitant variceal embolization was given after establishing the shunt. Subcutaneous heparin was given after TIPS and replaced by oral clopidogrel, aspirin, or warfarin for at least 6 months. Main outcome measures included shunt patency rate, recurrence of CPH (rebleeding and/or refractory ascites), hepatic encephalopathy (HE) frequency, and post-TIPS survival. The cumulative primary patency rate was 96%, 94%, 90%, 88%, and 88% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. Shunt stenosis occurred in 16 (9%) patients, gastrointestinal (GI) rebleeding in 32 (17.5%) patients, recurrence of refractory ascites 44 (48%) patients, HE in 42 (23%) patients, and death in 36 (20%) patients during the follow-up period. Use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative was associated with a favorable shunt patency and a low risk of GI rebleeding.

  3. Fifty-three years' experience with randomized clinical trials of emergency portacaval shunt for bleeding esophageal varices in Cirrhosis: 1958-2011.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Marshall J

    2014-02-01

    Emergency treatment of bleeding esophageal varices (BEV) consists mainly of endoscopic and pharmacologic measures, with transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt (TIPS) performed when bleeding is not controlled. Surgical shunt has been relegated to salvage. At the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center, our group has conducted 10 studies of emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) during 46 years. To describe 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted from 1988 to 2011 in unselected consecutive patients who received emergency treatment for BEV. In RCT No. 1, a total of 211 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy (EEST) (n=106) or EPCS (n=105). In RCT No. 2, a total of 154 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to TIPS (n=78) or EPCS (n=76). Diagnostic workup was completed within 6 hours of initial contact, and primary treatment was initiated within 8 to 12 hours. Regular follow-up for up to 10 years was accomplished in 100% of the patients. In RCT No. 1, EEST or EPCS; in RCT No. 2, TIPS or EPCS. The 2 groups were compared with regard to survival, control of bleeding, portal-systemic encephalopathy, and direct cost of care. RESULTS Distribution in Child risk classes was almost identical. One-third of patients were in Child class C. Permanent control of bleeding was achieved by EEST in only 20% of the patients and by TIPS in only 22%. In contrast, EPCS permanently controlled bleeding in 97% and 100% of the patients in RCT No. 2 and RCT No. 1, respectively (P<.001). Survival was significantly greater following EPCS than after EEST and TIPS (P<.001). Median survival was more than 10 years following EPCS compared with 1.99 years after TIPS. Occlusion of TIPS was demonstrated in 84% of the patients, 63% of whom underwent TIPS revision, which failed in 80% of the cases. Recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy developed in 35% of the patients who

  4. Prediction of the First Variceal Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    We followed 87 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices and without previous hemorrhage for a mean period of 24 mo to prospectively evaluate the occurance of variceal bleeding within (early) or after (late) 6 mo from entry and the contribution of portal Doppler ultrasound parameters to the prediction of early and late hemorrhage. Clinical, biochemical, endoscopic and portal Doppler ultrasound parameters were recorded at entry. Variceal bleeding occurred in 22 patients (25.3%). Nine (40.9%) bled within the first 6 mo. Cox regression analysis identified variceal size, cherry-red spots, serum bilirubin and congestion index of the portal vein (the ratio of portal vein [cross-sectional area] and portal blood flow velocity) as the only independent predictors of first variceal hemorrhage. Discriminant analysis was used to find the prognostic index cut off points to identify patients who bled within 6 mo (prognostic group 1) or after 6 mo (prognostic group 2) or remained free of bleeding (prognostic group 3). The cumulative proportion of patients correctly classified was 73% in prognostic group 1, 47% in prognostic group 2 and more than 80% in prognostic group 3. The addition of Doppler ultrasound flowmetry to clinical, biochemical and endoscopic parameter only improved the classification of patients with early bleeding. PMID:9184882

  5. UK guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  6. Endoscopic outcome beyond esophageal variceal eradication in children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction.

    PubMed

    Itha, Srivenu; Yachha, Surender Kumar

    2006-02-01

    To find out the recurrence of esophageal varices, evolution of gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) and risk of rebleeding following esophageal variceal eradication. Between 1992 and 2002, children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) and bleeding from esophageal varices received endoscopic injection sclerotherapy until eradication. Surveillance endoscopy was performed initially at 3 months and subsequently at intervals of 6 months to one year to detect esophageal and gastric varices, and PHG. Gastric varices were classified as gastroesophageal (GOV) or isolated gastric varices (IGV). Gastroesophageal varices included types GOV1 and GOV2 that extend along lesser and greater curvatures respectively. Patients who had recurrence of bleeding were evaluated by emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. 163 of 183 children who achieved esophageal variceal eradication were evaluated. Esophageal varices recurred in 40% cases. Primary gastric varices (before sclerotherapy) were seen in 61% cases [GOV 98% (83% GOV1, 15% GOV2) and IGV 2%] and secondary (after sclerotherapy) in 28% [GOV 71% (47% GOV1, 24% GOV2) and IGV 29%]. Secondary gastric varices were distributed as 20% GOV1, 42% GOV2 and 87% IGV. Frequency of gastric varices before sclerotherapy and at the last follow up showed decrease in GOV1 from 82 to 56 (P = 0.02), increase in GOV2 from 15 to 23 and increase in IGV from 2 to 15 (P < 0.001). PHG increased in frequency from 12% to 41% (P < 0.001) and severity from one patient to 12 (P < 0.001). Eleven cases had rebleeding from gastric varices (5 GOV1, 4 GOV2 and 2 IGV). Following esophageal variceal eradication in children with EHPVO a significant decrease in GOV1, increase in IGV and increased frequency and severity of PHG takes place. Small rebleeding risk persists from gastric varices irrespective of the type.

  7. Influence of high-risk esophageal varices on outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: benefits of prophylactic endoscopic therapies.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Masashi; Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    To clarify whether high-risk esophageal varices (EVs) influence outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and to determine whether prophylactic endoscopic therapies(PETs) provide benefits for such patients. Ninety-six consecutive patients with naive HCC complicated by EVs were analyzed. Patients with low-risk EVs (group A, n=53), those with high-risk EVs not treated with PETs (group B, n=31), and those with high-risk EVs treated with PETs (group C, n=12) were compared with respect to first bleeding and mortality. Furthermore, factors associated with outcomes were examined. The first bleeding rates were higher in group B than in group A; the survival rates were lower in group B than in group A. High-risk EVs and advanced stage HCC were risk factors for both outcomes in groups A and B. By contrast, the first bleeding rates tended to be lower in group C than in group B, while the survival rates did not significantly differ. In groups B and C, advanced stage HCC was a risk factor for both outcomes, whereas PETs significantly decreased first bleeding. High-risk EVs negatively influence both first bleeding and mortality in HCC patients and PETs may have a preventive effect on bleeding.

  8. A pathophysiologic, gastroenterologic, and radiologic approach to the management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Barbara M; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Ryan, J Mark

    2004-04-01

    Gastric varices (GV) occur in 20% of patients with portal hypertension either in isolation or in combination with esophageal varices (EV). There is no consensus for optimum treatment of GV and because they comprise an inhomogeneous entity, accurate classification is vital to determine the appropriate management. Gastroesophageal varices (GOV) are classified as GOV1 (EV extending down to cardia or lesser curve) or GOV2 (esophageal and fundal varices). Isolated gastric varices (IGV) may be located in the fundus (IGV1) or elsewhere in the stomach (IGV2). GV possibly bleed less frequently than EV, but GV bleeding is typically difficult to control, associated with a high risk for rebleeding, and high mortality. Fundal varices, large GV (>5 mm), presence of a red spot, and Child's C liver status are associated with a high risk for bleeding. GOV1 have a much lower risk for bleeding. A portosystemic pressure gradient of > or =12 mm Hg is not necessary for GV bleeding, probably related to the high frequency of spontaneous gastrorenal shunts in these patients. GOV1 should be treated as for EV. First-line treatment of bleeding fundal varices is endoscopic variceal obturation. TIPS is currently second-line acute treatment and is used for prevention of rebleeding. The role of some newer interventional radiologic techniques requires further appraisal. This review describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural history, endoscopic, and interventional radiologic treatment options for GV.

  9. Plasma Prothrombin Time and Esophageal Varices in Patients with Cirrhosis of Liver.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nasirul; Khan, Mobin; Ahmad, Nooruddin; Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Karim, Md Fazal

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the liver is a common complication of chronic liver disease and is associated with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. In this study, we checked the implication of prothrombin time, if any, in the genesis of esophageal varices. Sixty patients with cirrhosis of the liver were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I - 30 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices, and group II - 30 cirrhotic patients without esophageal varices. The prothrombin time was checked for both groups. A positive correlation was found between the prolonged plasma prothrombin time (> 4 seconds) and esophageal varices with a sensitivity of 56.67% and specificity of 73.33%. The Child-Pugh score showed a correlation; however, the size of varices did not exhibit any such relation. Prothrombin time may be cautiously used to assess portal hypertension in a field level and rural setting where endoscopy is not available or feasible. Islam MN, Khan M, Ahmad N, Al-Mahtab M, Karim MF. Plasma Prothrombin Time and Esophageal Varices in Patients with Cirrhosis of Liver. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):10-12.

  10. Retrospective Study to Compare Selective Decongestive Devascularization and Gastrosplenic Shunt versus Splenectomy with Pericardial Devascularization for the Treatment of Patients with Esophagogastric Varices Due to Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haili; He, Qikuan; Dai, Ninggao; Ye, Ruifan; Zhang, Qiyu

    2017-06-08

    BACKGROUND For patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, portosystemic shunts and devascularization have become the most commonly used treatment methods. We have developed a novel surgical approach for the treatment of patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, selective decongestive devascularization, and shunt of the gastrosplenic region (SDDS-GSR). This aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of SDDS-GSR with splenectomy with pericardial devascularization (SPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken between 2006 and 2013 and included 110 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, 34 of whom underwent SDDS-GSR; 76 patients underwent SPD. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate clinical outcomes, mortality, the incidence of re-bleeding, encephalopathy, and portal venous system thrombosis (PVST). RESULTS Postoperatively portal venous pressure decreased by 20% in both groups. The long-term incidence of re-bleeding and PVST was significantly lower in the SDDS-GSR group compared with the SPD group (P=0.018 and P=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This preliminary retrospective study has shown that SDDS-GSR was an effective treatment for patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension that may be used as a first-line treatment to prevent variceal bleeding and lower the incidence of PVST.

  11. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tadayuki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hikichi, Takuto; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    The term, portal biliopathy, denotes various biliary abnormalities, such as stenosis and/or dilatation of the bile duct, in patients with portal hypertension. These vascular abnormalities sometimes bring on an obstructive jaundice, but they are not clear which vessels participated in obstructive jaundice. The aim of present study was clear the bile ductal changes in patients with portal hypertension in hopes of establishing a therapeutic strategy for obstructive jaundice caused by biliary varices. Three hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary abnormalities were enrolled. Portal biliopathy was analyzed using IDUS. Biliary varices were identified in 11 (2.7%) patients. IDUS revealed biliary varices as multiple, hypoechoic features surrounding the bile duct wall. These varices could be categorized into one of two groups according to their location in the sectional image of bile duct: epicholedochal and paracholedochal. Epicholedochal varices were identified in all patients, but paracholedochal varices were observed only in patients with extrahepatic portal obstruction. IDUS was useful to characterize the anatomy of portal biliopathy in detail.

  12. The Role of Therapeutic Endoscopy in Patients With Cirrhosis-Related Causes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kezer, Camille A; Gupta, Neil

    2018-06-09

    This article aims to review current therapeutic endoscopic treatments available for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding related to cirrhosis. Endoscopic band ligation is an effective treatment for primary prophylaxis, acute bleeding, and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices as well as for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of select gastric varices. Sclerotherapy is a treatment option for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices when band ligation is technically difficult. Cyanoacrylate glue injection is an effective treatment for acute bleeding of gastric and ectopic varices. Argon plasma coagulation is first-line and radiofrequency ablation is second-line treatment for chronic bleeding secondary to gastric antral vascular ectasia. There are a variety of endoscopic treatment modalities for cirrhosis-related gastrointestinal bleeding, and the appropriate therapy depends on the location of the bleed, history or presence of acute bleeding, and risk factors for intervention-related adverse events.

  13. Retrospective analysis of surgery and trans-arterial embolization for major non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Ewen A; McDonald, Chris R; Bryant, Robert V; Devitt, Peter G; Bright, Tim; Holloway, Richard H; Thompson, Sarah K

    2016-05-01

    With proton pump inhibitors and current sophisticated endoscopic techniques, the number of patients requiring surgical intervention for upper gastrointestinal bleeding has decreased considerably while trans-arterial embolization is being used more often. There are few direct comparisons between the effectiveness of surgery and embolization. A retrospective study of patients from two Australian teaching hospitals who had surgery or trans-arterial embolization (n = 103) for severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage between 2004 and 2012 was carried out. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, disease pathology, length of stay, complications, and overall clinical outcome and mortality were compared. There were 65 men and 38 women. The median age was 70 (range 36-95) years. Patients requiring emergency surgical intervention (n = 79) or trans-arterial embolization (n = 24) were compared. The rate of re-bleeding after embolization (42%) was significantly higher compared with the surgery group (19%) (P = 0.02). The requirement for further intervention (either surgery or embolization) was also higher in the embolization group (33%) compared with the surgery group (13%) (P = 0.03). There was no statistical difference in mortality between the embolization group (5/24, 20.8%) and the surgical group (13/79, 16.5%) (P = 0.75). Emergency surgery and embolization are required in 2.6% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Both techniques have high mortalities reflecting the age, co-morbidities and severity of bleeding in this patient group. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Thirty-Day Readmission Among Patients With Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Effects on Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abougergi, Marwan S; Peluso, Heather; Saltzman, John R

    2018-03-28

    We aimed to determine the rate of hospital readmission within 30 days of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and its impact on mortality, morbidity, and health care use in the United States. We performed a retrospective study using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmission Database for the year 2014 (data on 14.9 million hospital stays at 2048 hospitals in 22 states). We collected data on hospital readmissions of 203,220 adults who were hospitalized for urgent non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and discharged. The primary outcome was rate of all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge. Secondary outcomes were reasons for readmission, readmission mortality rate, morbidity (shock and prolonged mechanical ventilation) and resource use (length of stay and total hospitalization costs and charges). Independent risk factors for readmission were identified using Cox regression analysis. The 30-day rate of readmission was 13%. Only 18% of readmissions were due to recurrent non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The rate of death among patients readmitted to the hospital (4.7%) was higher than that for index admissions (1.9%) (P < .01). A higher proportion of readmitted patients had morbidities requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (1.5%) compared with index admissions (0.8%) (P < .01). A total of 133,368 hospital days was associated with readmission, and the total health care in-hospital economic burden was $30.3 million (in costs) and $108 million (in charges). Independent predictors of readmission were Medicaid insurance, higher Charlson comorbidity score, lower income, residence in a metropolitan area, hemorrhagic shock, and longer stays in the hospital. Older age, private or no insurance, upper endoscopy, and prolonged mechanical ventilation were associated with lower odds for readmission. In a retrospective study of patients hospitalized for non-variceal

  15. Patient Response to Endoscopic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Varices Based on Endoscopic Ultrasound Findings.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yujen; Ma, Lili; Luo, Tiancheng; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Li, Feng; Li, Na; Wei, Yichao; Chen, Shiyao

    2018-04-27

    Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a common complication of portal hypertension. Endoscopic therapy is currently recommended for preventing gastroesophageal variceal rebleed. However, the rate of variceal rebleed and its associated mortality remain concerning. This study is aimed at differentiating patient response to endoscopic therapy based on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings. One-hundred seventy patients previously treated with repeat endoscopic therapy for secondary prophylaxis were enrolled and classified into two groups based on treatment response. Prior to consolidation therapy, all patients received an EUS examination to observe for extraluminal phenomena. All available follow-up endoscopic examination records were retrieved to validate study results. Of the 170 subjects, 106 were poor responders, while 64 were good responders. The presence of para-gastric, gastric perforating, and esophageal perforating veins was associated with poor patient response (p<0.001). The odds ratio for para-gastric veins was 5.374. Follow-up endoscopic findings for poor responders with incomplete variceal obliteration was closely correlated with the presence of para-gastric veins (p=0.002). The presence of para-gastric veins is a characteristic of poor response to endoscopic therapy for treating gastroesophageal varices. Early identification of this subgroup necessitates a change in course of treatment to improve overall patient outcome.

  16. [Esophageal motor disorders in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices non-submitted to endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Flores, Priscila Pollo; Lemme, Eponina Maria de Oliveira; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2005-01-01

    The hepatic cirrhosis has as one of the main morbid-mortality causes, the portal hypertension with the development of esophageal varices, the possibility of a digestive hemorrhage and worsening of hepatic insufficiency. It is important to identify causal predictive or aggravating factors and if possible to prevent them. In the last years, it has been observed the association of esophageal motor disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. To study the prevalence of the esophageal motility disorders and among them, the ineffective esophageal motility, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and esophageal varices, without previous endoscopic therapeutic and the predictive factors. Prospectively, it has been evaluate 74 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis and esophagic varices, without previous endoscopic treatment. All of them were submitted to a clinical protocol, esophageal manometry and 55 patients also held the ambulatory esophageal pHmetry. Esophageal motility disorders have been found in 44 patients (60%). The most prevalent was the ineffective esophageal motility, observed in 28%. The abnormal reflux disease was diagnosed through the pHmetry in 35% of the patients. There were no correlation between the manometrical abnormality in general and the ineffective esophageal motility in particular and the esophageal or gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, the abnormal reflux, the disease seriousness, the ascites presence and the gauge of the varices. The majority of cirrhotic patients with non-treated esophageal varices present esophageal motor disorders. No predictive factor was found. The clinical relevance of these findings need more researches in the scope to define the real meaning of theses abnormalities.

  17. Correlation Between Severity Of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy And Size Of Oesophageal Varices In Cirrhotic Hepatitis-C Patients.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Khurram; Baig, Faisal Amin; Nida, Mahwish; Javed, Munaza

    2018-01-01

    Portal hypertension can lead to oesophageal varices (EV) and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between severity of Portal hypertensive gastropathy and size of oesophageal varices. One hundred and ninety-five patients of hepatitis C positive chronic liver disease having oesophageal varices were assessed for severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Mild Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy was observed in 16 (8.2 %), moderate in 54 (27.7 %) and severe in 120 (61.6 %) patients. Grade 1 Oesophageal Varices were present in 79 (40.5%) patients, grade 2 in 44 (21.9%) patients, grade 3 in 62 (31.8%) and grade 4 in 10 (5.2%) patients. No significant correlation was observed between grades of gastropathy and size of varices. The frequency of portal hypertensive gastropathy was 97.5% in Hepatitis C positive cirrhotic patients having oesophageal varices. Severity of gastropathy is not related to the grade or size of oesophageal varices.

  18. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in a cohort of elderly Egyptian patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Elsebaey, Mohamed A; Elashry, Heba; Elbedewy, Tamer A; Elhadidy, Ahmed A; Esheba, Noha E; Ezat, Sherif; Negm, Manal Saad; Abo-Amer, Yousry Esam-Eldin; Abgeegy, Mohamed El; Elsergany, Heba Fadl; Mansour, Loai; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    2018-04-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) affects large number of elderly with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Early identification and management of the factors predicting in-hospital mortality might decrease mortality. This study was conducted to identify the causes of acute UGIB and the predictors of in-hospital mortality in elderly Egyptian patients.286 elderly patients with acute UGIB were divided into: bleeding variceal group (161 patients) and bleeding nonvariceal group (125 patients). Patients' monitoring was done during hospitalization to identify the risk factors that might predict in-hospital mortality in elderly.Variceal bleeding was the most common cause of acute UGIB in elderly Egyptian patients. In-hospital mortality rate was 8.74%. Increasing age, hemodynamic instability at presentation, co-morbidities (especially liver cirrhosis associated with other co-morbidity) and failure to control bleeding were the predictors of in-hospital mortality.Increasing age, hemodynamic instability at presentation, co-morbidities (especially liver cirrhosis associated with other co-morbidity) and failure to control bleeding should be considered when triaging those patients for immediate resuscitation, close observation, and early treatment.

  19. Effect of Valsalva's manoeuvre and hyoscinbutylbromide on the pressure gradient across the wall of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, S W; Robinson, P; Johnson, A G

    1987-01-01

    To assess whether Valsalva's manoeuvre might cause variceal bleeding, 22 patients with oesophageal varices were studied. In 12 patients who received no previous treatment to their varices the median pressure gradient across the varix wall at rest was 19 (6-36) mmHg, and in 10 patients whose varices were thrombosed at their distal end the median pressure gradient in the proximal patent varix was 8 (1-6) mmHg. In untreated patients groups, the pressure gradient rose by 6-12 mmHg during Valsalva's manoeuvre in four patients, fell by 4-11 mmHg in five patients and was virtually unchanged in the remainder. These changes seem unlikely to cause variceal bleeding. Patients who repeated Valsalva's manoeuvre showed similar changes on each occasion. Six patients in the untreated group also received hyoscinbutylbromide 20 mg iv. No change was seen in the pressure gradient in five patients, suggesting that it is of little value in preventing variceal bleeding. PMID:3500098

  20. Esophageal Varices

    MedlinePlus

    ... that carries blood to your liver. This pressure (portal hypertension) forces the blood to seek other pathways through ... the amount of pressure in the portal vein (portal hypertension). Large varices. The larger the varices, the more ...

  1. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

    PubMed

    Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value < 0.05) with increased probability of experiencing two or more lifetime episodes of UGIB in our study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.

  2. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration versus endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for isolated gastric varices: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Emori, Keigo; Toyonaga, Atsushi; Oho, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Masafumi; Haruta, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroto; Morita, Yukihiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) have a lower risk of bleeding than esophageal varices, however IGV bleeding is associated with a higher mortality than bleeding of esophageal varices. In recent years, two widely used treatments for IGV have been balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using cyanoacrylate or ethanolamine oleate (EO). This study compared these two treatment methods for IGV. The subjects were 112 patients who were treated at our hospital for IGV bleeding between October 1990 and December 2003. Forty-nine (49) patients were treated with B-RTO and 63 patients with EIS. These two patient groups were compared as regards content of treatment, post-treatment incidence of variceal bleeding, incidence of IGV rebleeding, survival rate, cause of death, and complications. Multivariate analysis was performed on post-treatment variceal bleeding and survival. Although EO was used in higher amounts in the B-RTO group than in the EIS group, the B-RTO group had a significantly lower number of treatment sessions and a significantly shorter treatment period (p<0.05). The EIS group had significantly more patients with IGV rebleeding after treatment than the B-RTO group. Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor of IGV bleeding after treatment (p=0.024). The two groups did not differ significantly in the percentage of patients with aggravated esophageal varices after treatment. Bleeding from ectopic varices was not observed in any patient. There was no significant difference in survival by treatment method. The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p=0.003). It is concluded that B-RTO was more effective than EIS in the eradication of IGV and prevention of IGV recurrence and rebleeding.

  3. Bleeding Duodenal Varices Successfully Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO) Assisted by CT During Arterial Portography

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu, E-mail: he3m-trsk@asahi-net.or.jp; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2006-12-15

    A 60-year-old woman with massive hemorrhage from duodenal varices was transferred to our hospital for the purpose of transcatheter intervention. Although digital subtraction arterial portography could not depict the entire pathway of collateral circulation, the efferent route of the duodenal varices was clearly demonstrated on subsequent CT during arterial portography. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed via the efferent vein and achieved complete thrombosis of the varices.

  4. Rectal bleeding in patients with haemorrhoids. Coincidental findings in colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Koning, M V; Loffeld, R J L F

    2010-06-01

    Rectal bleeding is a very common clinical sign. It is often caused by haemorrhoids. However, it can be a symptom of other pathology in the rectum or colon. There are little data coincidental pathology in patients with haemorrhoids and rectal bleeding. To examine coincidental pathology in patients with rectal bleeding and haemorrhoids, especially with respect to age. Prospectively, 290 consecutive patients presenting with bleeding and haemorrhoids were analysed. All patients had an endoscopic examination. All significant endoscopic findings (diverticuli, polyps, cancer, angiodysplasia and varices or colitis) were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with only haemorrhoids (n = 129, % male: 41.1, mean age: 53.6 +/- 12.7 years). Group 2 consisted of patients with haemorrhoids and coincidental pathology (n = 161, % male: 46.6, mean age: 67.3 +/- 13.7 years). There was no difference in gender or in the type of endoscopy. However, patients in Group 2 were significantly older. It can be concluded that in cases of rectal bleeding and haemorrhoids, coincidental pathology occurs in a large proportion of patients, especially the elderly. Omitting endoscopy in these patients can lead to major doctors delay.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P<0.001) and lower serum albumin (P=0.004) were independently associated with higher upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, Thanila A., E-mail: macedo.thanila@mayo.edu; Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of themore » veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy.« less

  7. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopymore » guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.« less

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Japanese Patients Prescribed Antithrombotic Drugs: Differences in Trends over Time.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Shimoda, Ryo; Higuchi, Toru; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2014-06-01

    We studied the features of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients taking antithrombotic drugs. The records of 430 patients taking antithrombotic drugs who underwent emergency endoscopy for UGIB in Saga Medical School Hospital between 2002 and 2011 were studied. We also compared the characteristics of our cohort of 11,919 patients prescribed antithrombotic drugs in our hospital between 2002 and 2011. UBGI patients of variceal bleeding were not included in this study. 186 patients presented with UGIB in the first period (2002-2006) and 244 in the second period (2007-2011). The proportion of patients infected with Helicobacter pylori was lower in the second period, while the proportion taking antithrombotic drugs rose significantly. Peptic ulcer disease was responsible for the majority of bleeding episodes; however, bleeding from other sources is increasing. In the whole cohort, the risk of UGIB was 1.08%; however, of the 31.8% who also took an acid-secretion inhibitor only 18 (0.28%) developed bleeding. In contrast, 102 (1.87%) of those not taking an acid-secretion inhibitor developed UGIB, a statistically significant difference. Risk of UGIB in Japanese patients taking antithrombotics was 1.01% and the incidence is increasing. Acid-secretion inhibitors reduced the risk of antithrombotic drug-related UGIB.

  9. The long-term benefits of nucleos(t)ide analogs in compensated HBV cirrhotic patients with no or small esophageal varices: A 12-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lampertico, Pietro; Invernizzi, Federica; Viganò, Mauro; Loglio, Alessandro; Mangia, Giampaolo; Facchetti, Floriana; Primignani, Massimo; Jovani, Manol; Iavarone, Massimo; Fraquelli, Mirella; Casazza, Giovanni; de Franchis, Roberto; Colombo, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Esophageal varices (EV) are a marker of disease severity in compensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) which predicts also the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), clinical decompensation and anticipated liver related death. The dynamics and prognostic significance of EV in patients under long-term HBV suppression by nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC), are poorly known. A standardized protocol (Baveno) including 414 upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopies was applied to 107 HBeAg-negative compensated cirrhotic patients (93% Child-Pugh A) during a median of 12 (range 2 to 17) years of NUC therapy. Patients who initially started on lamivudine (LMV) and then developed resistance (LMV-R), were rescued by early administration of adefovir, or were switched to tenofovir. Surveillance included serum HBV DNA every three months and abdominal ultrasound every six months. Twenty-seven patients had baseline F1 EV which regressed in 18, remained unchanged in eight and progressed in one patient; the 12-year cumulative incidence of EV regression was 83% (95% CI: 52-92%). De novo F1/F2 EV developed in 6/80 patients with a 12-year cumulative incidence of 10% (95% CI: 5-20%). Six of seven patients with de novo varices or progression of pre-existing varices had either a clinical breakthrough due to LMV-R and/or developed a HCC. No bleedings from ruptured EV occurred, 12 patients died (9 HCC) and 15 were transplanted (13 HCC): the 12-year cumulative incidence of HCC and overall survival was 33% (95% CI: 24-42%) and 76% (95% CI: 67-83%), respectively. Long-term pharmacological suppression of HBV in HBeAg-seronegative patients with compensated cirrhosis leads to a significant regression of pre-existing EV accompanied by a negligible risk of developing de novo EV. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of portal pressure studies in the management of variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Addley, Jennifer; Tham, Tony CK; Cash, William Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension occurs as a complication of liver cirrhosis and complications such as variceal bleeding lead to significant demands on resources. Endoscopy is the gold standard method for screening cirrhotic patients however universal endoscopic screening may mean a lot of unnecessary procedures as the presence of oesophageal varices is variable hence a large time and cost burden on endoscopy units to carry out both screening and subsequent follow up of variceal bleeds. A less invasive method to identify those at high risk of bleeding would allow earlier prophylactic measures to be applied. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an acceptable indirect measurement of portal hypertension and predictor of the complications of portal hypertension in adult cirrhotics. Varices develop at a HVPG of 10-12 mmHg with the appearance of other complications with HPVG > 12 mmHg. Variceal bleeding does not occur in pressures under 12 mmHg. HPVG > 20 mmHg measured early after admission is a significant prognostic indicator of failure to control bleeding varices, indeed early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in such circumstances reduces mortality significantly. HVPG can be used to identify responders to medical therapy. Patients who do not achieve the suggested reduction targets in HVPG have a high risk of rebleeding despite endoscopic ligation and may not derive significant overall mortality benefit from endoscopic intervention alone, ultimately requiring TIPS or liver transplantation. Early HVPG measurements following a variceal bleed can help to identify those at risk of treatment failure who may benefit from early intervention with TIPS. Therefore, we suggest using HVPG measurement as the investigation of choice in those with confirmed cirrhosis in place of endoscopy for intitial variceal screening and, where indicated, a trial of B-blockade, either intravenously during the initial pressure study with assessment of response or oral therapy with

  11. Use of portal pressure studies in the management of variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Addley, Jennifer; Tham, Tony Ck; Cash, William Jonathan

    2012-07-16

    Portal hypertension occurs as a complication of liver cirrhosis and complications such as variceal bleeding lead to significant demands on resources. Endoscopy is the gold standard method for screening cirrhotic patients however universal endoscopic screening may mean a lot of unnecessary procedures as the presence of oesophageal varices is variable hence a large time and cost burden on endoscopy units to carry out both screening and subsequent follow up of variceal bleeds. A less invasive method to identify those at high risk of bleeding would allow earlier prophylactic measures to be applied. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an acceptable indirect measurement of portal hypertension and predictor of the complications of portal hypertension in adult cirrhotics. Varices develop at a HVPG of 10-12 mmHg with the appearance of other complications with HPVG > 12 mmHg. Variceal bleeding does not occur in pressures under 12 mmHg. HPVG > 20 mmHg measured early after admission is a significant prognostic indicator of failure to control bleeding varices, indeed early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in such circumstances reduces mortality significantly. HVPG can be used to identify responders to medical therapy. Patients who do not achieve the suggested reduction targets in HVPG have a high risk of rebleeding despite endoscopic ligation and may not derive significant overall mortality benefit from endoscopic intervention alone, ultimately requiring TIPS or liver transplantation. Early HVPG measurements following a variceal bleed can help to identify those at risk of treatment failure who may benefit from early intervention with TIPS. Therefore, we suggest using HVPG measurement as the investigation of choice in those with confirmed cirrhosis in place of endoscopy for intitial variceal screening and, where indicated, a trial of B-blockade, either intravenously during the initial pressure study with assessment of response or oral therapy with

  12. Modified devascularization surgery for isolated gastric varices assessed by endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J-S; Wang, W-M; Perng, D-S; Huang, C-J; Wang, J-Y; Huang, T-J

    2004-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the surgical management of isolated gastric varices (IGV), and to report the authors' experience in the treatment of IGV with modified devascularization surgery. In this study, 26 cirrhotic patients with IGV were treated with devascularization surgery for variceal hemorrhage. Preoperatively, percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) and EUS were used to determine the mode of therapy for IGV. Fundectomy was performed for 14 patients with fundic IGV, whereas 12 patients with cardiac IGV underwent proximal gastrectomy. A significantly higher proportion of patients with cardiac varices showed grade 3 IGV on preoperative EUS than those who had fundic varices (p < 0.05). No major complications were observed during or after the operation, and only one patient died of prolonged shock and massive transfusion. Postoperatively, gastric varices had been eradicated completely in 25 of 26 patients, as determined by EUS study. During a mean follow-up period of 50 months, two patients had recurrent varices without bleeding, as demonstrated by EUS. The overall 5-year survival rate for the fundic IGV group was 67.9%, whereas that for the cardiac IGV group was 64.3% (p > 0.05). This study showed that devascularization surgery is highly effective for the prevention of recurrent bleeding from IGV and provides an alternative treatment method. Preoperatively, EUS is very helpful in detailed devascularization of patients with specific IGV, and may be used also for postoperative follow-up evaluation.

  13. Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: Diagnosis, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is a life threatening complication of portal hypertension. Primary prevention of bleeding in patients at risk for a first bleeding episode is therefore a major goal. Medical prophylaxis consists of non-selective beta-blockers like propranolol or carvedilol. Variceal endoscopic band ligation is equally effective but procedure related morbidity is a drawback of the method. Therapy of acute bleeding is based on three strategies: vasopressor drugs like terlipressin, antibiotics and endoscopic therapy. In refractory bleeding, self-expandable stents offer an option for bridging to definite treatments like transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Treatment of bleeding from gastric varices depends on vasopressor drugs and on injection of varices with cyanoacrylate. Strategies for primary or secondary prevention are based on non-selective beta-blockers but data from large clinical trials is lacking. Therapy of refractory bleeding relies on shunt-procedures like TIPS. Bleeding from ectopic varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia-syndrome is less common. Possible medical and endoscopic treatment options are discussed. PMID:23964137

  14. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Puljic, Anela; Salati, Jennifer; Doss, Amy; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 2,284,218 pregnancies in 2005-2009 recorded in the California Birth Registry database. Utilizing ICD-9 codes we analyzed the following outcomes for liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices in pregnancy: preeclampsia (PET), preterm delivery (PTD; <37 weeks), cesarean section, low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile), neonatal death (NND), and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Cirrhosis in pregnancy conferred an increased risk of PET, PTD, CS in multiparous women, LBW, and NND. Portal hypertension in pregnancy was associated with PTD, LBW, NND, and PPH. Non-bleeding esophageal varices in pregnancy were not associated with the outcomes assessed in a statistically significant manner. One case of bleeding esophageal varices was observed, resulting in PTD with a LBW infant. There were three cases of concomitant portal hypertension or concomitant esophageal varices with cirrhosis in pregnancy. Pregnancy in women with concomitant liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices can be successful. However, pregnancy outcomes are worse and may warrant closer antenatal monitoring and patient counseling. Cirrhosis in pregnancy with concomitant portal hypertension or esophageal varices is rare.

  15. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection.

    PubMed

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy of all patients with gastric varices. Application was controlled by fluoroscopy to immediately detect any glue embolization. Only perforating veins located within the gastric wall were treated. In the follow up, we repeated this treatment until varices were eradicated. Utmost patients (36 of 40) were treated during or within 24 h of active bleeding. About 32.5% of patients were treated while visible bleeding. Histoacryl injection was always technically successful and only two patients suffered a minor complication. Acute bleeding was stopped in all patients. About 15% (6 of 40) of patients needed an alternative rescue treatment in the longer course. Three patients got a transjugular portosystemic shunt and another three underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation. Mean long-term survival of 60 months was excellent. Active bleeding of gastric varices can be treated successfully without the necessity of gastric rinsing with EUS-guided injection of Histoacryl.

  16. Feasibility of transnasal endoscopy in screening for esophageal and gastric varices in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Anderson Antônio; Dias, Carlos Alberto Freitas; Dias Moetzsohn, Luciana; de Castro Carvalho, Silas; Ferrari, Tereza Abreu; Nunes Arantes, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Screening for esophageal and gastric varices is indicated for patients with portal hypertension or cirrhosis. Typically, conventional endoscopy is used; however, the need for sedation increases the costs and risks, especially in cirrhotic patients. Use of transnasal endoscopy with an ultrathin endoscope enables study of the upper gastrointestinal tract without the need for sedation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of transnasal endoscopy in screening for esophageal and gastric varices in patients with chronic liver disease. Patients and methods  This was a prospective study in which transnasal endoscopy was carried out in patients with cirrhosis or portal hypertension who had indications for screening of esophageal and gastric varices. The following variables were evaluated: demographical data, duration of procedure, patient tolerance and acceptance, adverse events (AEs), endoscopic findings and interobserver agreement related to portal hypertension alterations ( kappa index). Results  A total of 50 patients entered the study. The most common cause of liver disease was chronic viral hepatitis (66 %). Among the cirrhotic patients, most of the patients were Child-Pugh A (74 %). In 5 patients (10 %), nasal intubation was not possible. Two patients (4 %) experienced minor epistaxis. Tolerance was excellent or good in 92 % according with a visual analogic scale. In 16 patients (32 %), esophageal varices were detected and in 2 patients (4 %) gastric varices were detected. The mean duration of the procedure was 7 minutes. Conclusions  Transnasal endoscopy is feasible, effective and well tolerated for screening of esophageal and gastric varices in patients with chronic liver disease. It can be performed in outpatient clinics safely and without the use of sedation. PMID:28691048

  17. Discharge hemoglobin and outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Hwang, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kang, Seung Hun; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Many patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding present with anemia and frequently require red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. A restrictive transfusion strategy and a low hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for transfusion had been shown to produce acceptable outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, most patients are discharged with mild anemia owing to the restricted volume of packed RBCs (pRBCs). We investigated whether discharge Hb influences the outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had received pRBCs during hospitalization between January 2012 and January 2014. Patients with variceal bleeding, malignant lesion, stroke, or cardiovascular disease were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups, low (8 g/dL ≤ Hb < 10 g/dL) and high (Hb ≥ 10 [g/dL]) discharge Hb, and compared the clinical course and Hb changes between these groups. Results: A total of 102 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty patients were discharged with Hb levels < 10 g/dL, whereas 52 were discharged with Hb levels > 10 g/dL. Patients in the low Hb group had a lower consumption of pRBCs and shorter hospital stay than did those in the high Hb group. The Hb levels were not fully recovered at outpatient follow-up until 7 days after discharge; however, most patients showed Hb recovery at 45 days after discharge. The rate of rebleeding after discharge was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, a discharge Hb between 8 and 10 g/dL was linked to favorable outcomes on outpatient follow-up. Most patients recovered from anemia without any critical complication within 45 days after discharge. PMID:27540574

  18. Narrow-band imaging can increase the visibility of fibrin caps after bleeding of esophageal varices: a case with extensive esophageal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Hirohito; Yoshimasu, Yuu; Kawai, Takashi; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Itoi, Takao

    2017-08-01

    A 58-year-old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis noticed black stools and underwent an endoscopy at a community hospital. The presence of esophageal varices (EVs) was confirmed, but the bleeding point was not found. He was referred to our institution and underwent a second endoscopy. Extensive white patches of esophageal candidiasis were visible on endoscopy by white-light imaging (WLI), but it was difficult to find the fibrin cap of the EVs. This was easier under narrow-band imaging (NBI), however, as the color turned red from absorption by hemoglobin adhered to it. We retrospectively measured the color differences (CD) between the fibrin cap and the surrounding mucosa 10 times using the CIE (L*a*b*) color space method. The median value of CD increased after NBI (13.9 → 43.0, p < 0.001), with increased visibility. However, the median CD between the white patch and surrounding mucosa decreased after NBI (44.8 → 30.3, p < 0.001). The fibrin cap was paler than the white patch of candidiasis, but the increased visibility of the fibrin cap by NBI enabled it to be found more easily. This is the first report of a case in which NBI was helpful in locating a fibrin cap of EVs.

  19. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lérias, Clotilde; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years) submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleeding lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6), ulcers (n = 4), small bowel Dieulafoy´s lesion (n = 2), bleeding from anastomotic vessels (n = 1), multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1) and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1). Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  20. Prevention of Portal Hypertension: from Variceal Development to Clinical Decompensation

    PubMed Central

    Vorobioff, Julio D.; Groszmann, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension (PH) has been exclusively devoted to gastro-esophageal varices related events at different frameworks including prophylactic, emergency or preventive therapy. The goals of treatment are to avoid the first bleeding episode, stop active bleeding and prevent bleeding recurrence, respectively. The objective of pre-primary prophylaxis (PPP) is to avoid variceal development and therefore, it necessarily deals with cirrhotic patients at earlier stages of the disease. At these earlier stages, nonselective beta blocker (NSBB) have been ineffective in preventing the development of varices and other complications of PH. Therefore, treatment should not rely on NSBB. It is possible, that at these earlier stages, etiological treatment of liver disease itself could prevent the progression of PH. This review will focus mainly on early treatment of PH, because if successful, it may translate into histological-hemodynamic improvements, avoiding not only variceal development but also other PH related complications, such as ascites and porto-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). Moreover, the advent of new therapies may allow not only the prevention of the complications of PH, but also the chance of a substantial degree of regression in the cirrhotic process with the possible prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID:24913395

  1. Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaginal bleeding (heavier than usual or after menopause) First Aid First aid is appropriate for external bleeding. If bleeding is ... pant leg or sleeve. If you have a first-aid kit that comes with a tourniquet, apply it ...

  2. Portal Vein Stenting to Treat Portal Vein Stenosis in a Patient With Malignant Tumor and Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Katsunobu; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Nishida, Norifumi; Matsutani, Shinya; Hirata, Keiichiro; Kimura, Kenjiro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the successful use of portal venous stent placement for a patient with recurrent melena secondary to jejunal varices that developed after subtotal stomach preserved pancreatoduodenectomy (SSPPD). A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with tarry stool and severe anemia at 2 years after SSPPD for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography examination showed severe stenosis of the extrahepatic portal vein caused by local recurrence and showed an intensely enhanced jejunal wall at the choledochojejunostomy. Gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy also revealed active bleeding near the choledochojejunostomy. Based on these findings, jejunal varices resulting from portal vein stenosis were suspected as the cause of the melena. Portal vein stenting and balloon dilation was performed via the ileocecal vein after laparotomy. Coiling of the jejunal varices and sclerotherapy of the dilate postgastric vein with 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol was performed. After portal stent placement, the patient was able to lead a normal life without gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, he died 7 months later due to liver metastasis. PMID:24444277

  3. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia in a patient with esophageal varices. A case report.

    PubMed

    Shen, Naning; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Yao, Liping; Xie, Huahong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    Achalasia is very uncommon, and rarely does achalasia co-exist with esophageal varices. We present a 62-year-old woman who was diagnosed with both achalasia and esophageal varices in December 2014 and had a past history of hematemesis. The patient's achalasia symptoms' Eckardt score was 9, and her hepatic function was Child-Pugh grade A6. After comprehensive assessment of the patient's health and discussion of the pros and cons of various therapies for achalasia, the patient underwent a peroral endoscopic myotomy. She was symptom-free after the operation and had no recurrence of achalasia symptoms at 20-month follow-up. No adverse events were reported. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia with esophageal varices has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  4. Delayed onset pulmonary glue emboli in a ventilated patient: a rare complication following endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection for gastric variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Joyce Ruo Yi; Balan, Anu; Griffiths, William; Herre, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate injection is a recognised endoscopic treatment option for variceal haemorrhage. We describe a 34-year old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis who presented to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from gastric and oesophageal varices. Haemostasis was achieved via cyanoacrylate injection sclerotherapy and banding. Ten days later, the patient developed acute hypoxia and fever. His chest radiograph showed wide-spread pulmonary shadowing. A non-contrast CT scan confirmed multiple emboli of injected glue material from the varix with parenchymal changes either suggesting acute lung injury or pulmonary oedema. He gradually recovered with supportive treatment and was discharged home. On follow-up, he remained asymptomatic from a chest perspective. This case report discusses the rare complication of pulmonary embolisation of cyanoacrylate glue from variceal injection sites and the diagnostic dilemmas involved. Emphasis is placed on the importance of maintaining high index of clinical suspicion when assessing patients with possible procedure related complications. PMID:25320260

  5. von Willebrand factor as a novel noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Yan, Shiping; Wang, Guangchuan; Cui, Shaobo; Zhang, Chunqing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is no perfect noninvasive method to assess portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Early predicting esophageal varices can provide evidence for managing cirrhotic patients. We aimed to further investigate von Willebrand factor (vWF) as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension, especially of esophageal varices. A total of 60 hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis and 45 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Levels of six markers were examined. All patients underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We evaluated the performance of six factors for diagnosis of portal hypertension and esophageal varices. The vWF levels in liver tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between the level of vWF in liver tissues and HVPG and between levels of vWF in tissues and plasma were examined. Cutoff values of plasma vWF (1510.5 mU/mL and 1701 mU/mL) showed high positive predictive value (PPV, 90.2% and 87.5%) in predicting clinically significant portal hypertension and severe portal hypertension. Cutoff values of vWF (1414 mU/ml and 1990 mU/mL, PPV 90.3% and 86.3%, respectively) were provided to detect the presence and degree of esophageal varices. Linear correlations were observed between levels of vWF in liver tissues and HVPG (r(2) = 0.552, p < 0.001) and between the level of vWF in liver tissues and in plasma (r(2) = 0.461, p < 0.001). The vWF is a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis. Increased levels of vWF in liver tissues may induce the elevated plasma vWF levels, but molecular mechanism is needed for further study.

  6. Massive Hemorrhage from Ectopic Duodenal Varices: Importance of a Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    House, Tyler; Webb, Patrick; Baarson, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal variceal bleeding is an uncommon complication of portal hypertension that can easily go unrecognized and reach mortality rates as high as 40%. Cirrhosis is the most common cause of duodenal varices. In most cases, duodenal varices occur concomitantly with esophageal varices, further complicating identification with initial endoscopy. Although many modalities have been explored with respect to management and treatment approaches, guidelines have yet to be established owing to the infrequency in which bleeding occurs from ectopic duodenal varices. We present a case of massive duodenal variceal hemorrhage that highlights the complexity of initial diagnosis and ultimately required a transesophageal intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with coil embolization for control of bleeding. PMID:28203136

  7. Can proton pump inhibitors reduce rebleeding following Histoacryl sclerotherapy for gastric variceal hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ka Rham; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Kyu Man; Wi, Jin Woo; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Wan Sik; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in reducing rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates after endoscopic gastric variceal obliteration (GVO) using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC). This study enrolled 341 patients who were consecutively diagnosed with and treated for bleeding gastric varices. The patients were divided into PPI and non-PPI groups, and their endoscopic findings, initial hemostasis outcomes, rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates, and treatment-related complications were analyzed. The rate of initial hemostasis was 97.1%. rebleeding occurred in 2.2% of patients within 2 weeks, 3.9% of patients within 4 weeks, 18.9% of patients within 6 months, and 27.6% of patients within 12 months of the GVO procedure. A previous history of variceal bleeding (relative risk [RR], 1.955; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263 to 3.028; p = 0.003) and use of PPIs (RR, 0.554; 95% CI, 0.352 to 0.873; p = 0.011) were associated with rebleeding. Child-Pugh class C (RR, 10.914; 95% CI, 4.032 to 29.541; p < 0.001), failure of initial hemostasis (RR, 13.329; 95% CI, 2.795 to 63.556; p = 0.001), and the presence of red-colored concomitant esophageal varices (RR, 4.096; 95% CI, 1.320 to 12.713; p = 0.015) were associated with bleeding-related death. The prophylactic use of PPIs reduces rebleeding after GVO using NBC in patients with gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, prophylactic use of PPIs does not reduce bleeding-related death.

  8. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitismore » with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.« less

  9. Endoscopic findings in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients at Lacor hospital, northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alema, O N; Martin, D O; Okello, T R

    2012-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency medical condition that may require hospitalization and resuscitation, and results in high patient morbidity. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the preferred investigative procedure for UGIB because of its accuracy, low rate of complication, and its potential for therapeutic interventions. To determine the endoscopic findings in patients presenting with UGIB and its frequency among these patients according to gender and age in Lacor hospital, northern Uganda. The study was carried out at Lacor hospital, located at northern part of Uganda. The record of 224 patients who underwent endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a period of 5 years between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 224 patients had endoscopy for UGIB which consisted of 113 (50.4%) males and 111 (49.6%) females, and the mean age was 42 years ± SD 15.88. The commonest cause of UGIB was esophagealvarices consisting of 40.6%, followed by esophagitis (14.7%), gastritis (12.6%) and peptic ulcer disease (duodenal and gastric ulcers) was 6.2%. The malignant conditions (gastric and esophageal cancers) contributed to 2.6%. Other less frequent causes of UGIB were hiatus hernia (1.8), duodenitis (0.9%), others-gastric polyp (0.4%). Normal endoscopic finding was 16.1% in patients who had UGIB. Esophageal varices are the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this environment as compared to the west which is mainly peptic ulcer disease.

  10. Pharmacological constriction of the lower oesophageal sphincter: a simple method of arresting variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, S W; Doss, W; el-Zeiny, H; Robinson, P; Barsoum, M S; Johnson, A G

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pharmacological constriction of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) on oesophageal varices was investigated in an experimental study followed by a controlled clinical trial. In the experimental study intravariceal pressure was measured just above the LOS in 11 patients before and after constricting the LOS by intravenous pentagastrin. Intravariceal pressure fell from a mean of 23 (range 12-36) mmHg to 4 (range 0-7) mmHg (p less than 0.001). This marked pressure drop indicated the considerable compression of varices that occurred within the LOS. A prospective controlled clinical trial examined whether LOS constriction (effected by the longer acting metoclopramide) would compress varices sufficiently to arrest active variceal bleeding originating from the lowest 2 cm oesophagus--the area encircled by the LOS. Of 11 patients who received metoclopramide, 10 stopped bleeding compared with four of the 11 who received placebo (p less than 0.01). Pharmacological constriction of the LOS appears to offer a new and effective approach for arresting active bleeding from oesophageal varices. PMID:3044932

  11. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jaemdphd@gmail.com

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3,more » transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.« less

  12. Assessing Bleeding Risk in Patients Taking Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Shoeb, Marwa; Fang, Margaret C.

    2013-01-01

    Anticoagulant medications are commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Although highly effective, they are also associated with significant bleeding risks. Numerous individual clinical factors have been linked to an increased risk of hemorrhage, including older age, anemia, and renal disease. To help quantify hemorrhage risk for individual patients, a number of clinical risk prediction tools have been developed. These risk prediction tools differ in how they were derived and how they identify and weight individual risk factors. At present, their ability to effective predict anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage remains modest. Use of risk prediction tools to estimate bleeding in clinical practice is most influential when applied to patients at the lower spectrum of thromboembolic risk, when the risk of hemorrhage will more strongly affect clinical decisions about anticoagulation. Using risk tools may also help counsel and inform patients about their potential risk for hemorrhage while on anticoagulants, and can identify patients who might benefit from more careful management of anticoagulation. PMID:23479259

  13. Advances in gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The main innovations of the latest meeting of the Gastroenterological Association (2016) concerning upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the clinician's perspective can be summarised as follows: a) The Glasgow-Blatchford scale has the best accuracy in predicting the need for surgical intervention and hospital mortality; b) Prognostic scales for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are also useful for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; c) Preliminary data suggest that treatment with hemospray does not seem to be superior to current standard treatment in controlling active peptic ulcer bleeding; d) Either famotidine or a proton pump inhibitor may be effective in preventing haemorrhagic recurrence in patients taking aspirin, but this finding needs to be confirmed in further studies; e) There was confirmation of the need to re-introduce antiplatelet therapy as early as possible in patients with antiplatelet-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality; f) Routine clinical practice suggests that gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications with celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs are very low; g) Dabigatran is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with apixaban or warfarin. At least half of the episodes are located in the lower gastrointestinal tract; h) Implant devices for external ventricular circulatory support are associated with early gastrointestinal bleeding in up to one third of patients; the bleeding is often secondary to arteriovenous malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular Plug Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (PARTO) for Gastric Varix Bleeding Patients in the Emergent Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heechul; Lee, Chun Kyon; Kim, Gun Bea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of vascular plug assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) for bleeding gastric varix performed in the emergent clinical setting and describe the mid-term clinical results. Materials and Methods From April 2012 to January 2015, emergent PARTO was tried in total 9 patients presented with active gastric varix bleeding. After initial insufficient or failure of endoscopic approach, they underwent PARTO in the emergent clinical setting. Gelatin sponge embolization of both gastrorenal (GR) shunt and gastric varix was performed after retrograde transvenous placement of a vascular plug in GR shunt. Coil assisted RTO (CARTO) was performed in one patient who had challenging GR shunt anatomy for vascular plug placement. Additional embolic materials, such as microcoils and NBCA glue-lipiodol mixture, were required in three patients to enhance complete occlusion of GR shunt or obliteration of competitive collateral vessels. Clinical success was defined as no variceal rebleeding and disappearance of gastric varix. Results All technical and clinical success–i.e., complete GR shunt occlusion and offending gastric varix embolization with immediate bleeding control–was achieved in all 9 patients. There was no procedure-related complication. All cases showed successful clinical outcome during mean follow up of 17 months (12–32 months), evidenced by imaging studies, endoscopy and clinical data. In 4 patients, mild worsening of esophageal varices or transient ascites was noted as portal hypertensive related change. Conclusion Emergent PARTO is technically feasible and safe, with acceptable mid-term clinical results, in treating active gastric varix bleeding. PMID:27189294

  15. Regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly in two patients with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis after interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Jae; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Na, Soo-Young; Choi, Eun Kwang; Boo, Sun Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk; Song, Hyung Joo; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Bong Soo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Some recent studies have found regression of liver cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of complete regression of esophageal varices after interferon/peg-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We describe two cases of complete regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly after interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Esophageal varices and splenomegaly regressed after 3 and 8 years of sustained virologic responses in cases 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that complications of liver cirrhosis, such as esophageal varices and splenomegaly, can regress after antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  16. Etiological and Endoscopic Profile of Middle Aged and Elderly Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Pranav; Chandail, Vijant Singh

    2017-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation depends on the amount and location of hemorrhage and the endoscopic profile varies according to different etiology. At present, there are limited epidemiological data on upper GI bleed and associated mortality from India, especially in the middle and elderly age group, which has a higher incidence and mortality from this disease. This study aims to study the clinical and endoscopic profile of middle aged and elderly patients suffering from upper GI bleed to know the etiology of the disease and outcome of the intervention. Out of a total of 1790 patients who presented to the hospital from May 2015 to August 2017 with upper GI bleed, and underwent upper GI endoscopy, data of 1270 patients, aged 40 years and above, was compiled and analyzed retrospectively. All the patients included in the study were above 40 years of age. Majority of the patients were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The most common causes of upper GI bleed in these patients were portal hypertension-related (esophageal, gastric and duodenal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia GAVE), seen in 53.62% of patients, followed by peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers) seen in 17.56% of patients. Gastric erosions/gastritis accounted for 15.20%, and duodenal erosions were seen in 5.8% of upper GI bleeds. The in-hospital mortality rate in our study population was 5.83%. The present study reported portal hypertension as the most common cause of upper GI bleeding, while the most common endoscopic lesions reported were esophageal varices, followed by gastric erosion/gastritis, and duodenal ulcer.

  17. Management of Patients with Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Gralnek, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based upon clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper GI bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy. In the majority of patients, colonoscopy should be the initial diagnostic procedure and should be performed within 24 hours of patient presentation after adequate colon preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis therapy should be provided to patients with high risk endoscopic stigmata of bleeding including active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel, or adherent clot. The endoscopic hemostasis modality used (mechanical, thermal, injection or combination) is most often guided by the etiology of bleeding, access to the bleeding site, and endoscopist experience with the various hemostasis modalities. Repeat colonoscopy, with endoscopic hemostasis performed if indicated, should be considered for patients with evidence of recurrent bleeding. Radiographic interventions (tagged red blood cell scintigraphy, CT angiography, angiography) should be considered in high-risk patients with ongoing bleeding who do not respond adequately to resuscitation, and who are unlikely to tolerate bowel preparation and colonoscopy. Strategies to prevent recurrent bleeding should be considered. NSAID use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia. In patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin (secondary prophylaxis), aspirin should not be discontinued. The exact timing depends on the severity of bleeding, perceived adequacy of hemostasis and the risk of a thromboembolic event. Surgery

  18. Propranolol, isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic band ligation - alone or in varying combinations for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Khan, Anwaar A; Alam, Altaf; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Shafqat, Farzana; Sarwar, Shahid

    2009-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of propranolol, propranolol with nitrate, band ligation, and band ligation with propranolol and nitrate for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. A prospective randomized trial. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from November 2003 to July 2005. One hundred and sixty cirrhotic patients with esophageal variceal bleeding were randomized to four treatment groups (propranolol, propranolol plus isosorbide mononitrate, band ligation, band ligation plus propranolol and nitrate) with 40 patients in each group. Patients were followed for 6 months after the enrolment of last patient. Primary end points were recurrence of esophageal variceal bleeding and death. Treatment complications were noted. Four treatment groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Esophageal variceal rebleeding occurred in 22% patients in band ligation plus drugs group, 26% patients in drug combination group, 31% patients in banding group and 38% patients in propranolol group (p=0.41). Difference in mortality rates was also not significant. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding.

  19. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Hospitalized incidence and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sangchan, Apichat; Sawadpanitch, Kookwan; Mairiang, Pisaln; Chunlertrith, Kitti; Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Sutra, Sumitr; Thavornpitak, Yupa

    2012-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency gastrointestinal problem which has substantial mortality and health care resources use. The nationwide basic information on UGIB is not available in Thailand. To identify the hospitalized incidence, outcomes and hospitalization cost of patients who presented with UGIB in Thailand. Information on illness of in-patients from hospitals nationwide was retrieved from three major health schemes database in fiscal year 2010. The hospitalized incidence rate of UGIB was 166.3 admissions per 100,000 populations and the hospitalized incidence rate of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) and variceal bleeding were 152.9 and 13.5 admissions per 100,000 populations respectively. Endoscopic procedure was undertaken in 27.6% of NVUGIB admissions and 80.7% of variceal bleeding admissions. The in-hospital mortality rate, hospitalization cost and length of stay were higher in variceal bleeding patients compared with NVUGIB patients. UGIB is an important emergency gastrointestinal problem which has significant mortality and substantial health care resources consumption.

  1. Emergency endoscopy for acute gastrointestinal bleeding: prognostic value of endoscopic hemostasis and the AIMS65 score in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shotaro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Sugimori, Hiroshi; Esaki, Motohiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Hashizume, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors, including risk scores (Glasgow-Blatchford score and AIMS65) in patients with acute upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The medical records of patients who had undergone emergency gastrointestinal endoscopy for suspected gastrointestinal bleeding during the past 5 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 232 endoscopies (130 esophagogastroduodenoscopies, 102 colonoscopies) for 192 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median age was 66 years, and 64% of patients were males. Endoscopy identified causes for bleeding in 173 patients (post-endoscopic interventions for neoplastic lesions in 36 cases, colonic diverticula in 34, gastroduodenal ulcers in 29, gastric erosions in 15, vascular ectasia in 14, post-biopsy bleeding in 13, malignant tumors in 10, inflammatory conditions in nine, esophagogastric varices in five, Mallory-Weiss tears in four, nasalbleeding in three, and injury by swallowed blister pack in one), whereas the source of bleeding remained obscure in 19 patients. Blood transfusion was given in 97 patients (51%), and 97 (51%) underwent endoscopic hemostasis. During the follow-up period, 49 patients (26%) experienced rebleeding, seven of whom were treated by interventional radiology. Thirty-nine patients (20%) died as a result of various diseases. The probabilities of overall survival (OS) after 3 and 5 years were 71% and 67%, respectively. Cox multivariate analysis revealed blood transfusion, co-existing malignancy, absence of endoscopic hemostasis, and high AIMS65 score to be independent prognostic factors for poor OS. The AIMS65 score is useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Establishment of a bleeding score as a diagnostic tool for patients with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Palla, Roberta; Siboni, Simona M; Menegatti, Marzia; Musallam, Khaled M; Peyvandi, Flora

    2016-12-01

    Bleeding manifestations among patients with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) vary significantly between disorders and patients, even when affected with the same disorder. In response to the challenge represented by the clinical assessment of the presence and severity of bleeding symptoms, a number of bleeding score systems (BSSs) or bleeding assessment tools (BATs) were developed. The majority of these were specifically developed for patients with more common bleeding disorders than RBDs. Few RBDs patients were evaluated with these tools and without conclusive results. A new BSS was developed using data retrieved from a large group of patients with RBDs enrolled in the EN-RBD database and from healthy subjects. These data included previous bleeding symptoms, frequency, spontaneity, extent, localization, and relationship to prophylaxis and acute treatment. The predictive power of this BSS was also compared with the ISTH-BAT and examined for the severity of RBDs based on coagulant factor activity. This BSS was able to differentiate patients with RBDs from healthy individuals with a bleeding score value of 1.5 having the highest sum of sensitivity (67.1%) and specificity (73.8%) in discriminating patients with RBD from those without. An easy-to-use calculation was also developed to assess the probability of having a RBD. Its comparison with the ISTH-BAT confirmed its utility. Finally, in RBDs patients, there was a significant negative correlation between BS and coagulant factor activity level, which was strongest for fibrinogen and FXIII deficiencies. The use of this quantitative method may represent a valuable support tool to clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Use and Safety of A Novel Haemostatic Spray in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mike; Urs, Arun; Narula, Priya; Rao, Prithviraj; Belsha, Dalia

    2018-03-22

    Advanced endo-haemostatic technique performance and experience is extremely variable in distribution amongst pediatric endoscopists. Haemostatic spray (Hemospray®), a novel endo-haemostatic topically applied powder has the advantage of extreme ease of use and; hence may lower the threshold of competency required by the endoscopist thereby potentially reducing mortality. The aim of the study is to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and the safety of haemostatic spray in paediatric patients with AUGIB. Prospective enrolment of children with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) (group one) occurred, either as primary therapy or as an adjunct to standard endo-haemostatic therapeutic techniques. Patients were assessed for likely need for endo-haemostatic intervention of >8/24 of the paediatric Sheffield AUGIB score.A follow up endoscopy occurred in those deemed to have clinical need pre-discharge. For comparison, anoher group (group two) of patients,who received conventional endo-haemostatic treatment in the preceding 36 months, were reviewed. A total of 20 applications of hemospray occurred in 17 patients (8 male, median (range) age: 6.5years (2 days-17.75years) and a total of 29 patients were enrolled in group two ((16 male, median (range) age: 5.1 (0.25-17.0)). All patients tolerated haemostatic spray applications with no adverse events. The haemostatic spray group achieved 100% Initial hemostasis with 18% rebleeding rate, although only a 6% failure rate after re-application. In the conventional group, similar 100% initial hemostasis was achieved with 24% re-bleeding rate and 7% failure rate necessitating surgical interventions. This paediatric series suggests that monotherapy with haemostatic spray is as effective as conventional approaches in the management of AUGIB.

  4. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) - initial evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Gralnek, Ian M

    2013-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common reason that the 'on-call' gastroenterologist is consulted. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of upper endoscopy, there is still significant associated morbidity and mortality in patients experiencing acute UGIB, thus this is a true GI emergency. Acute UGIB is divided into non-variceal and variceal causes. The most common type of acute UGIB is 'non-variceal' and includes diagnoses such as peptic ulcer (gastric and duodenal), gastroduodenal erosions, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosive oesophagitis, arterio-venous malformations, Dieulafoy's lesion, and upper GI tract tumours and malignancies. This article focuses exclusively on initial management strategies for acute upper GI bleeding. We discuss up to date and evidence-based strategies for patient risk stratification, initial patient management prior to endoscopy, potential causes of UGIB, role of proton pump inhibitors, prokinetic agents, prophylactic antibiotics, vasoactive pharmacotherapies, and timing of endoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring spleen stiffness to predict varices in chronic hepatitis B cirrhotic patients with or without receiving non-selective beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Kwok, Raymond; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Tang, Stephen Pui-Kit; Lee, Eugenia; Lam, Thomas Chi-Ho; Lau, Tiffany Wing-Yan; Ma, Teresa Man-Kee; Wong, Betsy Chi-Kuen; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun

    2016-08-01

    we aimed to investigate the accuracy of liver (LSM) spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) with transient elastography (TE) to predict varices in the presence of non-selective beta-blockers (NSBB). In this cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and cirrhosis, all patients underwent TE and upper endoscopic examinations. LSM and SSM in predicting varices in patients receiving and not receiving NSBB were evaluated. Altogether 144 CHB patients (29 receiving NSBB; 35 with any varices, 31 and 11 with esophageal and gastric varices, respectively) were recruited. Their mean LSM and SSM were 13.3 ± 9.0 kPa and 32.8 ± 19.2 kPa, respectively. The correlation between LSM and SSM was better in the NSBB subgroup (r = 0.525, P = 0.003) than its counterpart (r = 0.329, P  < 0.001). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of LSM and SSM for any varices was 0.675 and 0.685 (P = 0.002 and 0.001), respectively. SSM of 18.9 kPa had a negative predictive value of 92.1% and negative likelihood ratio of 0.27 for ruling out any varices; and SSM of 54.9 kPa had a positive predictive value of 56.5% and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.05 to rule in varices. The AUROC of LSM for varices was 0.742 and 0.549 in patients with or without NSBB, respectively; the corresponding AUROC of SSM was 0.572 and 0.603, respectively. SSM only has modest accuracy to predict varices independent of NSBB use. An SSM cutoff value of 18.9 kPa may be adopted to achieve a high negative predictive value to rule out varices. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Hand-assisted laparoscopic Hassab's procedure for esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Miura, Kohei; Ishikawa, Hirosuke; Soma, Daiki; Zhang, Zhengkun; Ando, Takuya; Yuza, Kizuki; Hirose, Yuki; Katada, Tomohiro; Takizawa, Kazuyasu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Sakata, Jun; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-10-23

    Laparoscopic surgery for patients with portal hypertension is considered to be contraindicated because of the high risk of massive intraoperative hemorrhaging. However, recent reports have shown hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for devascularization and splenectomy to be a safe and effective method of treating esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy (HALS Hassab's procedure) for the treatment of esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension. From 2009 to 2016, seven patients with esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension were treated with hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy in our institute. Four men and three women with a median age of 61 years (range 35-71) were enrolled in this series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for the perioperative variables, postoperative mortality and morbidity, and postoperative outcomes of esophagogastric varices. The median operative time was 455 (range 310-671) min. The median intraoperative blood loss was 695 (range 15-2395) ml. The median weight of removed spleen was 507 (range 242-1835) g. The conversion rate to open surgery was 0%. The median postoperative hospital stay was 21 (range 13-81) days. During a median 21 (range 3-43) months of follow-up, the mortality rate was 0%. Four postoperative complications (massive ascites, enteritis, intra-abdominal abscess, and intestinal ulcer) were observed in two patients. Those complications were treated successfully without re-operation. Esophagogastric varices in all patients disappeared or improved. Bleeding from esophagogastric varices was not observed during the follow-up period. Although our data are preliminary, hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy proved an effective procedure for treating esophagogastric varices in patients with portal hypertension.

  7. Prediction of Esophageal Varices in Patients with Cirrhosis: Usefulness of Three-dimensional MR Elastography with Echo-planar Imaging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung Ui; Yu, Mi Hye; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung-Ihn; Glaser, Kevin J.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography in comparison to spleen length and dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in association with esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis by using endoscopy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This retrospective study received institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. One hundred thirty-nine patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent liver DCE MR imaging, including MR elastography, were included. Hepatic stiffness (HS) and spleen stiffness (SS) values assessed with MR elastography, as well as spleen length, were correlated with the presence of esophageal varices and high-risk varices by using Spearman correlation analysis. The diagnostic performance of MR elastography was compared with that of DCE MR imaging and combined assessment of MR elastography and DCE MR imaging by using receiver operating characteristic analysis. MR elastography reproducibility was assessed prospectively, with informed consent, in another 15 patients by using intraclass correlation coefficients. Results There were significant positive linear correlations between HS, SS, and spleen length and the grade of esophageal varices (r = 0.46, r = 0.48, and r = 0.36, respectively; all P < .0001). HS and SS values (>4.81 kPa and >7.60 kPa, respectively) showed better performance than did spleen length in the association with esophageal varices (P = .0306 and P = .0064, respectively). Diagnostic performance of HS and SS in predicting high-risk varices was comparable to that of DCE MR imaging (P = .1282 and P = .1371, respectively). When MR elastography and DCE MR imaging were combined, sensitivity improved significantly (P = .0004). MR elastography was highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). Conclusion HS and SS are associated with esophageal varices and showed better performance than did spleen length in assessing the presence

  8. Prognostic value of the Rockall score in patients with acute nonvariceal bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cieniawski, Dominik; Kuźniar, Ewelina; Winiarski, Marek; Matłok, Maciej; Kostarczyk, Wojciech; Pedziwiatr, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem in everyday clinical practice. While treating patients affected by UGIB, the estimation of the risk of complications is very important. The Rockall Score is one of the methods used in clinical practice that allows doing that. The aim of this paper is to assess the usefulness of the aforementioned scoring system while treating patients with UGIB. The analysis included, 651 patients with nonvariceal UGIB. The average age of the group was 62.86+16.96 years. Each patient was subjected to the retrospective analysis according to the Rockall Scale's criteria. Then the entire group was divided into the complication risk groups according to the obtained amount of points (low<3, moderate 3 to 8, high>8). After dividing into groups the effort has been taken to find a relationship between Rockall Score points and the occurrences of individual complications. Mortality among the respondents amounted to 11.36%. The hospitalization of 97.70% patients with <3 points on the scale progressed without complications (p<0.001; X2=22.90). In the moderate risk group the highest frequency of re-bleeding and need for surgery were observed. Whereas among patients with >8 points the mortality of 78.95% was noted. Rockall Score is a simple and useful method for assessing prognosis for patients with the non-variceal UGIB. The highest scores are obtained by the patients with a great risk of demise. Rockall Score may be used for classifying patients to appropriate risk groups.

  9. Partial spleen embolization reduces the risk of portal hypertension-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients not eligible for TIPS implantation.

    PubMed

    Buechter, Matthias; Kahraman, Alisan; Manka, Paul; Gerken, Guido; Dechêne, Alexander; Canbay, Ali; Wetter, Axel; Umutlu, Lale; Theysohn, Jens M

    2017-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a severe and life-threatening complication among patients with portal hypertension (PH). Covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the treatment of choice for patients with refractory or recurrent UGIB despite pharmacological and endoscopic therapy. In some patients, TIPS implantation is not possible due to co-morbidity or vascular disorders. Spleen embolization (SE) may be a promising alternative in this setting. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients with PH-induced UGIB who underwent partial SE between 2012 and 2016. All patients met the following criteria: (i) upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with primary or secondary failure of endoscopic interventions and (ii) TIPS implantation not possible. Each patient was followed for at least 6 months after embolization. Five patients (56%) suffered from cirrhotic PH, 4 patients (44%) from non-cirrhotic PH. UGIB occured in terms of refractory hemorrhage from gastric varices (3/9; 33%), hemorrhage from esophageal varices (3/9; 33%), and finally, hemorrhage from portal-hypertensive gastropathy (3/9; 33%). None of the patients treated with partial SE experienced re-bleeding episodes or required blood transfusions during a total follow-up time of 159 months, including both patients with cirrhotic- and non-cirrhotic PH. Partial SE, as a minimally invasive intervention with low procedure-associated complications, may be a valuable alternative for patients with recurrent PH-induced UGIB refractory to standard therapy.

  10. Protein C deficiency related obscure gastrointestinal bleeding treated by enteroscopy and anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Fan; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chung, Chen-Shuan

    2015-01-21

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommonly encountered and difficult-to-treat clinical problem in gastroenterology, but advancements in endoscopic and radiologic imaging modalities allow for greater accuracy in diagnosing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Ectopic varices account for less than 5% of all variceal bleeding cases, and jejunal variceal bleeding due to extrahepatic portal hypertension is rare. We present a 47-year-old man suffering from obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple vascular tufts around the proximal jejunum but no evidence of cirrhosis, and a visible hypodense filling defect suggestive of thrombus was visible in the superior mesenteric vein. Enteroscopy revealed several serpiginous varices in the proximal jejunum. Serologic data disclosed protein C deficiency (33.6%). The patient was successfully treated by therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy and long-term anticoagulant therapy, which is normally contraindicated in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnostic modalities for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, such as capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, magnetic resonance enterography, and enteroscopy, were also reviewed in this article.

  11. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: differences in outcome for patients admitted to internal medicine and gastroenterological services.

    PubMed

    Sandel, M H; Kolkman, J J; Kuipers, E J; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2000-09-01

    It has been suggested that admission to a gastroenterology service (GAS) is associated with a better prognosis and lower cost for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as upper GI bleeding (UGB). However, a large potential bias by higher comorbidity on internal medicine services (MED) could not be excluded from these studies. We therefore compared patients with upper GI bleeding admitted to a gastroenterology or internal medicine department, with special emphasis on prognostic factors, such as comorbidity, and outcome. Between 1991 and 1995, 322 patients were admitted to our hospital for UGB. Forty-five patients had variceal and 277 patients had nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (NUGB). Of 232 patients with primary NUGB, 125 were admitted to GAS and 93 to MED. The charts of these patients were revised, comorbidity was carefully recorded, and the Rockall risk score was calculated. All deaths were individually classified as unavoidable, mostly due to severe underlying illness, or potentially avoidable. No differences in delay for endoscopy or treatment were observed between GAS and MED. The rebleeding, surgery, and mortality rates in GAS and MED patients were 11.6% versus 11.5% (NS), 7.8% versus 7.3% (NS), and 2.4% versus 10.8% (p = 0.02), respectively. Rockall scores differed between GAS and MED patients (3.1 +/- 1.8 vs 3.7 +/- 1.7, p = 0.02). The mortality rate stratified by Rockall score was lower for the GAS patients. However, individual analysis revealed that only three of 13 deaths were potentially avoidable: two of 10 at the MED and one of three at the GAS. The lower mortality among nonvariceal upper GI bleeding patients admitted to a gastroenterological service compared to an internal medicine service was mainly due to lesser comorbidity. This effect was not detected by stratification according to Rockall, but shown with analysis of individual patient charts only. The latter underscores the potential pitfalls when comparing outcome or cost of

  12. Recombinant activated factor VII for bleeding in patients without inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Selin, S; Tejani, A

    2006-03-01

    (1) Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is licensed in Canada for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in hemophiliacs, but it is increasingly used to control bleeding in non-hemophilic patients during surgery, or during treatment for severe trauma or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (2) In one clinical trial, there was a significant reduction in mortality among patients with ICH treated with rFVIIa. In another trial, administration of rFVIIa significantly reduced the number of trauma patients needing massive blood transfusions although there was no significant difference in mortality. (3) Adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa for non-bleeding disorder indications. Phase III trials in ICH and trauma are underway. (4) There is potential for non-hemophilic use, particularly if clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness are established.

  13. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Man-Deuk; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  14. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. Materials and Methods From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Results Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. Conclusion PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. PMID:26957908

  15. Rockall score in predicting outcomes of elderly patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang-Yuan; Qin, Jian; Wang, Jing; Sun, Chang-Yi; Cao, Tao; Zhu, Dan-Dan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To validate the clinical Rockall score in predicting outcomes (rebleeding, surgery and mortality) in elderly patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken in 341 patients admitted to the emergency room and Intensive Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The Rockall scores were calculated, and the association between clinical Rockall scores and patient outcomes (rebleeding, surgery and mortality) was assessed. Based on the Rockall scores, patients were divided into three risk categories: low risk ≤ 3, moderate risk 3-4, high risk ≥ 4, and the percentages of rebleeding/death/surgery in each risk category were compared. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to assess the validity of the Rockall system in predicting rebleeding, surgery and mortality of patients with AUGIB. RESULTS: A positive linear correlation between clinical Rockall scores and patient outcomes in terms of rebleeding, surgery and mortality was observed (r = 0.962, 0.955 and 0.946, respectively, P = 0.001). High clinical Rockall scores > 3 were associated with adverse outcomes (rebleeding, surgery and death). There was a significant correlation between high Rockall scores and the occurrence of rebleeding, surgery and mortality in the entire patient population (χ2 = 49.29, 23.10 and 27.64, respectively, P = 0.001). For rebleeding, the area under the ROC curve was 0.788 (95%CI: 0.726-0.849, P = 0.001); For surgery, the area under the ROC curve was 0.752 (95%CI: 0.679-0.825, P = 0.001) and for mortality, the area under the ROC curve was 0.787 (95%CI: 0.716-0.859, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Rockall score is clinically useful, rapid and accurate in predicting rebleeding, surgery and mortality outcomes in elderly patients with AUGIB. PMID:23801840

  16. Plasma copeptin levels in the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Salt, Ömer; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, S; Saraymen, R; Sen, A; Yurci, M A

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, it constitutes an important part of health expenditures. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between plasma copeptin levels and the etiology, location and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed prospectively in 104 consecutive patients who were admitted to an emergency department with complaints of bloody vomiting or bloody or black stool. To evaluate the level of biochemical parameters such as Full Blood Count (FBC), serum biochemistry, bleeding parameters and copeptin, blood samples were obtained at admission. For the copeptin levels, 2 more blood samples were obtained at the 12th and 24th hours after admission. The values obtained were compared using statistical methods. In terms of the etiology of bleeding, the copeptin levels in the patients with peptic ulcer were higher than the levels in patients with other gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences among all groups' 0th, 12th and 24th hour levels of copeptin. We conclude that copeptin cannot be effectively used as a biochemical parameter in an emergency department to determine the etiology and location of gastrointestinal bleeding. It can, however, be used to make decisions on endoscopy and the hospitalization of patients with suspected gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-Session Percutaneous Endovascular Mesocaval Shunt Creation and Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Varices.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Ravi Nara; Majdalany, Bill S; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Meadows, J Matthew; Fenlon, Jordan Bruce; Brewerton, Charles; Saad, Wael E

    2018-01-01

    In the setting of portal hypertension, the body responds by creating portosystemic venous shunts, which may lead to the development of varices. Endoscopic treatment of these varices is often warranted to prevent catastrophic bleeding. During the course of variceal treatment, 1 or more portosystemic shunts may be sacrificed, which may acutely exacerbate portal hypertension and reduce systemic venous return. This report describes percutaneous creation of a mesocaval shunt and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) in a patient with cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The patient had previously undergone an unsuccessful attempt at transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation with postoperative bleeding requiring splenectomy. As TIPS was not feasible, creation of a percutaneous mesocaval shunt provided an alternate pathway for portosystemic decompression, facilitating safe treatment of gastric varices with BRTO via a gastrorenal shunt. These procedures were performed simultaneously to reduce the risk of variceal bleeding from acute changes in portal venous pressures and redirect blood flow through the shunt to maintain patency. This is the first reported case of combined mesocaval shunt placement and BRTO in a single session. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting Major Bleeding in Ischemic Stroke Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, Nina A; Algra, Ale; Greving, Jacoba P

    2017-11-01

    Performance of risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is not well established. We aimed to validate risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants after cerebral ischemia and explore the net benefit of oral anticoagulants among bleeding risk categories. We analyzed 3623 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke included in the RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). We assessed performance of HEMORR 2 HAGES (hepatic or renal disease, ethanol abuse, malignancy, older age, reduced platelet count or function, hypertension [uncontrolled], anemia, genetic factors, excessive fall risk, and stroke), Shireman, HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly), ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation), and ORBIT scores (older age, reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) with C statistics and calibration plots. Net benefit of oral anticoagulants was explored by comparing risk reduction in ischemic stroke with risk increase in major bleedings on warfarin. During 6922 person-years of follow-up, 266 patients experienced a major bleed (3.8 per 100 person-years). C statistics ranged from 0.62 (Shireman) to 0.67 (ATRIA). Calibration was poor for ATRIA and moderate for other models. The reduction in recurrent ischemic strokes on warfarin was larger than the increase in major bleeding risk, irrespective of bleeding risk category. Performance of prediction models for major bleeding in patients with cerebral ischemia and atrial fibrillation is modest but comparable with performance in patients with only atrial fibrillation. Bleeding risk scores cannot

  19. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  20. [Hospital mortality associated with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to ruptured esophageal varices at the Lomé Campus Hospital in Togo].

    PubMed

    Bouglouga, O; Bagny, A; Lawson-Ananissoh, L; Djibril, M

    2014-01-01

    To study hospital mortality associated with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhages due to variceal bleeding in the department of hepatology and gastroenterology at the Lome Campus University Hospital. This retrospective cross-sectional and analytic study examined the 55 patients admitted for variceal bleeding on upper endoscopies during the 3-year period from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2010. These patients accounted for 4.1% of all hospitalizations during the study period in the department. Their average age was 35 years, and their sex-ratio 4. A history of chronic liver disease was found in 65.5%. Liver cirrhosis was the principal cause of the esophageal varices, complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma in 30.9% of them. The mortality rate was 25.5% and was not related to the cause of portal hypertension. All the patients with a recurrence of bleeding died. Mortality was associated with jaundice. Blood transfusion did not significantly improve the prognosis. the mortality rate among patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage linked to variceal bleeding is high in our unit. The prevention of hepatitis virus B is important because it is the main cause of chronic liver disease causing portal hypertension in our department.

  1. Trends in Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Yeh; Lee, Tsung-Chun; Montez-Rath, Maria E.; Paik, Jane; Chertow, Glenn M.; Desai, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Impaired kidney function is a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, an event associated with poor outcomes. The burden of upper GI bleeding and its effect on patients with ESRD are not well described. Using data from the US Renal Data System, we quantified the rates of occurrence of and associated 30-day mortality from acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding in patients undergoing dialysis; we used medical claims and previously validated algorithms where available. Overall, 948,345 patients contributed 2,296,323 patient-years for study. The occurrence rates for upper GI bleeding were 57 and 328 episodes per 1000 person-years according to stringent and lenient definitions of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding, respectively. Unadjusted occurrence rates remained flat (stringent) or increased (lenient) from 1997 to 2008; after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid conditions, however, we found a significant decline for both definitions (linear approximation, 2.7% and 1.5% per year, respectively; P<0.001). In more recent years, patients had higher hematocrit levels before upper GI bleeding episodes and were more likely to receive blood transfusions during an episode. Overall 30-day mortality was 11.8%, which declined significantly over time (relative declines of 2.3% or 2.8% per year for the stringent and lenient definitions, respectively). In summary, despite declining trends worldwide, crude rates of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding among patients undergoing dialysis have not decreased in the past 10 years. Although 30-day mortality related to upper GI bleeding declined, perhaps reflecting improvements in medical care, the burden on the ESRD population remains substantial. PMID:22266666

  2. Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with renal failure under hemodialysis treatment: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Can, Özgür; Koç, Gözde; Ocak, Sema Berk; Akbay, Nursel; Ahishali, Emel; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Apaydin, Süheyla

    2017-05-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients who need hemodialysis treatment. Our aim was to evaluate patients who needed hemodialysis and presented with bleeding during their hospital stay (uremic bleeding patients). Factors that increased the risk of bleeding and death were evaluated. Additionally, uremic bleeding patients were compared to non-uremic bleeding patients regarding gastrointestinal findings. Fifty-one uremic bleeding patients were compared to two control groups which included uremic (hemodialysis dependent and non-bleeding) and non-uremic (no renal insufficiency and bleeding) patients. NSAIDs and anti-ulcer drug usage were more common in uremic bleeding and in uremic non-bleeding groups, respectively. Dialysis vintage was longer in uremic bleeding group. Comparison of uremic bleeding and non-bleeding uremic patients regarding the usage of ACEI or ARB drugs yielded non-significant results. Acute kidney injury, lower plasma albumin level and high CRP level were significantly increased the risk of mortality in uremic bleeding patients. Hospital stay more than 1 week was the only strong factor for mortality when multivariate analysis was performed. Gastroduodenal and duodenal ulcers were significantly detected in uremic bleeding and non-uremic bleeding patients; respectively. Hemodialysis patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding should be evaluated regarding use of prescriptions and efforts should be done in order to shorten their hospital stay and decrease their mortality. Effect of ACEI or ARB drugs should also be evaluated in future studies.

  3. Therapeutic esophageal interventions for dysphagia and bleeding.

    PubMed

    Siersema, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    This article reviews the most notable results of esophageal interventions for dysphagia and bleeding published in 2005. Long-term rubber tube placement was shown to be an interesting treatment option for difficult esophageal strictures. Two studies demonstrated that only 50% of patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for achalasia were dysphagia-free after long-term follow-up. It was shown that patients with dysphagia from esophageal cancer should be treated by intraluminal radiotherapy (brachytherapy), whereas stent placement was preferable in those with a poor prognosis. Temporary stent placement is an option in patients undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable esophageal cancer to increase the dysphagia-free period. Two studies were published on the successful use of silicone-covered plastic stents for sealing of leaks after surgery of the esophagus. The optimal treatment for bleeding varices was confirmed to be endoscopic band ligation. A meta-analysis demonstrated that adding sclerotherapy to band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of bleeding varices had no effect on clinical outcome. In 2005, new techniques for the treatment of complicated strictures were presented. In addition, expanding indications for stents were reported. Finally, endoscopic band ligation was confirmed to be the most optimal technique for the treatment of varices.

  4. Etiology and outcome in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Study on 4747 patients in the central region of Iran.

    PubMed

    Minakari, Mohammad; Badihian, Shervin; Jalalpour, Pooyan; Sebghatollahi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a threatening condition leading to urgent hospitalization. This study aims to investigate etiology and outcome in UGIB patients in Iran. Medical records of GIB patients admitted to Alzahra referral hospital (in Isfahan) during 2010-2015 were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, comorbidities, history of smoking and taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), presenting symptoms, endoscopic findings, therapeutic endoscopy, blood products' infusion, surgical intervention, rebleeding, and mortality. A total of 4747 patients were enrolled in the study (69.2% men, mean age = 55.46 ± 21.98 years). Hematemesis was the most frequent presenting symptom (63.5%). Peptic ulcer (duodenal ulcer in most cases) was seen as the main reason for UGIB (42.4%). Rebleeding (present in 16.5% of patients) was found to be more frequent in patients with older age, presenting sign of hematochezia and hypotension, history of taking NSAIDs and smoking, presence of comorbidities, history of bleeding because of UGI tract neoplasm and esophageal varices, history of needing blood products' infusion, and history of therapeutic endoscopy or surgical intervention (P < 0.005). We found that mortality (5.5% in total) was also higher in the same group of patients that were seen to have a higher tendency for rebleeding (P < 0.005). Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Comorbidities, hemodynamic instability, high-risk endoscopic stigmata, history of smoking and taking NSAIDs, gastric and esophageal malignancies, may be important predisposing factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with UGIB. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. [Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns].

    PubMed

    Vagner, D O; Krylov, K M; Verbitsky, V G; Shlyk, I V

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns by developing a prophylactic algorithm. The study consisted of retrospective group of 488 patients with thermal burns grade II-III over 20% of body surface area and prospective group of 135 patients with a similar thermal trauma. Standard clinical and laboratory examination was applied. Instrumental survey included fibrogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic pH-metry and invasive volumetric monitoring (PICCO plus). Statistical processing was carried out with Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS 20.0. New algorithm significantly decreased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (p<0.001) and mortality rate (p=0.006) in patients with advanced burns.

  6. Evaluation of bleeding in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Hellenbart, Erika L; Faulkenberg, Kathleen D; Finks, Shannon W

    2017-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recognized by evidence-based treatment guidelines as the first-line option for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. As use of these anticoagulants has become favored over the past several years, reported bleeding-related adverse drug events with these agents has increased. In randomized clinical trials, all DOACs have a reduced risk for intracranial hemorrhage, while major and other bleeding results have varied among the agents compared to vitamin K antagonists. We have reviewed the bleeding incidence and severity from randomized and real-world data in patients receiving DOACs in an effort to provide the clinician with a critical review of bleeding and offer practical considerations for avoiding adverse events with these anticoagulants. PMID:28860793

  7. Common management issues in pediatric patients with mild bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H

    2012-10-01

    Type 1 von Willebrand disease and mild platelet function defects are among the most common disorders seen by pediatric hematologists. The management and prevention of bleeding in these patients can be challenging, as there are limited published data to guide clinical practice, and a complete lack of randomized clinical trials. Desmopressin (DDAVP) and antifibrinolytics are the mainstays of treatment in these patients, yet the optimal dosing and timing of these agents to prevent or resolve bleeding, while minimizing adverse side effects, is sometimes unclear. DDAVP-induced hyponatremia is a particularly under-recognized complication in children with bleeding disorders who undergo surgery. Clinicians need to be aware of local measures that are equally important in treating problems such as epistaxis and surgical bleeding. This review will discuss the published literature and provide practical suggestions regarding four common management issues in the care of children and adolescents with mild bleeding disorders: epistaxis, heavy menstrual bleeding, dental extractions, and tonsillectomy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Clinical utility of new bleeding criteria: a prospective study of evaluation for the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Min; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Kyungil; Kim, Young-Dae

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the new bleeding criteria, proposed by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC), compared with the old criteria for determining the action of physicians in contact with bleeding events, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The BARC criteria were independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality after PCI, and provided a predictive value, in regard to 1-year mortality. The standardized bleeding definitions will be expected to help the physician to correctly analyze the bleeding events, to select an optimal treatment, and to objectively compare the results of multiple trials and registries. All the patients undergoing PCI from June to September 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Patients who experienced a bleeding event were further classified, based on three different bleeding severity criteria: BARC, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), and Global Use of Strategies To Open coronary arteries (GUSTO). The primary outcome was the occurrence of bleeding events requiring interruption of antiplatelet therapy (IAT) by physicians. A total of 376 consecutive patients were included in this study. Total bleeding events occurred in 46 patients (12.2%). BARC type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 30 patients (8.0%); however, TIMI major or minor bleeding, and GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 6 (1.6%) and 11 patients (2.9%), respectively. Of the 46 patients, 28 (60.9% of patients) required IAT. On receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, bleeding defined BARC type ≥2 effectively predicted IAT, with a sensitivity of 89.3%, and a specificity of 98.5% (p<0.001), compared with TIMI (sensitivity, 21.4%; specificity, 100%; p<0.001), and GUSTO (sensitivity, 39.3%; specificity, 100%; p<0.001). Compared with TIMI and GUSTO, the BARC definition may be a more useful tool for the detection of bleeding with clinical relevance, for patients undergoing PCI. Copyright

  9. Unplanned Reoperations in Neurosurgical Patients Due to Postoperative Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin-Rui; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yue-Fan; Rao, Wei; Wang, Guan-Ying; Zhang, Shan-Hong; Fei, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of unplanned reoperations from all causes due to bleeding in neurosurgical patients. The medical records of patients who received neurosurgical procedures at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed and data of patients who received reoperations were extracted and summarized. A literature review was conducted of the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases up to November 2013. The main outcome measure was the rate of unplanned reoperations due to bleeding. At our hospital, 68 patients with a mean age of 41.5 ± 21.5 years (range, 7 months to 76 years) received an unplanned reoperation. More than 70% of the patients were older than 18 years, 64.7% were males, and 94.1% had cranial surgery. Almost 60% of the patients received >1 blood transfusion (58.8%) after the first surgery. Of the 68 patients, 35 (51.5%) received a second operation due to bleeding. Univariate logistic regression analysis only showed that an increasing time interval between the first and second surgery was associated with a decreased chance of the reoperation being performed due to bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 0.843, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.720–0.987; P = .033). Of 229 studies identified, 5 retrospective reports with a total of 1375 patients were included in the analysis. The rate of reoperations for bleeding in the 5 studies ranged from 4.2% to 31.5%. Employing measures to reduce postoperative bleeding may help reduce the rate of unplanned neurosurgical reoperations. PMID:26061301

  10. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P < 0.001). Using the CART analysis, a prediction rule for active bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  11. Bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation: the AMADEUS study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Deirdre A; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Minini, Pascal; Büller, Harry R; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of combination antithrombotic therapy on stroke and bleeding risk compared with anticoagulation therapy only in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Post hoc analysis of 4,576 patients with AF (mean ± SD age, 70.1 ± 9.1 years; men, 66.5%) enrolled in the Evaluating the Use of SR34006 Compared to Warfarin or Acenocoumarol in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AMADEUS) trial were randomized to receive either subcutaneous idraparinux (2.5 mg weekly) (n = 2,283) or dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) (international normalized ratio, 2.0-3.0) (n = 2,293). Of these patients, 848 (18.5%) received antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, etc) in addition to anticoagulation treatment (combination antithrombotic therapy). A total of 572 (15.3% per year) clinically relevant bleeding and 103 (2.6% per year) major bleeding events occurred. Patients receiving combination antithrombotic therapy had a 2.3- to 2.5-fold increased risk of clinically relevant bleeding events and major bleeding events, respectively, compared with those receiving anticoagulation therapy only. Multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 95% CI) revealed that the risk of clinically relevant bleeding was significantly increased by age 65 to 74 years (1.44, 1.14-1.82) and ≥ 75 years (1.59, 1.24-2.04, P = .001) and by combination antithrombotic therapy (2.47, 2.07-2.96, P < .0001). The same held true for major bleeding events, with analogous figures for age 65 to 74 years (2.26, 1.08-4.71) and ≥ 75 years (4.19, 1.98-8.87, P = .0004) and for combination antithrombotic therapy (2.23, 1.49-3.34, P < .0001). Combination antithrombotic therapy was not associated with a decrease in ischemic stroke risk compared with anticoagulation therapy only (11 [1.4% per year] vs 22 [0.7% per year]; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.94-4.30; P = .07). Combination antithrombotic therapy increases the risk of clinically relevant bleeding and major bleeding in

  12. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J.; Sanchez, Leon D.; Wolfe, Richard E.; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47–63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p < 0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. Conclusion In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:28460805

  14. Angiography in gastrointestinal bleeding in children

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerovitz, M.F.; Fellows, K.E.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-seven children aged 1 day to 16 years studied arteriographically for acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding were reviewed. Children with known esophageal varices and portal hypertension were excluded. Final diagnoses were made in 25 patients by means of surgery, endoscopy, biopsy, laboratory data, and clinical follow-up. Of these 25 cases, arteriography gave a correct diagnosis in 64% and was falsely negative in 36%. The common causes of bleeding in this study were gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, vascular malformations, and typhlitis. Transcatheter therapy was attempted in six acute bleeders, with success in three (50%).

  15. Multiple esophageal variceal ruptures with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to rupture of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic shock and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with mainly argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life. PMID:22851873

  16. Therapeutic Plasma Transfusion in Bleeding Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2017-04-01

    Plasma products, including fresh frozen plasma, are administered extensively in a variety of settings from massive transfusion to vitamin K antagonist reversal. Despite the widespread use of plasma as a hemostatic agent in bleeding patients, its effect in comparison with other available choices of hemostatic therapies is unclear. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and databases of ongoing trials for randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and/or safety of therapeutic plasma as an intervention to treat bleeding patients compared with other interventions or placebo. Of 1243 unique publications retrieved in our initial search, no randomized controlled trials were identified. Four nonrandomized studies described the effect of therapeutic plasma in bleeding patients; however, data gathered from these studies did not allow for comparison with other therapeutic interventions primarily as a result of the low number of patients and the use of different (or lack of) comparators. We identified two ongoing trials investigating the efficacy and safety of therapeutic plasma, respectively; however, no data have been released as yet. Although plasma is used extensively in the treatment of bleeding patients, evidence from randomized controlled trials comparing its effect with those of other therapeutic interventions is currently lacking.

  17. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P < 0.0001). The incidence rate of hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN 155 PATIENTS WITH FUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING.

    PubMed

    DUTTON, W A

    1965-02-20

    One hundred and fifty-five women with functional uterine bleeding were studied to evaluate the importance of concomitant psychological disorders. Psychological illnesses were diagnosed in 128 patients (82.6%), most of which arose from problems directly related to sexual or reproductive functions. The remaining 27 patients (17.4%) were different in that they were psychologically stable and all but two were at puberty or approaching the menopause.Histological studies of endometrial samples from 135 of these patients indicated little evidence of abnormal sex hormone activity; 77 (57%) showed normal secretory phase endometrium and 32 (23.7%), proliferative phase endometrium. The remaining 26 (19.2%) showed evidence of some endocrine dysfunction, 15 such specimens being obtained from psychologically stable patients.It is probable that psychological disturbances are the principal cause of functional uterine bleeding during the prime reproductive years. The psychological component of the illness is the most important and determines the ultimate prognosis.

  19. Intramural esophageal bleeding in a hemodialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Lien, J. W. K.; Dufresne, L. R.; Daly, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A case of intramural esophageal hemorrhage in a hemodialysis patient is described. The hemorrhage followed an episode of vomiting and violent retching. Spontaneous resolution occurred with conservative management. The clinical course resembled that of previous case reports of intramural esophageal hemorrhage, whether or not associated with chronic renal failure and intermittent hemodialysis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4434294

  20. Automatic patient-adaptive bleeding detection in a capsule endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun Sub; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Dong Ha; Lee, Sang Ho; Song, Jeong Joo; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2009-02-01

    We present a method for patient-adaptive detection of bleeding region for a Capsule Endoscopy (CE) images. The CE system has 320x320 resolution and transmits 3 images per second to receiver during around 10-hour. We have developed a technique to detect the bleeding automatically utilizing color spectrum transformation (CST) method. However, because of irregular conditions like organ difference, patient difference and illumination condition, detection performance is not uniform. To solve this problem, the detection method in this paper include parameter compensation step which compensate irregular image condition using color balance index (CBI). We have investigated color balance through sequential 2 millions images. Based on this pre-experimental result, we defined ΔCBI to represent deviate of color balance compared with standard small bowel color balance. The ΔCBI feature value is extracted from each image and used in CST method as parameter compensation constant. After candidate pixels were detected using CST method, they were labeled and examined with a bleeding character. We tested our method with 4,800 images in 12 patient data set (9 abnormal, 3 normal). Our experimental results show the proposed method achieves (before patient adaptive method : 80.87% and 74.25%, after patient adaptive method : 94.87% and 96.12%) of sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Lack of bleeding in patients with severe factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J Mark; Demel, Kurt C; Mega, Anthony E; Butera, James N; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Factor VII deficiency, although rare, is now recognized as the most common autosomal recessive inherited factor deficiency. It is usually considered to be associated with bleeding only in the severely affected subject and heterozygotes (>10%) are not considered at risk. The general recommendation for surgery is to achieve a FVII level in excess of 15% (0.15 1U/mL). We present three cases of severe factor VII deficiency, each of whom appeared hemostatically competent based on clinical history. Subject 1 is a 33 year-old African-American female with a baseline FVII of <1%, who had a fractured tibia requiring open reduction with internal fixation without any FVII replacement and subsequently underwent successful laparoscopic knee surgery with a factor VII level measured at 6%. Subject 2 is a 58 year-old African-American female with a factor VII level of 9% who underwent an elective left total hip replacement without any factor replacement and had no excessive bleeding, but who sustained a pulmonary embolism postoperatively. Subject 3 is a 19-year-old African-American male with a baseline FVII of 1% with a history of active participation in football without noticeable injury and who underwent an emergent appendectomy without bleeding. These three cases represent individuals with the severe form of FVII deficiency who did not exhibit excessive bleeding when challenged with surgical procedures. The clinical history would appear the most valuable tool in predicting the likelihood of bleeding in these patients, and we suggest that the presumption that all patients with severe FVII deficiency should receive replacement therapy before surgical procedures may not be valid in all cases. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Endoscopic Management of Tumor Bleeding from Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated. PMID:25844339

  3. Acute management of bleeding in patients on novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Deborah M; Crowther, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban) are currently available for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after orthopaedic surgery, treatment of acute VTE, and prevention of arterial thromboembolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. These agents offer advantages over VKAs, including rapid onset, shorter half-lives, fewer drug interactions, and lack of need for routine monitoring. However, there are no established agents to reverse their anticoagulant effect. We review the risk of bleeding with the novel oral anticoagulants and the limitations of conventional coagulation assays for measuring anticoagulant effect. We provide an approach to the management of patients with bleeding complications with evidence for various interventions for reversal, where available.

  4. Bleeding Risk Profile in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Frederic; Husmann, Marc; Benenati, James F; Katzen, Barry T; Del Conde, Ian

    2016-06-01

    To assess the bleeding risk profile using the HAS-BLED score in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). A post hoc analysis was performed using data from a series of 115 consecutive patients (mean age 72.4±11.4 years; 68 men) with symptomatic PAD undergoing endovascular revascularization. The endpoint of the study was to assess bleeding risk using the 9-point HAS-BLED score, which was previously validated in cohorts of patients with and without atrial fibrillation. For the purpose of this study, the low (0-1), intermediate (2), and high-risk (≥3) scores were stratified as low/intermediate risk (HAS-BLED <3) vs high risk (HAS-BLED ≥3). The mean HAS-BLED score was 2.76±1.16; 64 (56%) patients had a HAS-BLED score ≥3.0. Patients with PAD Rutherford category 5/6 ischemia had an even higher mean HAS-BLED score (3.20±1.12). Logistic regression analysis revealed aortoiliac or femoropopliteal segment involvement, chronic kidney disease, as well as Rutherford category 5/6, to be independent risk factors associated with a HAS-BLED score ≥3. Patients with PAD, especially those presenting with Rutherford category 5/6 ischemic symptoms, have high HAS-BLED scores, suggesting increased risk for major bleeding. Prospective clinical validation of the HAS-BLED score in patients with PAD may help with the risk-benefit assessment when prescribing antithrombotic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage from adhesion-related mesenteric varices.

    PubMed Central

    Moncure, A C; Waltman, A C; Vandersalm, T J; Linton, R R; Levine, F H; Abbott, W M

    1976-01-01

    As a result of this retrospective analysis of hemorrhage from a porta-systemic venous shunt occurring within the small intestine, we believe that the early diagnosis of the syndrome is strongly suggested by the presence of varices in unusual locations demonstrated by the venous phase of mesenteric arteriography. In all patients portal hypertension was present, and in all the affected bowel was adherent to postoperative adhesions on old suture lines. The syndrome was treated variously with lysis of adhesions, bowel resection, or portal-systemic shunt. Those patients with excellent hepatic reserve survived and had no further gastrointestinal bleeding. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 5. PMID:1082310

  6. Ten-year study of postoperative complications following dental extractions in patients with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J-T; Klein, K; Batstone, M

    2017-09-01

    Dental extractions challenge the body's haemostatic mechanism. Postoperative bleeding from dental extraction can be prolonged, or even life threatening in patients with inherited bleeding disorders. Pre- and postoperative clotting factor replacements or systemic desmopressin (ddAVP) have been advocated at our institution to prevent bleeding complications in these patients. This study aimed to assess the postoperative bleeding rate in patients with inherited bleeding disorders that underwent dental extractions at our institution between 2003 and 2012. Patients with inherited bleeding disorders such as haemophilia A, haemophilia B, and von Willebrand's disease were included. Retrospective chart review was conducted. The result showed 53 extraction events occurred in 45 patients over the 10-year period. Ten out of 53 extraction events (18.9%) had postoperative bleeding requiring further factor replacement or ddAVP. Postoperative bleeding in one patient with mild haemophilia A was complicated by the development of inhibitors. Type and severity of bleeding disorder, bone removal, and use of a local haemostatic agent did not have any significant effect on postoperative bleeding. Despite the use of perioperative factors and desmopressin, the postoperative bleeding rates remain high for patients with inherited bleeding disorders. More studies are required to assess the safety and effectiveness of using local haemostatic control to achieve haemostasis following extractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mortality in high-risk patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome is similar to that of peptic ulcer bleeding. Results of a prospective database study.

    PubMed

    Ljubičić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Pavić, Tajana; Bišćanin, Alen; Puljiz, Zeljko; Bratanić, Andre; Troskot, Branko; Zekanović, Dražen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the predictive factors influencing mortality in patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome in comparison with peptic ulcer bleeding. Between January 2005 and December 2009, 281 patients with endoscopically confirmed Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 1530 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were consecutively evaluated. The 30-day mortality and clinical outcome were related to the patients' demographic data, endoscopic, and clinical characteristics. The one-year cumulative incidence for bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome was 7.3 cases/100,000 people and for peptic ulcer bleeding 40.4 cases/100,000 people. The age-standardized incidence for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding remained unchanged during the observational five-year period. The majority of patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome were male patients with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 5.3% for patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 4.6% for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (p = 0.578). In both patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding, mortality was significantly higher in patients over 65 years of age and those with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). The incidence of bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding has not changed over a five-year observational period. The overall 30-day mortality was almost equal for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding and was positively correlated to older age and underlying comorbid illnesses.

  8. ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Patients With Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Gralnek, Ian M

    2016-04-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based on clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high- and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy. In the majority of patients, colonoscopy should be the initial diagnostic procedure and should be performed within 24 h of patient presentation after adequate colon preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis therapy should be provided to patients with high-risk endoscopic stigmata of bleeding including active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel, or adherent clot. The endoscopic hemostasis modality used (mechanical, thermal, injection, or combination) is most often guided by the etiology of bleeding, access to the bleeding site, and endoscopist experience with the various hemostasis modalities. Repeat colonoscopy, with endoscopic hemostasis performed if indicated, should be considered for patients with evidence of recurrent bleeding. Radiographic interventions (tagged red blood cell scintigraphy, computed tomographic angiography, and angiography) should be considered in high-risk patients with ongoing bleeding who do not respond adequately to resuscitation and who are unlikely to tolerate bowel preparation and colonoscopy. Strategies to prevent recurrent bleeding should be considered. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding, particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia. Patients with established high-risk cardiovascular disease should not stop aspirin therapy (secondary prophylaxis) in the setting of lower GI bleeding. [corrected]. The exact timing depends on the

  9. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobin<100 g/l) with proved source of blood losses in upper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobin<100 g/l) significantly higher portions of patients are taking antiplatelet rather than anticoagulation therapy

  10. Physical activity and risk of bleeding in elderly patients taking anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Frey, P M; Méan, M; Limacher, A; Jaeger, K; Beer, H-J; Frauchiger, B; Aschwanden, M; Rodondi, N; Righini, M; Egloff, M; Osterwalder, J; Kucher, N; Angelillo-Scherrer, A; Husmann, M; Banyai, M; Matter, C M; Aujesky, D

    2015-02-01

    Although the possibility of bleeding during anticoagulant treatment may limit patients from taking part in physical activity, the association between physical activity and anticoagulation-related bleeding is uncertain. To determine whether physical activity is associated with bleeding in elderly patients taking anticoagulants. In a prospective multicenter cohort study of 988 patients aged ≥ 65 years receiving anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism, we assessed patients' self-reported physical activity level. The primary outcome was the time to a first major bleeding, defined as fatal bleeding, symptomatic bleeding in a critical site, or bleeding causing a fall in hemoglobin or leading to transfusions. The secondary outcome was the time to a first clinically relevant non-major bleeding. We examined the association between physical activity level and time to a first bleeding by using competing risk regression, accounting for death as a competing event. We adjusted for known bleeding risk factors and anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. During a mean follow-up of 22 months, patients with a low, moderate, and high physical activity level had an incidence of major bleeding of 11.6, 6.3, and 3.1 events per 100 patient-years and an incidence of clinically relevant non-major bleeding of 14.0, 10.3, and 7.7 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. A high physical activity level was significantly associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted sub-hazard ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.72). There was no association between physical activity and non-major bleeding. A high level of physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding in elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Ratio of platelet count/spleen diameter predicted the presence of esophageal varices in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Chun-Fang; Dai, Jian-Jun; Qian, Jian-Qing; Pin, Xun

    2016-05-01

    To examine the platelet count (PC)/spleen diameter (SD) ratio in predicting the presence of esophageal varices (EV) in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis. A total of 95 consecutive patients with EV induced by schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this trial. A total of 141 schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis patients without EV were enrolled as controls. All patients were diagnosed by endoscopy. Demographic, laboratory, and Doppler ultrasound parameters were collected and analyzed. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify independent risk factors associated with EV occurrence. Receiver operating curves were generated to obtain the PC/SD ratio cutoff values for the optimal sensitivity and specificity with respect to EV. The accuracy was increased in diagnosing for EV using the ratio of PC/SD compared with the SD alone [area under the curve: 0.891 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.844-0.928 vs. 0.764 95% CI: 0.705-0.817; P<0.01]. The optimal cutoff value was 1004, with a 77.1% (95% CI: 67.9-84.8%) positive-predictive value and an 89.3% (95% CI: 82.7-94.0%) negative-predictive value. Using a cutoff of 1004, it was determined that 117/141 (83.0%) patients without EV could avoid undergoing unnecessary endoscopy, whereas 14/95 (14.7%) patients with EV would be misdiagnosed. In contrast, when the ratio was set at 909, the positive-predictive and negative-predictive values were 79.5% (95% CI: 69.5-87.4%) and 83.1% (95% CI: 76.1-88.8%), respectively. A ratio of 909 would accurately predict the absence of EV in 123/141 (87.2%) patients; however, 24/95 (25.3%) patients with EV would miss the necessary screening endoscopy. The ratio of PC/SD was a useful marker in predicting the presence of EV in patients with schistosomiasis liver cirrhosis.

  12. Natural history of patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension: Comparison with patients with compensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Stefania; Nardelli, Silvia; Pasquale, Chiara; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Aprile, Francesca; Merli, Manuela; Riggio, Oliviero

    2018-01-31

    The knowledge of natural history of patients with portal hypertension (PH) not due to cirrhosis is less well known than that of cirrhotic patients. To describe the clinical presentation and the outcomes of 89 patients with non-cirrhotic PH (25 with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, INCPH, and 64 with chronic portal vein thrombosis, PVT) in comparison with 77 patients with Child A cirrhosis. The patients were submitted to a standardized clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and endoscopic follow-up. Variceal progression, incidence of variceal bleeding, portal vein thrombosis, ascites and survival were recorded. At presentation, the prevalence of varices, variceal bleeding and ascites was similar in the 3 groups. During follow-up, the rate of progression to varices at risk of bleeding (p < 0.0001) and the incidence of first variceal bleeding (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in non-cirrhotic then in cirrhotic patients. A PVT developed in 32% of INCPH patients and in 18% of cirrhotics (p = 0.02). In the patients with non-cirrhotic PH variceal progression is more rapid and bleeding more frequent than in cirrhotics. Patients with INCPH are particularly prompt to develop PVT. This observational study suggests that the management of patients with non-cirrhotic PH should take into consideration the natural history of portal hypertension in these patients and cannot be simply derived by the observation of cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1500 ml; group B, 1500 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1700 ml; group C, 1700 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 2000 ml. Then, coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P < 0.001). Fibrinogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets strikingly decreased, whereas prothrombin time and APTT values significantly increased with bleeding amounts in both quick and slow-bleeding groups. Interestingly, compared with slow-bleeding patients, coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  14. Splenic Arterial Embolization in the Treatment of Severe Portal Hypertension Due to Pancreatic Diseases: The Primary Experience in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wqtjmu@gmail.com; Xiong, Bin, E-mail: herrxiong@126.com; Zheng, ChuanSheng, E-mail: hqzcsxh@sina.com

    ObjectiveThis retrospective study reports our experience using splenic arterial particle embolization and coil embolization for the treatment of sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) in patients with and without gastric bleeding.MethodsFrom August 2009 to May 2012, 14 patients with SPH due to pancreatic disease were diagnosed and treated with splenic arterial embolization. Two different embolization strategies were applied; either combined distal splenic bed particle embolization and proximal splenic artery coil embolization in the same procedure for acute hemorrhage (1-step) or interval staged distal embolization and proximal embolization in the stable patient (2-step). The patients were clinically followed.ResultsIn 14 patients, splenic arterial embolizationmore » was successful. The one-step method was performed in three patients suffering from massive gastric bleeding, and the bleeding was relieved after embolization. The two-step method was used in 11 patients, who had chronic gastric variceal bleeding or gastric varices only. The gastric varices disappeared in the enhanced CT scan and the patients had no gastric bleeding during follow-up.ConclusionsSplenic arterial embolization, particularly the two-step method, proved feasible and effective for the treatment of SPH patients with gastric varices or gastric variceal bleeding.« less

  15. Ultrathin disposable gastroscope for screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Dep K; Toscano, Leanne; Phan, Vinh-An; Ow, Tsai-Wing; Schoeman, Mark; Nguyen, Nam Q

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of unsedated, ultrathin disposable gastroscopy (TDG) against conventional gastroscopy (CG) in the screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices (GEVs) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients (56.4 ± 1.3 years; 38 male, 10 female) with liver cirrhosis referred for screening (n = 12) or surveillance (n = 36) of GEVs were prospectively enrolled. Unsedated gastroscopy was initially performed with TDG, followed by CG with conscious sedation. The 2 gastroscopies were performed by different endoscopists blinded to the results of the previous examination. Video recordings of both gastroscopies were validated by an independent investigator in a random, blinded fashion. Endpoints were accuracy and interobserver agreement of detecting GEVs, safety, and potential cost saving. CG identified GEVs in 26 (54%) patients, 10 of whom (21%) had high-risk esophageal varices (HREV). Compared with CG, TDG had an accuracy of 92% for the detection of all GEVs, which increased to 100% for high-risk GEVs. The interobserver agreement for detecting all GEVs on TDG was 88% (κ = 0.74). This increased to 94% (κ = 0.82) for high-risk GEVs. There were no serious adverse events. Unsedated TDG is safe and has high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability for the detection of GEVs. The use of clinic-based TDG would allow immediate determination of a follow-up plan, making it attractive for variceal screening and surveillance programs. (Clinical trial (ANZCTR) registration number: ACTRN12616001103459.). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Esophageal varices on computed tomography and subsequent variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Somsouk, Ma; To'o, Katherine; Ali, Mujtaba; Vittinghoff, Eric; Yeh, Benjamin M; Yee, Judy; Monto, Alex; Inadomi, John M; Aslam, Rizwan

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopy is recommended to screen for esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to identify features on abdominal CT imaging associated variceal hemorrhage (VH). A case-control study was performed among patients with cirrhosis who had a CT scan. Consecutive patients who experienced VH were included as cases, and patients without VH served as controls. Two radiologists recorded the maximal esophageal varix diameter in addition to other measures of portal hypertension at CT. The most powerful CT parameter associated with VH was the esophageal varix diameter (5.8 vs. 2.7 mm, p < 0.001; adjusted OR 1.84 per mm, p = 0.009). 63% of individuals with VH had a maximal varix diameter ≥5 mm compared to 7.5% of cirrhotic patients without VH (p < 0.001). In contrast, the proportion of individuals whose largest varix was <3 mm was 7.4% among VH cases compared to 54.7% among controls (p = 0.001). The varix diameter powerfully discriminated those with and without VH (C-statistic 0.84). A large esophageal varix diameter is strongly associated with subsequent VH. A threshold of <3 and ≥5 mm appears to identify patients with cirrhosis at low and high risk for hemorrhage.

  17. Esophageal varices on computed tomography and subsequent variceal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Somsouk, Ma; To'o, Katherine; Ali, Mujtaba; Vittinghoff, Eric; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Yee, Judy; Monto, Alex; Inadomi, John M.; Aslam, Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopy is recommended to screen for esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to identify features on abdominal CT imaging associated variceal hemorrhage (VH). Methods A case–control study was performed among patients with cirrhosis who had a CT scan. Consecutive patients who experienced VH were included as cases, and patients without VH served as controls. Two radiologists recorded the maximal esophageal varix diameter in addition to other measures of portal hypertension at CT. Results The most powerful CT parameter associated with VH was the esophageal varix diameter (5.8 vs. 2.7 mm, p < 0.001; adjusted OR 1.84 per mm, p = 0.009). 63% of individuals with VH had a maximal varix diameter ≥5 mm compared to 7.5% of cirrhotic patients without VH (p < 0.001). In contrast, the proportion of individuals whose largest varix was <3 mm was 7.4% among VH cases compared to 54.7% among controls (p = 0.001). The varix diameter powerfully discriminated those with and without VH (C-statistic 0.84). Conclusions A large esophageal varix diameter is strongly associated with subsequent VH. A threshold of <3 and ≥5 mm appears to identify patients with cirrhosis at low and high risk for hemorrhage. PMID:24366107

  18. [Validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru (June 2012-December 2013)].

    PubMed

    Cassana, Alessandra; Scialom, Silvia; Segura, Eddy R; Chacaltana, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a major cause of hospitalization and the most prevalent emergency worldwide, with a mortality rate of up to 14%. In Peru, there have not been any studies on the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study is to perform an external validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System and to establish the best cutoff for predicting mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru. This was a longitudinal, retrospective, analytical validation study, with data from patients with a clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding treated at the Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins between June 2012 and December 2013. We calculated the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality with a 95% confidence interval. A total of 339 records were analyzed. 57.5% were male and the mean age (standard deviation) was 67.0 (15.7) years. The median of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System obtained in the population was 12. The ROC analysis for death gave an area under the curve of 0.59 (95% CI 0.5-0.7). Stratifying by type of upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulted in an area under the curve of 0.66 (95% CI 0.53-0.78) for non-variceal type. In this population, the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System has no diagnostic validity for predicting mortality.

  19. [Gastrointestinal lesions and characteristics of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in acenocoumarol-treated patients].

    PubMed

    Nantes, Óscar; Zozaya, José Manuel; Montes, Ramón; Hermida, José

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the number of anticoagulated patients has significantly increased and, as a consequence, so have hemorrhagic complications due to this therapy. We analyzed gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding because it is the most frequent type of major bleeding in these patients, and we hypothesized that they would have lesions responsible for GI bleeding regardless of the intensity of anticoagulation, although excessively anticoagulated patients would have more serious hemorrhages. To study the characteristics of anticoagulated patients with GI bleeding and the relationship between the degree of anticoagulation and a finding of causative lesions and bleeding severity. We prospectively studied 96 patients, all anticoagulated with acenocoumarol and consecutively admitted to hospital between 01/01/2003 and 09/30/2005 because of acute GI bleeding. We excluded patients with severe liver disease, as well as nine patients with incomplete details. The incidence of GI bleeding requiring hospitalization was 19.6 cases/100,000 inhabitants-year. In 90% of patients, we found a causative (85% of upper GI bleeding and 50% of lower GI bleeding) or potentially causative lesion, and 30% of them required endoscopic treatment, without differences depending on the intensity of anticoagulation. No relationship was found between the type of lesions observed and the degree of anticoagulation in these patients. Patients who received more intense anticoagulation therapy had more severe hemorrhages (23% of patients with an INR ≥4 had a life-threatening bleed versus only 4% of patients with INR <4). We found an incidence of 20 severe GI bleeding episodes in anticoagulated patients per 100,000 inhabitants-year, with no difference in localization or in the frequency of causative lesions depending on the intensity of anticoagulation. Patients receiving more intense anticoagulation had more severe GI bleeding episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights

  20. Association of prophylactic endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients with upper GI bleeding and cardiopulmonary unplanned events.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Umar; Lee, Peter J; Ullah, Hamid; Sarvepalli, Shashank; Lopez, Rocio; Vargo, John J

    2017-09-01

    Prophylactic endotracheal intubation (PEI) is often advocated to mitigate the risk of cardiopulmonary adverse events in patients presenting with brisk upper GI bleeding (UGIB). However, the benefit of such a measure remains controversial. Our study aimed to compare the incidence of cardiopulmonary unplanned events between critically ill patients with brisk UGIB who underwent endotracheal intubation versus those who did not. Patients aged 18 years or older who presented at Cleveland Clinic between 2011 and 2014 with hematemesis and/or patients with melena with consequential hypovolemic shock were included. The primary outcome was a composite of several cardiopulmonary unplanned events (pneumonia, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, persistent shock/hypotension after the procedure, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest) occurring within 48 hours of the endoscopic procedure. Propensity score matching was used to match each patient 1:1 in variables that could influence the decision to intubate. These included Glasgow Blatchford Score, Charleston Comorbidity Index, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores. Two hundred patients were included in the final analysis. The baseline characteristics, comorbidity scores, and prognostic scores were similar between the 2 groups. The overall cardiopulmonary unplanned event rates were significantly higher in the intubated group compared with the nonintubated group (20% vs 6%, P = .008), which remained significant (P = .012) after adjusting for the presence of esophageal varices. PEI before an EGD for brisk UGIB in critically ill patients is associated with an increased risk of unplanned cardiopulmonary events. The benefits and risks of intubation should be carefully weighed when considering airway protection before an EGD in this group of patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. iPad-based primary 2D reading of CT angiography examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Faggioni, L; Neri, E; Bargellini, I; Scalise, P; Calcagni, F; Mantarro, A; D'Ippolito, G; Bartolozzi, C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) for two-dimensional (2D) reading of CT angiography (CTA) studies performed for suspected acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding. 24 CTA examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding confirmed (19/24, 79.2%) or ruled out (5/24, 20.8%) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed by three independent readers on a commercial picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation and on an iPad with Retina Display® 64 GB (Apple Inc.). The time needed to complete reading of every CTA examination was recorded, as well as the rate of detection of arterial bleeding and identification of suspected bleeding arteries on both devices. Overall, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values for bleeding detection were not significantly different while using the iPad and workstation (0.774 vs 0.847, 0.947 vs 0.895, 0.6 vs 0.8, 0.9 vs 0.944 and 0.750 vs 0.667, respectively; p > 0.05). In DSA-positive cases, the iPad and workstation allowed correct identification of the bleeding source in 17/19 cases (89.5%) and 15/19 cases (78.9%), respectively (p > 0.05). Finally, the time needed to complete reading of every CTA study was significantly shorter using the iPad (169 ± 74 vs 222 ± 70 s, respectively; p < 0.01). Compared with a conventional PACS workstation, iPad-based preliminary 2D reading of CTA studies has comparable diagnostic accuracy for detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can be significantly faster. The iPad could be used by on-call interventional radiologists for immediate decision on percutaneous embolization in patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Bleeding Location and Severity Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Vavalle, John P.; Clare, Robert; Chiswell, Karen; Rao, Sunil V.; Petersen, John L.; Kleiman, Neal S.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Wang, Tracy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if there is an association between bleed location and clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients. Background The prognostic significance of bleeding location among ACS patients undergoing cardiac catheterization is not well known. Methods We analyzed in-hospital bleeding events among 9,978 patients randomized in the SYNERGY (Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors) study. Bleeding events were categorized by location as access site, systemic, surgical, or superficial, and severity was graded using the GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definition. We assessed the association of each bleeding location and severity with 6-month risk of death or myocardial infarction using a multicovariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. Results A total of 4,900 bleeding events were identified among 3,694 ACS patients with in-hospital bleeding. Among 4,679 GUSTO mild/moderate bleeding events, only surgical and systemic bleeds were associated with an increased risk of 6-month death or myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.16 to 2.94, and 1.40 [95% CI: 1.16 to 1.69], respectively). Mild/moderate superficial and access-site bleeds were not associated with downstream risk (adjusted HR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.97 to 1.40], and 0.96 [95% CI: 0.82 to 1.12], respectively). Among 221 GUSTO severe bleeds, surgical bleeds were associated with the highest risk (HR: 5.27 [95% CI: 3.80 to 7.29]), followed by systemic (HR: 4.48 [95% CI: 2.98 to 6.72]), and finally access-site bleeds (HR: 3.57 [95% CI: 2.35 to 5.40]). Conclusions Among ACS patients who develop in-hospital bleeding, systemic and surgical bleeding are associated with the highest risks of adverse outcomes regardless of bleeding severity. Although the most frequent among bleeds, GUSTO mild/moderate access-site bleeding is not

  3. Risk of bleeding and repeated bleeding events in prasugrel-treated patients: a review of data from the Japanese PRASFIT studies.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Isshiki, Takaaki; Kimura, Takeshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Ikeda, Yasuo; Nakamura, Masato; Tanaka, Yuko; Saito, Shigeru

    2017-04-01

    Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine that achieves potent platelet inhibition with less pharmacological variability than other thienopyridines. However, clinical experience suggests that prasugrel may be associated with a higher risk of de novo and recurrent bleeding events compared with clopidogrel in Japanese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this review, we evaluate the risk of bleeding in Japanese patients treated with prasugrel at the doses (loading/maintenance doses: 20/3.75 mg) adjusted for Japanese patients, evaluate the risk factors for bleeding in Japanese patients, and examine whether patients with a bleeding event are at increased risk of recurrent bleeding. This review covers published data and new analyses of the PRASFIT (PRASugrel compared with clopidogrel For Japanese patIenTs) trials of patients undergoing PCI for acute coronary syndrome or elective reasons. The bleeding risk with prasugrel was similar to that observed with the standard dose of clopidogrel (300/75 mg), including when bleeding events were re-classified using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. The pharmacodynamics of prasugrel was not associated with the risk of bleeding events. The main risk factors for bleeding events were female sex, low body weight, advanced age, and presence of diabetes mellitus. Use of a radial puncture site was associated with a lower risk of bleeding during PCI than a femoral puncture site. Finally, the frequency and severity of recurrent bleeding events during continued treatment were similar between prasugrel and clopidogrel. In summary, this review provides important insights into the risk and types of bleeding events in prasugrel-treated patients.Trial registration numbers: JapicCTI-101339 and JapicCTI-111550.

  4. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  5. Postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after an orthotopic liver transplant: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Cihan; Kırnap, Mahir; Akdur, Aydıncan; Özçay, Figen; Selçuk, Haldun; Arslan, Gülnaz; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    The overall incidence, causes, and treatment of posttransplant gastrointestinal bleeding, have been previously described. In this study, we examined the causes and treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after orthotopic liver transplant. Clinical data of 335 patients who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant at our institution between September 2001 and December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnosis and treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after an orthotopic liver transplant were reviewed. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 13 patients (3.8%) after an orthotopic liver transplant. Five patients (38.4%) were adult and 8 patients (61.6%) were pediatric. The sites of the bleeding were Roux-en-Y anastomosis bleeding in 5 cases, peptic ulcer in 3 cases, erosive gastritis in 3 cases, gastric and esophageal varices in 1 case, and hemobilia in 1 case. These 13 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were managed with conservative treatment, endoscopic treatment, radiologic interventional embolism, or exploratory laparotomy. No patients died because of gastro--intestinal bleeding. During follow-up, 4 patients died because of sepsis and 1 patient died of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastrointestinal bleeding after liver transplant and its incidence, causes, and treatment are not well-described in the literature. Diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding requires a multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons, hepatologists, advanced and experienced endoscopists, and interventional radiologists.

  6. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  7. Bleeding disorders in pregnant patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rick, M E

    1989-05-01

    Although the bleeding disorders that occur in patients with rheumatic diseases are not different during pregnancy than at other times, their diagnosis and management are often different during pregnancy. In idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, for instance, antiplatelet antibodies may cross the placenta and cause life-threatening thrombocytopenia in the fetus while the mother is asymptomatic. Management of this disease has changed significantly in the past 5 years with the use of intravenous gammaglobulin which appears to lessen the degree of fetal as well as maternal thrombocytopenia when administered during the peripartum period. The utilization of plasmapheresis and plasma infusions for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura has salvaged both the mother and the fetus in a disease which was fatal in more than 60 per cent of patients prior to their use. The outcome of pregnancy in this patient population has markedly improved with this treatment. The stimulus for the production of factor VIII inhibitors in the postpartum period is still not understood, but guidelines for management have changed, with the increased likelihood of decreasing the antibody and inducing tolerance with regimens including factor VIII, immunosuppressive agents and intravenous gammaglobulin in those patients who require treatment. The diagnosis of von Willebrand's disease during pregnancy is difficult because of the physiologic increase in von Willebrand factor during pregnancy; in this instance family studies may help in the diagnosis of this relatively common, autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Management now includes treatment with desmopressin as well as cryoprecipitate replacement therapy.

  8. Major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage risk prediction in patients with atrial fibrillation: Attention to modifiable bleeding risk factors or use of a bleeding risk stratification score? A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chung, Fa-Po; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2018-03-01

    While modifiable bleeding risks should be addressed in all patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), use of a bleeding risk score enables clinicians to 'flag up' those at risk of bleeding for more regular patient contact reviews. We compared a risk assessment strategy for major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) based on modifiable bleeding risk factors (referred to as a 'MBR factors' score) against established bleeding risk stratification scores (HEMORR 2 HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA, ORBIT). A nationwide cohort study of 40,450 AF patients who received warfarin for stroke prevention was performed. The clinical endpoints included ICH and major bleeding. Bleeding scores were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (areas under the ROC curves [AUCs], or c-index) and the net reclassification index (NRI). During a follow up of 4.60±3.62years, 1581 (3.91%) patients sustained ICH and 6889 (17.03%) patients sustained major bleeding events. All tested bleeding risk scores at baseline were higher in those sustaining major bleeds. When compared to no ICH, patients sustaining ICH had higher baseline HEMORR 2 HAGES (p=0.003), HAS-BLED (p<0.001) and MBR factors score (p=0.013) but not ATRIA and ORBIT scores. When HAS-BLED was compared to other bleeding scores, c-indexes were significantly higher compared to MBR factors (p<0.001) and ORBIT (p=0.05) scores for major bleeding. C-indexes for the MBR factors score was significantly lower compared to all other scores (De long test, all p<0.001). When NRI was performed, HAS-BLED outperformed all other bleeding risk scores for major bleeding (all p<0.001). C-indexes for ATRIA and ORBIT scores suggested no significant prediction for ICH. All contemporary bleeding risk scores had modest predictive value for predicting major bleeding but the best predictive value and NRI was found for the HAS-BLED score. Simply depending on modifiable bleeding risk factors had suboptimal predictive value for the prediction of major

  9. Efficacy of and risk of bleeding during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with pretreatment thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Mira, J A; Neukam, K; López-Cortés, L F; Rivero-Juárez, A; Téllez, F; Girón-González, J A; de los Santos-Gil, I; Ojeda-Burgos, G; Merino, D; Ríos-Villegas, M J; Collado, A; Torres-Cornejo, A; Macías, J; Rivero, A; Pérez-Pérez, M; Pineda, J A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of and the risk of major bleeding during pegylated interferon (peg-IFN)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients according to the pretreatment platelet count. Two hundred and seventy-four HCV/HIV-coinfected, previously naïve individuals with compensated cirrhosis enrolled in one Spanish prospective cohort who received peg-IFN/RBV were included in this study. The frequency of severe bleeding and sustained virological response (SVR) rate were compared between patients with a pretreatment platelet count ≤70,000/mm(3) and >70,000/mm(3), respectively. Sixty-one (22 %) patients had a baseline platelet count ≤70,000/mm(3). The median (Q1-Q3) pretreatment platelet count was 58,000 (49,000-65,000) cells/mm(3) in the platelet ≤70,000 group and 129,000 (102,500-166,000) cells/mm(3) in the platelet >70,000 group (p < 0.0001). Seventeen (28 %) subjects of the platelet ≤70,000 group and 71 (33 %) patients of the platelet >70,000 group achieved SVR (p = 0.4). Only 2 (3.2 %) patients in the platelet ≤70,000 group developed a severe hemorrhagic event, specifically esophageal variceal bleeding. The efficacy of therapy with peg-IFN/RBV in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with low pretreatment platelet counts is comparable to that found in the overall subset of subjects with compensated cirrhosis. The frequency of severe hemorrhagic events related with this therapy is low in this population.

  10. Streptococcus sanguinis meningitis following endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chin-Fu; Lee, Ya-Ling

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of acute purulent meningitis caused by Streptococcus sanguinis after endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in a cirrhotic patient without preceding symptoms of meningitis. Initial treatment with flomoxef failed. The patient was cured after 20 days of intravenous penicillin G. This uncommon infection due to S. sanguinis adds to the long list of infectious complications among patients with oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.

  11. Etiology and Outcome of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Iran:A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Saberifiroozi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding that results from lesions located above the ligament of Treitz and is a common cause for emergency hospital admissions in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. UGIB also increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients already hospitalized for other reasons. According to epidemiological surveys of acute UGIB in Iran, peptic ulcer is the most common endoscopic diagnosis. Gastric and duodenal erosion accounts for 16.4%-25% of etiologies. Other relatively common causes of UGIB are variceal hemorrhage, Mallory-Weiss tears, and arterial and venous malformations. However, in 9%-13.3% of patients, the endoscopy is normal. PMID:24829656

  12. Agonist-induced platelet reactivity correlates with bleeding in haemato-oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Batman, B; van Bladel, E R; van Hamersveld, M; Pasker-de Jong, P C M; Korporaal, S J A; Urbanus, R T; Roest, M; Boven, L A; Fijnheer, R

    2017-11-01

    Prophylactic platelet transfusions are administered to prevent bleeding in haemato-oncological patients. However, bleeding still occurs, despite these transfusions. This practice is costly and not without risk. Better predictors of bleeding are needed, and flow cytometric evaluation of platelet function might aid the clinician in identifying patients at risk of bleeding. This evaluation can be performed within the hour and is not hampered by low platelet count. Our objective was to assess a possible correlation between bleeding and platelet function in thrombocytopenic haemato-oncological patients. Inclusion was possible for admitted haemato-oncology patients aged 18 years and above. Furthermore, an expected need for platelet transfusions was necessary. Bleeding was graded according to the WHO bleeding scale. Platelet reactivity to stimulation by either adenosine diphosphate (ADP), cross-linked collagen-related peptide (CRP-xL), PAR1- or PAR4-activating peptide (AP) was measured using flow cytometry. A total of 114 evaluations were available from 21 consecutive patients. Platelet reactivity in response to stimulation by all four studied agonists was inversely correlated with significant bleeding. Odds ratios (OR) for bleeding were 0·28 for every unit increase in median fluorescence intensity (MFI) [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·11-0·73] for ADP; 0·59 [0·40-0·87] for CRP-xL; 0·59 [0·37-0·94] for PAR1-AP; and 0·43 [0·23-0·79] for PAR4-AP. The platelet count was not correlated with bleeding (OR 0·99 [0·96-1·02]). Agonist-induced platelet reactivity was significantly correlated to bleeding. Platelet function testing could provide a basis for a personalized transfusion regimen, in which platelet transfusions are limited to those at risk of bleeding. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. [Late complications of liver cirrhosis - management of gastrointestinal bleeding in the presence of portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Hejda, Václav

    Cirrhosis is the end stage of progressive development of different liver diseases and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Cirrhosis is associated with a number of potential complications, in particular with development of portal hypertension. Portal hypertension with the production of ascites, hepatic and gastric varices bleeding in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, presents the breakpoint in the natural course of cirrhosis, and it is associated with a considerably worse prognosis of patients, with a dramatically increased risk of mortality. A major progress was reached during the past 10-20 years in diagnosing liver cirrhosis (including non-invasive methods), in primary prevention of the initial episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and in the therapy of acute bleeding due to modern pharmacotherapy, with regard to expanding possibilities of therapeutic endoscopy and relatively new options for management of acute bleeding (esophageal stents, TIPS and suchlike). However acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with portal hypertension still presents a considerable risk of premature death (15-20 %). Early diagnosing and causal treatment of numerous liver diseases may lead to slowing or regression of fibrosis and cirrhosis and possibly even of the degree of portal hypertension and thereby also the risk of bleeding.Key words: cirrhosis - esophageal varices - treatment of bleeding - portal hypertension.

  14. Major bleeding caused by warfarin in a genetically susceptible patient.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Aharon; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2002-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman was hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding. Although she had been receiving only warfarin 5 mg/day, her international normalized ratio (INR) was 66. Warfarin was discontinued, and her INR fell to 3.7 after transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma. However, it rose again spontaneously to 7.5. Eleven days after the last dose of warfarin had been administered, it was still detectable in the patient's plasma, indicating that impaired warfarin clearance may have caused an enhanced anticoagulation effect. Genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2C9, which mediates the major deactivating pathway of S-warfarin, revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote carrying two variant alleles: CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. The patient's enhanced sensitivity to warfarin 5 mg/day can be ascribed to decreased clearance of S-warfarin secondary to genetic alteration of the gene encoding CYP2C9, resulting in a life-threatening complication.

  15. Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nable, Jose V; Graham, Autumn C

    2016-05-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a commonly encountered chief complaint with a high morbidity and mortality. The emergency physician is challenged with prompt diagnosis, accurate risk assessment, and appropriate resuscitation of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Goals of care aim to prevent end-organ injury, manage comorbid illnesses, identify the source of bleeding, stop continued bleeding, support oxygen carrying capacity, and prevent rebleeding. This article reviews current strategies for risk stratification, diagnostic modalities, localization of bleeding, transfusion strategies, adjunct therapies, and reversal of anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bleeding rates in Veterans Affairs patients with atrial fibrillation who switch from warfarin to dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S; Jones, Michael; Mazur, Alexander; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Cram, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trial data suggest that dabigatran and warfarin have similar rates of major bleeding but higher rates of gastrointestinal bleeding. These findings have not been evaluated outside of a clinical trial. We evaluated the relative risks of any, gastrointestinal, intracranial, and other bleeding for Veterans Affairs patients who switched to dabigatran after at least 6 months on warfarin, compared with patients who continued on warfarin. We used national Veterans Affairs administrative encounter and pharmacy data from fiscal years 2010-2012 to identify 85,344 patients with atrial fibrillation who had been taking warfarin for at least 180 days before June 2011, of whom 1394 (1.7%) received dabigatran (150 mg) during the next 15 months. Dates of the first occurrence of each type of bleed and dates of death from June 2011 to September 2012 were determined. Baseline and time-dependent patient characteristics were identified, including comorbid conditions, stroke and bleeding risk scores, and time in therapeutic range for international normalized ratios. Marginal structural models were used to address selection bias in the longitudinal observational data. Weighted logistic regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations and reflected baseline and time-dependent covariates and weekly indicators of anticoagulant type (warfarin or dabigatran). Compared with patients who never used dabigatran, patients who used dabigatran at least once were younger, were more likely to be white, had lower international normalized ratio time in therapeutic range on warfarin, had lower stroke risk scores, and had similar bleeding risk scores. Overall, 10,734 patients experienced bleeding events, including 131 events after dabigatran use. The risk-adjusted rate of any bleeding was higher with dabigatran compared with warfarin, which was largely driven by a 54% higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with dabigatran. Rates of intracranial, other bleeding, and death were

  17. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding following aortic valve replacement in a patient with Heyde's sindrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    De Palma, G D; Salvatori, F; Masone, S; Simeoli, I; Rega, M; Celiento, M; Persico, G

    2007-09-01

    A 58-year old man was admitted to the hospital because of melena. He had a 1-year history of mechanical aortic valve replacement and coronary stent placement because of myocardial infarction and he was taking warfarin and clopidogrel. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for bleeding. Capsule endoscopy showed bleeding diffuse angiodysplasia of the small bowel. The patient was treated with octreotide 20 mg, at monthly interval. After 25 months there had been no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The case suggests that mechanical valve replacement may not prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in Heyde syndrome and that octreotide treatment should be considered in these cases.

  18. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Treated With Rivaroxaban or Warfarin: ROCKET AF Trial.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Matthew W; Nessel, Christopher C; Hellkamp, Anne S; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Piccini, Jonathan P; Suh, Eun-Young; Becker, Richard C; Singer, Daniel E; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Berkowitz, Scott D; Fox, Keith A A; Patel, Manesh R

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common complication of oral anticoagulation. This study evaluated GI bleeding in patients who received at least 1 dose of the study drug in the on-treatment arm of the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. The primary outcome was adjudicated GI bleeding reported from first to last drug dose + 2 days. Multivariable modeling was performed with pre-specified candidate predictors. Of 14,236 patients, 684 experienced GI bleeding during follow-up. These patients were older (median age 75 years vs. 73 years) and less often female. GI bleeding events occurred in the upper GI tract (48%), lower GI tract (23%), and rectum (29%) without differences between treatment arms. There was a significantly higher rate of major or nonmajor clinical GI bleeding in rivaroxaban- versus warfarin-treated patients (3.61 events/100 patient-years vs. 2.60 events/100 patient-years; hazard ratio: 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 1.66). Severe GI bleeding rates were similar between treatment arms (0.47 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.41 events/100 patient-years; p = 0.39; 0.01 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.04 events/100 patient-years; p = 0.15, respectively), and fatal GI bleeding events were rare (0.01 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.04 events/100 patient-years; 1 fatal events vs. 5 fatal events total). Independent clinical factors most strongly associated with GI bleeding were baseline anemia, history of GI bleeding, and long-term aspirin use. In the ROCKET AF trial, rivaroxaban increased GI bleeding compared with warfarin. The absolute fatality rate from GI bleeding was low and similar in both treatment arms. Our results further illustrate the need for minimizing modifiable risk factors for GI bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  19. Bleeding symptoms and laboratory correlation in patients with severe von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Metjian, A D; Wang, C; Sood, S L; Cuker, A; Peterson, S M; Soucie, J M; Konkle, B A

    2009-07-01

    Type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a rare bleeding disorder with markedly decreased or absent von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein, accompanied by a parallel decrease in VWF function and factor VIII (FVIII) activity. The goal of this study was to describe the population of patients enrolled in the USA Centers for Disease Control Universal Data Collection (UDC) study with type 3 VWD, defined as a VWF:Ag of <10%, and to correlate bleeding symptoms with VWF and FVIII levels. Data on 150 patients were analysed. Almost all patients experienced bleeding episodes (98%) and required blood and/or factor product treatment (92%). While oral mucosal bleeding (the site of first bleed in 54%) was most common, subsequent muscle and joint bleeds were also seen (28%, 45%, respectively), and intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 8% of individuals. Mean age of first bleed was lower in those with either a FVIII < or =5% or a VWF:Ag <1%. Univariate marginal model analysis showed lower levels of FVIII and VWF:Ag both predicted a higher risk of joint bleeding. Longitudinal multivariate analysis found a lower FVIII level (P = 0.03), increasing age (P < 0.0001), history of joint bleeding (P = 0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001), and use of home infusion (P = 0.02) were all negatively associated with joint mobility. Low levels of VWF:Ag (P = 0.003) and male sex (P = 0.007) were also negatively associated with joint function. This study documents the strong bleeding phenotype in severe VWD and provides data to help target therapy, including prophylaxis, for patients most at risk of bleeding complications.

  20. Upper digestive bleeding in cirrhosis. Post-therapeutic outcome and prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gennaro; De Franchis, Roberto

    2003-09-01

    Several treatments have been proven to be effective for variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this multicenter, prospective, cohort study was to assess how these treatments are used in clinical practice and what are the posttherapeutic prognosis and prognostic indicators of upper digestive bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. A training set of 291 and a test set of 174 bleeding cirrhotic patients were included. Treatment was according to the preferences of each center and the follow-up period was 6 weeks. Predictive rules for 5-day failure (uncontrolled bleeding, rebleeding, or death) and 6-week mortality were developed by the logistic model in the training set and validated in the test set. Initial treatment controlled bleeding in 90% of patients, including vasoactive drugs in 27%, endoscopic therapy in 10%, combined (endoscopic and vasoactive) in 45%, balloon tamponade alone in 1%, and none in 17%. The 5-day failure rate was 13%, 6-week rebleeding was 17%, and mortality was 20%. Corresponding findings for variceal versus nonvariceal bleeding were 15% versus 7% (P =.034), 19% versus 10% (P =.019), and 20% versus 15% (P =.22). Active bleeding on endoscopy, hematocrit levels, aminotransferase levels, Child-Pugh class, and portal vein thrombosis were significant predictors of 5-day failure; alcohol-induced etiology, bilirubin, albumin, encephalopathy, and hepatocarcinoma were predictors of 6-week mortality. Prognostic reassessment including blood transfusions improved the predictive accuracy. All the developed prognostic models were superior to the Child-Pugh score. In conclusion, prognosis of digestive bleeding in cirrhosis has much improved over the past 2 decades. Initial treatment stops bleeding in 90% of patients. Accurate predictive rules are provided for early recognition of high-risk patients.

  1. Management protocol for acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Dinesh; Kakodkar, Rahul; Nundy, Samiran

    2006-05-01

    Gastro-intestinal haemorrhage is not uncommon and is manifested as haematemesis, melaena or haematochezia. The first step is to resuscitate the patient if necessary and then proceed to make a diagnosis as well as divide patients into high and low-risk groups after taking a good history and performing a physical examination especially to detect the presence of an enlarged spleen. Then one should proceed with an endoscopy and other investigations chosen carefully for their usefulness. Control of bleeding is then tailored to the diagnosis and is usually with drugs, endoscopy, angio-embolisation and surgery in that order. The mortality rate for upper GI bleeding varies from 10 to 30% depending on the proportion of patients with variceal haemorrhage included. For lower GI bleeding mortality is in the region of 20% and for obscure GI bleeding outpatient mortality is 12%. The main points to remember are that the management of these patients in India should be different from those described in Western textbooks and suited to their specific needs and the facilities available locally. However, in spite of the widespread lack of complex diagnostic techniques and a shortage of blood for transfusion we believe that by adopting an aggressive step-by-step approach tailored to our own environment we will be able to save most of our patients who are usually young and have few comorbid conditions.

  2. Risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulation or antiplatelet medications.

    PubMed

    Lin, David; Soetikno, Roy M; McQuaid, Kenneth; Pham, Chi; Doan, Gilbert; Mou, Shanshan; Shergill, Amandeep K; Somsouk, Ma; Rouse, Robert V; Kaltenbach, Tonya

    2018-04-01

    Balancing the risks for thromboembolism and postpolypectomy bleeding in patients requiring anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents is challenging. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding on anticoagulation, including heparin bridge and other antithrombotic therapy. We performed a retrospective cohort and case control study at 2 tertiary-care medical centers from 2004 to 2012. Cases included male patients on antithrombotics with hematochezia after polypectomy. Nonbleeding controls were matched to cases 3 to 1 by antithrombotic type, study site, polypectomy technique, and year of procedure. Our outcomes were the incidence and risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding. There were 59 cases and 174 matched controls. Postpolypectomy bleeding occurred in 14.9% on bridge anticoagulation. This was significantly higher than the overall incidence of bleeding on antithrombotics at 1.19% (95% confidence interval, 0.91%-1.54%) (59/4923). We identified similarly low rates of bleeding in patients taking warfarin (0.66%), clopidogrel (0.84%), and aspirin (0.92%). Patients who bled tended to have larger polyps (13.9 vs 7.3 mm; P < .001) and more polyps ≥2 cm (41% vs 10%; P < .001). Bleeding risk was increased with restarting antithrombotics within 1 week postpolypectomy (odds ratio [OR] 4.50; P < .001), having polyps ≥2 cm (OR 5.94; P < .001), performing right-sided cautery (OR 2.61; P = .004), and having multiple large polyps (OR 2.92; P = .001). Among patients on warfarin, the presence of bridge anticoagulation was an independent risk factor for postpolypectomy bleeding (OR 12.27; P = .0001). We conclude that bridge anticoagulation is associated with a high incidence of postpolypectomy bleeding and is an independent risk factor for hemorrhage compared with patients taking warfarin alone. A higher threshold to use bridge anticoagulation should be considered in patients with an elevated bleeding risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  3. Endoscopic Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of GastricVarices Secondary to Left-Sided Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric varices that arise secondary to the splenic vein occlusion can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) was performed in 16 patients with gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. This study retrospectively evaluated the role of ECDUS in the diagnosis of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. Thirteen patients had co-existing pancreatic diseases: 8 with chronic pancreatitis, 4 with cancer of the pancreatic body or tail and 1 with severe acute pancreatitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 1 had myeloproliferative disease, 1 had advanced gastric cancer, and the third had splenic vein occlusion due to an obscure cause. The endoscopic findings of gastric varices were: variceal form (F) classified as enlarged tortuous (F2) in 12 cases and large, coil-shaped (F3) in 4 cases, and positive for erosion or red color sign of the variceal surface in 4 cases and negative in 12 cases. ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow clearly depicted a round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body in all 16 cases. The velocities of F3 type gastric varices were significantly higher than those of the F2 type. The wall thickness of varices positive for erosion or red color sign was significantly less than the negative cases. I conclude that ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow depicted specific findings of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion at the round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body. PMID:26852679

  4. The cost-effectiveness of hepatic venous pressure gradient monitoring in the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Targownik, Laura E; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Dulai, Gareth S; Karsan, Hetal A; Gralnek, Ian M

    2004-07-01

    Recurrent variceal hemorrhage is common following an initial bleed in patients with cirrhosis. The current standard of care for secondary prophylaxis is endoscopic band ligation (EBL). Combination of beta-blocker and nitrate therapy, guided by hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) monitoring, is a novel alternative strategy. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of these competing strategies. Decision analysis with Markov modeling was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of three competing strategies: (1) EBL; (2) beta-blocker and nitrate therapy without HVPG monitoring (HVPG-); and (3) beta-blocker and nitrate therapy with HVPG monitoring (HVPG+). Patients in the HVPG+ strategy who failed to achieve an HVPG decline from medical therapy were offered EBL. Cost estimates were from a third-party payer perspective. The main outcome measure was the cost per recurrent variceal hemorrhage prevented. Under base-case conditions, the HVPG+ strategy was the most effective yet most expensive approach, followed by EBL and HVPG-. Compared to the EBL strategy, the HVPG+ strategy cost an incremental 5,974 dollars per recurrent bleed prevented. In a population with 100% compliance with all therapies, the incremental cost of HVPG-versus EBL fell to 5,270 dollars per recurrent bleed prevented. The model results were sensitive to the cost of EBL, the cost of HVPG monitoring, and the probability of medical therapy producing an adequate HVPG decline. Compared to EBL for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal rebleeding, combination medical therapy guided by HVPG monitoring is more effective and only marginally more expensive.

  5. Bleeding risk of patients with acute venous thromboembolism taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bruce L; Verheijen, Sara; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Gebel, Martin; Brighton, Timothy A; Lyons, Roger M; Rehm, Jeffrey; Prins, Martin H

    2014-06-01

    Combined anticoagulant and aspirin therapy is associated with increased bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation, but the bleeding risk of combined use of anticoagulant and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is poorly documented. To estimate the bleeding risk of combined anticoagulant (rivaroxaban or enoxaparin-vitamin K antagonist [VKA]) and NSAID or aspirin therapy in patients with venous thromboembolism. Prospective analysis of observational data from the EINSTEIN deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism clinical trials comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin-VKA treatment, trials performed in hospitals and clinics in 8246 patients enrolled from 2007 to 2009. Bleeding event rates during exposure to NSAID and aspirin therapy were compared to time without exposure. Days of NSAID or aspirin use and nonuse, clinically relevant bleeding event and major bleeding event rates by patient-years, and hazard ratios. During NSAID-anticoagulant concomitant treatment, clinically relevant bleeding occurred with an event rate of 37.5 per 100 patient-years vs 16.6 per 100 patient-years during anticoagulant use only (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.14]). Major bleeding during NSAID-anticoagulant treatment occurred with an event rate of 6.5 per 100 patient-years, compared to 2.0 per 100 patient-years during nonuse (HR, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.51-3.75]). For aspirin-anticoagulant concomitant treatment, clinically relevant bleeding occurred with an event rate of 36.6 per 100 patient-years, compared to 16.9 per 100 patient-years during aspirin nonuse (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.38-2.11]). Major bleeding in aspirin-anticoagulant-treated patients occurred with an event rate of 4.8 per 100 patient-years, compared to 2.2 per 100 patient-years during aspirin nonuse (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 0.86-2.62]). Increases in risk for clinically relevant and major bleeding were similar for rivaroxaban and enoxaparin-VKA anticoagulation regimens. Among patients with venous thromboembolism

  6. [Estimation of the risk of upper digestive tract bleeding in patients with portal cavernomatosis].

    PubMed

    Couselo, M; Ibáñez, V; Mangas, L; Gómez-Chacón, J; Vila Carbó, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) after the diagnosis of portal cavernoma in children, and to investigate several potential risk factors. We analyzed retrospectively 13 cases of portal cavernoma and estimated the risk of UGB with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We calculated the incidence rate of the sample and the number of haemorrhages per year for each patient individually. From the moment of the diagnosis various parameters were recorded: age, platelets, leukocytes, hemoblobin, hematocrit, prothrombin time and number of bleedings. The relation between these parameters and the risk of bleeding was assessed with the Cox analysis. The patients were followed for a median period of 7.1 years. 10 patients (77%) presented at least 1 episode of UGB after the diagnosis. The median survival time until the first haemorrhage was 314 days. After the diagnosis the incidence rate of the sample was 0.43 episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per person-year. The number of individual bleedings per person had a range of 0-2.2 episodes per year. There is very few data about the risk of bleeding in children with portal cavernoma. In our sample, we found out an incidence rate of 0.43 and a median survival time of 314 days until the first episode of bleeding after the diagnosis, but we were not able to find a statistically significant association between the studied variables and the risk of bleeding.

  7. External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy: How Significant is the Bleeding Toxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kevin S.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.ed

    Purpose: To characterize the bleeding toxicity associated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients receiving anticoagulation (AC) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 568 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy. Of these men, 79 were receiving AC therapy with either warfarin or clopidogrel. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Bleeding complications were recorded during treatment and subsequent follow-up visits. Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 4-year actuarial risk of Grade 3 or worse bleeding toxicity was 15.5% for those receivingmore » AC therapy compared with 3.6% among those not receiving AC (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, AC therapy was the only significant factor associated with Grade 3 or worse bleeding (p < .0001). For patients taking AC therapy, the crude rate of bleeding was 39.2%. Multivariate analysis within the AC group demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose (p = .0408), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (p = 0.0136), and previous transurethral resection of the prostate (p = .0001) were associated with Grade 2 or worse bleeding toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy was protective against bleeding, with borderline significance (p = 0.0599). Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that Grade 3 or worse bleeding was minimized if the percentage of the rectum receiving >=70 Gy was <10% or the rectum receiving >=50 Gy was <50%. Conclusion: Patients taking AC therapy have a substantial risk of bleeding toxicity from external beam radiotherapy. In this setting, dose escalation or intensity-modulated radiotherapy should be used judiciously. With adherence to strict dose-volume histogram criteria and minimizing hotspots, the risk of severe bleeding might be reduced.« less

  8. Joint use of cardio-embolic and bleeding risk scores in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Maura; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Iorio, Alfonso; Pasina, Luca; Djade, Codjo D; Franchi, Carlotta; Marengoni, Alessandra; Salerno, Francesco; Corrao, Salvatore; Violi, Francesco; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-12-01

    Scores for cardio-embolic and bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation are described in the literature. However, it is not clear how they co-classify elderly patients with multimorbidity, nor whether and how they affect the physician's decision on thromboprophylaxis. Four scores for cardio-embolic and bleeding risks were retrospectively calculated for ≥ 65 year old patients with atrial fibrillation enrolled in the REPOSI registry. The co-classification of patients according to risk categories based on different score combinations was described and the relationship between risk categories tested. The association between the antithrombotic therapy received and the scores was investigated by logistic regressions and CART analyses. At admission, among 543 patients the median scores (range) were: CHADS2 2 (0-6), CHA2DS2-VASc 4 (1-9), HEMORR2HAGES 3 (0-7), HAS-BLED 2 (1-6). Most of the patients were at high cardio-embolic/high-intermediate bleeding risk (70.5% combining CHADS2 and HEMORR2HAGES, 98.3% combining CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED). 50-60% of patients were classified in a cardio-embolic risk category higher than the bleeding risk category. In univariate and multivariable analyses, a higher bleeding score was negatively associated with warfarin prescription, and positively associated with aspirin prescription. The cardio-embolic scores were associated with the therapeutic choice only after adjusting for bleeding score or age. REPOSI patients represented a population at high cardio-embolic and bleeding risks, but most of them were classified by the scores as having a higher cardio-embolic than bleeding risk. Yet, prescription and type of antithrombotic therapy appeared to be primarily dictated by the bleeding risk. © 2013.

  9. Mortality caused by intracranial bleeding in non-severe hemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Loomans, J I; Eckhardt, C L; Reitter-Pfoertner, S E; Holmström, M; van Gorkom, B Laros; Leebeek, F W G; Santoro, C; Haya, S; Meijer, K; Nijziel, M R; van der Bom, J G; Fijnvandraat, K

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Data on bleeding-related causes of death in non-severe hemophilia A (HA) patients are scarce. Such data may provide new insights into areas of care that can be improved. Non-severe HA patients have an increased risk of dying from intracranial bleeding. This demonstrates the need for specialized care for non-severe HA patients. Background Non-severe hemophilia (factor VIII concentration [FVIII:C] of 2-40 IU dL -1 ) is characterized by a milder bleeding phenotype than severe hemophilia A. However, some patients with non-severe hemophilia A suffer from severe bleeding complications that may result in death. Data on bleeding-related causes of death, such as fatal intracranial bleeding, in non-severe patients are scarce. Such data may provide new insights into areas of care that can be improved. Aims To describe mortality rates, risk factors and comorbidities associated with fatal intracranial bleeding in non-severe hemophilia A patients. Methods We analyzed data from the INSIGHT study, an international cohort study of all non-severe hemophilia A patients treated with FVIII concentrates during the observation period between 1980 and 2010 in 34 participating centers across Europe and Australia. Clinical data and vital status were collected from 2709 patients. We report the standardized mortality rate for patients who suffered from fatal intracranial bleeding, using a general European male population as a control population. Results Twelve per cent of the 148 deceased patients in our cohort of 2709 patients died from intracranial bleeding. The mortality rate between 1996 and 2010 for all ages was 3.5-fold higher than that in the general population (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-5.8). Patients who died from intracranial bleeding mostly presented with mild hemophilia without clear comorbidities. Conclusion Non-severe hemophilia A patients have an increased risk of dying from intracranial bleeding in comparison with the general population. This demonstrates the

  10. Bleeding-related admissions in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving antithrombotic therapy: results from the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation (TAF) study.

    PubMed

    Admassie, Endalkachew; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R

    2017-12-01

    Limited data are available from the Australian setting regarding bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving antithrombotic therapy. We aimed to investigate the incidence of hospital admissions due to bleeding and factors associated with bleeding in patients with AF who received antithrombotic therapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving all patients with AF admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia, between January 2011 and July 2015. Bleeding rates were calculated per 100 patient-years (PY) of follow-up, and multivariable modelling was used to identify predictors of bleeding. Of 2202 patients receiving antithrombotic therapy, 113 presented to the hospital with a major or minor bleeding event. These patients were older, had higher stroke and bleeding risk scores and were more often treated with warfarin and multiple antithrombotic therapies than patients who did not experience bleeding. The combined incidence of major and minor bleeding was significantly higher in warfarin- versus direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC)- and antiplatelet-treated patients (4.1 vs 3.0 vs 1.2 per 100 PY, respectively; p = 0.002). Similarly, the rate of major bleeding was higher in patients who received warfarin than in the DOAC and antiplatelet cohorts (2.4 vs 0.4 vs 0.6 per 100 PY, respectively; p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, increasing age, prior bleeding, warfarin and multiple antithrombotic therapies were independently associated with bleeding. The overall rate of bleeding in this cohort was low relative to similar observational studies. The rate of major bleeding was higher in patients prescribed warfarin compared to DOACs, with a similar rate of major bleeding for DOACs and antiplatelet agents. Our findings suggest potential to strategies to reduce bleeding include using DOACs in preference to warfarin, and avoiding multiple antithrombotic therapies in patients with AF.

  11. TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis: A meta-analysis update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Zheng, Dan; Sun, Chen-Ming; Wu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Endoscopic therapy (ET) is most common method for preventing variceal bleeding in cirrhosis, but the outcomes are not perfect. Recently, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is introduced into clinical practice. However, the beneficial effects of TIPS compared to ET on cirrhotic patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of TIPS with those of the most frequently used ET for prevention of variceal rebleeding (VRB) in liver cirrhosis. The Pub-Med, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to February 2017. The primary study outcomes included the incidence of VRB, all-cause mortality, bleeding-related death, and the incidence of post-treatment hepatic encephalopathy (PTE). The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled for dichotomous variables. Subgroup analyses were performed. Twenty-four studies were eligible and they included 1120 subjects treated with TIPS and 1065 subjects treated with ET. Although there was no significant difference in survival and PTE, TIPS was superior to ET in decreasing the incidence of VRB (OR=0.27; 95% CI, 0.19-0.39, P<0.00001), and decreasing the incidence of bleeding-related death (OR=0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.32, P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis found a lower mortality (OR=0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.97; P=0.04) without any increased incidence of PTE (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 0.75-2.50; P=0.31) in the studies of a greater proportion (≥40%) of patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis receiving TIPS, and TIPS with covered stent did not increase the risk of PTE compared to ET (OR=1.52, 95% CI =0.82-2.80, P=0.18). It was concluded that TIPS with covered stent might be considered the preferred choice of therapy in patients with severe liver disease for secondary prophylaxis.

  12. Impact of Post-Exodontia Bleeding in Cardiovascular Patients: A New Classification Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, T.; Lillis, L.; Theodoridis, C.; Karvounis, H.; Ziakas, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exodontia (dental extraction), being the most frequent minor surgical procedure in the general population, inevitably involves a large number of patients on antithrombotic medication. Current experience shows that there is a degree of confusion in managing these patients. Description: Post-exodontia bleeding, a natural consequence of every dental extraction with no or minor clinical significance in the vast majority of cases, often appears to be of major concern to both patients and healthcare practitioners (dentists or physicians), either because of the alarming nature of oral bleeding itself or because of the distorted perception about its importance. These concerns are enhanced by the lack of a universal standardized definition of post-exodontia bleeding and by the fact that all currently available post-exodontia bleeding definitions bear intrinsic limitations and tend to overestimate its clinical significance. Conclusion: In order to overcome the aforementioned issues, this article presents an overview of post-extraction bleeding and proposes a classification, based on the well-recognized Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding definition, aiming at reducing heterogeneity in this field. PMID:29204220

  13. Impact of Post-Exodontia Bleeding in Cardiovascular Patients: A New Classification Proposal.

    PubMed

    Lillis, T; Didagelos, M; Lillis, L; Theodoridis, C; Karvounis, H; Ziakas, A

    2017-01-01

    Exodontia (dental extraction), being the most frequent minor surgical procedure in the general population, inevitably involves a large number of patients on antithrombotic medication. Current experience shows that there is a degree of confusion in managing these patients. Post-exodontia bleeding, a natural consequence of every dental extraction with no or minor clinical significance in the vast majority of cases, often appears to be of major concern to both patients and healthcare practitioners (dentists or physicians), either because of the alarming nature of oral bleeding itself or because of the distorted perception about its importance. These concerns are enhanced by the lack of a universal standardized definition of post-exodontia bleeding and by the fact that all currently available post-exodontia bleeding definitions bear intrinsic limitations and tend to overestimate its clinical significance. In order to overcome the aforementioned issues, this article presents an overview of post-extraction bleeding and proposes a classification, based on the well-recognized Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding definition, aiming at reducing heterogeneity in this field.

  14. The impact of bleeding complications in patients receiving target-specific oral anticoagulants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Crowther, Mark; Isayama, Tetsuya; Lim, Wendy

    2014-10-09

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard of care for treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) have been developed and found to be at least noninferior to VKAs with regard to efficacy, but the risk of bleeding with TSOACs remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase-3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the bleeding side effects of TSOACs compared with VKAs in patients with venous thromboembolism or atrial fibrillation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; conference abstracts; and www.clinicaltrials.gov with no language restriction. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment. Twelve RCTs involving 102 607 patients were retrieved. TSOACs significantly reduced the risk of overall major bleeding (relative risk [RR] 0.72, P < .01), fatal bleeding (RR 0.53, P < .01), intracranial bleeding (RR 0.43, P < .01), clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (RR 0.78, P < .01), and total bleeding (RR 0.76, P < .01). There was no significant difference in major gastrointestinal bleeding between TSOACs and VKAs (RR 0.94, P = .62). When compared with VKAs, TSOACs are associated with less major bleeding, fatal bleeding, intracranial bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and total bleeding. Additionally, TSOACs do not increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Role of enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography before urgent endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Youichi; Amano, Yuji; Ueno, Sayaka; Izumi, Daisuke; Mikami, Hironobu; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Okimoto, Eiko; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Imaoka, Tomonori

    2014-04-01

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been reported to be a potentially useful modality for detection of the bleeding origin in patients with acute upper massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of MDCT as a routine method for detecting the origin of acute upper GI bleeding prior to urgent endoscopy. Five hundred seventy-seven patients with acute upper GI bleeding (514 nonvariceal patients, 63 variceal patients) who underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: enhanced MDCT, unenhanced MDCT, and no MDCT before endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of the bleeding origin was evaluated, and the average procedure times needed to endoscopically identify the bleeding origin were compared between groups. Diagnostic accuracy among endoscopists was 55.3% and 14.7% for the enhanced MDCT and unenhanced MDCT groups, respectively. Among nonvariceal patients, accuracy was 50.2% in the enhanced MDCT group, which was significantly better than that in the unenhanced MDCT group (16.5%). In variceal patients, accuracy was significantly better in the enhanced MDCT group (96.4%) than in the unenhanced MDCT group (0.0%). These accuracies were similar to those achieved by expert radiologists. The average procedure time to endoscopic detection of the bleeding origin in the enhanced MDCT group was significantly faster than that in the unenhanced MDCT and no-MDCT groups. Enhanced MDCT preceding urgent endoscopy may be an effective modality for the detection of bleeding origin in patients with acute upper GI bleeding. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Bronchoscopic findings and bleeding control predict survival in patients with solid malignancies presenting with mild hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Grosu, Horiana B; Casal, Roberto F; Morice, Rodolfo C; Nogueras-González, Graciela M; Eapen, Georgie A; Ost, David; Sarkiss, Mona G; Jimenez, Carlos A

    2013-08-01

    Regardless of its volume, hemoptysis is a concerning symptom. Mild hemoptysis and its significance in patients with solid malignancies has not been studied. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with solid malignancies who presented for evaluation of mild hemoptysis. In this population, we studied the impact of bronchoscopic findings and endobronchial therapies on overall survival and bleeding recurrence. Patients were categorized into four groups on the basis of the presence or absence of active bleeding and endobronchial disease at the time of initial bronchoscopy: active bleeding with endobronchial lesion (AB/EBL), active bleeding without endobronchial lesion (AB/no-EBL), absence of active bleeding but with endobronchial lesion (no-AB/EBL), and absence of active bleeding and endobronchial lesion (no-AB/no-EBL). Ninety-five of the 112 patients with solid malignancies and mild hemoptysis underwent bronchoscopies. There was a significantly lower median survival time for patients with bronchoscopic findings of active bleeding and endobronchial lesion compared with patients with no active bleeding and/or no endobronchial lesion (3.48 mo; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-6.05). On a multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with improved survival were higher hemoglobin values (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91) and cessation of hemoptysis without recurrence at 48 hours (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84). Variables independently associated with worse survival were disease stage (HR, 10.8; 95% CI, 2.53-46.08) and AB/EBL (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.74-5.89). In patients with solid malignancies presenting with mild hemoptysis, bronchoscopic findings of AB/EBL are associated with decreased survival. Hemoptysis control without recurrence at 48 hours after endobronchial intervention may improve survival.

  17. Short and long-term mortality of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Conti, Alberto; Renzi, Noemi; Molesti, Daniele; Bianchi, Simone; Bogazzi, Irene; Bongini, Giada; Pepe, Giuseppe; Frosini, Fabiana; Bertini, Alessio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Death of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department still represent a major problem. We sought to analyze clinical characteristics associated with worse outcomes including short- and long-term death, beyond antithombotic treatment strategy. Patients presenting with any bleeding events during 2016-2017years were enrolled. Clinical parameters, site of bleeding, major bleeding, ongoing anti-thrombotic treatment strategy and death were collected. Hard 5:1 propensity score matching was performed to adjust dead patients in baseline characteristics. Endpoints were one-month and one-year death. Out of 166,000 visits to the Emergency Department, 3.050 patients (1.8%) were enrolled and eventually 429 were analyzed after propensity. Overall, anticoagulants or antiplatelets were given to 234(54%). Major bleeding account for 111(26%) patients, without differences between those taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets versus others. Death at one-month and one-year was 26(6%) and 72(17%), respectively. Independent predictors of one-month death were major bleeding (Odds Ratio, OR 26, p<0.001), female gender (OR 7, p<0.001) and white blood cells (OR 1.2, p=0.01); of one-year were major bleeding (OR 7, p<0.001), age (OR 1.1, p<0.001) and female gender (OR 2.3, p=0.043). Of note, death rate of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding where higher than others (p<0.001). Overall mortality was approximately 40% on one-month; 60% in older patients and 80% in female gender with CHA 2 D 2 VASC-score≥2. Receiver operator characteristics analysis showed larger areas for major bleeding and age (0.75 and 0.72, respectively) over others; p<0.05 on C-statistic. In patients with bleeding events, death rate was driven by major bleeding on short-term and older age on long-term. Among dead patients mortality was approximately 40% on one-month; 60% in older patients, and 80% in female gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with ximelagatran or warfarin: assessment of incidence, case-fatality rate, time course and sites of bleeding, and risk factors for bleeding.

    PubMed

    Douketis, James D; Arneklev, Karin; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Spandorfer, John; Halperin, Frank; Horrow, Jay

    2006-04-24

    Ximelagatran is a novel direct thrombin inhibitor that can be administered as a fixed oral dose, without the need for anticoagulant monitoring. We undertook a pooled analysis of 7329 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation from the Stroke Prevention Using Oral Thrombin Inhibitor in Atrial Fibrillation III and V trials to compare bleeding outcomes in patients who received ximelagatran, 36 mg twice daily, or warfarin sodium (target international normalized ratio, 2.0-3.0). We determined annual risk of bleeding (any, major), case-fatality rate, time course and anatomic sites of major bleeding, and risk factors for major bleeding with ximelagatran and warfarin treatment. Annual incidence of any bleeding was 31.75% with ximelagatran and 38.82% with warfarin (relative risk reduction, 18.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0-23.1; P<.001). Annual incidence of major bleeding was 2.01% with ximelagatran and 2.68% with warfarin (relative risk reduction, 25.1%; 95% CI, 3.2-42.1; P = .03). Case-fatality rate of bleeding was comparable in ximelagatran- and warfarin-treated patients (8.16% vs 8.09%; P = .98). Cumulative incidence of major bleeding was higher with warfarin than ximelagatran after 24 months of treatment (4.7% vs 3.7%; P = .04). Anatomic sites of bleeding were comparable with both treatments. Risk factors for bleeding with ximelagatran were as follows (hazard ratios and 95% CIs in parentheses): diabetes mellitus (1.81; 1.19-2.77; P = .006), previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (1.78; 1.16-2.73; P = .008), age 75 years or greater (1.70; 1.33-2.18; P<.001), and aspirin use (1.68; 1.08-2.59; P = .02). Risk factors for bleeding in warfarin-treated patients were previous liver disease (4.88; 1.55-15.39; P = .007); aspirin use (2.41; 1.69-3.43; P<.001); and age 75 years or greater (1.26; 1.03-1.52; P = .02). Treatment with ximelagatran, 36 mg twice daily, is associated with a lower risk of bleeding than warfarin in patients with nonvalvular atrial

  19. Practical management of bleeding in patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Pollack, Charles V

    2015-11-25

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses, the NOACs were at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and were associated with a similar or lower incidence of major bleeding, including consistent and significant decreases in intracranial bleeding, although with an increase in gastrointestinal bleeding for some agents compared with VKAs. Subsequent real-world evidence supports these outcomes. Despite this, physicians have concerns about serious bleeding or emergencies because there are no specific reversal agents for the NOACs. However, in clinical trials, patients receiving NOACs generally had similar or better outcomes after these events than those taking VKAs. As with any bleeding, anticoagulant-related bleeding should first be stratified according to severity and location; risk can be minimised by ongoing assessment. Management protocols for NOAC-related bleeding are similar to those for VKAs but should take into account the pharmacological profile of the specific drug. Because of their short half-lives, NOAC-related mild bleeding can often be controlled by temporarily withholding treatment. More severe bleeding requires standard escalating haemodynamic support measures, and non-specific reversal agents can be considered in life-threatening situations, based on limited clinical data. Specific and rapid reversal agents are not currently available for any oral anticoagulant and restoration of coagulation may not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Nevertheless, specific NOAC reversal agents are in development and show promise in healthy volunteers.

  20. Epsilon aminocaproic acid prevents bleeding in severely thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Antun, Ana G; Gleason, Shannon; Arellano, Martha; Langston, Amelia A; McLemore, Morgan L; Gaddh, Manila; el Rassi, Fuad; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Galipeau, Jacques; Heffner, Leonard T; Winton, Elliott F; Khoury, Hanna J

    2013-11-01

    Despite prophylactic platelet transfusions, bleeding remains a significant problem in thrombocytopenic patients. The antifibrinolytic agent epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) was administered to 44 chronically (median duration, 273 days) and severely (platelet count, 8 × 10(9)/L; range, 1 × 10(9)/L-19 × 10(9)/L) thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies. Prophylactic EACA at a dose of 1 g twice daily was orally administered for a median duration of 47 days (range, 7 days-209 days) until the platelet count recovered to > 30; × 10(9) /L. Platelets were only transfused if bleeding occurred. While receiving EACA, 59% of the patients did not bleed, 25% had 19 episodes of spontaneously resolving minor bleeding that did not require platelet transfusion, and 16% received a median of 4 platelet transfusions (range, 1 transfusion-8 transfusions) for 1 major traumatic and 9 spontaneous grade 2 to grade 3 bleeding (based on the World Health Organization classification of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura). No EACA toxicities were noted, and venous thromboses were not observed. EACA is well tolerated and is associated with a low risk of major bleeding in patients with hematological malignancies who are experiencing chronic severe thrombocytopenia. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  1. Dental postoperative bleeding complications in patients with suspected and documented liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, C H; Scobey, M W; Napenas, J J; Brennan, M T; Lockhart, P B

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of bleeding complications following dental procedures in patients with known or suspected chronic liver disease and whether international normalized ratio (INR) determination could aid in predicting bleeding complications in these patients. We identified 90 patients (mean age: 51 ± 9 years) in this retrospective chart review. Sixty-nine patients had a known history of chronic liver disease and 21 had suspected chronic liver disease. Descriptive statistics were determined. Independent sample t-test and one-way variance test were utilized for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous variables. The mean INR value for all patients was 1.2 ± 0.3. The INR value was significantly associated with the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, the diagnoses of Hepatitis B and C together, the presence of ascites alone, and the number of clinical signs and symptoms (i.e. ascites, jaundice and encephalopathy) present. Nine patients with INR values between 1.5 and 2 underwent invasive dental procedures without postoperative bleeding complications. There were no episodes of postoperative bleeding in patients. The findings suggest that clinicians should not rely solely on an INR value to predict post-procedure bleeding in patients with liver disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Bleeding events and associated factors in a cohort of adult patients taking warfarin in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Frances; Arkell, Paul; Fong; Roberts, Lesley M; Gendy, David; Wong, Christina Siew-Hie; Ngu, Joanna Chee Yien; Tiong, Lee Len; Bibi, Faridha Mohd Salleh; Lai, Lana Yin Hui; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Abouyannis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that rates of adverse events in patients taking warfarin may vary with ethnicity. This study investigated the rates of bleeds and thromboembolic events, the international normalised ratio (INR) status and the relationship between INR and bleeding events in Malaysia. Patients attending INR clinic at the Heart Centre, Sarawak General Hospital were enrolled on an ad hoc basis from May 2010 and followed up for 1 year. At each routine visit, INR was recorded and screening for bleeding or thromboembolism occurred. Variables relating to INR control were used as predictors of bleeds in logistic regression models. 125 patients contributed to 140 person-years of follow-up. The rates of major bleed, thromboembolic event and minor bleed per 100 person-years of follow-up were 1.4, 0.75 and 34.3. The median time at target range calculated using the Rosendaal method was 61.6% (IQR 44.6–74.1%). Of the out-of-range readings, 30.0% were below range and 15.4% were above. INR variability, (standard deviation of individuals’ mean INR), was the best predictor of bleeding events, with an odds ratio of 3.21 (95% CI 1.10–9.38). Low rates of both major bleeds and thromboembolic events were recorded, in addition to a substantial number of INR readings under the recommended target range. This may suggest that the recommended INR ranges may not represent the optimal warfarin intensity for this population and that a lower intensity of therapy, as observed in this cohort, could be beneficial in preventing adverse events.

  3. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Portal Vein Stenting for Delayed Jejunal Varix Bleeding Associated with Portal Venous Occlusion after Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki; Park, Hong Suk; Shin, Sung Wook; Choo, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, In Wook; Choi, Dong Wook

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to describe portal stenting for postoperative portal occlusion with delayed (≥ 3 months) variceal bleeding in the afferent jejunal loop. Materials and Methods Eleven consecutive patients (age range, 2–79 years; eight men and three women) who underwent portal stenting between April 2009 and December 2015 were included in the study. Preoperative medical history and the postoperative clinical course were reviewed. Characteristics of portal occlusion and details of procedures were also investigated. Technical success, treatment efficacy (defined as disappearance of jejunal varix on follow-up CT), and clinical success were analyzed. Primary stent patency rate was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results All patients underwent hepatobiliary-pancreatic cancer surgery except two children with liver transplantation for biliary atresia. Portal occlusion was caused by benign postoperative change (n = 6) and local tumor recurrence (n = 5). Variceal bleeding occurred at 27 months (4 to 72 months) and portal stenting was performed at 37 months (4 to 121 months), on average, postoperatively. Technical success, treatment efficacy, and clinical success rates were 90.9, 100, and 81.8%, respectively. The primary patency rate of portal stent was 88.9% during the mean follow-up period of 9 months. Neither procedure-related complication nor mortality occurred. Conclusion Interventional portal stenting is an effective treatment for delayed jejunal variceal bleeding due to portal occlusion after hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery. PMID:28860900

  5. Munchausen syndrome masquerading as bleeding disorder in a group of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Srivani; Shukla, Deepak; Mehta, Ritambhara; Oswal, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    This short communication is about Munchausen's syndrome in a group of pediatric patients and co morbid Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. A 7-year-old girl presented with spontaneous bleeding from forehead, eyes and scalp. The girl was investigated thoroughly by pediatricians at a tertiary care hospital in western India for all possible bleeding disorders, but there was no conclusive diagnosis. After two days, cases with similar complaints were reported among children residing in the same locality and with similar socioeconomic background. All of them were investigated in detail for possible causes of bleeding but nothing came out. There was a media reporting of the cases as a mysterious bleeding disorder. At this point of time, an expert opinion from the psychiatrist was demanded. Covert video surveillance and series of interviews revealed Munchausen's syndrome and possible Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. An in-depth literature review with special reference to Munchausen's syndrome was carried out to come to a final conclusive diagnosis.

  6. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome in Patients with Bleeding Peptic Ulcers and Helicobacter pylori Infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is the most frequently encountered complication of peptic ulcer disease. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration are two independent risk factors for UGI bleeding. Therefore, testing for and diagnosing Hp infection are essential for every patient with UGI hemorrhage. The presence of the infection is usually underestimated in cases of bleeding peptic ulcers. A rapid urease test (RUT), with or without histology, is usually the first test performed during endoscopy. If the initial diagnostic test is negative, a delayed 13C-urea breath test (UBT) or serology should be performed. Once an infection is diagnosed, antibiotic treatment is advocated. Sufficient evidence supports the concept that Hp infection eradication can heal the ulcer and reduce the likelihood of rebleeding. With increased awareness of the effects of Hp infection, the etiologies of bleeding peptic ulcers have shifted to NSAID use, old age, and disease comorbidity. PMID:25101293

  7. Bleeding frequency and characteristics among hematologic malignancy inpatient rehabilitation patients with severe thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jack B; Tennison, Jegy M; Rutzen-Lopez, Isabel M; Silver, Julie K; Morishita, Shinichiro; Dibaj, Seyedeh S; Bruera, Eduardo

    2018-03-28

    To identify the frequency and characteristics of bleeding complications during acute inpatient rehabilitation of hematologic malignancy patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Retrospective descriptive analysis. Comprehensive cancer center acute inpatient rehabilitation unit. Consecutive hematologic malignancy patients with a platelet count of less than or equal to 20,000/microliter (μL) on the day of acute inpatient rehabilitation admission from 1/1/2005 through 8/31/2016. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, laboratory, and medical data. Patients were rehabilitated using the institutional exercise guidelines for thrombocytopenic patients. Bleeding events noted in the medical record. Out of 135 acute inpatient rehabilitation admissions, 133 unique patients were analyzed with a total of 851 inpatient rehabilitation days. The mean platelet count was 14,000/μL on the day of admission and 22,000/μL over the course of the rehabilitation admission. There were 252 days of inpatient rehabilitation where patients had less than 10,000/μL platelets. A total of 97 bleeding events were documented in 77/135 (57%) admissions. Of the 97 bleeding events, 72 (74%), 14 (14%), and 11 (11%) were considered to be of low, medium, and high severity, respectively. There were 4/97 (4%) bleeding events that were highly likely attributable to physical activity but only 1/4 was considered high severity. Bleeding rates were .09, .08, .17, and .37 for > 20,000, 15-20,000, 10-15,000, and < 10,000/μL mean platelet counts respectively (p = .003). Forty-four percent of patients were transferred back to the primary acute care service with infection being the most common reason for transfer. This study is the first to examine exercise-related bleeding complications during acute inpatient rehabilitation in severely thrombocytopenic hematologic cancer patients. Bleeding rates increased with lower platelet counts. However, using the exercise guidelines for severely

  8. What Impact Does Venous Thromboembolism and Bleeding Have on Cancer Patients' Quality of Life?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Andrew J; Dewilde, Sarah; Noble, Simon; Reimer, Elisabeth; Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2018-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and its treatment is associated with a high risk of recurrent VTE (rVTE) and bleeding. To analyze data from the Comparison of Acute Treatments in Cancer Hemostasis (CATCH) trial to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding events on health-related quality of life. The three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) data were collected monthly for up to 7 months in patients starting anticoagulation for newly diagnosed VTE. Analyses were designed to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding on EQ-5D scores while controlling for effects of covariates such as background and clinical variables and longitudinal changes. A repeated-measures model with specification of the variance-covariance matrix to characterize the intrapatient correlation was used to estimate the utility values. The impact of an rVTE or a bleeding event was assumed to be reflected in the utility value when it occurred within 2 weeks from a planned data collection point. Data were available from 883 patients. A total of 76 rVTE and 159 bleeding events occurred during follow-up. rVTE had a significant impact on EQ-5D scores, with a decrement of -0.075 on the basis of our reference case (male, no metastasis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score = 1, Western European), but different patients might have different decrements. Bleeding events had a smaller (nonstatistically significant) impact on EQ-5D scores. This data set study has quantified the decline in EQ-5D scores associated with experiencing rVTE or bleeding events in cancer patients. These results indicate the net gain in quality of life and impact on cost-effectiveness of secondary VTE prevention. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bleeding score in Type 1 von Willebrand disease patients using the ISTH-BAT questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pathare, A; Al Omrani, S; Al Hajri, F; Al Obaidani, N; Al Balushi, B; Al Falahi, K

    2018-04-01

    Bleeding assessment tools have evolved in the last decade to standardize the assessment of the severity of bleeding symptom in a consistent way. In 2010, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis-Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT) was developed and validated. Our aim was to administer ISTH-BAT questionnaire to the Omani patients with type 1 VWD and obtain the bleeding score (BS). We also studied the severity of their bleeding symptoms and correlated it with the BS as well as with the laboratory parameters. Forty-eight type I VWD index cases and 52 normal subjects were interviewed and the ISTH-BAT questionnaire administered. The BS was calculated based on a history of bleeding symptoms from 12 different sites according to the standard ISTH-BAT questionnaire. Laboratory parameters were obtained from patient's medical records. The mean age of this cohort was 27 years (range, 6-49) with 60% being females. The median time to administer this questionnaire was 10 minutes with an interquartile range (IQR) from 8 to 17 minutes. Overall, the median BS was 7 (IQR; 2,11) although individual scores ranged between 0 and 36. The BS was negatively correlated with VWF: Ag, VWF: RCo, and VWF: CB and the Spearman's correlation coefficient "rho" was, respectively, -0.15, -0.08, and -0.22. The ISTH-BAT BS is designed to reflect the severity of bleeding. Our results demonstrate the inherent variability of this bleeding pattern. We also found that the ISTH-BAT BS significantly correlated with VWF: Ag and VWF: CB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Paradoxical bleeding and thrombosis in a patient with afibrinogenemia and fibrinogen Mumbai mutation.

    PubMed

    Mukaddam, Alfiya; Patil, Rucha; Jadli, Anshul; Chandrakala, S; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2015-05-01

    Thrombosis is rarely reported in cases of afibrinogenemia and is generally associated with thrombophilia or replacement therapy. Often, it is difficult to predict whether the patients will bleed or whether they are exposed to the risk of thrombosis. We report a patient with afibrinogenemia who presented with complete thrombosis of right hepatic, portal, and splenic veins and who described a lifelong history of bleeding. Direct sequencing of the three fibrinogen genes was performed to identify the mutation. DNA sequencing showed the presence of a homozygous for G8017A substitution in exon 8 of the fibrinogen β-chain gene, resulting in a G434D missense mutation (Fibrinogen Mumbai). Presence of both bleeding and thrombotic manifestations in a patient with afibrinogenemia in the presence of other associated risk factors warrants a very careful individualized approach in the management of patients with afibrinogenemia. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  11. Balloon-Occluded Percutaneous Transhepatic Obliteration of Isolated Vesical Varices Causing Gross Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung

    2013-01-01

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices. PMID:23323037

  12. Digital Rectal Examination Reduces Hospital Admissions, Endoscopies, and Medical Therapy in Patients with Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Manish P; Borgstrom, Mark; Trowers, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    Although digital rectal examination is an established part of physical examinations in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding, clinicians are reluctant to perform a rectal examination. We intended to assess whether rectal examination affects the clinical management decision in these patients. We performed a single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from electronic health records of patients aged ≥18 years presenting to the emergency department with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Hospital admissions, intensive care unit admissions, gastroenterology consultation, initiation of medical therapy (proton pump inhibitor or octreotide), and inpatient endoscopy (upper endoscopy or colonoscopy) were assessed as outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Of 1237 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding, 549 (44.4%) did not have a rectal examination. Patients who had a rectal examination were less likely to be admitted than patients who did not have a rectal examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.79; P = .004). Patients who had a rectal examination were less likely to be started on medical therapy (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.98; P = .04) and to have endoscopy (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94; P = .02) than patients who did not have a rectal examination. Rectal examination in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding can assist clinicians with clinical management decision and reduce admissions, endoscopies, and medical therapy in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case–control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a case–control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median = 19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P < 0,0001). Levels of TNF-α, thrombomodulin and VWF were significantly increased in the two dengue groups than in healthy controls, but similar between patients with and without bleedings. Plasma levels of tPA and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with bleedings (median tPA levels were 4.5, 5.2, 11.7 ng/ml, P < 0.0001 and median D-dimer levels were 515.5, 1028 and 1927 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). The thrombin generation test showed that patients with bleeding complications had reduced thrombin

  14. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case-control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Fernanda A; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Mazetto, Bruna M; Quaino, Susan K P; Santiago-Bassora, Fernanda; Castro, Vagner; de Paula, Erich V; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2013-07-28

    Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. This is a case-control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median = 19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P < 0,0001). Levels of TNF-α, thrombomodulin and VWF were significantly increased in the two dengue groups than in healthy controls, but similar between patients with and without bleedings. Plasma levels of tPA and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with bleedings (median tPA levels were 4.5, 5.2, 11.7 ng/ml, P < 0.0001 and median D-dimer levels were 515.5, 1028 and 1927 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). The thrombin generation test showed that patients with bleeding complications had reduced thrombin formation (total thrombin generated

  15. Autologous plasma rich in growth factors in the prevention of severe bleeding after teeth extractions in patients with bleeding disorders: a controlled comparison with fibrin glue

    PubMed Central

    Cocero, Nadia; Pucci, Fabrizio; Messina, Maria; Pollio, Berardino; Mozzati, Marco; Bergamasco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental extractions in haemophiliacs may cause secondary bleeding, requiring repeated surgical and haematological interventions. As a local haemostatic, fibrin glue has recognised efficacy but, as a plasma-derived product, it carries the risk of viral infections. We, therefore, compared fibrin glue with an autologous haemostatic, plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), in a controlled trial. Material and methods One hundred and twenty patients with different blood disorders were randomised into two cohorts to undergo dental extraction procedures without hospitalisation. Prior to the extractions, patients underwent systemic haematological treatment. Complications were defined as secondary bleeding after the 7-day follow-up period or protracting after the repair procedure. Results There were 106 extractions (7 retained 3rd molars) in the group managed with fibrin glue: secondary bleeding affected 3/60 patients (5%) on the third day after extraction and necessitated additional surgery and systemic treatment (in one case the procedure had to be repeated on the 7th day). In the PRGF arm there were 98 extractions (23 retained 3rd molars): secondary bleeding affected two patients (3.3%) on the first day after extraction and was arrested with surgery without systemic treatment. Four out of the five secondary bleeds occurred in patients with haemophilia A. Concomitant diabetes or liver disease significantly increased the bleeding risk. Discussion The bleeding rates in the study and control arm prove that PRGF works as well as fibrin glue as a local haemostatic. Further assets are that PRGF has autologous origin, does not require additional systemic treatment in post-extraction repair surgery, is associated with an earlier onset of neo-angiogenesis and, overall, can reduce patients’ distress and costs to the health system. PMID:25369587

  16. Esophageal capsule endoscopy is not the optimal technique to determine the need for primary prophylaxis in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Krok, Karen L.; Wagennar, Rebecca Rankin; Kantsevoy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Capsule endoscopy has been suggested as a potential alternative to endoscopy for detection of esophagogastric varices and severe portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of the study was to determine whether PillCam esophageal capsule endoscopy could replace endoscopy for screening purposes. Material and methods Sixty-two patients with cirrhosis with no previous variceal bleeding had PillCam capsule endoscopy and video endoscopy performed on the same day. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of capsule endoscopy were compared to endoscopy for the presence and severity of esophageal and gastric varices, PHG and the need for primary prophylaxis. Patients’ preference was assessed by a questionnaire. Results Four (6%) patients were unable to swallow the capsule. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of capsule endoscopy for detecting any esophageal varices (92%, 50%, 92%, 50%), large varices (55%, 91%, 75%, 80%), variceal red signs (58%, 87%, 69%, 80%), PHG (95%, 50%, 95%, 50%), and the need for primary prophylaxis (91%, 57%, 78%, 80%) were not optimal, with only moderate agreement (κ) between capsule and upper GI endoscopy. Had only a capsule endoscopy been performed, 12 (21.4%) patients would have received inappropriate treatment. Capsule endoscopy also failed to detect (0/13) gastric varices. The majority of patients ranked capsule endoscopy as more convenient (69%) and their preferred (61%) method. Conclusions Despite the preference expressed by patients for capsule endoscopy, we believe that upper GI endoscopy should remain the preferred screening method for primary prophylaxis. PMID:27186182

  17. Hepatitis C infection in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders: epidemiology, natural history, and management.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Argiana, Vasiliki; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary bleeding disorders include a group of diseases with abnormalities of coagulation. Prior to 1990, infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was mainly transmitted via pooled plasma products as a treatment for hereditary bleeding disorders. Anti-HCV positivity in these patients may be as high as >70% in some areas, while some of them have also been coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Since about 20% of HCV-infected patients clear the infection naturally, chronic HCV infection represents a significant health problem in this group of patients. Mortality due to chronic HCV infection is estimated to be >10 times higher in patients with hemophilia than in the general population, and is mainly due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The antiviral treatment of HCV in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders is not different from that of any other infected patients. Nevertheless, many patients with hereditary bleeding disorders have declined (Peg)interferon-based treatment because of side effects. In recent years, multiple orally administrated direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for HCV treatment. Unfortunately, there is not much experience from treating these patients with DAA regimens, as major studies and real-life data did not include adequate numbers of patients with inherited hemorrhagic disorders. However, the available data indicate that DAAs have an excellent safety profile with a sustained virological response rate of >90%.

  18. Hepatitis C infection in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders: epidemiology, natural history, and management

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Argiana, Vasiliki; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary bleeding disorders include a group of diseases with abnormalities of coagulation. Prior to 1990, infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was mainly transmitted via pooled plasma products as a treatment for hereditary bleeding disorders. Anti-HCV positivity in these patients may be as high as >70% in some areas, while some of them have also been coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Since about 20% of HCV-infected patients clear the infection naturally, chronic HCV infection represents a significant health problem in this group of patients. Mortality due to chronic HCV infection is estimated to be >10 times higher in patients with hemophilia than in the general population, and is mainly due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The antiviral treatment of HCV in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders is not different from that of any other infected patients. Nevertheless, many patients with hereditary bleeding disorders have declined (Peg)interferon-based treatment because of side effects. In recent years, multiple orally administrated direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for HCV treatment. Unfortunately, there is not much experience from treating these patients with DAA regimens, as major studies and real-life data did not include adequate numbers of patients with inherited hemorrhagic disorders. However, the available data indicate that DAAs have an excellent safety profile with a sustained virological response rate of >90%. PMID:29333065

  19. Predictors of postoperative bleeding after vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Motoda, Saori; Shiraki, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Takuma; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kabata, Daijiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kimura, Takekazu; Kozawa, Junji; Imagawa, Akihisa; Nishida, Kohji; Shintani, Ayumi; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-12-19

    To clarify the association between perioperative variables and postoperative bleeding in pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. The present retrospective study enrolled 72 eyes of 64 patients who were admitted to Osaka University Hospital between April 2010 and March 2014, and underwent vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage as a result of diabetic retinopathy. Postoperative bleeding developed in 12 eyes. Using binomial logistic regression analysis, we found that the duration of operation was the only significant variable associated with postoperative bleeding within 12 weeks after vitrectomy. Furthermore, Poisson regression analysis identified fasting blood glucose just before vitrectomy, no treatment with antiplatelet drugs and treatment with antihypertensive drugs, as well as duration of operation, to be significantly associated with the frequency of bleeding within 52 weeks after vitrectomy. Long duration of operation can be used to predict bleeding within both 12 and 52 weeks after vitrectomy. In addition, fasting blood glucose just before vitrectomy, no treatment with antiplatelet drugs and treatment with antihypertensive drugs might be risk factors for postoperative bleeding up to 1 year after vitrectomy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Readmission after Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Attard, Thomas M; Miller, Mikaela; Pant, Chaitanya; Thomson, Mike

    2017-05-01

    To compare the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics in a cohort of patients discharged following acute gastrointestinal bleeding, representing to the emergency department (ED) and readmitted within 30 days of discharge with the characteristics of non-readmitted patients. Hospitalization data was obtained from the Pediatric Hospital Information System including 49 tertiary children's hospitals in the US. Children 1-21 years of age diagnosed with acute gastrointestinal bleeding, admitted between January 2007 and September 2015 were included. The primary outcomes in this study were 30-day inpatient readmission through the ED and 30-day return to the ED only. Unadjusted, univariate followed by multivariable analysis of the associations between patient characteristics and treatment course at the index encounter using the R statistical package, v. 3.2.3. During the study period, 9902 patients were admitted with acute gastrointestinal bleeding; in the following month, 1460 (16.1%) represented to the ED and 932 (9%) were readmitted; 68.7% within 14 days from discharge. Readmission was most frequently associated with portal hypertension or esophageal variceal hemorrhage. There was a decreased likelihood of readmission with endoscopy (OR 0.77, 95% CI, 0.661, 0.906) and with Meckel scan (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.362, 0.727) during the initial admission. Multiple comorbidities, longer initial stay and the early proton pump inhibitor therapy were associated with higher likelihood of readmission. Readmission following acute gastrointestinal bleeding is common and is more likely following variceal hemorrhage, long initial admission, and chronic comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of the full moon on the number of admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Román, Eva María; Soriano, Germán; Fuentes, Mercedes; Gálvez, María Luz; Fernández, Clotilde

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse whether the number of admissions for gastrointestinal bleeding to our bleeding unit increases during the full moon. In a prospective study, we included 447 consecutive patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage admitted to our bleeding unit during a period of two years. The number of admissions was allocated to the corresponding day of the lunar cycle, and full moon and non-full moon days were compared. A wide variation in the number of admissions throughout the lunar cycle was observed. There were 26 admissions on the 25 days of full moon and 421 admissions in the remaining 713 days of non-full moon. This difference was mainly related to a higher incidence of haemorrhage in men and variceal haemorrhage at full moon. The results of this study suggest an increase in the number of admissions related to gastrointestinal haemorrhage in our bleeding unit during the full moon, especially in men and in patients experiencing variceal haemorrhage. However, the wide variation in the number of admissions throughout the lunar cycle could limit interpretation of the results. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the possible influence of the moon on gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

  2. Bleeding after expandable nitinol stent placement in patients with esophageal and upper gastrointestinal obstruction: incidence, management, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Jin; Song, Ho-Young; Nam, Deok Ho; Ko, Heung Kyu; Park, Jung-Hoon; Na, Han Kyu; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Min Kyoung

    2014-11-01

    Placement of self-expandable nitinol stents is useful for the treatment of esophageal and upper gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction. However, complications such as stent migration, tumor overgrowth, and bleeding occur. Although stent migration and tumor overgrowth are well documented in previous studies, the occurrence of bleeding has not been fully evaluated. To evaluate the incidence, management strategies, and predictors of bleeding after placement of self-expandable nitinol stents in patients with esophageal and upper GI obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of computed tomography and endoscopy of 1485 consecutive patients with esophageal and upper GI obstructions who underwent fluoroscopically guided stent placement. Bleeding occurred in 25 of 1485 (1.7%) patients 0 to 348 days after stent placement. Early stent-related bleeding occurred in 10 patients (40%) and angiographic embolization was used for 5/10. Late bleeding occurred in 15 patients (60%) and endoscopic hemostasis was used for 7/15. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) patients with bleeding had received prior radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Bleeding is a rare complication after placement of expandable nitinol stents in patients with esophageal and upper GI obstruction, but patients with early bleeding may require embolization for control. Care must be exercised on placing stents in patients who have received prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Bleeding prevalence and transfusion requirement in patients with thrombocytopenia in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Turvani, Fabrizio; Pigozzi, Luca; Barutta, Letizia; Pivetta, Emanuele; Pizzolato, Elisa; Morello, Fulvio; Battista, Stefania; Moiraghi, Corrado; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Lupia, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Thrombocytopenia is the most common coagulation disorder in critically ill patients. No studies have investigated the epidemiology and clinical impact of this condition in emergency department (ED) patients. We aimed to investigate epidemiological features, incidence of bleeding, and diagnostic and therapeutic requirements of patients with thrombocytopenia admitted to the ED. We performed a retrospective observational study enrolling all patients admitted to the medical-surgical ED of the "Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino" Hospital with a platelet count <150×10(9) PLTs/L, during four non-consecutive months. There were no exclusion criteria. The study included 1218 patients. The percentage of patients with severe (<50×10(9) PLTs/L) or very severe (<20×10(9) PLTs/L) thrombocytopenia was about 12%. Thrombocytopenia associated with liver cirrhosis was the most represented etiology. On the contrary, the most frequent cause in patients with newly recognized low platelet count was disseminated intravascular coagulation/sepsis. The incidence of bleeding and hypovolemia, as well as the need of transfusional support and mechanical, surgical or endoscopic hemostasis progressively increased with the severity of thrombocytopenia. Our results suggest that the detection of a platelet count lower than 50×10(9) PLTs/L may help to identify patients with higher bleeding risk in the ED setting. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether, in this setting, thrombocytopenia may represent an independent risk factor for bleeding episodes and increased mortality.

  4. Is Endoscopic Therapy Safe for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Supratherapeutic International Normalized Ratios?

    PubMed

    Shim, Choong Nam; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) presents a challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic INR in terms of rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. One hundred ninety-two anticoagulated patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for UGIB were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the occurrence of rebleeding within 30 days of the initial therapeutic endoscopy: no-rebleeding group (n = 168) and rebleeding group (n = 24). The overall rebleeding rate was 12.5%. Bleeding from gastric cancer and bleeding at the duodenum were significantly related to rebleeding in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis determined that presenting symptoms other than melena (hematemesis, hematochezia, or others) (odds ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-10.76) and bleeding from gastric cancer (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-29.25) were significant factors predictive of rebleeding. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy was not significantly associated with rebleeding in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Significant differences in bleeding-related mortality, additional intervention to control bleeding, length of hospital stay, and transfusion requirements were revealed between the rebleeding and no-rebleeding groups. There were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between patients with INR within the therapeutic range and those with supratherapeutic INR. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy did not change rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. Thus, we should consider endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients, irrespective of INR at the time of endoscopic therapy.

  5. Risk of Bacterial Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis and Acute Variceal Hemorrhage, Based on Child-Pugh Class, and Effects of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puneeta; Abraldes, Juan G; Keough, Adam; Bastiampillai, Ravin; Jayakumar, Saumya; Carbonneau, Michelle; Wong, Eric; Kao, Dina; Bain, Vince G; Ma, Mang

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics frequently are overused and are associated with serious adverse events in patients with cirrhosis. However, these drugs are recommended for all patients presenting with acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We investigated whether patients should be stratified for antibiotic prophylaxis based on Child-Pugh scores, to estimate risks of bacterial infection, rebleeding, and mortality, and whether antibiotics have equal effects on patients of all Child-Pugh classes. We performed a sensitivity analysis using model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data from 381 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH (70% men; mean age, 56 y), admitted from 2000 through 2009 to 2 tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. We excluded patients with bacterial infection on the day of AVH. The association between antibiotic prophylaxis and outcomes was adjusted by liver disease severity and by a propensity score. The patients included in the study had mean MELD scores of 16, and 54% received antibiotic prophylaxis. Overall, antibiotic therapy was associated with lower risks of infection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.74) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.29). Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class A given antibiotics, only 2% developed infections and the mortality rate was 0.4%. Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class B given antibiotics, 6% developed infections, compared with 14% of patients who did not receive antibiotics; antibiotics did not affect mortality. Administration of antibiotics to patients categorized as Child-Pugh class C reduced infections and mortality by approximately 50%, compared with patients who did not receive antibiotics. MELD scores were not as useful as Child-Pugh class in identifying patients at risk for infection. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis and AVH, those categorized as Child

  6. Bleeding from duodenal ulcer in a patient with bilio-pancreatic diversion.

    PubMed

    Garancini, Mattia; Luperto, Margherita; Delitala, Alberto; Maternini, Matteo; Uggeri, Franco

    2011-12-01

    Scopinaro's bilio-pancreatic diversion is considered as an acceptable malabsorptive surgical approach for the treatment of morbid obesity. We describe a case of acute recurrent gastro-intestinal bleeding in a patient with a previous Scopinaro's bilio-pancreatic diversion. At the first admission in our department, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, contrast-enhanced computerized tomography and angiography resulted negative for active bleeding. Hypovolemic shock indicated laparotomy and an intraoperative enteroscopy performed through a small enterotomy showed an ulcerative perforation sourced in an ischemic portion of a distended duodenal stump, with a bleeding branch of gastro-duodenal artery at the bottom. Hemorrhage was stopped with stitches. Two years later a new episode of duodenal bleeding associated with severe malnutrition occurred. A covered chronic ischemic perforation sustained by duodenal distension due to biliopancreatic limb sub-obstruction appeared to be the most probable etiology of the recurrent duodenal bleeding. The patient underwent again to laparotomy and adhesiolysis; hemorrhage was stopped by means of ligation of gastroduodenal artery and bilio-pancreatic diversion was converted into a standard Roux-en-Y gastroenterostomy with an entero-entero anastomosis 40 cm from the Treitz ligament in order to restore an anatomo-functional condition guaranteeing normal absorption and intestinal transit. After Scopinaro's bilio-pancreatic diversion duodenal bleeding can represent a rare serious presentation of biliopancreatic limb obstruction; because of the complex anatomical reconstruction performed during this intervention, the duodenum results unavailable during upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy, and if a duodenal bleeding is suspected laparotomy followed by enteroscopy represents an effective diagnostic approach.

  7. The use of recombinant factor VIIa in a patient with Noonan syndrome and life-threatening bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tofil, Nancy M; Winkler, Margaret K; Watts, Raymond G; Noonan, Jacqueline

    2005-05-01

    To present a case report of a patient with Noonan syndrome who developed life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding shortly after cardiac surgery that was successfully treated with recombinant factor VIIa. Case report. Pediatric intensive care unit of a children's hospital. Ten-month-old with Noonan syndrome and massive gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in severe hypovolemic shock. Recombinant factor VIIa was used in this patient's severe bleeding associated with Noonan syndrome after no other supportive measures were successful. Recombinant Factor VIIa significantly decreased the patient's bleeding and allowed his hypovolemic shock to improve. Ultimately, the patient made a complete recovery. Noonan syndrome has a constellation of both cardiac and noncardiac malformations including an increased risk of bleeding, and recombinant factor VIIa is an important agent in the treatment of significant bleeding.

  8. Long-term prognosis in patients continuing taking antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Xu; Dong, Bo; Hong, Biao; Gong, Yi-Qun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Wei-Jun

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the long-term prognosis in peptic ulcer patients continuing taking antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding, and to determine the risk factors that influence the prognosis. METHODS All clinical data of peptic ulcer patients treated from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2014 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into either a continuing group to continue taking antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding or a discontinuing group to discontinue antithrombotic drugs. The primary outcome of follow-up in peptic ulcer bleeding patients was recurrent bleeding, and secondary outcome was death or acute cardiovascular disease occurrence. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2014. Basic demographic data, complications, and disease classifications were analyzed and compared by t- or χ2-test. The number of patients that achieved various outcomes was counted and analyzed statistically. A survival curve was drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was compared using the log-rank test. COX regression multivariate analysis was applied to analyze risk factors for the prognosis of peptic ulcer patients. RESULTS A total of 167 patients were enrolled into this study. As for the baseline information, differences in age, smoking, alcohol abuse, and acute cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant between the continuing and discontinuing groups (70.8 ± 11.4 vs 62.4 ± 12.0, P < 0.001; 8 (8.2%) vs 15 (21.7%), P < 0.05; 65 (66.3%) vs 13 (18.8%), P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 18 patients had recurrent bleeding and three patients died or had acute cardiovascular disease in the continuing group, while four patients had recurrent bleeding and 15 patients died or had acute cardiovascular disease in the discontinuing group. The differences in these results were statistically significant (P = 0.022, P = 0.000). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve indicated that the incidence of recurrent bleeding was higher in patients

  9. Long-term prognosis in patients continuing taking antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Xu; Dong, Bo; Hong, Biao; Gong, Yi-Qun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Wei-Jun

    2017-01-28

    To investigate the long-term prognosis in peptic ulcer patients continuing taking antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding, and to determine the risk factors that influence the prognosis. All clinical data of peptic ulcer patients treated from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2014 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into either a continuing group to continue taking antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding or a discontinuing group to discontinue antithrombotic drugs. The primary outcome of follow-up in peptic ulcer bleeding patients was recurrent bleeding, and secondary outcome was death or acute cardiovascular disease occurrence. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2014. Basic demographic data, complications, and disease classifications were analyzed and compared by t - or χ 2 -test. The number of patients that achieved various outcomes was counted and analyzed statistically. A survival curve was drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was compared using the log-rank test. COX regression multivariate analysis was applied to analyze risk factors for the prognosis of peptic ulcer patients. A total of 167 patients were enrolled into this study. As for the baseline information, differences in age, smoking, alcohol abuse, and acute cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant between the continuing and discontinuing groups (70.8 ± 11.4 vs 62.4 ± 12.0, P < 0.001; 8 (8.2%) vs 15 (21.7%), P < 0.05; 65 (66.3%) vs 13 (18.8%), P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 18 patients had recurrent bleeding and three patients died or had acute cardiovascular disease in the continuing group, while four patients had recurrent bleeding and 15 patients died or had acute cardiovascular disease in the discontinuing group. The differences in these results were statistically significant ( P = 0.022, P = 0.000). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve indicated that the incidence of recurrent bleeding was higher in patients in the

  10. [Prognostic parameters in liver cirrhosis, varicose bleeding and sclerosing therapy. Prospective comparison of a prognostic system with the Child classification obtained by discriminant analysis].

    PubMed

    Sauerbruch, T; Ansari, H; Wotzka, R; Soehendra, N; Köpcke, W

    1988-01-08

    Prospective prognosis systems for predicting half-year death-rate after bleeding from oesophageal varices and sclerotherapy were tested on 129 patients. The receiver-operating-characteristic curves of three discriminant scores were compared with the Child-Pugh classification. It was found that the latter is still the best for prognosticating the course of the disease. A simplified discriminant score which contains as its only factors bilirubin and the Quick value does, however, give nearly as good information.

  11. Evaluation of Bleeding Events Requiring Hospitalization in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Dabigatran, Warfarin, or Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Riley, Tanya R; Gauthier-Lewis, Mary L; Sanchez, Chelsea K; Riley, Treavor T

    2017-04-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of bleeding events requiring hospitalization among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving anticoagulants (dabigatran or warfarin) or antiplatelet agents (eg, aspirin and clopidogrel). This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study involving 1494 patients with AF hospitalized from November 1, 2010, to November 1, 2011, with prior warfarin, dabigatran, or antiplatelet therapy. Overall bleeding events in the dabigatran group compared to the warfarin group were 24% and 12%, respectively ( P = .004). Of these events, individually, there were no significant differences in major (56% vs 58%, P = .88), life-threatening (25% vs 36%, P = .38), or minor bleeding (44% vs 42%, P = .06). Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding occurred more in the dabigatran group compared to the warfarin group ( P = .02). Intracranial bleeding occurred in 15% of patients in the warfarin group and did not occur at all in the dabigatran group. Warfarin patients had significantly more overall bleeding events compared to antiplatelet therapy ( P < .001), with an increasing trend seen in major bleeding ( P = .06). GI bleeding, however, favored the warfarin group over the antiplatelet group (48% vs 73%, P = .04). Anticoagulation with dabigatran was associated with an overall increased occurrence of bleeding requiring hospital admission compared to warfarin. GI bleeding was more prevalent with dabigatran and antiplatelets than with warfarin. There were more intracranial hemorrhages seen in the warfarin group.

  12. [Relationship between PMP, FN, vWF and Bleeding Degree in Patients with Acute Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Sheng; Zhao, Lian; Huang, Li-Yun; Yue, Xiao-He

    2018-06-01

    To detect the serum levels of platelet microparticle (PMP), fibronectin (FN), and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in acute leukemia (AL) patients with thrombocytopenic and to analyze the relationship of the serum levels of PMP, FN and vWF with bleeding degree. One hundred and one newly diagnosed AL patients from May 2014 to May 2017 were enrolled the AL group. According to the WHO standard of bleeding stratification, 101 AL patients were divided into 5 sub groups: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 score groups; 52 normal persons subjected to physical examination were enrolled in control group. The PMP level was detected by flow cytometry; the FN and vWF levels were detected by ELISA. The levels of PMP, FN and vWF were compared between the AL group and the control group. The serum levels of PMP, FN and vWF were compared according to bleeding degree group. The relationship of bleeding degree with the serum levels of PMP, FN and vWF was analyzed. The patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia aged 18 to 60, and accounted for 61.39%. The degree of bleeding was mainly 1 score, which accounted for 38.61%. The serum levels of PMP, vWF and FN AL groups were significantly higher than those in control group (6.06%±4.38% vs 0.89%±0.50%, 205.82±24.89 vs 58.04±13.35 µg/L, 398.29±46.93 vs 311.37±26.02 µg/L)(P<0.001). The serum levels of PMP, FN and vWF were different among 5 subgroup (P<0.01); the level of PMP and FN were the highest in 0 score group and the lowest in 4 score group; the vWF level was the highest in 4 score groups and the lowest in 0 score group. The bleeding degree in the patients with acute leukemia negatively correlated with PMP level, and positively with NF and vWF levels (r=-0.753, r=0.648, r=0.805). According to the relationship of the bleeding degree with serum levels of PMP, FN, vWF in patients, the detection of PMP, vWF and FN levels can help to evaluale the bleeding degree in the patients.

  13. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Yield of Endoscopy in Patients with Elevated INR and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Joanna M; Seraj, Siamak M; King, Lindsay Y; Campbell, Emily J; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Richter, James M

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a well-known risk of systemic anticoagulation. However, bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic anticoagulation may have a milder natural history than unprovoked bleeding. It is a common clinical gestalt that endoscopy is common, but bleeding source identification or intervention is uncommon, yet few data exist to inform this clinical impression. Consequently, we sought to examine our institutional experience with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) with the aim of identifying predictors of endoscopically identifiable lesions, interventions, and outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted at a tertiary referral academic medical center to identify patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of warfarin and a supratherapeutic INR (>3.5) who underwent an endoscopic procedure. Relevant clinical covariates, endoscopic findings, need for intervention, and outcomes were collected by review of the medical record. Logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders identified predictors of endoscopically significant lesions as well as intervention and outcomes. A total of 134 patients with INR 3.5 or greater (mean 5.5, range 3.5-17.1) presented with symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, most commonly as melena or symptomatic anemia. Antiplatelet agents were used by 54% of patients, and 60% of patients were on concomitant acid suppression on admission. Procedures included esophagogastroduodenoscopy (upper endoscopy; EGD) (n = 128), colonoscopy (n = 73), and video capsule endoscopy (n = 32). Active bleeding at first EGD or colonoscopy was found in only 19 patients (18%), with endoscopic intervention in only 26 patients (25%). At a critical threshold of INR 7.5 at presentation, the likelihood of finding an endoscopically significant lesion fell to <20%. On multivariate logistic regression, concomitant antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 95

  14. Endoscopic Cyanoacrylate Injection with Post-injection Audible Doppler Assessment of Gastric Varices: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Catron, Tom D; Smallfield, George B; Kang, Le; Sterling, Richard K; Siddiqui, Mohammad S

    2017-11-01

    Gastric varices (GV) have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage than esophageal varices. Several studies have shown the safety and efficacy of cyanoacrylate (CA) injection for acute gastric variceal hemorrhage. We report data from our experience with CA injection for GV before and after routine use of post-injection audible Doppler assessment (ADA) for GV obturation and describe long-term outcomes after this therapy. We retrospectively identified patients who had documented GV, underwent CA injection, and had at least 2 weeks of follow-up. We recorded and analyzed the survival and rebleeding rates with patient demographics, clinical data, and endoscopy findings between two groups of patients who were categorized by CA injection prior to and after inception of the ADA technique. Seventy-one patients were identified with 16 patients analyzed in a group where ADA was not used (Pre-ADA) and 55 analyzed where ADA was used (Post-ADA). No rebleeding events were observed within 1 week of initial CA injection. No embolic events were reported after any initial CA injection within 4 weeks. The rate of bleed-free survival at 1 year was 69.6% in the Pre-ADA group and 85.8% in the Post-ADA without statistical significance. The all-cause 1-year mortality was 13.8% in the Pre-ADA group and 10.7% in the Post-ADA group without statistical significance. ADA of CA-injected GV does not appear to significantly affect adverse events or clinical outcomes; however, our findings are limited by small sample size and cohort proportions allowing for significant type II statistical error. Further prospective investigation is required to determine the impact of ADA on clinical outcomes after GV obturation.

  15. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases.

    PubMed

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Koy, Mheta; Liwa, Anthony; Kabangila, Rodrick; Mirambo, Mariam; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Mkongo, Eliasa; McHembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2012-07-03

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P < 0.001). Rebleeding was reported in 3.3% of the patients. The overall mortality rate of 11.7% was significantly

  16. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    PubMed

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement During Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Christopher R., E-mail: cringra@uw.edu; Padia, Siddharth A., E-mail: spadia@uw.edu; Johnson, Guy E., E-mail: gej@uw.edu

    Background and AimsComplications of portal hypertension, such as variceal hemorrhage and ascites, are associated with significant increases in both mortality and complications during pregnancy. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-established procedure for treating portal hypertension, but the safety of TIPS during pregnancy is largely unknown. In this series, we review five patients who underwent TIPS placement while pregnant and describe their clinical outcomes.MethodsFive pregnant patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension underwent elective TIPS for complications of portal hypertension (four for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding and one for refractory ascites). Outcomes measured were recurrent bleeding episodes or needmore » for further paracenteses during pregnancy, estimated radiation dose to the fetus and gestational age at delivery. All patients were followed after delivery to evaluate technical and clinical success of the procedure.ResultsAll five patients survived pregnancy and went on to deliver successfully. When TIPS was performed for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding (n = 4), no patients demonstrated variceal bleeding after TIPS placement. When TIPS was performed for refractory ascites (n = 1), no further paracenteses were required. All patients delivered successfully, albeit prematurely. Average radiation dose estimated to the fetus was 16.3 mGy.ConclusionsThis series suggests that TIPS can be performed in selective pregnant patients with portal hypertension, with little added risk to the mother or fetus.« less

  18. Bleeding with the artificial heart: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in CF-LVAD patients.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Fradkov, Elena

    2017-06-14

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have significantly improved outcomes for patients with end-stage heart failure when used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation or, more recently, as destination therapy. However, its implantations carries a risk of complications including infection, device malfunction, arrhythmias, right ventricular failure, thromboembolic disease, postoperative and nonsurgical bleeding. A significant number of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) recipients may experience recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mainly due to combination of antiplatelet and vitamin K antagonist therapy, activation of fibrinolytic pathway, acquired von Willebrand factor deficiency, and tendency to develop small intestinal angiodysplasias due to increased rotary speed of the pump. Gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD patients remains a source of increased morbidity including the need for blood transfusions, extended hospital stays, multiple readmissions, and overall mortality. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD patients involves multidisciplinary approach in stabilizing the patients, addressing risk factors and performing structured endoluminal evaluation with focus on upper gastrointestinal tract including jejunum to find and eradicate culprit lesion. Medical and procedural intervention is largely successful and universal bleeding cessation occurs in transplanted patients.

  19. Association between gastrointestinal bleeding and 3-year mortality in patients with acute, first-ever ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Fang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2017-10-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal bleeding on clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke remains controversial. We investigate the effect of gastrointestinal bleeding on the outcomes of patients with acute, first-ever ischemic stroke. We enrolled 934 patients with acute, first-ever ischemic stroke and followed up them for 3years. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of gastrointestinal bleeding during acute stroke stage. Clinical presentation, stroke risk factors, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. Seventy-six (8.1%) patients had gastrointestinal bleeding at admission. The prevalence of old age, atrial fibrillation, and previous transient ischemic attack was higher in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (P<0.001, P=0.038, and P=0.018, respectively). Total anterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (P<0.001). The mean length of acute ward stay, initial impaired consciousness, and stroke in evolution were higher in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). The occurrence of pneumonia and dependent functional outcome were higher in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that gastrointestinal bleeding is a significant risk factor for 3-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=2.76; 95% confidence interval=1.61-4.72; P<0.001). In conclusion, gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality in patients with acute, first-ever ischemic stroke. Prophylactic therapies for gastrointestinal bleeding might improve ischemic stroke outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Warfarin Use in Hemodialysis Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review of Stroke and Bleeding Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chieh; Marcus, Laura Quinn; Patel, Priya; Battistella, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given the lack of clear indications for the use of warfarin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients on hemodialysis and the potential risks that accompany warfarin use in these patients, we systematically reviewed stroke and bleeding outcomes in hemodialysis patients treated with warfarin for AF. Objective: To systematically review the stroke and bleeding outcomes associated with warfarin use in the hemodialysis population to treat AF. Design: Systematic review. Setting: All adult hemodialysis patients. Patients: Patients on hemodialysis receiving warfarin for the management of AF. Measurements: Any type of stroke and/or bleeding outcomes. Methods: MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE(R) via OVID (1946 to January 11, 2017), and EMBASE via OVID (1974 to January 11, 2017) were searched for relevant literature. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series in English that examined stroke and bleeding outcomes in adult population of patients (over 18 years old) who are on hemodialysis and taking warfarin for AF. Studies with less than 10 subjects, case reports, review articles, and editorials were excluded. Quality of selected articles was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: Of the 2340 titles and abstracts screened, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Two studies showed an association between warfarin use and an increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio: 1.93-3.36) but no association with an increased risk of bleed (HR: 0.85-1.04), while 4 studies showed no association between warfarin and stroke outcomes (HR: 0.12-1.17) but identified an association between warfarin and increased bleeding outcome (HR: 1.41-3.96). And 1 study reported neither beneficial nor harmful effects associated with warfarin use. Limitations: The major limitation to this review is that the 7 included studies were observational cohort studies, and thus the outcome measures were not

  1. [Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hao; Tian, Yong-Jing; Wang, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Jin-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    To observe the effect of bleeding and cupping therapy on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and preliminarily discuss the analgesic mechanism. Sixty-four cases of PHN were randomized into two groups, 32 cases in each one. In the bleeding and cupping group, the local pricking with syringe needle and cupping was applied in the local painful area, once every two days. And totally 8 treatments were required. In the pregabalin group, pregabalin was prescribed for oral administration, 150mg/time, twice a day. And totally 16 days of medication were required. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the changes of P substance content in the peripheral and local serum before and after treatment were observed in the two groups. VAS score and peripheral serum P substance after treatment were lower significantly than those before treatment in the two groups (all P<0.01). The result in the bleeding and cupping group was much more significant (P<0.01). The local serum P substance after treatment was reduced significantly than that before treatment in the bleeding and cupping group [(93.86 +/- 9.87) pg/mL vs (46.13 +/- 6.31) pg/mL, P<0.01]. Bleeding and cupping therapy achieves the definite efficacy on PHN and it can reduce significantly peripheral and local serum P substance content in the patients. It is possibly one of the mechanisms of analgesic effect.

  2. Multicenter Evaluation of Octreotide as Secondary Prophylaxis in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keyur B; Gunda, Sampath; Emani, Sitaramesh; Kanwar, Manreet K; Uriel, Nir; Colombo, Paolo C; Uber, Patricia A; Sears, Melissa L; Chuang, Joyce; Farrar, David J; Brophy, Donald F; Smallfield, George B

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common complications after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation. More than one third of patients with incident bleed go on to develop recurrent GI bleeding. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is proposed to reduce the risk of recurrent GI bleeding in this population. This multicenter, retrospective analysis evaluated 51 continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients who received secondary prophylaxis with octreotide after their index GI bleed from 2009 to 2015. All patients had a hospitalization for GI bleed and received octreotide after discharge. Patient demographics, medical and medication history, and clinical characteristics of patients who rebled after receiving octreotide were compared with non-rebleeders. These data were also compared with matched historical control patients previously enrolled in the HMII (HeartMate II) clinical trials, none of whom received octreotide, to provide a context for the bleeding rates. Twelve patients (24%) who received secondary octreotide prophylaxis developed another GI bleed, whereas 39 (76%) did not. There were similar intergroup demographics; however, significantly more bleeders had a previous GI bleeding history before left ventricular assist device placement (33% versus 5%; P =0.02) and greater frequency of angiodysplasia confirmed during endoscopy (58% versus 23%; P =0.03). Fewer patients in this study experienced a recurrent GI bleed compared with a matched historical control group that did not receive octreotide (24% versus 43%; P =0.04). Patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device receiving secondary prophylaxis with octreotide had a significantly lower GI bleed recurrence compared with historical controls not treated with octreotide. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Colonoscopic findings and management of patients with outbreak typhoid fever presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikhani, Mohammad A R; Husein, Hiwa A B; Karbuli, Taha A; Mohamed, Mohamed Abdulrahman

    2013-09-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) along with intestinal perforation is a well-known complication of typhoid fever. Reports of colonoscopic appearance and intervention of typhoid perforation involve only few cases. This series reports the colonoscopic findings and the role of colonoscopic hemostatic interventions in controlling the bleeding ileocolonic lesions. During the typhoid fever outbreak in Sulaymaniyah City in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, we received 52 patients with LGIB manifesting as fresh bleeding per rectum or melena. We performed total colonoscopy with ileal intubation for all cases. The findings were recorded and endoscopic hemostatic intervention with adrenaline-saline injection and argon plasma coagulation was applied to actively bleeding lesion. These patients were young, 11-30 years of age, with female preponderance. Blood culture was positive in 50 %. Colonoscopic findings were mostly located in the ileocecal region, although other areas of the colon were involved in many cases. Twenty-four percent of the cases required endoscopic hemostatic intervention by adrenaline injection with argon plasma coagulation which was effective in all patients except one who died in spite of surgical intervention in addition of endoscopic hemostasis. Dual endoscopic hemostatic intervention can be a safe and effective management option for patients with LGIB due to typhoid fever.

  4. [Waist-hip ratio and perioperative bleeding in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    León-Ramírez, Víctor; Santiago-López, Janaí; Reyes-Rivera, Juan Gabriel; Miguel-Soto, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is associated with perioperative bleeding and multiple transfusions. Abdominal obesity is a perioperative risk factor. We suggest that the adipocytes have a protective effect in oncological patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. The aim was to evaluate the effect of waist-hip ratio (WHR) on the amount of bleeding and perioperative transfusion requirements in oncological patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. We performed a cohort study in 156 patients. We had two groups: the control group (WHR<0.95) and the problem group (WHR≥0.95). Blood loss and fractions transfused during surgery and in the postoperative period were recorded. In the analysis of variables, for descriptive statistics we used measures of central tendency and dispersion. Inferential statistics was obtained by chi square, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U and ANOVA. A p<0.05 was significant. We found significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist, WHR, perioperative bleeding, fractions transfused, permanence of the catheter, and hospital days. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with a WHR≥0.95 had a magnitude of perioperative bleeding and transfusion requirements with a WHR<0.95.

  5. Correlation Between Findings of Multislice Helical Computed Tomography (CT), Endoscopic Examinations, Endovascular Procedures, and Surgery in Patients with Symptoms of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Konecki, Dariusz; Pacho, Ryszard; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Endoscopic methods (gastroscopy and colonoscopy) are considered fundamental for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. In recent years, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has also gained importance in diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly in hemodynamically unstable patients and in cases with suspected lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. CT can detect both the source and the cause of active gastrointestinal bleeding, thereby expediting treatment initiation. Material/Methods The study group consisted of 16 patients with clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding in whom features of active bleeding were observed on CT. In all patients, bleeding was verified by means of other methods such as endoscopic examinations, endovascular procedures, or surgery. Results The bleeding source was identified on CT in all 16 patients. In 14 cases (87.5%), bleeding was confirmed by other methods. Conclusions CT is an efficient, fast, and readily available tool for detecting the location of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:29662594

  6. Correlation Between Findings of Multislice Helical Computed Tomography (CT), Endoscopic Examinations, Endovascular Procedures, and Surgery in Patients with Symptoms of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Konecki, Dariusz; Grabowska-Derlatka, Laretta; Pacho, Ryszard; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic methods (gastroscopy and colonoscopy) are considered fundamental for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. In recent years, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has also gained importance in diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly in hemodynamically unstable patients and in cases with suspected lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. CT can detect both the source and the cause of active gastrointestinal bleeding, thereby expediting treatment initiation. The study group consisted of 16 patients with clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding in whom features of active bleeding were observed on CT. In all patients, bleeding was verified by means of other methods such as endoscopic examinations, endovascular procedures, or surgery. The bleeding source was identified on CT in all 16 patients. In 14 cases (87.5%), bleeding was confirmed by other methods. CT is an efficient, fast, and readily available tool for detecting the location of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Hsp70 protects from stroke in atrial fibrillation patients by preventing thrombosis without increased bleeding risk.

    PubMed

    Allende, Mikel; Molina, Eva; Guruceaga, Elisabet; Tamayo, Ibai; González-Porras, José Ramón; Gonzalez-López, Tomás José; Toledo, Estefanía; Rabal, Obdulia; Ugarte, Ana; Roldán, Vanesa; Rivera, José; Oyarzabal, Julen; Montes, Ramón; Hermida, José

    2016-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for cardio-embolic stroke. Anticoagulant drugs are effective in preventing AF-related stroke. However, the high frequency of anticoagulant-associated major bleeding is a major concern. This study sought to identify new targets to develop safer antithrombotic therapies. Here, microarray analysis in peripheral blood cells in eight patients with AF and stroke and eight AF subjects without stroke brought to light a stroke-related gene expression pattern. HSPA1B, which encodes for heat-shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70), was the most differentially expressed gene. This gene was down-regulated in stroke subjects, a finding confirmed further in an independent AF cohort of 200 individuals. Hsp70 knock-out mice subjected to different thrombotic challenges developed thrombosis significantly earlier than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Remarkably, the tail bleeding time was unchanged. Accordingly, both TRC051384 and tubastatin A, i.e. two Hsp70 inducers via different pathways, delayed thrombus formation in WT mice, the tail bleeding time still being unaltered. Most interestingly, Hsp70 inducers did not increase the bleeding risk even when aspirin was concomitantly administered. Hsp70 induction was associated with an increased vascular thrombomodulin expression and higher circulating levels of activated protein C upon thrombotic stimulus. Hsp70 induction is a novel approach to delay thrombus formation with minimal bleeding risk, and is especially promising for treating AF patients and in other situations where there is also a major bleeding hazard. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN VORTEX VEIN VARICES.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Chiara; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Marco; Maiolo, Chiara; Primavera, Laura; Morara, Mariachiara; Armstrong, Grayson W; Ciardella, Antonio P

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of vortex vein varices with multimodal imaging. The authors carried out a retrospective case series of eight patients (7 female, 1 male) with an average age of 60.2 years (min 8, max 84, median 68.5) presenting with vortex vein varices. All patients were evaluated at the Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and at Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment, and fundus examination. Imaging studies, including fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were also performed. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and ultra-widefield indocyanine angiography using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph and the Staurenghi 230 SLO Retina Lens were used to demonstrate the disappearance of all retinal lesions when pressure was applied to the globe. All eight cases initially presented to the emergency room. One patient presented secondary to trauma, two patients presented for suspected hemangioma, whereas the other five were referred to the authors' hospitals for suspected retinal lesions. On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. Fundus color photography showed an elevated lesion in seven patients and a nonelevated red lesion in one patient. In all patients, near-infrared reflectance imaging showed a hyporeflective lesion in the periphery of the retina. Fundus autofluorescence identified round hypofluorescent rings surrounding weakly hyperfluorescent lesions in all

  9. Emergency arterial embolization of upper gastrointestinal and jejunal tumors: An analysis of 12 patients with severe bleeding.

    PubMed

    Zandrino, F; Tettoni, S M; Gallesio, I; Summa, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with severe bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 74 years±14 (SD); range: 54-86 years) with severe bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, with failed endoscopic treatment not eligible for emergency surgery were treated by emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization. The bleeding cause was gastric tumor in 7 patients, duodenal tumor in 4 patients and jejunal tumor in one patient. Procedure details and follow-up were reviewed. Twelve embolization procedures were performed using various embolic agents. Embolization was achieved and bleeding was stopped in all patients. Five patients underwent surgery within the 30 days following embolization. In the remaining 7 patients, no bleeding occurred at 1 month follow-up in 6 patients and bleeding recurred in one patient at 1 month. In this later patient, endoscopic treatment was successful. The results of our study suggest that transcatheter arterial embolization is safe and effective in patients with severe arterial bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. In some patients, transcatheter arterial embolization can be used as a bridge to surgery. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute major gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hookworm infection in a patient on warfarin therapy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu; Lu, FangGen; Shi, Lin; Cheng, MeiChu; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    The use of anticoagulants is a contributor to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Most bleeding patients on anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin commonly have basic lesions existing in their GI mucosa. We report a case of major GI bleeding following the use of anticoagulants in a patient with hookworm infection. The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with pulmonary embolism. He was treated with anticoagulants and suffered from acute major GI bleeding during the treatment. Capsule endoscopy revealed many hookworms in the lumen of jejunum where fresh blood was seen coming from the mucosa. The patient was successfully rescued and cured with albendazole. Latent hookworm infection can be a cause of massive small-bowel hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulant therapy and anthelmintic treatment is the key to stop bleeding.

  11. Congenital factor V deficiency: comparison of the severity of clinical presentations among patients with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Majid; Tabibian, Shadi; Alizadeh, Shaban; Hosseini, Soudabeh; Zaker, Farhad; Bamedi, Taregh; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Dorgalaleh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Factor V deficiency (FVD) is a rare bleeding disorder (RBD) mostly present in regions with a high rate of consanguinity. FVD after FXIII deficiency is the next more prevalent RBD in Sistan and Baluchistan (S&B) in southeastern Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations and severity of bleeding diathesis in patients with FVD. This descriptive study was conducted on 23 patients with FVD in S&B province. FVD was diagnosed by clinical findings and routine laboratory tests. Bleeding diatheses were classified into three grades (I-III) depending on the severity of symptoms. The severity of bleeding episodes in our patients was compared with other RBDs. Based on residual plasma FV activity, 6 (26%), 16 (69.5%) and 1 (4.5%) patients had mild, moderate and severe factor deficiency, respectively. 24% of the patients had grade III life-threatening bleeding episodes which in comparison with FVII deficiency (17.4%) and FI deficiency (21%) had a higher incidence, and in comparison with FX deficiency (41.7%) and FXIII deficiency (63.1) had a lower incidence. Grade II and grade I bleeding diathesis were observed in 56.2 and 16.7% of the patients, respectively. FVD is the second most common type of RBD in S&B province and grade II bleeding episodes were the major bleeding presentation and observed in more than half of the patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System Predicts Periprocedural Bleeding Events in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Oimatsu, Yu; Kaikita, Koichi; Ishii, Masanobu; Mitsuse, Tatsuro; Ito, Miwa; Arima, Yuichiro; Sueta, Daisuke; Takahashi, Aya; Iwashita, Satomi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Kojima, Sunao; Hokimoto, Seiji; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2017-04-24

    Periprocedural bleeding events are common after percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated the association of periprocedural bleeding events with thrombogenicity, which was measured quantitatively by the Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System equipped with microchips and thrombogenic surfaces (collagen, platelet chip [PL]; collagen plus tissue factor, atheroma chip [AR]). Between August 2013 and March 2016, 313 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. They were divided into those with or without periprocedural bleeding events. We determined the bleeding events as composites of major bleeding events defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and minor bleeding events (eg, minor hematoma, arteriovenous shunt and pseudoaneurysm). Blood samples obtained at percutaneous coronary intervention were analyzed for thrombus formation area under the curve (PL 24 -AUC 10 for PL chip; AR 10 -AUC 30 for AR chip) by the Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System and P2Y12 reaction unit by the VerifyNow system. Periprocedural bleeding events occurred in 37 patients. PL 24 -AUC 10 levels were significantly lower in patients with such events than those without ( P =0.002). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed association between low PL 24 -AUC 10 levels and periprocedural bleeding events (odds ratio, 2.71 [1.22-5.99]; P =0.01) and association between PL 24 -AUC 10 and periprocedural bleeding events in 176 patients of the femoral approach group (odds ratio, 2.88 [1.11-7.49]; P =0.03). However, PL 24 -AUC 10 levels in 127 patients of the radial approach group were not significantly different in patients with or without periprocedural bleeding events. PL 24 -AUC 10 measured by the Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System is a potentially useful predictor of periprocedural bleeding events in coronary artery disease patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary

  13. Clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix) does not increase bleeding complications in patients undergoing rubber band ligation for symptomatic hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Hite, Nathan; Klinger, Aaron L; Miller, Peter; Beck, David E; Whitlow, Charles B; Hicks, Terry C; Green, Heather M; Margolin, David A

    2018-09-01

    The incidence of postprocedural bleeding in patients undergoing rubber band ligation (RBL) for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids while taking clopidogrel bisulfate is unknown. To determine the postprocedural bleeding risk of RBL for patients taking clopidogrel compared with age- and sex-matched controls. This is a retrospective case-controlled cohort study analyzing data from 2005 to 2013 conducted at a single tertiary care academic center. The study included a total of 80 rubber bands placed on 41 patients taking clopidogrel bisulfate and 72 bands placed on 41 control patients not taking clopidogrel matched for age and sex. The 30-d rates of significant and insignificant bleeding events after RBL were recorded. A bleeding event was considered significant if the patient required admission to the hospital, transfusion of blood products, or additional procedures to stop the bleeding. Insignificant bleeding was defined as passage of blood or clots per rectum with spontaneous cessation and no need for additional intervention. There was no significant difference in the number of bleeding events per band placed in the clopidogrel group when compared with the control group (3.75% versus 2.78%, P = 0.7387). The rate of significant (2.5% versus 1.39%, P = 0.6244) and insignificant bleeding events (1.25% versus 1.39%, P = 0.9399) was also similar between the two groups. Two significant bleeding events occurred in the clopidogrel group requiring intervention: cauterization in one patient and colonoscopy and transfusion in the other. The risk of a bleeding complication after RBL for hemorrhoids does not appear to be increased in patients taking clopidogrel. Our results support the practice of continuing clopidogrel bisulfate in the periprocedural period as the associated risk of thrombosis is greater than the risk of bleeding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality from nonulcer bleeding is similar to that of ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with nonvariceal hemorrhage: a prospective database study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Marmo, Riccardo; Del Piano, Mario; Rotondano, Gianluca; Koch, Maurizio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Zambelli, Alessandro; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Grossi, Enzo; Cipolletta, Livio; Prometeo Investigators

    2012-02-01

    Nonulcer causes of bleeding are often regarded as minor, ie, associated with a lower risk of mortality. To assess the risk of death from nonulcer causes of upper GI bleeding (UGIB). Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from 3 national databases. Community and teaching hospitals. Consecutive patients admitted for acute nonvariceal UGIB. Early endoscopy, medical and endoscopic treatment as appropriate. Thirty-day mortality, recurrent bleeding, and need for surgery. A total of 3207 patients (65.8% male), mean (standard deviation) age 68.3 (16.4) years, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 4.45% (143 patients). According to the source of bleeding, mortality was 9.8% for neoplasia, 4.8% for Mallory-Weiss tears, 4.8% for vascular lesions, 4.4% for gastroduodenal erosions, 4.4% for duodenal ulcer, and 3.1% for gastric ulcer. Frequency of death was not different among benign endoscopic diagnoses (overall P = .567). Risk of death was significantly higher in patients with neoplasia compared with benign conditions (odds ratio 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32-4.46; P < .0001). Gastric or duodenal ulcer significantly increased the risk of death, but this was not related to the presence of high-risk stigmata (P = .368). The strongest predictor of mortality for all causes of nonvariceal UGIB was the overall physical status of the patient measured with the American Society of Anesthesiologists score (1-2 vs 3-4, P < .001). No data on the American Society of Anesthesiologists class score in the Prometeo study. Nonulcer causes of nonvariceal UGIB have a risk of death, similar to bleeding peptic ulcers in the clinical context of a high-risk patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: clinical course and mortality prediction.

    PubMed

    Afessa, B; Kubilis, P S

    2000-02-01

    We conducted this study to describe the complications and validate the accuracy of previously reported prognostic indices in predicting the mortality of cirrhotic patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding. This prospective, observational study included 111 consecutive hospitalizations of 85 cirrhotic patients admitted for GI bleeding. Data obtained included intensive care unit (ICU) admission status, Child-Pugh score, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), organ failure, and inhospital mortality. The performances of Garden's, Gatta's, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II prognostic systems in predicting mortality were assessed. Patients' mean age was 48.7 yr, and the median APACHE II and Child-Pugh scores were 17 and 9, respectively. Their ICU admission rate was 71%. Organ failure developed in 57%, and SIRS in 46% of the patients. Nine patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and three patients had hepatorenal syndrome. The inhospital mortality was 21%. The APACHE II, Garden's, and Gatta' s predicted mortality rates were 39%, 24%, and 20%, respectively, and their areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.78, 0.70, and 0.71, respectively. The AUC for Child-Pugh score was 0.76. SIRS and organ failure develop in many patients with hepatic cirrhosis hospitalized for upper GI bleeding, and are associated with increased mortality. Although the APACHE II prognostic system overestimated the mortality of these patients, the receiver operating characteristic curves did not show significant differences between the various prognostic systems.

  16. Novel Use of Thalidomide in Recurrent Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Chan, Laura Lihua; Lim, Choon Pin; Lim, Chong Hee; Tan, Teing Ee; Sim, David; Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy

    2017-10-01

    Bleeding is an important and common complication of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). One of the common causes of gastrointestinal bleeding is arteriovenous malformations. However, the source of bleeding is often hard to identify. Thalidomide is efficacious in treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in non-LVAD patients. We report our experience of the use of thalidomide in the treatment of GI bleeding in four patients with LVAD. Four patients who had recurrent GI bleeding from May 2009 to December 2014 were started on thalidomide. All of them responded to treatment and had no further gastrointestinal bleeding while on thalidomide. One patient developed constipation, requiring thalidomide to be stopped. Another patient developed symptomatic neuropathy, that resolved with reduction of dosage. Thalidomide appears safe and efficacious in LVAD patients with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact on postoperative bleeding and cost of recombinant activated factor VII in patients undergoing heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Allison L; Lowery, Ashleigh V; Pajoumand, Mehrnaz; Pham, Si M; Slejko, Julia F; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Mazzeffi, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation can be complicated by refractory hemorrhage particularly in cases where explantation of a ventricular assist device is necessary. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been used to treat refractory bleeding in cardiac surgery patients, but little information is available on its efficacy or cost in heart transplant patients. Patients who had orthotopic heart transplantation between January 2009 and December 2014 at a single center were reviewed. Postoperative bleeding and the total costs of hemostatic therapies were compared between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not. Propensity scores were created and used to control for the likelihood of receiving rFVIIa in order to reduce bias in our risk estimates. Seventy-six patients underwent heart transplantation during the study period. Twenty-one patients (27.6%) received rFVIIa for refractory intraoperative bleeding. There was no difference in postoperative red blood cell transfusion, chest tube output, or surgical re-exploration between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not, even after adjusting with the propensity score (P = 0.94, P = 0.60, and P = 0.10, respectively). The total cost for hemostatic therapies was significantly higher in the rFVIIa group (median $10,819 vs. $1,985; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis of patients who underwent redo-sternotomy with left ventricular assist device explantation did not show any benefit for rFVIIa either. In this relatively small cohort, rFVIIa use was not associated with decreased postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing heart transplantation; however, it led to significantly higher cost.

  18. Association of aspirin use with major bleeding in patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Giorgia; Lucisano, Giuseppe; D'Ettorre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Fabio; Lepore, Vito; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2012-06-06

    The benefit of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events is relatively small for individuals with and without diabetes. This benefit could easily be offset by the risk of hemorrhage. To determine the incidence of major gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding episodes in individuals with and without diabetes taking aspirin. A population-based cohort study, using administrative data from 4.1 million citizens in 12 local health authorities in Puglia, Italy. Individuals with new prescriptions for low-dose aspirin (≤300 mg) were identified during the index period from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008, and were propensity-matched on a 1-to-1 basis with individuals who did not take aspirin during this period. Hospitalizations for major gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurring after the initiation of antiplatelet therapy. There were 186,425 individuals being treated with low-dose aspirin and 186,425 matched controls without aspirin use. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the overall incidence rate of hemorrhagic events was 5.58 (95% CI, 5.39-5.77) per 1000 person-years for aspirin users and 3.60 (95% CI, 3.48-3.72) per 1000 person-years for those without aspirin use (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.48-1.63). The use of aspirin was associated with a greater risk of major bleeding in most of the subgroups investigated but not in individuals with diabetes (IRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.97-1.22). Irrespective of aspirin use, diabetes was independently associated with an increased risk of major bleeding episodes (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.28-1.44). In a population-based cohort, aspirin use was significantly associated with an increased risk of major gastrointestinal or cerebral bleeding episodes. Patients with diabetes had a high rate of bleeding that was not independently associated with aspirin use.

  19. Ad hoc cost analysis of the new gastrointestinal bleeding algorithm in patients with ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Sarosiek, Konrad; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) is a known complication in patients receiving nonpulsatile ventricular assist devices (VAD). Previously, we reported a new algorithm for the workup of GIB in VAD patients using deep bowel enteroscopy. In this new algorithm, patients underwent fewer procedures, received less transfusions, and took less time to make the diagnosis than the traditional GIB algorithm group. Concurrently, we reviewed the cost-effectiveness of this new algorithm compared with the traditional workup. The procedure charges for the diagnosis and treatment of each episode of GIB was ~ $2,902 in the new algorithm group versus ~ $9,013 in the traditional algorithm group (p < 0.0001). Following the new algorithm in VAD patients with GIB resulted in fewer transfusions and diagnostic tests while attaining a substantial cost savings per episode of bleeding.

  20. Predictors of bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with prasugrel.

    PubMed

    Widimsky, Petr; Motovska, Zuzana; Bolognese, Leonardo; Dudek, Dariusz; Hamm, Christian; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Ten Berg, Jurrien; Brown, Eileen; LeNarz, LeRoy; Miller, Debra L; Montalescot, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    When considering antiplatelet therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), it is essential to balance benefits (less thrombotic/ischaemic events) versus bleeding risks related to intense platelet inhibition via antagonism of P2Y12 receptors. This analysis aimed to identify predictors of bleeding events among A Comparison of Prasugrel at the Time of PCI or as Pretreatment at the Time of Diagnosis in Patients with NSTEACS (ACCOAST) study population. The ACCOAST study randomised 4033 patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) to (A) a 30 mg prasugrel loading dose (LD) followed by coronary angiography with an additional 30 mg prasugrel at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or (B) a placebo LD followed by a 60 mg prasugrel at the time of PCI. Patients received standard of care, including use of aspirin. Independent predictors of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) within 7 days were assessed using stepwise Cox proportional model for time to first occurrence of the event. Non-CABG-related TIMI major or minor bleeding was similarly analysed. Non-CABG-related TIMI major bleeding occurred in 36 (0.9%) patients, and TIMI major or minor bleeding occurred in 81 (2.0%) patients. Independent predictors for TIMI major bleeding alone were pretreatment with prasugrel LD (HR 3.02; 95% CI 1.42 to 6.43), femoral access (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.38), female sex (HR 2.57; 95% CI 1.32 to 5.00), placement of >1 stent (HR 2.50; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.95) and age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Pretreatment with prasugrel LD (HR 3.05; 95% CI 1.84 to 5.07), femoral access (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.74 to 5.38), female sex (HR 2.62; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.12), performed PCI (HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.23 to 3.99), therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.33) and age (increased bleed per year of age HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06) were independent predictors of TIMI

  1. Diffuse gastrointestinal bleeding and BK polyomavirus replication in a pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, M; Lautenschlager, I; Kardas, P; Auvinen, E; Mannonen, L; Huttunen, P; Taskinen, M; Vettenranta, K; Hirsch, H H

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk of severe gastrointestinal bleeding caused by infections, graft versus host disease, and disturbances in haemostasis. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is known to cause hemorrhagic cystitis, but there is also evidence of BKV shedding in stool and its association with gastrointestinal disease. We report putative association of BKPyV replication with high plasma viral loads in a pediatric HSCT patient developing hemorrhagic cystitis and severe gastrointestinal bleeding necessitating intensive care. The observation was based on chart review and analysis of BKPyV DNA loads in plasma and urine as well as retrospective BKPyV-specific IgM and IgG measurements in weekly samples until three months post-transplant. The gastrointestinal bleeding was observed after a >100-fold increase in the plasma BKPyV loads and the start of hemorrhagic cystitis. The BKPyV-specific antibody response indicated past infection prior to transplantation, but increasing IgG titers were seen following BKPyV replication. The gastrointestinal biopsies were taken at a late stage of the episode and were no longer informative of BK polyomavirus involvement. In conclusion, gastrointestinal complications with bleeding are a significant problem after allogeneic HSCT to which viral infections including BKPyV may contribute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with depression receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Saaraswat, Tanuj; Sengupta, S N; Mehrotra, Saurabh

    2009-02-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the normal clotting phenomenon and is released by platelets. Platelets are dependent on a serotonin transporter for the uptake of serotonin, as they cannot synthesize it themselves. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block the uptake of serotonin into platelets and can cause problems with clotting leading to bleeding. This case report highlights the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the index case on initiating SSRI therapy for depression and the prompt resolution of the same on its discontinuation on two separate occasions. SSRIs may cause upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Physicians should be aware of the same and should try to rule out previous episodes of upper GI bleed or the presence of other risk factors which might predispose to it before prescribing SSRIs; they should also warn the patients about this potential side effect. Also, the presence of thalassemia trait in the index patient deserves special attention and needs to be explored to see if it might in any way contribute in potentiating this side effect of SSRIs.

  3. Acute bleeding after bone marrow transplantation (BMT)- incidence and effect on survival. A quantitative analysis in 1,402 patients.

    PubMed

    Nevo, S; Swan, V; Enger, C; Wojno, K J; Bitton, R; Shabooti, M; Fuller, A K; Jones, R J; Braine, H G; Vogelsang, G B

    1998-02-15

    Acute bleeding after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was investigated in 1,402 patients receiving transplants at Johns Hopkins Hospital between January 1, 1986 and June 30, 1995. Bleeding categorization was based on daily scores of intensity used by the blood transfusion service. Moderate and severe episodes were analyzed for bleeding sites. Analysis of the cause of death and the interval of the bleeding episode to outcome endpoints was recorded. Survival estimates were computed for 1,353 BMT patients. The overall incidence was 34%. Minor bleeding was seen in 10.6%, moderate bleeding was seen in 11.3%, and severe bleeding was seen in 12% of all patients. Fourteen percent of patients had moderate or severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 6.4% had moderate or severe hemorrhagic cystitis, 2.8% had pulmonary hemorrhage, and 2% had intracranial hemorrhage. Sixty-one percent had 1 bleeding site and 34.4% had more than 1 site. Moderate and severe bleeding was more prevalent in allogeneic (31%) and unrelated patients (62.5%) compared with autologous patients (18.5%). Significant distribution of incidence was found among the different diagnoses, but not by disease status in acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Bleeding was associated with significantly reduced survival in allogeneic, autologous, and unrelated BMT and in each disease category except multiple myeloma. Survival was correlated with the bleeding intensity, bleeding site, and the number of sites. Although close temporal association was evident to mortality, bleeding was recorded as the cause of death in only the minority of cases compared with other toxicities after BMT (graft-versus-host disease, infections, and preparative regimen toxicity). Acute bleeding is a common complication after BMT that is profoundly associated with morbidity and mortality. Although bleeding was not a direct cause of death in the majority of

  4. Oral surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy: perioperative bleeding as a significant risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Amanda L; Souza, Alessandra F; Martins, Maria A P; Fraga, Marina G; Travassos, Denise V; Oliveira, Ana C B; Ribeiro, Daniel D; Silva, Tarcília A

    2018-01-01

    : To investigate perioperative and postoperative bleeding, complications in patients under therapy with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs submitted to oral surgery. To evaluate the risk of bleeding and safety for dental surgery, a retrospective chart review was performed. Medical and dental records of patients taking oral antithrombotic drugs undergoing dental surgery between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test, t test or the χ test. One hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent 293 surgical procedures. A total of eight cases of perioperative and 12 episodes of postoperative bleeding were documented. The complications were generally managed with local measures and did not require hospitalization. We found significant association of postoperative hemorrhage with increased perioperative bleeding (P = 0.043) and combination of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy (P < 0.001). The chance of postoperative hemorrhage for procedures with increased perioperative bleeding is 8.8 times bigger than procedures without perioperative bleeding. Dental surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy might be carried out without altering the regimen because of low risk of perioperative and postoperative bleeding. However, patients with increased perioperative bleeding should be closely followed up because of postoperative complications risk.

  5. Validation of the Valve Academic Research Consortium Bleeding Definition in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G; Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Praz, Fabien; Luterbacher, Fabienne; Piccolo, Raffaele; Khattab, Ahmed A; Räber, Lorenz; Langhammer, Bettina; Huber, Christoph; Meier, Bernhard; Jüni, Peter; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-09-25

    The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) has proposed a standardized definition of bleeding in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve interventions (TAVI). The VARC bleeding definition has not been validated or compared to other established bleeding definitions so far. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of bleeding and compare the predictivity of VARC bleeding events with established bleeding definitions. Between August 2007 and April 2012, 489 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis were included into the Bern-TAVI-Registry. Every bleeding complication was adjudicated according to the definitions of VARC, BARC, TIMI, and GUSTO. Periprocedural blood loss was added to the definition of VARC, providing a modified VARC definition. A total of 152 bleeding events were observed during the index hospitalization. Bleeding severity according to VARC was associated with a gradual increase in mortality, which was comparable to the BARC, TIMI, GUSTO, and the modified VARC classifications. The predictive precision of a multivariable model for mortality at 30 days was significantly improved by adding the most serious bleeding of VARC (area under the curve [AUC], 0.773; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.706 to 0.839), BARC (AUC, 0.776; 95% CI, 0.694 to 0.857), TIMI (AUC, 0.768; 95% CI, 0.692 to 0.844), and GUSTO (AUC, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.714 to 0.869), with the modified VARC definition resulting in the best predictivity (AUC, 0.814; 95% CI, 0.759 to 0.870). The VARC bleeding definition offers a severity stratification that is associated with a gradual increase in mortality and prognostic information comparable to established bleeding definitions. Adding the information of periprocedural blood loss to VARC may increase the sensitivity and the predictive power of this classification. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Warfarin use and the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Brandon; Bogorad, Yuliya; Nguyen, Leigh-Anh N; Yang, Su-Jau; Chen, Wansu; Spencer, Hillard T; Shen, Albert Y-J; Lee, Ming-Sum

    2017-05-01

    The optimal management of stroke prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding associated with the use of warfarin in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. This was a retrospective, population-based study of hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2015. Association of warfarin use with mortality, stroke, and bleeding was determined by propensity score-matched, Cox proportional hazard models. Among the 4286 patients with atrial fibrillation on hemodialysis, 989 (23%) were prescribed warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to identify 888 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. Warfarin use was associated with lower risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.84) and lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.91). Warfarin use was not associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.2) or gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77-1.2). The treatment effect was largest in the group with the best international normalized ratio control as measured by time in therapeutic range. Subgroup analyses showed warfarin use was associated with survival benefit in most subgroups. The 2 subgroups that did not benefit were patients with a history of hemorrhagic stroke and patients with concurrent aspirin use. Warfarin use is associated with lower all-cause mortality and ischemic stroke, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors for the need for endoscopic therapy in patients with presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Sun; Kim, Kyung Up; Kim, Sung Jun; Seo, Seung In; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Hak Yang; Shin, Woon Geon

    2017-12-15

    Selecting patients with an urgent need for endoscopic hemostasis is difficult based only on simple parameters of presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study assessed easily applicable factors to predict cases in need of urgent endoscopic hemostasis due to acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The consecutively included patients were divided into the endoscopic hemostasis and nonendoscopic hemostasis groups. We reviewed the enrolled patients' medical records and analyzed various variables and parameters for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding outcomes such as demographic factors, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, rebleeding rate, and mortality to evaluate simple predictive factors for endoscopic treatment. A total of 613 patients were analyzed, including 329 patients in the endoscopic hemostasis and 284 patients in the non-endoscopic hemostasis groups. In the multivariate analysis, a bloody nasogastric lavage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.786; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.990 to 11.543; p < 0.0001) and a hemoglobin level less than 8.6 g/dL (AOR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.028 to 3.039; p = 0.039) were independent predictors for endoscopic hemostasis. Significant differences in the morbidity rates of endoscopic hemostasis were detected between the group with no predictive factors and the group with one or more predictive factors (OR, 2.677; 95% CI, 1.920 to 3.733; p < 0.0001). A bloody nasogastric lavage and hemoglobin < 8.6 g/dL were independent predictors of endoscopic hemostasis in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding is any vaginal bleeding unrelated to normal menstruation. This type of bleeding may include spotting of ... two or more hours. Normal vaginal bleeding, or menstruation, occurs every 21 to 35 days when the ...

  9. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of gum and jawbone disease known as periodontitis . Other causes of bleeding gums include: Any bleeding ... if: The bleeding is severe or long-term (chronic) Your gums continue to bleed even after treatment ...

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: an ammoniagenic and catabolic event due to the total absence of isoleucine in the haemoglobin molecule.

    PubMed

    Olde Damink, S W; Dejong, C H; Deutz, N E; van Berlo, C L; Soeters, P B

    1999-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding causes increased urea concentrations in patients with normal liver function and high ammonia concentrations in patients with impaired liver function. This ammoniagenesis may precipitate encephalopathy. The haemoglobin molecule is unique because it lacks the essential amino acid isoleucine and has high amounts of leucine and valine. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding therefore presents the gut with protein of very low biologic value, which may be the stimulus to induce a cascade of events culminating in net catabolism. This may influence the function of rapidly dividing cells and short half-life proteins. We hypothesize that, following a variceal bleed in a cirrhotic patient, the lack of isoleucine in blood protein is the cause of the exaggerated ammoniagenesis and catabolism. We propose that intravenous administration of isoleucine may serve as a simple therapeutic that transforms blood protein in a balanced protein, resulting in only a short-lived rise in ammonia and urea production, and preventing interference with protein synthesis.

  11. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review and external validation study.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, N A; Algra, A; Greving, J P

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shortcomings. Performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. Background Antiplatelet therapy is widely used in secondary prevention after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the main adverse effect of antiplatelet therapy and is potentially life threatening. Identification of patients at increased risk of bleeding may help target antiplatelet therapy. This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for existing prediction models up to December 2014. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the CHARMS checklist. Prediction models were externally validated in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2, comprising 6602 patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke. We assessed discrimination and calibration of included prediction models. Five prediction models were identified, of which two were developed in patients with previous cerebral ischemia. Three studies assessed major bleeding, one studied intracerebral hemorrhage and one gastrointestinal bleeding. None of the studies met all criteria of good quality. External validation showed poor discriminative performance, with c-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.64 and poor calibration. A limited number of prediction models is available that predict intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy. The methodological quality of the models varied, but was generally low. Predictive performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. In order to

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding in VTE patients treated with rivaroxaban compared to vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    De Crem, Nico; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Vanassche, Thomas; Vanheule, Kristine; Debaveye, Barbara; Middeldorp, Saskia; Verhamme, Peter; Peetermans, Marijke

    2015-10-01

    Rivaroxaban is a convenient oral anticoagulant for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). The impact of rivaroxaban and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) on abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in real life has not been previously explored. We performed a single-center retrospective study on AUB in female VTE patients of reproductive age who were treated with either rivaroxaban or VKAs. Questionnaire results were available for 52 patients in each treatment group. Approximately two thirds of all women reported AUB after initiation of anticoagulant therapy. Patients using rivaroxaban were more likely to experience prolonged (>8days) menstrual bleeding (27 % vs. 8.3%, P=0.017). Rivaroxaban treatment increased the duration of menstrual bleeding from median 5 (IQR 3.5-6.0) days before start of treatment to 6 (IQR 4.1-8.9) days (P<0.001). VKA treatment did not lead to significant prolongation of the menstrual period. Patients on rivaroxaban more frequently reported an unscheduled contact with a physician for AUB than women using VKAs (41% vs. 25%, P=0.096). They also reported increased need for menorrhagia-related medical or surgical intervention (25% vs. 7.7%, P=0.032) and had more adaptations of anticoagulant therapy (15% vs. 1.9%, P=0.031). AUB is frequent after initiation of anticoagulant therapy for acute symptomatic VTE. Compared to VKAs, rivaroxaban was associated with prolonged menstrual bleeding and more medical interventions and adaptation of anticoagulant treatment for AUB. These data can guide proactive discussion with patients starting anticoagulant therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The characteristics of adults with upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to Tripoli Medical Center: a retrospective case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elghuel, Abdulbaset

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common reason for hospital admissions worldwide. Aetiological causes of UGIB vary according to geographic region and socioeconomic status. However, despite the implementation of early endoscopy as the standard method for the diagnosis and treatment of UGIB, data on the characteristics of patients with UGIB in Libya are still minimal. In this study, we describe patient demographics, aetiological causes for UGIB, and possible risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients admitted to the Gastroenterology Department at Tripoli Medical Center from January 2001 through June 2006. Method This is a retrospective case-series analysis of all adult patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to the Gastroenterology Department at TMC. Patients' medical records were individually reviewed and relevant data abstracted. Results A total of 928 cases with diagnoses of UGIB were admitted to Tripoli Medical Center during the study period. Of these cases, 60.3% were males and 39.7% females (3:2) and males were significantly younger than females (49.6 years vs. 53.9 years, p=0.001). The most common cause of UGIB was peptic ulcer (37.1%) of which duodenal ulcer was the most common (30.7% of all UGIB), especially amongst male patients (36.4%). The second most common cause was bleeding due to varices (29.8%), especially amongst females (35.1%). Additionally, smoking and NSAIDs use were reported by 18.6% and 9.7% of cases and both were significantly associated with bleeding due to peptic ulcers. Conclusion This study has investigated the characteristics of adults with UGIB at a tertiary referral center in Libya. The high frequency of bleeding due to varices amongst females mandates further investigations into the possible underlying hepatic causes and their management, and the potential impact on patient outcome and prognosis. PMID:21526040

  14. Munchausen Syndrome Masquerading as Bleeding Disorder in a Group of Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Srivani; Shukla, Deepak; Mehta, Ritambhara; Oswal, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    This short communication is about Munchausen's syndrome in a group of pediatric patients and co morbid Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. A 7-year-old girl presented with spontaneous bleeding from forehead, eyes and scalp. The girl was investigated thoroughly by pediatricians at a tertiary care hospital in western India for all possible bleeding disorders, but there was no conclusive diagnosis. After two days, cases with similar complaints were reported among children residing in the same locality and with similar socioeconomic background. All of them were investigated in detail for possible causes of bleeding but nothing came out. There was a media reporting of the cases as a mysterious bleeding disorder. At this point of time, an expert opinion from the psychiatrist was demanded. Covert video surveillance and series of interviews revealed Munchausen's syndrome and possible Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. An in-depth literature review with special reference to Munchausen's syndrome was carried out to come to a final conclusive diagnosis. PMID:22021962

  15. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients: a case-control study to assess risk factors, causes, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Koh, Dong Hee; Park, Se Woo; Park, Sun Man; Choi, Min Ho; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin; Byun, Hyun Woo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk factors, causes, and outcome of clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding that occurs in severely burned patients. The charts of all patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit were analyzed retrospectively over a 4-year period (from January 2006 to December 2009). Cases consisted of burned patients who developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding more than 24 hours after admission to the burn intensive care unit. Controls were a set of patients, in the burn intensive care unit, without upper gastrointestinal bleeding matched with cases for age and gender. Cases and controls were compared with respect to the risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and outcomes. During the study period, clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 20 patients out of all 964 patients. The most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was duodenal ulcer (11 of 20 cases, 55%). In the multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation (p = 0.044) and coagulopathy (p = 0.035) were found to be the independent predictors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage tends to occur more frequently after having prolonged mechanical ventilation and coagulopathy.

  16. Does Preoperative Platelet Function Predict Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed

    Berger, Peter B; Kirchner, H Lester; Wagner, Eric S; Ismail-Sayed, Ibrahim; Yahya, Salma; Benoit, Charles; Blankenship, James C; Carter, Russell; Casale, Alfred S; Green, Sandy M; Scott, Thomas D; Skelding, Kimberly A; Woods, Edward; Henry, Yvette M

    2015-06-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between preoperative platelet function and perioperative bleeding in patients undergoing CABG. There are many ways to measure platelet aggregability. Little is known about their correlations with one another, or with bleeding. We prospectively studied 50 patients undergoing a first isolated off-pump CABG. Thirty-four were exposed to a thienopyridine prior to surgery; 16 were not. Preoperative platelet function was measured by VerifyNow®, TEG®, AggreGuide™, Plateletworks®, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and light transmission aggregometry. Bleeding was assessed 2 ways: drop from pre- to nadir postoperative hematocrit, and chest tube drainage. Correlation coefficients were calculated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Mean age was 62 years. Patient characteristics and surgical details were similar between the thienopyridine-exposed and non-exposed patients. The correlation coefficients between the 4 point-of-care platelet function measurements and hematocrit change ranged from -0.2274 to 0.2882. Only Plateletworks® correlated with drop in hematocrit (r = 0.2882, P = 0.0470). The correlation coefficients between each of the 4 point-of-care platelet function tests and the chest tube drainage were also poor, ranging from -0.3073 to 0.2272. Both AggreGuide™ (r = -0.3073, P = 0.0317) and VASP (r = -0.3187, P = 0.0272) were weakly but significantly correlated with chest tube drainage. The correlation among the 4 point-of-care platelet function measurements was poor, with coefficients ranging from -0.2504 to 0.1968. We observed little correlation among 4 platelet function tests, and between those assays and perioperative bleeding defined 2 different ways. Whether any of these assays should be used to guide decision making in individual patients is unclear. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Continuous Minor Bleeding from Tumor Surface in Patients with Craniopharyngiomas: Case Series of Nonobstructive Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Takuhiro; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mika; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2018-06-05

    Nonobstructive hydrocephalus in patients with craniopharyngiomas is uncommon. We describe our surgical series of 25 consecutive patients with craniopharyngioma who presented with hydrocephalus. Obstructive hydrocephalus was evident in most cases, and nonobstructive hydrocephalus was revealed in three cases. Even after improvement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway obstruction by tumor removal, 10 patients (40%) required CSF diversion. Preoperative imaging study revealed thin intraventricular hemorrhage or superficial siderosis in five cases, and CSF examination revealed hemosiderin-laden phagocytes in one case. These findings indicate continuous bleeding into the CSF that might be associated with CSF malabsorption. We also describe a representative case of craniopharyngioma associated with nonobstructive hydrocephalus due to continuous minor bleeding from the tumor surface in a 62-year-old man with a complaint of disorientation and a decline in daily living activity.Our study demonstrated that minor bleeding into the CSF is a possible mechanism of the development of nonobstructive hydrocephalus in patients with craniopharyngiomas. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Costs of major intracranial, gastrointestinal and other bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation - a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marie; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Klausen Fredslund, Eskild; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dybro, Lars; Paaske Johnsen, Søren

    2017-06-12

    Use of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) involves a trade-off between a reduced risk of ischemic stroke and an increased risk of bleeding events. Different anticoagulation therapies have different safety profiles and data on the societal costs of both ischemic stroke and bleeding events are necessary for assessing the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of different treatment options. To our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated the societal costs of bleeding events in patients with AF. The objective of this study was to estimate the 3-years societal costs of first-incident intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events in Danish patients with AF. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study carried out from a societal perspective and based on data from national Danish registries covering the period 2002-2012. Costs were estimated using a propensity score matching and multivariable regression analysis (first difference OLS) in a cohort design. Average 3-years societal costs attributable to intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events were 27,627, 17,868, and 12,384 EUR per patient, respectively (2015 prices). Existing evidence shows that the corresponding costs of ischemic stroke were 24,084 EUR per patient (2012 prices). The average costs of bleeding events did not differ between patients with AF who were on oral anticoagulation therapy prior to the event and patients who were not. The societal costs attributable to major bleeding events in patients with AF are significant. Intracranial haemorrhages are most costly to society with average costs of similar magnitude as the costs of ischemic stroke. The average costs of gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events are lower than the costs of intracranial haemorrhages, but still substantial. Knowledge about the relative size of the costs of bleeding events compared to ischemic stroke in patients with AF constitutes

  19. Permissive hypotension in bleeding trauma patients: helpful or not and when?

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Stavros; Gemenetzis, George; Kocher, Hemant M; Aloizos, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Grammenos, Stylianos

    2013-12-01

    Severity of hemorrhage and rate of bleeding are fundamental factors in the outcomes of trauma. Intravenous administration of fluid is the basic treatment to maintain blood pressure until bleeding is controlled. The main guideline, used almost worldwide, Advanced Trauma Life Support, established by the American College of Surgeons in 1976, calls for aggressive administration of intravenous fluids, primarily crystalloid solutions. Several other guidelines, such as Prehospital Trauma Life Support, Trauma Evaluation and Management, and Advanced Trauma Operative Management, are applied according to a patient's current condition. However, the ideal strategy remains unclear. With permissive hypotension, also known as hypotensive resuscitation, fluid administration is less aggressive. The available models of permissive hypotension are based on hypotheses in hypovolemic physiology and restricted clinical trials in animals. Before these models can be used in patients, randomized, controlled clinical trials are necessary.

  20. Spontaneous omental bleeding in a 20-year old patient with hemophilia A. A rare cause for emergency laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Aumann, V; Chiapponi, C; Meyer, F; Wybranski, C; Bruns, C J; Jannasch, O

    2016-11-08

    Spontaneous intraabdominal hemorrhage is a very rare event even in patients with bleeding disorders like hemophilia. Nevertheless this rare case must be considered in patients with coagulopathies presenting with abdominal pain. Prompt radiologic imaging and surgical consultation are of highest priority. Here we report on a 20-year-old patient with moderate hemophilia A, who underwent emergency laparotomy for a spontaneous idiopathic bleeding of the omentum majus. There are few cases in the literature on this sort of event in patients with hemophilia, who mostly suffer from spontaneous joint bleedings. These patients require an intensive, interdisciplinary perioperative care, involving haematologists, surgeons, radiologists and anesthesists. Finally we discuss, whether an optimized, individually adapted treatment with coagulation factors might possibly have prevented this bleeding event in this patient.

  1. Therapeutic Endoscopy for the Control of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Banc-Husu, Anna M; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jaffe, David L; Kochman, Michael L; Rajala, Michael W; Mamula, Petar

    2017-04-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most common indications for urgent endoscopy in the pediatric setting. The majority of these procedures are performed for control of variceal bleeding, with few performed for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (NVUGI) bleeding. The data on therapeutic endoscopy for NVUGI are sparse. The aims of our study were to review our experience with NVUGI bleeding, describe technical aspects and outcomes of therapeutic endoscopy, and determine gastroenterology fellows' training opportunities according to the national training guidelines. We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy database (Endoworks, Olympus Inc, Center Valley, PA) from January 2009 to December 2014. The search used the following keywords: bleeding, hematemesis, melena, injection, epinephrine, cautery, clip, and argon plasma coagulation. The collected data included demographics, description of bleeding lesion and medical/endoscopic therapy, rate of rebleeding, relevant laboratories, physical examination, and need for transfusion and surgery. The study was approved by the institutional review board. During the study period 12,737 upper endoscopies (esophagogastroduodenoscopies) were performed. A total of 15 patients underwent 17 esophagogastroduodenoscopies that required therapeutic intervention to control bleeding (1:750 procedures). The mean ± standard deviation (median) age of patients who required endoscopic intervention was 11.6 ± 6.0 years (14.0 years). Seven out of 17 patients received dual therapy to control the bleeding lesions. All but 3 patients received medical therapy with intravenous proton pump inhibitor, and 3 received octreotide infusions. Six of the patients experienced rebleeding (40%), with 4 out of 6 initially only receiving single modality therapy. Two of these patients eventually required surgical intervention to control bleeding and both patients presented with bleeding duodenal ulcers. There were no cases of aspiration

  2. Evaluation of nasogastric tubes to enable differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients with melena.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Boris; Olsha, Oded; Younis, Aurwa; Daskal, Yaakov; Granovsky, Emil; Alfici, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common surgical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate how insertion of the nasogastric tube may enable differentiation between upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with melena. A retrospective study involving patients admitted to our surgery division with a melena was carried out between the years 2010 and 2012. A total of 386 patients were included in the study. Of these, 279 (72.2%) patients had negative nasogastric aspirate. The sensitivity of examination of nasogastric aspirate to establish the upper GI as the source of bleeding was only 28% and the negative predictive value of a negative nasogastric aspirate was less than 1%. Most patients who initially presented with melena and were found to have upper GI bleeding had a negative nasogastric aspirate. Insertion of a nasogastric tube does not affect the clinical decision to perform upper endoscopy and should not be routinely carried out.

  3. Prognostic Value of AIMS65 Score in Cirrhotic Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gaduputi, Vinaya; Abdulsamad, Molham; Tariq, Hassan; Rafeeq, Ahmed; Abbas, Naeem; Kumbum, Kavitha; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Unlike Rockall scoring system, AIMS65 is based only on clinical and laboratory features. In this study we investigated the correlation between the AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score, in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted with overt UGIB and undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). AIMS65 and Rockall scores were calculated at the time of admission. We investigated the correlation between both scores along with stigmata of bleed seen on endoscopy. Results. A total of 1255 patients were studied. 152 patients were cirrhotic while 1103 patients were noncirrhotic. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 and Total Rockall scores in patients of both groups. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score in noncirrhotics but not cirrhotics. AIMS65 scores in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic groups were significantly higher in patients who died from UGIB than in patients who did not. Conclusion. We observed statistically significant correlation between AIMS65 score and length of hospitalization and mortality in noncirrhotic patients. We found that AIMS65 score paralleled the endoscopic grading of lesion causing UGIB in noncirrhotics. AIMS65 score correlated only with mortality but not the length of hospitalization or endoscopic stigmata of bleed in cirrhotics.

  4. Aminocaproic acid for the management of bleeding in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: Four adult case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Leo F; Reardon, David P; Camp, Phillip C; Weinhouse, Gerald L; Silver, David A; Couper, Gregory S; Connors, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is associated with a significant risk of bleeding and thrombosis. Despite high rates of bleeding and bleeding-related mortality in patients on ECMO, there is little evidence available to guide clinicians in the management of ECMO-associated bleeding. We report the use of aminocaproic acid in four patients with bleeding on ECMO and a review of the literature. High D-dimer levels and low fibrinogen levels suggested that an antifibrinolytic agent may be effective as an adjunct to control bleeding. After aminocaproic acid administration, bleeding was controlled in each patient as evidenced by clinical and laboratory parameters. One patient suffered a cardiac arrest and care was withdrawn. In patients on ECMO with evidence of fibrinolysis, aminocaproic acid may be an effective option to control bleeding and to stabilize clot formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Baveno VI Recommendation on Avoidance of Screening Endoscopy in Cirrhotic Patients: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mário Jorge; Bernardes, Carlos; Pinto, João; Loureiro, Rafaela; Duarte, Pedro; Mendes, Milena; Calinas, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies assessed the predictive value of liver transient elastography, combined or not with platelet count, for the presence of esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis, and multiple cutoffs have been proposed. The Baveno VI consensus states that patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease, liver stiffness <20 kPa, and a platelet count >150,000 have a very low risk of having varices requiring treatment and can avoid screening endoscopy. We aimed to validate this recommendation in a cohort of cirrhotic patients. Methods Retrospective analysis of all patients evaluated at the Gastroenterology Department (Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central) between September 2009 and October 2015 with a liver stiffness (FibroScan®) compatible with liver cirrhosis as well as upper endoscopy and blood tests within 12 months from elastography. Patients on propranolol ≥80 mg/day or carvedilol ≥12.5 mg/day, as well as those with previous variceal bleeding, variceal endoscopic treatments, or cirrhosis decompensations were excluded. We validated the new Baveno VI recommendation and explored alternative cutoffs. Results Ninety-seven patients were analyzed, 76.3% (74/97) male, mean age 54.3 ± 11.2 years. Most patients (55.7%) had no varices and 14.4% had varices requiring treatment. Most patients (78.4%) had cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis C. If the new Baveno VI recommendation had been applied to this cohort, upper endoscopy would have been avoided in 11.3% (11/97) of patients, none of them with esophageal varices requiring treatment: specificity 100%, sensitivity 13.3%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 16.3% for absence of varices requiring treatment. If screening endoscopy had been avoided in those patients with liver stiffness <30 kPa and platelet count ≥120,000, endoscopy would have been avoided in 27.8% (27/97) of patients, none of whom with esophageal varices requiring treatment: specificity 100

  6. Overall mortality among patients surviving an episode of peptic ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ruigomez, A.; Rodriguez, L. A.; Hasselgren, G.; Johansson, S.; Wallander, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—The authors investigated whether patients who have survived an acute episode of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) have an excess long term all cause mortality compared with the general population free of PUB.
DESIGN—Follow up study of previously identified cohort of patients with a PUB episode and a general population cohort.
SETTING—The source population included all people aged 30 to 89 years, registered with general practitioners in the United Kingdom.
PATIENTS—All patients alive one month after the PUB episode constituted the cohort of PUB patients (n=978). A control group of 5000 people was randomly sampled from the source population. The same eligibility criteria as for patients with PUB were applied to the control series. Also, controls had to be free of PUB before start date.
MAIN RESULTS—Relative risk of mortality among PUB patients was 2.1, 95%CI: 1.7, 2.6) compared with the general population. This increased mortality risk occurred mainly in the patients less than 60 years old. No difference was observed between men and women. The excess mortality was not only circumscribed to deaths attributable to recurrent gastrointestinal bleed, but also cardiovascular, cancer and other causes.
CONCLUSIONS—People who have survived an acute episode of PUB have a reduced long term survival compared with the general population.This reduction was stronger among middle age patients than in the elderly.


Keywords: cohort study; mortality; peptic ulcer; bleeding; population-based study PMID:10715746

  7. Differential Prognostic Impact on Mortality of Myocardial Infarction Compared With Bleeding Severity in Contemporary Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Caneiro-Queija, Berenice; Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Flores Blanco, Pedro; López-Cuenca, Ángel; Cobas-Paz, Rafael; Gómez-Molina, Miriam; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Manuel; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco; Valdés-Chávarri, Mariano; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2018-04-12

    The impact on mortality of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with the specific degree of bleeding severity occurring after discharge in acute coronary syndrome is poorly characterized. Defining this relationship may help to achieve a favorable therapeutic risk-benefit balance. Using Cox-based shared frailty models, we assessed the relationship between mortality and postdischarge MI and bleeding severity-graded according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC)-in 4229 acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing in-hospital coronary arteriography between January 2012 and December 2015. Both MI (HR, 5.8; 95%CI, 3.7-9.8) and bleeding (HR, 5.1; 95%CI, 3.6-7.7) were associated with mortality. Myocardial infarction had a stronger impact on mortality than BARC type 2 and 3a bleedings: (RRr, 3.8 and 1.9; P < .05), respectively, but was equivalent to BARC type 3b (RRr, 0.9; P = .88). Mortality risk after MI was significantly lower than after BARC type 3c bleeding (RRr, 0.25; P < .001). Mortality was higher after an MI in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) at the time of the event (HR, 2.9; 95%CI, 1.8-4.5) than in those off-DAPT (HR, 1.5; 95%CI, 0.7-3.4). In contrast, mortality was lower after a bleeding event in patients on-DAPT (HR, 1.6; 95%CI, 1.1-2.6) than in those off-DAPT (HR, 3.2; 95%CI, 1.7-5.8). The differential effect on mortality of a postdischarge MI vs bleeding largely depends on bleeding severity. The DAPT status at the time of MI or bleeding is a modifier of subsequent mortality risk. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of recombinant factor VII for refractory bleeding in nonhemophilic trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Jeffrey F; Ahrens, Christine L; Tyburski, James G; Wilson, Robert F

    2005-03-01

    Recombinant factor VII (rFVII) is an attractive agent to control refractory, coagulopathic bleeding in patients following major surgery. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the published experiences of rFVII in adult, nonhemophilic, surgical and trauma patients. A computerized literature search was conducted to identify articles pertaining to rFVII use for refractory bleeding in adult, nonhemophilic, surgical patients. The selected articles were reviewed and the applicable data was analyzed. A total of 117 patients were found in 8 case series and 24 case reports. Overall, rFVII was effective in restoring hemostasis in 99/117 (85%) patients with 76/99 (77%) surviving to hospital discharge. In trauma patients, hemostasis was achieved in 20/26 (77%) patients and 17/20 (85%) survived. There were 5 (4%) thromboembolic events observed in the 117 cases and much disparity was noted with the initial dose. Severe acidosis affected the activity of rFVII. Recombinant factor VII is an effective therapeutic agent for achieving hemostasis in nonhemophilic surgical patients. Published clinical experiences, however, are limited to small case series and case reports.

  9. Risk of bleeding in surgical patients treated with topical bovine thrombin sealants: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew W; Clark, John; Crean, Sheila; Samudrala, Srinath

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the most anticipated, but potentially serious complications during or after surgery are bleeding events. Among the many potential factors associated with bleeding complications in surgery, the use of bovine thrombin has been anecdotally identified as a possible cause of increased bleeding risk. Most of these reports of bleeding events in association with the use of topical bovine thrombin have been limited to case reports lacking clear cause and effect relationship determination. Recent studies have failed to establish significant differences in the rates of bleeding events between those treated with bovine thrombin and those treated with either human or recombinant thrombin. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE for the most recent past 10 years (1997–2007) and identified all published studies that reported a study of surgical patients with a clear objective to examine the risk of bleeding events in surgical patients. We also specifically noted the reporting of any topical bovine thrombin used during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine whether there were any differences in the risk of bleeds in general surgical populations as compared to those studies that reported exposure to topical bovine thrombin. Results We identified 21 clinical studies that addressed the risk of bleeding in surgery. Of these, 5 studies analyzed the use of bovine thrombin sealants in surgical patients. There were no standardized definitions for bleeding events employed across these studies. The rates of bleeds in the general surgery studies ranged from 0.1%–20.2%, with most studies reporting rates between 2.6%–4%. The rates of bleeding events ranged from 0.0%–13% in the bovine thrombin studies with most studies reporting between a 2%–3% rate. Conclusion The risk of bleeds was not clearly different in those studies reporting use of bovine thrombin in all patients compared to the other surgical populations studied. A well-designed and well-controlled study

  10. Proton-pump inhibitors for prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Rim; Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Kim, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sung Eun

    2015-04-28

    To investigate the preventive effects of low-dose proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in end-stage renal disease. This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 544 patients with end-stage renal disease who started dialysis at our center between 2005 and 2013. We examined the incidence of UGIB in 175 patients treated with low-dose PPIs and 369 patients not treated with PPIs (control group). During the study period, 41 patients developed UGIB, a rate of 14.4/1000 person-years. The mean time between the start of dialysis and UGIB events was 26.3 ± 29.6 mo. Bleeding occurred in only two patients in the PPI group (2.5/1000 person-years) and in 39 patients in the control group (19.2/1000 person-years). Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative non-bleeding survival showed that the probability of UGIB was significantly lower in the PPI group than in the control group (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that coronary artery disease, PPI use, anti-coagulation, and anti-platelet therapy were associated with UGIB. After adjustments for the potential factors influencing risk of UGIB, PPI use was shown to be significantly beneficial in reducing UGIB compared to the control group (HR = 13.7, 95%CI: 1.8-101.6; P = 0.011). The use of low-dose PPIs in patients with end-stage renal disease is associated with a low frequency of UGIB.

  11. Management of Gastric Varices in the Pediatric Population with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) Utilizing Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis with or without Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wspikes@yahoo.com; Anderson, Curtis L., E-mail: dranderson@southfloridavascular.com; Patel, Rahul S., E-mail: patelr516@gmail.com

    It is unknown whether spontaneous gastrorenal shunts actually develop in the pediatric population. The minimum age documented in studies from Asia is 32 (range 32–44) years. This study describes three pediatric patients undergoing balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for bleeding gastric varices with two of the three patients undergoing combined partial splenic embolization. The first BRTO is a selective-BRTO via a surgical splenorenal shunt (15 years old) and the other two patients underwent conventional-BRTO via a spontaneous gastrorenal shunt (8 and 14 years old). The recurrent significant bleeding that they exhibited before the combined endovascular therapy did not recur for an averagemore » of 7.1 (range 1.4–14) months. In the second patient, quantitative digitally subtracted angiography was utilized to evaluate the inline portal venous flow before and after BRTO.« less

  12. Angiographic embolization in the treatment of intrahepatic arterial bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ya-Lin; Zhang, Hong-Yi; He, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Cheng-Li; Xiao, Mei; Zhen, Yu-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Angiographic embolization (AE) as an adjunct non-operative treatment of intrahepatic arterial bleeding has been widely used. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective AE in patients with hepatic trauma. Seventy patients with intrahepatic arterial bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma who had undergone selective AE in 10 years at this institution were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for selective AE included active extravasation on contrast-enhanced CT, an episode of hypotension or a decrease in hemoglobin level during the non-operative treatment. The data of the patients included demographics, grade of liver injuries, mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma, associated intra-abdominal injuries, indications for AE, angiographic findings, type of AE, and AE-related hepatobiliary complications. In the 70 patients, 32 (45.71%) had high-grade liver injuries. Extravazation during the early arterial phase mainly involved the right hepatic segments. Thirteen (18.57%) patients underwent embolization of intrahepatic branches and the extrahepatic trunk and these patients all developed AE-related hepatobiliary complications. In 19 patients with AE-related complications, 14 received minimally invasive treatment and recovered without severe sequelae. AE is an adjunct treatment for liver injuries. Selective and/or super-selective AE should be advocated to decrease the incidence and severity of AE-related hepatobiliary complications.

  13. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving dabigatran etexilate: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Di Minno, Alessandro; Tremoli, Elena; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Evidence on the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with dabigatran etexilate (DE) is contrasting. We performed a meta-analysis of literature to address this issue. Studies on GI bleeding risk in patients receiving DE or vitamin-K antagonists (VKA) were systematically searched. Twenty-three studies (26 datasets) showed no difference in the GI bleeding risk between the 250,871 patients treated with DE and the 460,386 receiving VKA (OR: 1.052, 95% CI: 0.815, 1.359). Similar results were obtained when pooling together adjusted ORs/HRs, obtained by means of multivariate analysis (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.914, 1.222). Compared with VKA, DE use was associated with a significantly lower risk of upper GI (OR: 0.742, 95% CI: 0.569, 0.968), but not of lower GI bleedings (OR: 1.208, 95% CI: 0.902, 1.619). Furthermore, no significant difference in the GI bleeding risk was found when data on DE 110 mg and DE 150 mg twice-daily were separately compared with VKA. No difference in GI bleeding risk was found between DE and VKA. These results were confirmed for both dosages of DE and when specifically analyzing lower GI bleeding. In contrast, the risk of upper GI bleeding was lower with DE than with VKA. KEY MESSAGES No difference in the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be found between dabigatran etexilate (DE) and vitamin K-antagonists (VKA). These results are confirmed for both dosages of DE. The risk of upper GI bleeding is lower with DE than with VKA.

  14. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O; Tuncer, Serap F; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors.

  15. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed Central

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O.; Tuncer, Serap F.; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Conclusion: A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors. PMID:27464864

  16. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into study 2. In study 1, 44 eligible patients were divided into a control group (n = 13), a general liquid nutrient (snack) group (n = 15), and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture (BCAA-EN) group (n = 16). In study 2, 48 eligible patients were divided into a BCAA group (n = 24) and a BCAA-EN group (n = 24). The nutritional status including non-protein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) levels, weight gain, and albumin were evaluated on days 0, 7, and 50. In study 1, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 as compared with the snack group. In study 2, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 and in weight levels on day 50 relative to the BCAA group, while the BCAA group showed improved serum albumin levels on day 7 compared to the BCAA-EN group. The BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture maintained NPRQ and weight in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that supplements including both BCAA and a nutritional energy supplement would be beneficial for cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices.

  17. A retrospective study demonstrating properties of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bor, Serhat; Dağli, Ulkü; Sarer, Banu; Gürel, Selim; Tözün, Nurdan; Sıvrı, Bülent; Akbaş, Türkay; Sahın, Burhan; Memık, Faruk; Batur, Yücel

    2011-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcer are considered as the major factors for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding. The objective of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and etiologic factors, management and outcome of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system bleeding in Turkey. Patients who admitted to hospitals with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding and in whom upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed were enrolled in this retrospective study. The detailed data of medical history, comorbid diseases, medications, admission to intensive care units, Helicobacter pylori infection, blood transfusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and treatment outcome were documented. The most frequent causes of bleeding (%) were duodenal ulcer (49.4), gastric ulcer (22.8), erosion (9.6), and cancer (2.2) among 1,711 lesions in endoscopic appearances of 1,339 patients from six centers. Seven hundred and four patients were evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection and the test was positive in 45.6% of those patients. Comorbid diseases were present in 59.2% of the patients. The percentage of patients using acetylsalicylic acid and/or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was 54.3%. Bleeding was stopped with medical therapy in 66.9%. Only 3.7% of the patients underwent emergency surgery, and a 1.1% mortality rate was determined. Patients with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding were significantly older, more likely to be male, and more likely to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Though most of the patients were using gastro-protective agents, duodenal and gastric ulcers were the contributing factors in more than 70% of the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The extensive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is a hazardous health issue considering the use of these drugs in half of the patients.

  18. Multinational Prospective Study of Patient-Reported Outcomes After Prostate Radiation Therapy: Detailed Assessment of Rectal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Y.; Daignault-Newton, Stephanie; Heath, Gerard

    Purpose: The new short Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tool has removed the rectal bleeding question from the previous much longer version, EPIC-26. Herein, we assess the impact of losing the dedicated rectal bleeding question in 2 independent prospective multicenter cohorts. Methods and Materials: In a prospective multicenter test cohort (n=865), EPIC-26 patient-reported HRQOL data were collected for 2 years after treatment from patients treated with prostate radiation therapy from 2003 to 2011. A second prospective multicenter cohort (n=442) was used for independent validation. A repeated-effects model was used to predictmore » the change from baseline in bowel summary scores from longer EPIC instruments using the change in EPIC-CP bowel summary scores with and without rectal bleeding scores. Results: Two years after radiation therapy, 91% of patients were free of bleeding, and only 2.6% reported bothersome bleeding problems. Correlations between EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP bowel scores were very high (r{sup 2}=0.90-0.96) and were statistically improved with the addition of rectal bleeding information (r{sup 2}=0.94-0.98). Considering all patients, only 0.2% of patients in the test cohort and 0.7% in the validation cohort reported bothersome bleeding and had clinically relevant HRQOL changes missed with EPIC-CP. However, of the 2.6% (n=17) of men with bothersome rectal bleeding in the test cohort, EPIC-CP failed to capture 1 patient (6%) as experiencing meaningful declines in bowel HRQOL. Conclusions: Modern prostate radiation therapy results in exceptionally low rates of bothersome rectal bleeding, and <1% of patients experience bothersome bleeding and are not captured by EPIC-CP as having meaningful HRQOL declines after radiation therapy. However, in the small subset of patients with bothersome rectal bleeding, the longer EPIC-26 should strongly be considered, given its

  19. Predictive factors of mortality within 30 days in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Min, Bo Ram; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common medical emergency that can be life threatening. This study evaluated predictive factors of 30-day mortality in patients with this condition. A prospective observational study was conducted at a single hospital between April 2010 and November 2012, and 336 patients with symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Clinical characteristics and endoscopic findings were reviewed to identify potential factors associated with 30-day mortality. Overall, 184 patients were included in the study (men, 79.3%; mean age, 59.81 years), and 16 patients died within 30 days (8.7%). Multivariate analyses revealed that comorbidity of diabetes mellitus (DM) or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mmHg) during hospitalization were significant predictive factors of 30-day mortality. Comorbidity of DM or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hemodynamic instability during hospitalization were predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with NVUGIB. These results will help guide the management of patients with this condition.

  20. The hemostatic efficacy of chitosan-pads in hemodialysis patients with significant bleeding tendency.

    PubMed

    Misgav, Mudi; Lubetszki, Ahron; Brutman-Barazani, Tami; Martinowitz, Uri; Kenet, Gili

    2017-05-15

    Patients on chronic hemodialysis often have acquired coagulopathy that can aggravate bleeding from puncture site after needle extraction. Chitosan-based pads have been reported to accelerate hemostasis even in the presence of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the chitosan pads compared to gauze pads, applied for local hemostasis. A crossover study in a cohort of patients on hemodialysis with extended time to hemostasis after needle extraction. At the end of each dialysis, either gauze or chitosan pad was applied on both access points (arterial and venous). The type of pad was changed in the next dialysis all together 5 times in each patient (10 applications per patient for every pad). A total of 288 applications, 144 for each type of pad, were performed in 15 patients. The average time to hemostasis for the entire group was significantly shorter with the chitosan pads compared to the regular gauze pads ("arterial" point 3 vs. 18.5 min, p<0.001 "venous" access 2.8 vs. 13.2 min, p<0.001, respectively). Chitosan pads significantly reduce time to hemostasis and should be considered for the treatment of accessible bleeds in patients with coagulopathy.

  1. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Schulman, S; Angerås, U; Bergqvist, D; Eriksson, B; Lassen, M R; Fisher, W

    2010-01-01

    The definition of major bleeding varies between studies on surgical patients, particularly regarding the criteria for surgical wound-related bleeding. This diversity contributes to the difficulties in comparing data between trials. The Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC), through its subcommittee on Control of Anticoagulation, of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis has previously published a recommendation for a harmonized definition of major bleeding in non-surgical studies. That definition has been adopted by the European Medicines Agency and is currently used in several non-surgical trials. A preliminary proposal for a parallel definition for surgical studies was presented at the 54(th) Annual Meeting of the SSC in Vienna, July 2008. Based on those discussions and further consultations with European and North American surgeons with experience from clinical trials a definition has been developed that should be applicable to all agents that interfere with hemostasis. The definition and the text that follows have been reviewed and approved by relevant co-chairs of the subcommittee and by the Executive Committee of the SSC. The intention is to seek approval of this definition from the regulatory authorities to enhance its incorporation into future clinical trial protocols.

  2. Evaluation of the predictive performance of bleeding risk scores in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Beshir, S A; Aziz, Z; Yap, L B; Chee, K H; Lo, Y L

    2018-04-01

    Bleeding risk scores (BRSs) aid in the assessment of oral anticoagulant-related bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ideally, the applicability of a BRS needs to be assessed, prior to its routine use in a population other than the original derivation cohort. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of 6 established BRSs to predict major or clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) events associated with the use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) among Malaysian patients. The pharmacy supply database and the medical records of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) receiving warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban at two tertiary hospitals were reviewed. Patients who experienced an OAC-associated major or CRB event within 12 months of follow-up, or who have received OAC therapy for at least 1 year, were identified. The BRSs were fitted separately into patient data. The discrimination and the calibration of these BRSs as well as the factors associated with bleeding events were then assessed. A total of 1017 patients with at least 1-year follow-up period, or those who developed a bleeding event within 1 year of OAC use, were recruited. Of which, 23 patients experienced a first major bleeding event, whereas 76 patients, a first CRB event. Multivariate logistic regression results show that age of 75 or older, prior bleeding and male gender are associated with major bleeding events. On the other hand, prior gastrointestinal bleeding, a haematocrit value of less than 30% and renal impairment are independent predictors of CRB events. All the BRSs show a satisfactory calibration for major and CRB events. Among these BRSs, only HEMORR 2 HAGES (C-statistic = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.82, P < .001) and ATRIA score (C-statistic = 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.82, P < .001) show acceptable discrimination performance for major bleeding events. All the 6 BRSs, however, lack acceptable predictive performance for CRB events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  3. Pantoprazole before Endoscopy in Patients with Gastroduodenal Ulcer Bleeding: Does the duration of Infusion and Ulcer Location Influence the Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Rácz, Istvan; Szalai, Milan; Dancs, Nora; Kárász, Tibor; Szabó, Andrea; Csöndes, Mihaly; Horváth, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preemptive pantoprazole infusion on early endoscopic findings in patients with acute ulcer bleeding. Records of 333 patients admitted with acute ulcer bleeding were analyzed. Ulcer bleeders were given either 80 mg bolus of pantoprazole followed by continuous infusion of 8 mg per hour or saline infusion until endoscopy. In 93 patients saline infusion whereas in 240 patients bolus plus infusion of pantoprazole was administrated with mean (±SD) durations of 5.45 ± 12.9 hours and 6.9 ± 13.2 hours, respectively (P = 0.29). Actively bleeding ulcers were detected in 46/240 (19.2%) of cases in the pantoprazole group as compared with 23/93 (24.7%) in the saline infusion group (P = 0.26). Different durations of pantoprazole infusion (0–4 hours, >4 hours, and >6 hours) had no significant effect on endoscopic and clinical outcome parameters in duodenal ulcer bleeders. Gastric ulcer bleeders on pantoprazole infusion longer than 4 and 6 hours before endoscopy had actively bleeding ulcers in 4.3% and 5% compared to the 19.5% active bleeding rate in the saline group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04). Preemptive infusion of high-dose pantoprazole longer than 4 hours before endoscopy decreased the ratio of active bleeding only in gastric but not in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:23125849

  4. Lactate Parameters Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Min, Yang Won; Bae, Joohwan; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2017-11-01

    The predictive role of lactate in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has been suggested. This study evaluated several lactate parameters in terms of predicting outcomes of bleeding patients and sought to establish a new scoring model by combining lactate parameters and the AIMS65 score. A total of 114 patients with NVUGIB who underwent serum lactate level testing at least twice and endoscopic hemostasis within 24 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between five lactate parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated and the predictive power of lactate parameter combined AIMS65s (L-AIMS65s) and AIMS56 scoring was compared. The most common cause of bleeding was gastric ulcer (48.2%). Lactate clearance rate (LCR) was associated with 30-day rebleeding (odds ratio [OR], 0.931; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872-0.994; P = 0.033). Initial lactate (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017), maximal lactate (OR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.037-1.573; P = 0.021), and average lactate (OR, 1.535; 95% CI, 1.137-2.072; P = 0.005) levels were associated with 30-day mortality. Initial lactate (OR, 1.213; 95% CI, 1.027-1.432; P = 0.023), maximal lactate (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.074-1.504; P = 0.005), and average lactate (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.150-1.959; P = 0.003) levels were associated with admission over 7 days. Although L-AIMS65s showed the highest area under the curve for prediction of each outcome, differences between L-AIMS65s and AIMS65 did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, lactate parameters have a prognostic role in patients with NVUGIB. However, they do not increase the predictive power of AIMS65 when combined. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in critically ill pediatric patients at risk of bleeding.

    PubMed

    García-Soler, P; Camacho Alonso, J M; González-Gómez, J M; Milano-Manso, G

    2017-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and usefulness of noninvasive continuous hemoglobin (Hb) monitoring in critically ill patients at risk of bleeding. An observational prospective study was made, comparing core laboratory Hb measurement (LabHb) as the gold standard versus transcutaneous hemoglobin monitoring (SpHb). Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary University Hospital. Patients weighing >3kg at risk of bleeding. SpHb was measured using the Radical7 pulse co-oximeter (Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) each time a blood sample was drawn for core laboratory analysis (Siemens ADVIA 2120i). Sociodemographic characteristics, perfusion index (PI), pleth variability index, heart rate, SaO 2 , rectal temperature, low signal quality and other events that can interfere with measurement. A total of 284 measurements were made (80 patients). Mean LabHb was 11.7±2.05g/dl. Mean SpHb was 12.32±2g/dl (Pearson 0.72, R 2 0.52). The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.69 (95%CI 0.55-0.78)(p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.07 ±1.46g/dl. A lower PI and higher temperature independently increased the risk of low signal quality (OR 0.531 [95%CI 0.32-0.88] and 0.529 [95%CI 0.33-0.85], respectively). SpHb shows a good overall correlation to LabHb, though with wide limits of agreement. Its main advantage is continuous monitoring of patients at risk of bleeding. The reliability of the method is limited in cases with poor peripheral perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful Endoscopic Hemostasis Is a Protective Factor for Rebleeding and Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Jae; Cha, Jae Myung; Park, Jae Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2016-07-01

    Rebleeding and mortality rates remain high in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To identify clinical and endoscopic risk factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent upper endoscopic procedures between July 2006 and February 2013. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were compared among patients with and without rebleeding and mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. After excluding 64 patients, data for 689 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed. Peptic ulcer (62.6 %) was by far the most common source of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention was performed within 24 h in 99.0 % of patients, and successful endoscopic hemostasis was possible in 80.7 % of patients. The 30-day rebleeding rate was 13.1 % (n = 93). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis was found to be the only independent risk factor for rebleeding (odds ratio 79.6; 95 % confidence interval 37.8-167.6; p = 0.000). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.2 % (n = 23). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis (odds ratio 4.9; 95 % confidence interval 1.7-13.9; p = 0.003) was also associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Successful endoscopic hemostasis is an independent protective factor for both rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Bleeding complications and mortality in warfarin-treated VTE patients, dependence of INR variability and iTTR.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Per; Renlund, Henrik; Svensson, Peter J; Själander, Anders

    2017-01-05

    High quality of warfarin treatment is important to prevent recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) without bleeding complications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual time in therapeutic range (iTTR) and International Normalised Ratio (INR) variability on bleeding risk and mortality in a large cohort of well-managed patients with warfarin due to VTE. A cohort of 16612 patients corresponding to 19502 treatment periods with warfarin due to VTE between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the Swedish national quality register AuriculA and matched with the Swedish National Patient Register for bleeding complications and background characteristics and the Cause of death register for occurrence and date of death. The rate of bleeding was 1.79 (confidence interval (CI) 95 % 1.66-1.93) per 100 treatment years among all patients. Those with poor warfarin treatment quality had a higher rate of clinically relevant bleeding, both when measured as iTTR below 70 %, 2.91 (CI 95 % 2.61-3.21) or as INR variability over the mean value 0.85, 2.61 (CI 95 % 2.36-2.86). Among those with both high INR variability and low iTTR the risk of clinically relevant bleeding was clearly increased hazard ratio (HR) 3.47 (CI 95 % 2.89-4.17). A similar result was found for all-cause mortality with a HR of 3.67 (CI 95 % 3.02-4.47). Both a low iTTR and a high INR variability increase the risk of bleeding complications or mortality. When combining the two treatment quality indicators patients at particular high risk of bleeding or death can be identified.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a prognostic nomogram for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zheng, Ji-Na; Zhou, Yi-Fan; Han, Yi-Jing; Zou, Tian-Tian; Liu, Wen-Yue; Braddock, Martin; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a complication with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients presenting with cirrhosis. Today, there exist few accurate scoring models specifically designed for mortality risk assessment in critically ill cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CICGIB). Our aim was to develop and evaluate a novel nomogram-based model specific for CICGIB. Overall, 540 consecutive CICGIB patients were enrolled. On the basis of Cox regression analyses, the nomogram was constructed to estimate the probability of 30-day, 90-day, 270-day, and 1-year survival. An upper gastrointestinal bleeding-chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (UGIB-CLIF-SOFA) score was derived from the nomogram. Performance assessment and internal validation of the model were performed using Harrell's concordance index (C-index), calibration plot, and bootstrap sample procedures. UGIB-CLIF-SOFA was also compared with other prognostic models, such as CLIF-SOFA and model for end-stage liver disease, using C-indices. Eight independent factors derived from Cox analysis (including bilirubin, creatinine, international normalized ratio, sodium, albumin, mean artery pressure, vasopressin used, and hematocrit decrease>10%) were assembled into the nomogram and the UGIB-CLIF-SOFA score. The calibration plots showed optimal agreement between nomogram prediction and actual observation. The C-index of the nomogram using bootstrap (0.729; 95% confidence interval: 0.689-0.766) was higher than that of the other models for predicting survival of CICGIB. We have developed and internally validated a novel nomogram and an easy-to-use scoring system that accurately predicts the mortality probability of CICGIB on the basis of eight easy-to-obtain parameters. External validation is now warranted in future clinical studies.

  10. Long-term bleeding risk prediction in 'real world' patients with atrial fibrillation: Comparison of the HAS-BLED and ABC-Bleeding risk scores. The Murcia Atrial Fibrillation Project.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Roldan, Vanessa; Vicente, Vicente; Valdés, Mariano; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-10-05

    Risk scores in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) based on clinical factors alone generally have only modest predictive value for predicting high risk patients that sustain events. Biomarkers might be an attractive prognostic tool to improve bleeding risk prediction. The new ABC-Bleeding score performed better than HAS-BLED score in a clinical trial cohort but has not been externally validated. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive performance of the ABC-Bleeding score compared to HAS-BLED score in an independent "real-world" anticoagulated AF patients with long-term follow-up. We enrolled 1,120 patients stable on vitamin K antagonist treatment. The HAS-BLED and ABC-Bleeding scores were quantified. Predictive values were compared by c-indexes, IDI, NRI, as well as decision curve analysis (DCA). Median HAS-BLED score was 2 (IQR 2-3) and median ABC-Bleeding was 16.5 (IQR 14.3-18.6). After 6.5 years of follow-up, 207 (2.84 %/year) patients had major bleeding events, of which 65 (0.89 %/year) had intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and 85 (1.17 %/year) had gastrointestinal bleeding events (GIB). The c-index of HAS-BLED was significantly higher than ABC-Bleeding for major bleeding (0.583 vs 0.518; p=0.025), GIB (0.596 vs 0.519; p=0.017) and for the composite of ICH-GIB (0.593 vs 0.527; p=0.030). NRI showed a significant negative reclassification for major bleeding and for the composite of ICH-GIB with the ABC-Bleeding score compared to HAS-BLED. Using DCAs, the use of HAS-BLED score gave an approximate net benefit of 4 % over the ABC-Bleeding score. In conclusion, in the first "real-world" validation of the ABC-Bleeding score, HAS-BLED performed significantly better than the ABC-Bleeding score in predicting major bleeding, GIB and the composite of GIB and ICH.

  11. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients anticoagulated with dabigatran compared with warfarin: a retrospective, comparative case review.

    PubMed

    Manatsathit, Wuttiporn; Al-Hamid, Hussein; Leelasinjaroen, Pornchai; Hashmi, Usman; McCullough, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, was found to be effective for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given its predictable pharmacodynamics, laboratory monitoring is not required. Moreover, the risks of overall bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and life-threatening hemorrhage from dabigatran were found to be lower than warfarin. However, a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by dabigatran from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial has raised the concern regarding clinical outcomes of patients with GI bleeding caused by dabigatran compared with warfarin. We retrospectively studied patients who were hospitalized for GI bleeding from dabigatran compared with warfarin with therapeutic anticoagulation monitoring during 2009 to 2012. Initial laboratory findings at presentation, number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBCs), acute kidney injury, clinical outcomes (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia), length of stay, and death were compared. Thirteen patients taking dabigatran and 26 patients</