Sample records for varicocele patients resembles

  1. Antegrade sclerotherapy in adolescent varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Keene, D J B; Cervellione, R M

    2017-06-01

    In the 1970s, Tauber described the antegrade sclerotherapy technique to treat varicoceles, and reported a 10% recurrence rate. The present study aimed to evaluate paediatric success rates and the effect of modifications to the surgical technique. A prospective study was performed of all adolescent patients undergoing antegrade sclerotherapy surgery. Each patient had an idiopathic varicocele with spontaneous venous reflux on Doppler examination, and underwent cannulation of a pampiniform plexus vein via a scrotal incision under general anaesthetic. Aethoxysklerol ® 3% (2 ml/kg) maximum 3 ml was injected into the pampiniform plexus vein under fluoroscopic monitoring. Success was assessed by clinical examination and Doppler ultrasound 3, 6 and 9 months after surgery. Data were presented as median (interquartile range). Patients were split into three groups: Group A - liquid sclerotherapy with Y connector; Group B - liquid sclerotherapy direct to cannula; and Group C - foam sclerotherapy direct to cannula. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the success rates in each group. A total of 91 patients underwent antegrade sclerotherapy. The median age was 14.8 years (range 13.7-15.5). Eleven persistent varicoceles occurred and were diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound. The success rate of surgery was 58% in Group A, 90% in Group B and 96% in Group C. Success was significantly higher in Group B and Group C compared with Group A. No testicular atrophy occurred; two wound infections, two haematomas and one hydrocele were recorded (Table). Introduction of antegrade sclerotherapy in the adolescent population resulted in a safe and cost-effective method for the management of adolescent varicocele. Several modifications to the technique have been introduced to achieve a high success rate (96%) with minimal complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Varicocele among infertile men in Qatar.

    PubMed

    ElBardisi, H; Arafa, M; Rengan, A K; Durairajanayagam, D; AlSaid, S S; Khalafalla, K; AlRumaihi, K; Majzoub, A; Agarwal, A

    2017-05-01

    Objective of this retrospective study was to assess the presence and clinical grade of varicocele among Qatari and non-Qatari men evaluated for infertility. Diagnosis of varicocele was performed clinically and confirmed via colour Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 455 infertile male patients (mean age 36.3 ± 7.6 years) were divided into either Qatari (n = 91, mean age 37.3 ± 9.1 years) or non-Qatari (n = 364, mean age 36.0 ± 7.1 years) groups. Among all patients, 43.1% (n = 196) were confirmed to have varicocele, of which 40 were Qatari and 156 non-Qatari. Among all patients, 171 (37.6%) presented with left-sided varicocele and 25 (5.5%) with bilateral varicocele. Of the 196 patients with varicocele, grade I was given to 40 (20.4%), grade II to 68 (34.7%) and grade III to 88 (44.9%). Grade II and III varicocele were seen significantly more frequently than grade I among all patients and non-Qatari patients (p < .05). Grade II varicocele was seen more frequently than grades I or III among Qatari patients, but difference was not significant. Grade III was seen significantly more frequently than grade I among patients with secondary infertility (p < .05). Varicocele is an important health issue in Qatar among both Qatari and non-Qatari men. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. Aims: To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. Results: There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.94±9.79 vs. 25.27±6.54) and progressive motility (8.15±1.24 vs. 24.95±7.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually. PMID:26185712

  4. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-07-01

    Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Cross-sectional study. The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.94±9.79 vs. 25.27±6.54) and progressive motility (8.15±1.24 vs. 24.95±7.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually.

  5. Clinical experience with the radioisotope varicocele scan as a screening method for the detection of subclinical varicoceles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wheatley, J.K.; Fajman, W.A.; Witten, F.R.

    1982-07-01

    The association of varicoceles and subfertility has been well documented. Although varicoceles remain the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility the diagnosis of small varicoceles remains a challenge. We evaluated 40 men with an isotope blood pooling scan. Seven volunteers served as either positive or negative controls. Complete correlation between physical findings and the isotope scan was found. The 6 patients with obvious clinical varicoceles and a stress pattern on semen analysis all had positive scans. The 18 patients with a stress pattern and who were clinically suspected of having a varicocele all had positive scans. Of 9more » patients evaluated for infertility with a stress pattern but no clinical evidence of varicocele 6 had positive scans. We believe that the isotope scan will prove to be a useful procedure in the detection of nonpalpable varicoceles in selected subfertile men.« less

  6. Varicocele Negatively Affects Sperm Mitochondrial Respiration.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Albani, Denise; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of varicocele on oxidative stress, sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm morphology, and semen parameters. A total of 20 patients with varicocele and 20 normozoospermic subjects without varicocele (control group) were recruited from a medical center for reproductive biology. The levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and seminal lipid peroxides were assessed for both control and varicocele subjects. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. In this study, varicocele patients were compared with men without varicoceles. Oxidative stress was observed in the serum and seminal fluid of varicocele patients. These patients showed an increase of 59% (P <.05) in serum reactive oxygen metabolites and a 3-fold increase in the level of sperm lipid peroxides. A parallel and significant increase (a 2-fold increase; P <.05) in the degree of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was also observed. Varicocele patients showed a 27% decrease (P <.05) in mitochondrial respiratory activity in comparison to the control group. A 32% increase (P <.05) in sperm midpiece defects and a 41% decrease (P <.05) in sperm concentration and motility were also observed. Men with varicocele have increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial respiratory activity. These results correlated with abnormalities in semen parameters. For morphology, these correlated with midpiece defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical approaches for varicocele in pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Parrilli, Alejandra; Escolino, Maria; Esposito, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicocele represents one of the most common surgically correctible urologic anomalies in adolescent males. The best procedure for the treatment of adolescent varicocele has not been established, but with recent advances in minimal access surgery, there have been many reports praising the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy for the surgical correction of varicocele in adolescent. The aim of this review is to compare the results of Palomo’s technique, with retroperitoneoscopic and transperitoneoscopic approaches in adolescent, analyzing recurrence, testicular growth and complications. Methods A literature search on PubMed and Cochrane Database was conducted with regard to management of varicocele in adolescent population. Twenty two English language studies that compared outcome of different minimally invasive treatments or outcome of minimally invasive and traditional surgical treatments for adolescent diagnosed with varicocele were included. Results Intraoperative complications of minimally invasive approaches occur in early cases, but in pediatric urology these procedures would become more efficient with experience and these approaches continue to increase in number. Postoperative hydrocele is the most postoperative compliance of Palom technique, and reports have shown a wide range of variability for his incidence, depending on the technique used for surgical treatment. Literature showed an increase of testicular volume for real growth of testis after surgery, and an intratesticular improvement in sperm quality after minimally invasive approach. In laparoscopic approach reports have showed very low recurrence because allows better vision of collateral veins, and a lymphatic sparing technique permit to identify lymphatic vessels in 100% of cases. Conclusions The literature has shown that laparoscopic varicocelectomy is the surgical approach most commonly reported in adolescent patients, and that its use is increasing for better

  8. Varicocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause testicles to fail to develop normally or shrink. Most varicoceles develop over time. Fortunately, most varicoceles ... tubules. When damaged, as from varicocele, the testicle shrinks and softens. It's not clear what causes the ...

  9. Bilateral varicocele: single transscrotal approach for Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Guglielmo; Minucci, Sergio; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2003-03-01

    To describe the results of a new simple technique of single transscrotal approach for Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy in bilateral varicocele. During the period March 1998-June 2001, overall 341 patients were treated for varicocele using Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy. In 39 of these patients, sclerotherapy was performed bilaterally in the same session whilst in 34, rather than making two incisions at the root of the two hemiscrotums, a single incision was made on the median raphe. During this period, the same approach was used in 4 patients with left varicocele and right hydrocele, 2 patients with left varicocele and right epididymis cyst, 1 patient with bilateral varicocele and bilateral hydrocele, 1 patient with bilateral hydrocele and left varicocele. Maximum ray exposure time was 58 seconds (mean 30). Oro-tracheal intubation was not necessary in any of the patients. In 12 patients, besides local anesthesia, additional sedation was given. Slight bleeding of the wound, occurring in 3 patients, was medicated in the outpatient department. Patients prefer a single incision. When the incision is made on the median raphe, no scars remain. In bilateral varicocele, the single approach reduces invasiveness and increases patient satisfaction.

  10. Effects of acute exercise on the diameter of the spermatic vein, and duration of reflux in patients with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Atar, Murat; Söylemez, Haluk; Oguz, Fatih; Beytur, Ali; Altunoluk, Bülent; Kahraman, Bayram; Islamoglu, Yahya; Soylu, Ahmet

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exercise on the diameter of the spermatic vein, and on the duration of reflux in patients with varicocele. The study included 38 patients with complaints of infertility and scrotal pain between 2009 and 2010. The diagnoses were made by physical examination and colour Doppler ultrasound, with both performed before and after exercise tests. The mean age of the participants was 25.7 ± 4.9 years. During the first examination, the grades of the varicoceles detected were as follows: grade I, n = 7; II, n = 10; and III, n = 21. The diameters of veins in patients with grades I, II and III varicocele were 2.1 mm, 2.9 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively, before exercise, whereas they were 2.6 mm, 3.2 mm and 4.3 mm, respectively, after exercise. In patients with grade I varicoceles, compared with pre-exercise values, the diameter of the left spermatic vein and duration of reflux measured during Valsalva manoeuvres were increased significantly after exercise (p = 0.042 and p = 0.034, respectively); similar results were obtained for the patients with grade II varicoceles (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). However, the minimal relative increase in cases with grade III varicoceles was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that acute exercise increases the spermatic vein diameter and reflux time in patients with varicoceles. These outcomes demonstrate that acute exercise may be an aggravating factor for varicocele, as seen in chronic exercise.

  11. [Physiopathology of the infertile testicle. Etiopathogenesis of varicocele].

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Regadera, Javier

    2004-11-01

    To review current theories about etiology of varicocele and pathogenic mechanisms leading to a progressive disorder of spermatogenesis in relation to the subfertility or infertility these patients may present with. To evaluate its current anatomical knowledge of the normal venous drain of the testicle and its variations that may condition relapse or failure of the treatment of varicocele. To systematically review pathologic testicular lesions in patients with varicocele. To establish factors that may have prognostic significance on post-treatment fertility. We performed a systematic search in the Medline database for each of the proposed etiological and pathogenic theories on human varicocele. The evaluation of pathologic testicular lesions in patients with varicocele was obtained from the study of testicular biopsies performed at the Hospital La Paz in Madrid over the lost 30 years. Regarding the anatomical theories of varicocele, congenital absence or incompetence of the internal spermatic vein valves, difficult venous drain, augmented hydrostatic pressure of the internal spermatic vein, disorder of the fascial-muscular pump mechanism, and compression of the venous drainage system are considered, among others, potential etiological factors. Regarding possible pathogenic theories of varicocele, we evaluate disorders of testicular thermoregulation, hypoxia, toxic effect of renal and adrenal metabolites, certain endocrine disorders, obstruction of the spermatic tract, disorders of blood flow and epididymal vasculature, oxidative stress, gonadotoxins, apoptosis, and lastly the effect of varicocele on the contralateral testicle. Available data support the idea that etiopathogenesis of varicocele is multifactorial. Many classic etiopathogenic factors related to anatomy, embryology, obstruction, and hyperthermia still prevail in addition to new factors related to oxygen reactive species and apoptosis. However, many pathogenic and physiopathologic aspects of varicocele

  12. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  13. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for treating primary varicocele in children.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Paola; Mayr, Johannes; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of antegrade sclerotherapy (AS) for the treatment of primary varicocele in childhood. From December 1996 to December 2004, 88 patients (mean age 13.3 years, range 9-18) with primary varicocele underwent AS (91 varicocele ablations in all). The indications for surgery were testicular pain (16 boys, 18%), a large varicocele with cosmetic implications, testicular hypotrophy (one) and in 71 (81%) the varicocele was detected incidentally during a routine physical examination; all were left-sided. According to the classification used by Tauber, 46 (52%) varicoceles were grade II and 42 (48%) grade III. The clinical and ultrasonography (US) results were evaluated over a median (range) follow-up of 11 (3-60) months, and the operative duration, X-ray exposure time, persistence rate of varicoceles and complications were compared with those using other techniques. In 11 patients there was a palpable difference in size between the testicles, but in only five (6%) was testicular hypotrophy (testicular volume (<75% testicular volume vs the normal side) confirmed by US. The mean (sem) operative duration for AS was 33.2 (2.14) min. In 16 (18%) patients it was necessary to expose a second or third vein because the first vein chosen was unsuitable for sclerotherapy. The mean operative radiation exposure was 2.18 (0.21) s. One patient (1%) was treated with a high ligature of the testicular vein (Palomo procedure) after initial unsuccessful AS, and was excluded from the analysis. Eighty-four (97%) patients were eligible for follow-up: six (7%) had a persistent varicocele (four grade II, two grade III), four of whom had repeat sclerotherapy successfully (no recurrence at follow-up). Fourteen (15%) patients had enlarged testicular veins only on US (varicocele grade 0). No patient developed a hydrocele after AS, There were complications after surgery in three (3%) patients (two superficial wound infections, one scrotal haematoma together with

  14. Endovascular embolization of varicoceles using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue

    PubMed Central

    Pietura, Radosław; Toborek, Michał; Dudek, Aneta; Boćkowska, Agata; Janicka, Joanna; Piekarski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Varicoceles are abnormally dilated veins within the pampiniform plexus. They are caused by reflux of blood in the internal spermatic vein. The incidence of varicoceles is approximately 10–15% of the adolescent male population. The etiology of varicoceles is probably multifactorial. The diagnosis is based on Doppler US. Treatment could be endovascular or surgical. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate a novel method of endovascular embolization of varicoceles using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue. Material/Methods: 17 patients were subjected to endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA. A 2.8 Fr microcatheter and a 1:1 mixture of NBCA and lipiodol were used for embolization of the spermatic vein. Results: All 17 procedures were successful. There were no complications. Discussion: Embolization of varicoceles using NBCA glue is efficient and safe for all patients. The method should be considered as a method of choice in all patients. Phlebography and Valsalva maneuver are crucial for technical success and avoidance of complications. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA glue is very effective and safe. PMID:23807881

  15. The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and male subfertility in Taiwanese patients with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S-S; Chiu, L-P

    2018-03-26

    To investigate the association between the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) gene Ser326Cys polymorphism and male subfertility in Taiwanese patients with varicocele, we made a prospective study. Ninety young male patients with varicocele (group 1), 50 young male patients with subclinical varicocele (group 2) and 30 normal young male patients without varicocele (group 3) were recruited in this study. The hOGG1 null homozygous genotype (Cys/Cys) and the occurrence of a 4,977-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial copy number in spermatozoa were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content of DNA in the spermatozoa was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of seminal plasma was detected electrochemically. The rates of male subfertility were 31.1% (28/90) in group 1 and 22% (11/50) in group 2. Of 39 subfertile men, 74.4% (29/39) had the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype. Patients in groups 1 and 2 with hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype had significantly higher 8-OHdG content in sperm DNA, lower mitochondrial copy number in spermatozoa and lower TAC in seminal plasma than those with Ser/Ser or Ser/Cys genotype. Clinicians should pay more attention to patients with varicocele with the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicocele in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mottrie, A M; Matani, Y; Baert, J; Voges, G E; Hohenfellner, R

    1995-07-01

    To test the efficacy of antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS) for the treatment of varicocele in teenagers. The study included 38 patients (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-18) with left-sided varicocele. Three patients had a grade 1 varicocele, 22 were grade 2 and 13 were grade 3. ASS was performed under local anaesthesia on an out-patient basis. ASS was accepted by all patients except one. There were no peri-operative problems and only one patient developed post-operative epididymitis. During 9 to 15 months of follow-up (mean 11 months), only two patients developed persistence of a lower grade of varicocele. This study illustrates that ASS is a safe and successful out-patient procedure for the treatment of varicocele in teenagers.

  17. Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet G; Haliloğlu, Ahmet H

    2018-03-01

    In this review, we investigate the advantage of varicocele repair prior to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for infertile couples and provide cost analysis information. We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The following search strategy was modified for the various databases and search engines: 'varicocele', 'varicocelectomy', 'varicocele repair', 'ART', ' in vitro fertilisation (IVF)', 'intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)'. A total of 49 articles, including six meta-analyses, 32 systematic reviews, and 11 original articles, were included in the analysis. Bypassing potentially reversible male subfertility factors using ART is currently common practice. However, varicocele may be present in 35% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility. Varicocele repair has been shown to be an effective treatment for infertile men with clinical varicocele, thus should play an important role in the treatment of such patients due to the foetal/genetic risks and high costs that are associated with increased ART use. Varicocele repair is a cost-effective treatment method that can improve semen parameters, pregnancy rates, and live-birth rates in most infertile men with clinical varicocele. By improving semen parameters and sperm structure, varicocele repair can decrease or even eliminate ART requirement.

  18. Management options of varicoceles

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy. PMID:21716892

  19. Results and complications of adolescent varicocele repair with intraoperative sodium morrhuate sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebed, Brett; Packer, Michael; Husmann, Douglas; Zaontz, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent varicocele has been shown to affect spermatogenesis and correlate with decreased ipsilateral testicular volume, prompting treatment in a select population. We report our experience with 3 varicocele ligation procedures in concordance with sclerotherapy in adolescent patients. A total of 120 males underwent varicocele surgery at our institutions during an 8-year period. Sodium morrhuate sclerotherapy was used in 91 patients and 73 adolescent males fulfilled the 6-month followup criteria. The 73 males who were 9 to 17 years old underwent a total of 75 (bilateral in 2) procedures for varicocele treatment. Of the patients 23 underwent subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy (group 1), 9 underwent loupe assisted subinguinal varicocelectomy (group 2) and 41 underwent loupe assisted inguinal varicocelectomy (group 3). All patients received intraoperative sclerotherapy using sodium morrhuate injection. Outcome measures included recurrence, complications and catch-up growth at a minimum of 6 months of followup. The varicocele recurrence rate was 2.7% in patients receiving combined surgical ligation and sclerotherapy ablation. Group 1 had 2 recurrent varicoceles and no hydrocele formation, group 2 had no varicocele recurrence and no hydrocele formation, and group 3 had no varicocele recurrence and 2 postoperative hydroceles. Catch-up growth in the ipsilateral testis was seen in 85% of patients. No atrophy or testicular loss was noted. This preliminary experience with combined surgical ligation and sclerotherapy ablation in the adolescent population resulted in low varicocele recurrence with minimal morbidity. Outcomes of loupe assisted varicocelectomy appear to be improved compared to those in previous studies, alluding to an advantage in the addition of sclerotherapy.

  20. Varicocele and concomitant dilation of the periprostatic venous plexus: effects on semen viscosity sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Russo, G I; Lanzafame, F; La Vignera, S

    2016-05-01

    Since varicocele is often associated with other venous abnormalities, this study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency of dilation of the periprostatic venous plexus (DPVP) in these patients and the effects of this association on sperm parameters before and after varicocelectomy. Sperm parameters were evaluated using the conventional WHO criteria, and seminal fluid viscosity was further evaluated by quantitative viscometry, in 50 patients (aged 20-38 years) who underwent surgical treatment for grade III bilateral varicocele. Thirty patients with varicocele had also DPVP (DPVP+) (60 %). Sperm concentration and the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology did not differ significantly in patients with DPVP- or DPVP+ before or after surgical repair. On the other hand, sperm progressive motility was low in all patients and increased significantly after varicocele repair, but only in DPVP- patients. Before varicocele treatment, a significantly higher number of DPVP+ patients (25/30 = 83.3 %) had seminal fluid hyperviscosity compared to DPVP- patient (2/20 = 10.0 %). Viscosity quantitative measurement was significantly higher in DPVP+ patients both before and after varicocele repair compared to DPVP- patients. These latter showed a statistically significant reduction of sperm viscosity after varicocele surgical repair compared to pretreatment values. Finally, periprostatic venous plexus diameter and seminal fluid viscosity correlated directly in DPVP+ patients. In conclusion, these results showed that a large number of patients with varicocele had a concomitant DPVP. This subset of patients did not take advantage from varicocele surgical repair since only DPVP- varicocele patients showed a significant improvement of sperm progressive motility and seminal fluid viscosity. These findings suggest the evaluation of the periprostatic venous plexus and seminal fluid viscosity before patients with varicocele undergo surgical repair for asthenozoospemia.

  1. Treatment of varicoceles in childhood and adolescence with Tauber's antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fette, A; Mayr, J

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical complications and the outcome of grade II and III varicoceles treated with Tauber's antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy. A total of 21 patients with a median age of 13 (range, 10 to 21) years and left-sided grade II and III varicoceles were treated with Tauber's antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy and underwent follow-up over a median period of 23 months (range, 9 to 35). One grade II varicocele persisted after antegrade sclerotherapy for 6 months. After a second sclerotherapy 6 months later, no further recurrence was detected. One patient with a grade II to III varicocele had a grade I varicocele recurrence 14 months after operation. Three patients showed a slight hydrocele postoperatively. This limited series indicates that Tauber's antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for grade II and III varicoceles in children and adolescents.

  2. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail: elhilala@mir.wustl.edu; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: darcym@mir.wustl.edu

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  3. Expression of TRPC5 is decreased in the sperm of patients with varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guangbin; Xie, Changying; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Yongzhi; Chen, Dong; Wang, Xinghuan

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the expression of transient receptor potential channel 5 (TRPC5) protein is altered in spermatozoa of patients with varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia. TRPC5 expression in spermatozoa was determined by polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses, and indirect immunofluorescence was used for identification and immunolocalization of the TRPC5 channel in human sperm. Sperm motility and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also determined with a computer-assisted semen analysis system and assay kit, respectively. Compared with levels in control subjects, it was identified that TRPC5 protein expression, SOD activity and cellular motility in the sperm of patients with varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia were reduced (P<0.001). Furthermore, the expression of TRPC5 was positively correlated with sperm motility (r=0.781, P<0.001) and SOD activity (r=0.933, P<0.001), indicated by partial correlation analysis. The present study may provide a novel target for the study and treatment of varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia.

  4. Treatment of varicocele: a prospective randomized comparison of laparoscopy versus antegrade sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sautter, T; Sulser, T; Suter, St; Gretener, H; Hauri, D

    2002-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic success, the morbidity and the costs of antegrade sclerotherapy versus laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Seventy-six consecutive varicocele patients were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. Preoperative and 3 month postoperative sperm density, motility and morphology were analysed. The diagnosis of the varicocele was established clinically and with Doppler ultrasonography. Fifty-eight patients treated by either of the two methods were followed up. The recurrence rate increased progressively with the size of the varicocele in both groups. The postoperative incidence of complications particularly hydrocele formation was significantly higher in the laparoscopic group. The costs of the disposable material for laparoscopic varicocelectomy was twice as high as for sclerotherapy. Antegrade sclerotherapy is the less invasive treatment method of male varicocele with lower costs and better outcome and should therefore be the preferred treatment method for male varicocele.

  5. [Percutaneous treatment of varicocele: considerations and our experience].

    PubMed

    Fileni, Antonio; Galatioto, Giuseppe Paradiso; Di Marco, Giuseppe; Marronaro, Angelo; Vicentini, Carlo

    2002-12-01

    Due to its high incidence and its affecting male infertility, varicocele is an important disease. Consequently, it is essential to choose the best treatment. Since 1999 to 2000, 75 patients affected by varicocele (mean age 25 years) underwent percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy through a right transfemoral approach. Pre-operative tests included physical examination, sperm analysis and colour Doppler sonography. According to Dubin and Amelar classification, 59% of patients were affected by Grade 3 varicocele. According to Hirsh classification, grade III-IV varicocele was diagnosed with colour Doppler sonography in 77.3% of patients. Mean operative time was 30 minutes with only 5 minutes of exposure to radiation. All patients were followed-up with colour Doppler ultrasound and sperm analysis 1, 4 and 12 months after the treatment. In 6 of 75 patients (8%) sclerotherapy was unsuccessful because it was not possible to catheterize the spermatic vein. No significant complications were observed pre and post-operatively. 3 patients complained of mild testicular pain and 1 case had a transient hydrocele. The patients were dismissed during the next 24 hours after the procedure. During follow-up, physical examination was unremarkable in all patients, while occlusion of spermatic veins showed by Doppler ultrasound at 4 and 12 months was achieved in 94% of patients. Retrograde sclerotherapy through trans-femoral approach is a safe and effective treatment. In our opinion it should be considered as the treatment of choice, especially if we consider the costs, hospitalization and complications of conventional surgery and laparoscopy.

  6. Testicular volume and semen parameters in patients aged 12 to 17 years with idiopathic varicocele.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J B; Sajad, Yasmin; Rakoczy, George; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2012-02-01

    Varicocele is potentially a progressive condition that may affect fertility. The authors have encouraged sperm banking for their postpubertal patients with varicocele and aim to evaluate the sperm parameters in this cohort of patients. With institutional ethical approval, sperm variables (volume, concentration, and forward motility) of patients with postpubertal varicocele who opted for sperm banking were prospectively recorded. The following parameters were also acquired: (a) ultrasound measurement of testicular volume, (b) clinical grade, and (c) venous Doppler. Patients were divided into 2 groups: symmetrical testis (group A) and asymmetrical testis (group B). Testicular asymmetry was defined as greater than 20% difference in testicular volume compared with contralateral testis. Sperm parameters were compared between groups A and B using Mann-Whitney U test and P < .05. Fifteen patients were included: 10 in group A and 5 in group B. Median semen concentration in group B was significantly lower than group A (3 vs 26 million/mL; P = .04). One hundred percent of group B failed World Health Organisation adult criteria for normal spermiograms compared with 50% of group A. Sperm concentration and quality was lower in patients with asymmetrical testis. Testicular dysfunction may be present before the onset of testicular hypotrophy. When testicular hypotrophy is present, testicular dysfunction is very likely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Scrotal antegradesclerotherapy demonstrates anatomical variations on venous drainage in paediatric, adolescent and young adult varicoceles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y S; Chung, K L Y; Lo, K W Y; Liu, C S W; Fan, T W; Tse, S K S; Tang, P M Y; Chao, N S Y; Liu, K K W; Leung, M W Y

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical variations on venous drainage in varicoceles are under-reported. We report our experience in scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy (SAS) for adolescent varicoceles. Since 2011, 15 consecutive boys with left varicoceles were recruited. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-mm transverse incision was made at scrotal neck, testicular vein was cannulated at pampiniform plexus with venogram performed. Foam sclerosant by mixing sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS), Lipiodol(®) and air was slowly injected under fluoroscopy. Postoperatively the patients were followed-up for varicocele grading, testicular size, and complications. Median age at operation was 14 (10-19) years. 80 % had grade three varicoceles, 33.3 % had smaller left testis before operation. Intra-operative venogram showed three different anatomical variations. Group I: eleven patients (73.3 %) had single distinct internal spermatic vein; Group II: two patients demonstrated duplication of internal spermatic vein draining into left renal vein; Group III: two patients had pampiniform plexus draining to iliac and/or paraspinal veins. SAS was performed in Group I and II patients. Sclerosant volume injected ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 ml. In Group III patients, surgical ligation of testicular veins was performed rather than SAS to avoid uncontrolled systemic sclerosant spillage. Mean length of stay was 1.13 day. One patient with scrotal haematoma and one other with minor wound dehiscence were managed conservatively. Mean follow-up period was 10.9 (1-22) months. Thirteen patients (86.7 %) achieved varicocele grading ≤ 1. There was no postoperative testicular atrophy, hydrocele and epididymo-orchitis. Scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy using STS foam is a safe and effective treatment for adolescent varicoceles. Anatomical variations on venous drainage in varicoceles are common.

  8. Diagnosis of varicoceles in men undergoing vasectomy may lead to earlier detection of hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joceline S; Jones, Madeline; Casey, Jessica T; Fuchs, Amanda B; Cashy, John; Lin, William W

    2014-06-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between vasectomy, varicocele, and hypogonadism diagnosis. Many young men undergo their first thorough genitourinary examination in their adult lives at the time of vasectomy consultation, providing a unique opportunity for diagnosis of asymptomatic varicoceles. Varicoceles have recently been implicated as a possible reversible contributor to hypogonadism. Hypogonadism may be associated with significant adverse effect, including decreased libido, impaired cognitive function, and increased cardiovascular events. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism may prevent these adverse sequelae. Data were collected from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database, a large outpatient claims database. We reviewed records between 2003 and 2010 for male patients between the ages of 25 and 50 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for hypogonadism, vasectomy, and varicocele, and queried dates of first claim. A total of 15,679 men undergoing vasectomies were matched with 156,790 men with nonvasectomy claims in the same year. Vasectomy patients were diagnosed with varicocele at an earlier age (40.9 vs 42.5 years; P=.009). We identified 224,817 men between the ages of 25 and 50 years with a claim of hypogonadism, of which 5883 (2.6%) also had a claim of varicocele. Men with hypogonadism alone were older at presentation compared with men with an accompanying varicocele (41.3 [standard deviation±6.5] vs 34.9 [standard deviation±6.1]; P<.001). Men undergoing vasectomies are diagnosed with varicoceles at a younger age than age-matched controls. Men with varicoceles present with hypogonadism earlier than men without varicoceles. Earlier diagnosis of varicocele at the time of vasectomy allows for earlier detection of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent varicocele: Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy versus Palomo repair.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, G; Spagnoli, A; Lucchetti, M C; Villa, M; Capitanucci, M L; Ferro, F

    2001-10-01

    There is general agreement on treatment for varicocele in pediatric patients. Randomized prospective studies have shown that anatomical and functional lesions may be corrected. Due to the impossibility of seminal examination patients with moderate to large varicocele or ipsilateral testicular hypertrophy, characterized by a change in testicular consistency or symptoms, should undergo surgical correction. The best therapeutic approach is still under discussion. At 2 centers 2 therapeutic approaches to varicocele treatment in pediatric patients were compared, namely the Palomo repair and antegrade sclerotherapy according to Tauber. The 89 patients from the same geographical area elected 1 procedure after an explanation. From the medical records we retrospectively evaluated operative time, postoperative analgesics, postoperative fever onset, complications, convalescence, recurrence and postoperative hydrocele. After Palomo repair in 45 patients there were 2 recurrences (4.4%) and 2 postoperative hydroceles (4.4%). Of 44 antegrade sclerotherapy cases 1 was converted to Palomo repair, there was no hydrocele formation and recurrence developed in 2 (4.5%). Testicular atrophy was not observed in any patient regardless of the method used. The cost of the procedure was lower in the sclerotherapy group. These data suggest that the failure rate was similar in both groups. The principal advantages of sclerotherapy are simplicity, decreased cost and lack of hydrocele formation.

  10. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    PubMed Central

    Crestani, Alessandro; Giannarini, Gianluca; Calandriello, Mattia; Rossanese, Marta; Mancini, Mariangela; Novara, Giacomo; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS) represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min). No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2%) patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9%) cases. In 32/40 (80%) cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 106 to 21 × 106 ml−1 (P < 0.001). The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001). Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001). In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31%) fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate. PMID:26763550

  11. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    PubMed

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele. PMID:26780873

  13. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele.

  14. LigaSure vessel sealing system in laparoscopic Palomo varicocele ligation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Sabatino, Maria Domenica; Borrelli, Micaela; Cautiero, Pasquale; Romano, Mercedes; Vessella, Antonio; Parmeggiani, Pio

    2007-04-01

    We review our experience with laparoscopic Palomo varicocele ligation using the LigaSure device in children and adolescents. Between June 2003 and December 2004, 25 varicoceles were treated by laparoscopic Palomo varicocele ligation using LigaSure vascular sealing. Patient ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean, 14.5 years). Indications for surgery included grade II-III varicocele or ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy. One patient was affected by recurrent contralateral inguinal hernia and 2 presented with an ipsilateral patent processus vaginalis. We placed a 5-mm umbilical port for access, and kept pneumoperitoneum below 15 mm Hg. Under laparoscopic guidance, two additional ports of 3 and 5 mm were inserted in the lower right and left quadrants, respectively. Once the vessels were isolated, the vascular sealant was applied 3-4 times to ensure coagulation of the spermatic vessels; the vessels were then divided with laparoscopic 5-mm scissors. Inguinal hernia and patent processus vaginalis were treated according to Schier's technique. All procedures were performed in our day surgery facility. Mean operative time was 18 minutes, which is significantly less than the time required in a similar group of 12 patients who underwent laparoscopic clip ligation. There were no perioperative complications. Eleven of 16 patients recovered testicular size. Two patients had postoperative hydrocele: the first was treated successfully with scrotal aspiration, while the other patient required scrotal hydrocelectomy. Laparoscopic Palomo varicocele sealing can be performed safely and rapidly and is highly successful in correcting varicoceles in young males. We also found it to be the ideal technique to correct the associated inguinal hernia or patent processus vaginalis.

  15. [Treatment of idiopathic varicocele: comparative study of three techniques about 128 cases].

    PubMed

    Khouni, Hassen; Bouchiba, Nizar; Khelifa, Melik Melek; Ben Ali, Moez; Sebai, Akrem; Dali, Meriem; Charfi, Mehdi; Chouchene, Adnene; El Kateb, Faycel; Bouhaouala, Habib; Balti, Med Hedi

    2011-12-01

    Several modalities of varicocele treatment are available, however, no therapeutic technique showed its superiority with regard to the other one. To compare the results of three techniques of varicocelecomy. Retrospective Analytical and comparative study of 128 patients treated by of three techniques of varicocelectomy: the open surgery by retro peritoneal way for 42 patients (GI), the varicocelectomie coelioscopique for 41 patients (GII) and the antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy done for 45 patients (GIII), between march 2001 and January 2009.The mean age was 28 years. The main motive for consultation was represented by the painful varicocele in 67 % of the cases, followed by the hypofertility in 20.3 % of the cases and the association both in 12,5 % of the cases. The varicocele was in leftsider in 71.1 % of the cases, to the right side in 5.4 % of the cases and was bilateral in 23.43 % of the cases. Varicocele was infra-clinical at 6 patients, grade 1 in 16 sides, grade 2 in 105 sides and grade 3 in 31 sides. The numeration, the mobility as well as the morphology of sperm cells were comparable between the three groups Results: The global rate success was 81.2 %, with the highest rate found in the group III which was treated by antégrade scrotal sclerotherapy (84.4 %). The improvement of the parameters of the spermogramme was noted in the three groups, however a statistically significant difference was found only in patients treated by antégrade scrotal sclerotherapy; it mainly concerned numeration and the mobility of spermatozoides. The highest rate of pregnancy was recorded in patients treated by antégrade scrotal sclerotherapy (13.3%). The main postoperative complications were hydrocele (16%) followed by testicular hypotrophy (3 patients). Three techniques of varicocele treatment, offer either a similar success rate, and improvement of parameters of the sperm cells. However, antegrade scrotal sclerotherpy seem to be the best treatment of first intention in

  16. Antegrade Sclerotherapy to Treat All Types of Varicoceles in the Pediatric Population: Experience of a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Filomena Valentina; Mason, Elena Jane; Nanni, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    To analyze our experience with antegrade sclerotherapy for the treatment of Coolsaet types I, II, and III varicoceles in a pediatric and adolescent population. Between 2005 and 2015, 73 patients who underwent antegrade sclerotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Patient age, side, clinical and Doppler ultrasound grade, and anatomical variations were collected. Varicoceles were grouped following Coolsaet's classification: all types were sclerosed. Follow-up consisted in clinical examination 3 and 6 months following surgery and testicular Doppler ultrasound 6 and 12 months following surgery. Patients were then telephonically interviewed. Success was defined as varicocele resolution or reduction to a grade not requiring surgery. Mean patient age was 14.7 years and mean operating time was 50.8 minutes. Based on phlebographic imaging and following Coolsaet's classification, we identified 57 (78.1%) type I, 3 (4.1%) type II, and 13 (17.8%) type III varicoceles. No intraoperative complications were observed. Three patients (4.1%) presented a short-term complication in the form of pampiniform plexus thrombosis; 1 patient also developed wound dehiscence: all complications occurred in Coolsaet type I varicoceles and during surgeon learning curve. No hydrocele occurred. Out of 59 patients with a satisfactory follow-up (range: 14 months-10 years), 2 recurrences occurred, the success rate thus being 96.6%. Tauber's antegrade sclerotherapy is a simple and feasible technique, effective in treating all kinds of varicocele with low complication, recurrence, and persistence rates. Phlebography reveals frequent venous anatomical variations, allows grouping of varicoceles into Coolsaet types, and enables performing of sclerosis safely in all 3 kinds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  18. The history of varicocele: from antiquity to the modern ERA.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Men have most likely been affected by varicocele since the assumption of the upright position. In De Medicina, written during the first century AD, Celsus credits the Greeks with the first description of a varicocele, and he recorded his own acute observation: "The veins are swollen and twisted over the testicle, which becomes smaller". Celsus himself is credited with the distinction between varicocele (dilation of surface veins) and "cirsocele" (dilation of deep veins). There has been a long history of treatment attempts and failures, some of which are remarkably strange, that have sometimes culminated in tragedy, as in the case of French professor Jacques-Mathieu Delpech (1772- 1832). Although some questions regarding the etiopathology and treatment of varicocele remain unanswered, a succession of more or less conservative attempts involving all medical cultures has been performed throughout history. The report by W.S. Tulloch in 1952 brought varicocele into the era of modern evidence-based medicine, and varicocele surgery finally progressed beyond the aim of merely relieving scrotal pain and swelling. From 1970 to 2000, varicocelectomies gained worldwide attention for the treatment of male infertility. Several innovative procedures to correct varicoceles began to appear in the world's literature as interventional radiology, microsurgery, laparoscopy, and robotics, while comprehensive review articles were also published on the subject of varicocelectomies. Microsurgery is nowadays used worldwide and it can be considered to be the gold standard for correcting infertility linked to varicocele. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  19. DNA damage in spermatozoa from infertile men with varicocele evaluated by sperm chromatin dispersion and DBD-FISH.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Aragón-Tovar, Anel R; Urbina-Bernal, Luis C; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of DNA integrity is an important test, possessing greater diagnostic and prognostic significance for couples requiring assisted reproduction. In this study, we evaluate the levels of DNA damage in infertile patients with varicocele with respect to fertile males by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test. The presence of DNA breaks in spermatozoa was confirmed by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). In this study, the frequency of sperm cells with fragmented DNA was studied in a group of 20 infertile patients with varicocele and compared with 20 fertile males. The spermatozoa were processed to classify different levels of DNA fragmentation using the Halosperm(®) kit, an improved SCD test, and DBD-FISH. Patients with varicocele showed 25.54 ± 28.17 % of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA, significantly higher than those of the group of fertile subjects (11.54 ± 3.88 %). The proportion of degraded cells in total sperm cells with fragmented DNA was sixfold higher in the case of patients with varicocele. The presence of DNA breaks in spermatozoa was confirmed by DBD-FISH. 5-bp Classical satellite-2 regions showed greater sensitivity to damage or "breakage" than alphoid satellite regions. Our finding preliminary demonstrated an increase of DNA fragmentation associated to severe sperm damage, in infertile patients with varicocele with respect to fertile males. 5-bp Classical satellite-2 regions showed greater sensitivity to damage or "breakage" than alphoid satellite regions.

  20. When is a varicocele repair indicated: the dilemma of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Dabaja, Ali A; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the indications for varicocelectomy are primarily for infertility with abnormal semen parameters, testicular hypotrophy/atrophy in adolescents, and/or pain. The surgical treatment of varicocele for hypogonadism is controversial and debated. Recently, multiple reports in the literature have suggested that varicocele is associated with hypogonadism and varicocele repair can increase testosterone levels. Men with hypogonadal symptoms should have at least two serum testosterone levels. Microsurgical varicocelectomy may be beneficial for men with clinically palpable varicoceles with documented hypogonadism. In this review, we summarize the most recent literature linking varicocele to hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction and the impact of repair on serum testosterone levels. We performed a search of the published English literature. The key words used were "varicocele and hypogonadism" and "varicocele surgery and testosterone." We included published studies after 1998. We, also, evaluated the effect of surgery on the changes in the serum testosterone level regardless of the indication for the varicocele repair.

  1. Randomised clinical trial of comparing effects of acupuncture and varicocelectomy on sperm parameters in infertile varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, E V; Bindayi, A; Boylu, U; Onol, F F; Gumus, E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the acupuncture treatment on sperm parameters and pregnancy rates in patients with primary infertility. Between January 2008 and May 2010, 30 men with the primary infertility (one year of unprotected intercourse, healthy wife) and varicocele with normal hormone levels and abnormal semen analysis were randomised into two groups. Group 1 underwent subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy, and Group 2 underwent acupuncture treatment twice a week for 2 months. Both groups were evaluated with semen analysis at 6 months after the treatment. Patients in both groups evaluated with telephone calls and e-mail in terms of pregnancy. The mean age of the patients was 27.2, and groups were comparable regarding the age (P = 0.542). The pre-treatment sperm concentration, motility and morphological characteristics were similar in both groups. Sperm concentration and motility improved significantly in both groups after the treatment. Increase in sperm concentration was higher in the acupuncture group compared to the varicocelectomy group (P = 0.039). The average follow-up was 42 months, and pregnancy rates were emphasised 33% in both groups. Acupuncture treatment in primary infertile varicocele patients with semen abnormalities seems to be effective and has comparable results with the varicocelectomy treatment. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. [Testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy combined with Qilin Pills for bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Feng; Zhao, Jia

    2016-10-01

    To explore the clinical effect of testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy (MV) in combination with Qilin Pills (QL) in the treatment of bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia. Sixty patients with bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia were randomly assigned to receive MV (n=30) or MV+QL (n=30), those in the latter group treated with oral QL for 12 weeks postoperatively. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation, we compared the semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, the levels of serum Inh B, luteinizing hormone (LH) and total testosterone (TT), and the testosterone secretion index (TSI) between the two groups. After surgery, all the patients showed disappearance of varicocele symptoms, remarkably improved semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, serum Inh B and TT levels, TSI, decreased LH and FSH (P<0.01). At 12 weeks after treatment, statistically significant differences were found between the MV and MV+QL groups in Inh B (138.96±22.26 vs 129.54±22.23) ng/L, LH (3.17±0.12 vs 3.59±0.11) IU/L, TT (13.98±3.02 vs 12.68±3.12) nmol/L, and TSI (4.41±0.53 vs 3.53±0.51) nmol/ IU (P<0.05). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MV+QL than in the MV group (73.4% vs 36.6%, P<0.05). Testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy combined with Qilin Pills is an effective strategy for the treatment of bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia by significantly improving the semen quality of the patient.

  3. The use of transscrotal venography to guide treatment of a persistent grade 3 varicocele after failure of previous microsurgical varicocelectomy and embolization.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Jeffrey M; Bodie, Joshua A

    2013-09-01

    Varicoceles affect approximately 15% of male patients, most of whom have resolution of symptoms and objective findings with microscopic subinguinal varicocelectomy. We present an interesting case of a 16-year-old male patient with persistent symptomatic varicocele despite varicocelectomy and gonadal vein embolization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Varicocele is associated with hypogonadism and impaired erectile function: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ji, B; Jin, X-B

    2017-08-01

    We conducted this prospective comparative study to examine the hypothesis that varicocele was associated with hypogonadism and impaired erectile function as reflected in International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores as well as nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) parameters. From December 2014 to December 2015, a total of 130 males with varicocele complaining of infertility or scrotal discomfort and 130 age-matched healthy males chosen from volunteer healthy hospital staff as controls were recruited in this study. Serum testosterone (TT) levels and IIEF-5 scores as well as NPTR parameters were evaluated and compared between varicocele and control subjects. All participants were further grouped into hypogonadism based on the cut-off value 300 ng/dL. A total of 45 of 130 patients were identified as hypogonadism, while it was not found in control subjects. A multivariate logistic regression with likelihood ratio test revealed that TT levels as well as grade III and II varicocele posed significant indicators for hypogonadism occurrence (chi-square of likelihood ratio = 12.40, df = 3, p < .01). Furthermore, TT levels and infertility duration were associated with IIEF-5 scores in a multivariate linear regression analysis (adjusted R 2  = 0.545). In conclusion, the correlation of grade III and II varicocele with an increased risk of hypogonadism was confirmed in this study and an impaired erectile function correlated with TT levels and infertility duration was also observed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence andmore » persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.« less

  6. Idiopathic varicocele in adolescents: risks of the inguinal approach.

    PubMed

    Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Vivier, Pierre-Hugues; Comte, Diane; Beurdeley, Marion; Liard, Agnès; Bachy, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term results and complications of open inguinal varicocelectomy, including vein ligation, intraoperative venography, and antegrade sclerotherapy. Sixty-four children were treated between 2000 and 2009 for idiopathic varicocele. Fifty children were examined 6 months after surgery. In 2010, 22 patients were recalled for testicular ultrasound scans (US) to evaluate the medium-term results of the technique. The mean age of the children was 12.8 years at first consultation. Of the 50 cases, 35 children were asymptomatic, 13 experienced pain, 3 suffered from discomfort, and 1 had testicular asymmetry. Thirteen children had delayed left testicular growth compared with the right testis. The mean age at surgery was 13.3 years, and follow-up duration was 8.3 months ± 13.9. Thirty-eight patients achieved good results postsurgery; there was varicocele recurrence in 3, testicular hypotrophy in 7, and complete testicular atrophy in 2 patients. Naked eye inguinal surgical ligation does not appear to be safe enough to treat young adolescents, with the theoretical risk of a decrease in fertility in the future. In teams which are untrained in microsurgical or laparoscopic varicocelectomy, we suggest referring adolescent patients to a radiologist for embolization. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Initial experience with percutaneous selective embolization: A truly minimally invasive treatment of the adolescent varicocele with no risk of hydrocele development.

    PubMed

    Storm, Douglas W; Hogan, Mark J; Jayanthi, Venkata R

    2010-12-01

    Postoperative hydrocele development is a frustrating complication of varicocele surgical repair. To avoid this complication, we began to offer percutaneous embolization as a treatment option. We present our initial experience with this technique. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent percutaneous embolization and sclerotherapy of a varicocele at our institution was performed. There were 27 patients with a mean age of 16 years (range 13-19 years). Indications included pain (48%), varicocele size (30%) and persistent testicular asymmetry (22%). Four patients had experienced failure of a previous surgical repair. Follow-up data were available for 21 patients (mean 9 months). The varicocele resolved in 19 patients (91%) with no evidence of hydrocele formation in any of the boys. There was resolution of pain in all patients for whom this was the indication for the procedure. In the two failures, access to the lower spermatic vein was not possible owing to the number and tortuosity of the vessels. Percutaneous embolization and sclerotherapy represent a truly minimally invasive treatment with low morbidity, minimal pain and rapid recovery. In our early experience, since lymphatic channels are completely avoided, there appears to be no risk of hydrocele formation. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with aorta-left renal vein fistula with left varicocele.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, S L; Haider, S A; Gupta, N; O'Dorsio, J E; McKinsey, J F; Schwartz, L B

    2000-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm with spontaneous aorto-left renal vein fistula is a rare but well-described clinical entity usually with abdominal pain, hematuria, and a nonfunctioning left kidney. This report describes a 44-year-old man with left-sided groin pain and varicocele who was treated with conservative measures only. The diagnosis was eventually made when he returned with microscopic hematuria, elevated serum creatinine level, and nonfunction of the left kidney; computed tomography scan demonstrated a 6-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, a retroaortic left renal vein, and an enlargement of the left kidney. This patient represents the youngest to be reported with aorto-left renal vein fistula and the second case with a left-sided varicocele.

  9. [Results of the percutaneous retrograde embolization as the first choice in the treatment of varicocele].

    PubMed

    Piñera, J Gonzálvez; Fernández-Córdoba, M S; Anselmi, E Hernández; Mollá, E Juliá; Jiménez, M J Pedrosa; Cabañero, A G Blanco; Baró, A Palma

    2009-07-01

    There is evidence that early varicocele treatment decreases testicular damage. The minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic varicocelectomy, antegrade sclerotherapy and percutaneous retrograde embolisation, are acquiring greater significance in the treatment of this disease. Since 1994, a series of 51 children, aged 7-16 years (mean, 12.9 years), with left-sided varicocele grades 2 (47%) and 3 (53%) were treated in our institution by percutaneous retrograde embolisation using coils. The right basilica vein was the most widely used (70%) followed by the right femoral vein. Seven children (13.7%) had complications: perforation of internal spermatic vein was the most frequent and treated conservatively. No child presented hydrocele after radiological procedures. Embolisation was accomplished succesfully at the first attempt in 35 (68.6%) of the 51 children and in 45 (88.2%) after a second embolisation. The follow-up ranges from 7 months to 5 ? years (mean, 1.8 years). The patients were monitored with clinical and doppler ultrasound examination 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment. Retrograde embolisation is a safe and efficient minimally invasive treatment for correcting varicoceles in children. We performed retrograde embolisation as first choice of varicocele treatment in children; a second embolisation or conventional surgery for primary failure or late recurrence should be considered.

  10. Alteration in CatSper1 and 2 genes expression, sperm parameters and testis histology in varicocelized rats.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Maryam Zohour; Jalali Mashayekhi, Farideh; Mousavi Hasanzade, Morteza; Baazm, Maryam

    2018-03-01

    CatSper gene, a member of cation channel sperm family, has an essential role in sperm motility and male fertility. Following varicocele, sperm parameters especially sperm movement decreases. For this reason, we hypothesized that CatSper gene expression might be reduced after varicocele induction in an animal model. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes, sperm parameters and testis histology following varicocele induction . A total of 30 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three following groups (n=10/ each): control, sham, and varicocele group. Experimental varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein. The epididymal sperm parameters, CatSper 1 and 2 genes expression, and testes histology were studied two months after varicocele induction. Our results revealed that motility (32.73±16.14%), morphology (48.80±17%) and viability (31.23±9.82%) of sperms significantly reduced following varicocele induction. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (43.63±5.31) and seminiferous tubules diameters (190.51±19.23 mm) in experimental varicocele rats. The level of CatSper 1 and 2 genes expression evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction was significantly downregulated 2 months after varicocele induction. Our data indicated that experimental varicocele has deleterious effects on sperm parameters, testis structure as well as the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes.

  11. Varicocele is associated with abnormal retention of cytoplasmic droplets by human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zini, A; Defreitas, G; Freeman, M; Hechter, S; Jarvi, K

    2000-09-01

    To determine whether varicocele is associated with retention of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in infertile men. Retrospective study. University infertility clinic. Nonazoospermic men with idiopathic (n = 69) and varicocele-associated infertility (n = 73), and 20 fertile controls presenting for vasectomy. None. Standard semen parameters and percentage of spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets on Papanicolaou smears. No statistically significant differences were found between the fertile and infertile groups with respect to semen volume. Fertile controls had significantly greater mean percent sperm motility and normal morphology than infertile men. The mean percentage of sperm with residual cytoplasm was statistically significantly different in all three groups. Infertile men with varicocele had the highest percentage of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets, the next highest level being in men with idiopathic infertility and the lowest level in fertile controls (11.7 +/- 1.0, 8.1 +/- 0.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.4%, respectively, P<.0001). Our data show that idiopathic and even moreso, varicocele-related male infertility are conditions associated with impaired disposal of residual sperm cytoplasm by the testis and/or epididymis. These data provide a possible mechanism for the observed semen abnormalities and reduced fertility potential associated with varicocele and idiopathic male infertility.

  12. Treatment of varicocele with reference to age: a retrospective comparison of three minimally invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Beutner, S; May, M; Hoschke, B; Helke, C; Lein, M; Roigas, J; Johannsen, M

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether the therapeutic efficacy and morbidity of three minimally invasive techniques for varicocele correction--laparoscopic varicocelectomy (LV), antegrade sclerotherapy (AS), and retrograde embolization (RE)--differed between children and adults. During a 10-year period, 356 procedures for varicocele correction, including 122 cases of LV, 108 cases of AS, and 126 cases of RE, were performed for 314 patients at our institution. Of these patients, 223 were 19 years of age or younger (group 1), and 133 were older than 19 years (group 2). Diagnosis and postoperative results were established clinically and with the use of Doppler ultrasonography. The failure rates and complications for each procedure were retrospectively evaluated and compared between the two age groups. The median follow-up period was 69 months (range, 6-122 months). For 25 patients (19.8%), RE was not feasible for technical reasons. In both groups, LV had a lower failure rate than AS or RE, but the difference between LV and AS was not significant in group 1 (7.7(% vs 11.9%; p > 0.5). Also in group 1, AS was associated with fewer complications than LV 1 (4.5% vs 15.4%; p < 0.05). In group 2, LV was significantly more effective in correcting varicoceles than the other two techniques (p < 0.01). In this group, the complication rates for all three procedures did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). In our experience, LV was more effective than AS or RE in correcting varicoceles. For children and adolescents, AS may be more indicated because of the slightly lower complication rate and similar recurrence rates, as compared with LV, for this age group. The higher incidence of postoperative hydrocele formation after LV warrants more refined techniques such as the lymphatic-sparing approach.

  13. Age is a significant predictor of early and late improvement in semen parameters after microsurgical varicocele repair.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Nagao, K; Tai, T; Kobayashi, H; Nakajima, K

    2017-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that varicocele repair improves sperm quality. However, longitudinal changes in sperm parameters and predictors of improved semen characteristics after surgery have not been fully investigated. We retrospectively reviewed data from 100 men who underwent microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair at a single centre. Follow-up semen examinations were carried out at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of early (3 months) and late (≥6 months) improvement in semen parameters after varicocele repair. At 3 months post-operatively, 76.1% of the patients had improved total motile sperm counts, which continued to improve significantly up to 12 months post-operatively (p = .016). When comparing changes in semen parameters between younger (<37 years) and older (≥37 years) men, post-operative improvements in sperm concentration and motility were greater among younger men. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age was associated with early (p = .043) and late (p = .010) post-operative improvement in total motile sperm count. Our findings indicate that early varicocele repair improved semen parameters after surgery. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Variations in the management of asymptomatic adolescent grade 2 or 3 left varicoceles: a survey of practitioners.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Karl; McLeod, Daryl; Stensland, Kristian; Stock, Jeffrey A

    2014-06-01

    Our study aims to evaluate variations in management of asymptomatic adolescent grade 2 and 3 varicoceles by pediatric urologists. Electronic survey of all 267 current members of AAP Urology with 74 (28%) responding. When managing patients with positive examination findings, 49% of surveyed practitioners use scrotal sonography as initial screening, while 38% use only manual orchidometry and 11% observation with serial examinations. If significant testicular size discrepancy is identified, 32% immediately intervene surgically, while 59% repeat measurements in 6-12 months. When no discrepancy is identified, 36.6% of practitioners discharge their patients with no follow-up, 22.5% refer to an infertility specialist, and 31% evaluate with semen analysis. Fifty-seven percent of practitioners have never sent patients for semen analysis; only 4% send >50% of patients. Of these, 52% and 27% analyzed semen at 17-18 years and 19-20 years, respectively, and 10% send for semen analysis at <17 years. Our survey demonstrates that there does not appear to be a consensus among pediatric urologists managing asymptomatic grade 2 and 3 varicoceles. Better understanding of which adolescent patients with varicoceles will go on to develop male infertility is necessary to identify pediatric patients who could benefit from early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the relationship between persistent reflux flow on the first postoperative day and recurrent varicocele in varicocelectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Cil, Ahmet Said; Bozkurt, Murat; Kara Bozkurt, Duygu; Gok, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of persistent reflux flow on the first postoperative day using color Doppler sonography (CDS) in patients who had undergone sub-inguinal varicocelectomy, and to research the relationship between persistent reflux flow and recurrent varicocele. A total of 54 patients were included in the study. Ages of the patients were between 21 and 38 years (mean 27.3 ± 7.6). All patients were evaluated four times with CDS: preoperatively, first postoperative day, 3 months postoperative, and finally 6 months after the operation. Preoperative venous diameters were measured between 3 and 5.5 mm; mean vein diameters were 3.8 ± 0.7 mm for the left side and 3.4 ± 0.4 mm for the right side. Mean duration of reflux was 3.5 ± 0.3 seconds on the left side and 2.9 ± 0.7 seconds on the right side. First postoperative day persistent Valsalva-induced reflux flow was seen in 10 patients (18%). Mean venous diameter was measured 1.8 ± 0.9 mm. Three months after the operation, Valsalva-induced reflux flow was seen in two patients (3%) in whom reflux was not seen on the first postoperative day. After 6 months, venous diameters larger than 2 mm at rest and the occurrence of reflux during the Valsalva maneuver were considered to be a recurrence. Six months after the operation, 12 patients had recurrent varicocele. Detecting persistent reflux with CDS on the first postoperative day was found to be 85% sensitive and 100% specific for showing recurrence. Valsalva-induced persistent reflux flow investigated with CDS on the first postoperative day can be used to show success of the surgery and is also an indicator of recurrence in varicocelectomy patients.

  16. Varicocele is the root cause of BPH: Destruction of the valves in the spermatic veins produces elevated pressure which diverts undiluted testosterone directly from the testes to the prostate.

    PubMed

    Goren, M; Gat, Y

    2018-03-22

    In varicocele, there is venous flow of free testosterone (FT) directly from the testes into the prostate. Intraprostatic FT accelerates prostate cell production and prolongs cell lifespan, leading to the development of BPH. We show that in a large group of patients presenting with BPH, bilateral varicocele is found in all patients. A total of 901 patients being treated for BPH were evaluated for varicocele. Three diagnostic methods were used as follows: physical examination, colour flow Doppler ultrasound and contact liquid crystal thermography. Bilateral varicocele was found in all 901 patients by at least one of three diagnostic methods. Of those subsequently treated by sclerotherapy, prostate volume was reduced in more than 80%, with prostate symptoms improved. A straightforward pathophysiologic connection exists between bilateral varicocele and BPH. The failure of the one-way valves in the internal spermatic veins leads to a cascade of phenomena that are unique to humans, a result of upright posture. The prostate is subjected to an anomalous venous supply of undiluted, bioactive free testosterone. FT, the obligate control hormone of prostate cells, reaches the prostate directly via the venous drainage system in high concentrations, accelerating the rate of cell production and lengthening cell lifespan, resulting in BPH. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Scrotal Hematoma Precipitated by Centrifuge Training in a Fighter Pilot with an Asymptomatic Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Kampel, Liyona; Klang, Eyal; Winkler, Harry; Gordon, Barak; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Shoam, Yifat Erlich

    2015-12-01

    Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture. We describe a case of a young fighter-jet pilot presenting with a painful inguinal hematoma extending to the scrotum a day after participating in centrifuge training. Sonographic examination demonstrated dilated spermatic veins and intratesticular varicocele along with subcutaneous thickening of the scrotal wall consistent with hematoma. The effects of high G loads on blood flow in spermatic veins, and especially in varicocele, still need to be determined. Varicocele rupture has been described in relation to increased intra-abdominal pressure and could theoretically occur during anti-G straining maneuvers. Such an acute adverse event during combat flight can be detrimental to flight safety and the pilot's well-being.

  18. Morphological and Surgical Overview of Adolescent Testis Affected by Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing. PMID:24348160

  19. The role of varicocele sclerotherapy in men with severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mazen A; Safan, Manal A; Ghanem, Ashraf A; Dohle, Gert R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the role of antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicoceles in infertile men with severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT). The 59 patients with severe OAT in this study underwent antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicoceles. The outcome was assessed in terms of improvement in semen parameters and spontaneous conception rate. Semen parameters and reproductive hormones were evaluated before antegrade sclerotherapy (AS) and 6 months after AS. After an average follow-up time of 34.8±3.2 months, significant improvement was noted in the mean sperm concentration, motility and morphology in 36 patients (61%). Spontaneous pregnancy occurred in nine couples (15%). Six months after treatment, inhibin B levels were significantly higher (P<0.04), whereas follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly lower (P<0.001) than before treatment. Antegrade internal spermatic vein sclerotherapy can significantly improve seminal parameters and hormonal parameters in men with severe OAT and may even result in spontaneous pregnancy in couples who would otherwise be candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:21785440

  20. [Modified Jujing No.2 Decoction for varicocele-induced male infertility].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Xing; Zhou, Yu-Chun; Liu, Tao; Fan, Qian; Huang, Xin-Fei; Huang, Jian; Wang, Qing; Ni, Liang-Yu; Xue, Jian-Guo; Ning, Ke-Qin

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Jujing No.2 Decoction on male infertility induced by varicocele. We equally randomized 70 male patients with varicocele-induced infertility into a treatment group and a control group, the former treated with modified Jujing No.2 Decoction (1 dose a day, bid) and the latter given Danshen Tablets (4 tablets once, tid) plus Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (8 pills once, tid), both for 3 months. We examined the spermatic veins of the patients by ultrasonography and performed seminal analysis before and after medication. Compared with the controls, the patients in the treatment group showed significant improvement after medication in sperm concentration ([12.35±2.12] vs [18.56±4.16] ×10⁶/ml, P<0.05), progressively motile sperm ([16.18±6.34] vs [24.63±8.51] %, P<0.05), and morphologically normal sperm ([11.59±5.31] vs [14.17±6.02] %, P<0.05). In the control group, sperm concentration was increased from (12.29±2.07) ×10⁶/ml at the baseline to (13.13±3.13) ×10⁶/ml after medication, progressively motile sperm from (16.13±6.45) % to (20.55±7.30) % (P<0.05), and morphologically normal sperm from (11.62±5.35) % to (12.69±5.77) %. The total effectiveness rate was significantly higher in the treatment than in the control group (71.88% vs 46.67%, P<0.05). The inner diameter of the left spermatic vein was decreased from (0.32±0.05) mm at the baseline to [0.26±0.05] mm after medication in the treatment group (P<0.05) and from (0.32±0.03) mm to (0.29±0.04) mm in the control (P<0.05), with statistically significant difference between the two groups after medication (P<0.05). Jujing No.2 Decoction is effective in the treatment of varicocele-induced male infertility.

  1. Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in seminal plasma of men with genitourinary infections, varicocele and idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Micheli, L; Cerretani, D; Collodel, G; Menchiari, A; Moltoni, L; Fiaschi, A I; Moretti, E

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to assess the antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds in semen of infertile men. Seventy-four infertile patients were grouped according to their clinical diagnosis: genitourinary infection, varicocele, idiopathic infertility. Semen samples of fertile men represent the control. Semen characteristics were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM data was quantified with a mathematical formula, which provides numerical scores. Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods were used to measure the amount of reduced (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and malondialdehyde (MDA, marker of lipid peroxidation) and the activity of glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase. Infertile groups showed significantly decreased values of sperm parameters vs. In infection and varicocele groups, the seminal MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to controls (p < 0.001), indicating an alteration of oxidative status and a peroxidative damage. In infection and varicocele groups, AA levels were reduced (p < 0.05) vs. control; in the varicocele group, the GSH levels were also decreased (p < 0.05). Significantly higher CAT activity was observed in infection and varicocele groups vs. fertile men (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively). The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly decreased in varicocele and idiopathic infertility groups vs. control (p < 0.01). The study of the alteration of a single parameter of oxidative stress or of the antioxidant system may not have a relevant clinical value to estimate male fertilising potential and the background of infertility causes, since complex and multifactorial mechanisms are involved in different pathologies. In our study, each pathology is characterised by a definite pattern of markers such as MDA and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds. In the different pathologies related to infertility, the identification of the complex of

  2. Anatomic and hemodynamic evaluation of renal venous flow in varicocele formation using color Doppler sonography with emphasis on renal vein entrapment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Murat; Orguc, Sebnem; Serter, Selim; Pekindil, Gokhan; Pabuscu, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the anatomic and hemodynamic properties of testicular venous drainage and its effects on varicocele formation and reflux using color Doppler ultrasound (US) with emphasis on renal vein entrapment syndrome. Upper abdominal and scrotal US examinations of 35 varicocele patients and 35 healthy male subjects were performed in the supine position during rest, during a Valsalva maneuver and in the erect position. The aortomesenteric angle and distance (AMA and AMD, respectively), peak mean velocities (PVs) and diameters of different segments of renal veins, testicular vein diameters and duration of flow inversion were measured. In the varicocele group, the lateral segment of the left renal vein (LRV) had a larger diameter and slower PV, and the medial segment of the LRV had a smaller diameter and faster PV. The diameter of the dominant draining vein correlated with the PV of the medial and lateral segments of the LRV, whereas there was no correlation between the diameter of the dominant draining vein and the diameters of the right renal vein (RRV) and the lateral segment of the LRV or the PV of the RRV. The duration of flow inversion correlated with the diameter and PV of the medial segment of the LRV. No correlation between the diameters and PVs of the RRV and the lateral segment of the LRV was detected. The decreases in the AMA, AMD, diameter of the medial segment of the LRV and PV of the lateral segment of the LRV, and the increases in the PV of the medial segment of the LRV and the diameter of the lateral segment of the LRV in varicocele patients in all positions suggest the entrapment or impingement of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. This has been defined as the "nutcracker phenomenon", which is known to affect varicocele formation.

  3. Antegrade subinguinal sclerotization with temporary clamping of the spermatic cord: a new surgical technique for varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Mario; Carmignani, Luca; Agarwal, Ashok; Ciociola, Francesco; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Castiglioni, M Fabrizio; Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Giovanni M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the duration, effectiveness, and complications associated with a new operating technique for varicocele, using a subinguinal surgical approach and antegrade sclerotization of the spermatic veins. A total of 756 varicocele patients who came under our care for infertility underwent surgical treatment with our technique. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and confirmed by color-Doppler ultrasound of the spermatic cord. Only patients with continuous basal reflux inside the left spermatic vein detected in orthostatism underwent operation. The Colpi technique was used, which consists of a subinguinal incision with suspension of the spermatic cord; cord clamping for 8-10 minutes using two elastic bands; and injection of 1.5-3 mL of sclerosing agent during induced ischemia without any intraoperative radiological control. The average operating time was 25 minutes (range: 18-45 minutes). At the 3-month postoperative follow-up, there were 15 cases of persistent reflux (1.9%), 6 cases of hydrocele requiring surgical correction (0.7%), and 50 cases of fibrotic sequelae of penile lymphangiitis (6.6%). The new technique was more effective than the previous ones, with the exception of the microsurgical technique, which, however, takes 2-3 times longer to perform. The only significant complication was superficial single-vessel lymphangiitis of the penis, which resolved within 3 months with no apparent consequences. In conclusion, this new operating technique for varicocele is simpler to perform and may be effective compared with other techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery varicocelectomy versus conventional laparoscopic varicocele ligation: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingchao; Wang, Zhengyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a meta-analysis of data from available published studies comparing laparoendoscopic single-site surgery varicocelectomy (LESSV) with conventional transperitoneal laparoscopic varicocele ligation. Methods A comprehensive data search was performed in PubMed and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials and comparative studies that compared the two surgical approaches for the treatment of varicoceles. Results Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. LESSV required a significantly longer operative time than conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy but was associated with significantly less postoperative pain at 6 h and 24 h, a shorter recovery time and greater patient satisfaction with the cosmetic outcome. There was no difference between the two surgical approaches in terms of postoperative semen quality or the incidence of complications. Conclusion These data suggest that LESSV offers a well tolerated and efficient alternative to conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy, with less pain, a shorter recovery time and better cosmetic satisfaction. Further well-designed studies are required to confirm these findings and update the results of this meta-analysis. PMID:27688686

  5. Treatment effect of TUSPLV on recurrent varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tian-Zhong; Wu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the treatment effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic varicocelectomy (TUSPLV) on recurrent varicocele (VC). In order to compare the surgical effects of TUSPLV to traditional retroperitoneal ligation of the internal spermatic vein, 64 patients with recurrent VC were enrolled and divided into the control group (n=30) and the observation group (n=34). Patients in the control group underwent surgery using traditional retroperitoneal ligation of the internal spermatic vein, while those in the observation group underwent surgery using TUSPLV. The results showed that the time of operation and bleeding volume in the observation group were significantly lower. The occurrence and recurrence rates of periprocedural complications were considerably lower in the observation group. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In terms of the pregnancy rate, the difference between the 2 groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). We concluded that employing TUSPLV to treat recurrent VC was safe and effective. PMID:28123466

  6. Unilateral scrotal angiomas: An expression of underlying varicocele.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Elise E; Kouwenhoven, Stijn T P; Quint, Koen D; Gmelig Meijling, Kevin A; Genders, Roel E

    2016-01-01

    The current case report describes a 35-year-old man who presented with unilateral scrotal angiomas. The presence of unilateral scrotal angiomas was associated with an underlying varicocele on the ipsilateral side due to increased venous pressure. In case of unilateral scrotal angiomas further examination for underlying pathology is necessary.

  7. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). The mean H-score and AI were significantly higher in VAR group compared with SHAM (p < .001). After losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p < .001) and mean H-score and AI were significantly decreased compared with VAR group (p < .001 and .01, respectively). Findings of this suggest that losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Laparoscopic surgery versus antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy: Retrospective comparison of two different approaches for varicocele treatment.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias; Johannsen, Manfred; Beutner, Sabine; Helke, Christian; Braun, Kay P; Lein, Michael; Roigas, Jan; Hoschke, Bernd

    2006-02-01

    Both laparoscopic surgery and antegrade sclerotherapy are effective treatment options in the management of varicoceles. However, very limited data comparing these two approaches are available in the literature. We present our experience regarding outcome and complications with each treatment modality. During a 10-year period, 122 cases of laparoscopic varicocelectomy (LV) and 108 cases of antegrade sclerotherapy (AS) were performed in our institution. Diagnosis and postoperative results were established clinically and using Doppler ultrasonography. Data regarding failure rate, complications, operative time and length of hospital stay of each procedure were retrospectively evaluated. Median follow-up was 59 months (5-130). Failure rates for LV and AS were 4.9% and 15.7%, respectively (p < 0.01). Complications occurred in 13.1% after LV, including 13 cases (10.7%) of hydrocele formation, and 4.6% after AS. Hydroceles following LV were significantly more frequent in patients with compared to patients without previous inguinal surgery (27.8% vs. 8.5%; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between LV and AS regarding operative time (36 vs. 34 min, p > 0.05) and hospital stay (2.2 vs. 2.1 days, p > 0.5). In our experience, LV was more effective than AS in correcting varicoceles. Complications other than hydroceles were higher after AS. The higher incidence of postoperative hydrocele formation following LV warrants strategies such as the lymphatic sparing approach, especially in patients with previous inguinal surgery.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis reveals microsurgical varicocele repair is superior to percutaneous embolization in the treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason Ronald; Fantus, Jake; Lipshultz, Larry I; Fischer, Marc Anthony; Klinghoffer, Zachery

    2014-09-01

    Varicoceles are a common cause of male infertility; repair can be accomplished using either surgical or radiological means. We compare the cost-effectiveness of the gold standard, the microsurgical varicocele repair (MV), to the options of a nonmicrosurgical approach (NMV) and percutaneous embolization (PE) to manage varicocele-associated infertility. A Markov decision-analysis model was developed to estimate costs and pregnancy rates. Within the model, recurrences following MV and NMV were re-treated with PE and recurrences following PE were treated with repeat PE, MV or NMV. Pregnancy and recurrence rates were based on the literature, while costs were obtained from institutional and government supplied data. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity-analyses were performed to determine the effects of the various parameters on model outcomes. Primary treatment with MV was the most cost-effective strategy at $5402 CAD (Canadian)/pregnancy. Primary treatment with NMV was the least costly approach, but it also yielded the fewest pregnancies. Primary treatment with PE was the least cost-effective strategy costing about $7300 CAD/pregnancy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reinforced MV as the most cost-effective strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of >$4100 CAD/pregnancy. MV yielded the most pregnancies at acceptable levels of incremental costs. As such, it is the preferred primary treatment strategy for varicocele-associated infertility. Treatment with PE was the least cost-effective approach and, as such, is best used only in cases of surgical failure.

  10. Efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates for the embolization of varicoceles: a prospective, randomized, blinded study.

    PubMed

    Vanlangenhove, Peter; De Keukeleire, Katrien; Everaert, Karel; Van Maele, Georges; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-01

    This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n=84; right-sided, n=28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n=54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n=58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n=54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n=54/57, 94.7%; P=0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n=45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=41/58, 70.7%; P=0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n=25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=29/58, 50%; P=0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  11. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical treatment of varicocele by a subinguinal approach combined with antegrade intraoperative sclerotherapy of venous vessels.

    PubMed

    Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Carmignani, Luca; Nerva, Franco; Piediferro, Guido; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Grugnetti, Cristina; Galasso, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, in terms of recurrences, complications and operative duration, of a new technique for treating varicocele. Between September 1999 and December 2002 we evaluated 307 men aged 17-51 years with varicocele. In all of the men the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography. The men were treated by a variant of the microsurgical technique described in 1994. A 2-3 cm distal subinguinal incision was made at the level of the superficial inguinal ring and the spermatic cord was exposed. The largest vein in the spermatic cord fat was cannulated. A 7-9 cm segment of the spermatic cord was clamped for 8-10 min; at the start of the ischaemia time, 1.5-3 mL of 3% atoxysclerol was injected into the cannulated vein. After sclerotherapy, the vein was ligated at the injection site, and the blood flow to the cord was restored. The mean operative duration was 25 min. Follow-up at 3 and 6 months after surgery, with objective examination and scrotal ultrasonography, revealed one case of clinical recurrence/persistence. The most common complication was penile lymphangitis (nine men) that regressed spontaneously; three men had temporary orchialgia. There were no cases of secondary hydrocele or testicular atrophy. The modified technique appears to be relatively easy and safe, and to of low cost. Given the promising results in terms of complications and persistence, the treatment appears to be a suitable first-line approach for the surgical treatment of varicocele.

  13. A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines and best practice statements for the diagnosis and management of varicocele in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roque, Matheus; Esteves, Sandro C

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify and qualitatively analyze the methods as well as recommendations of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) and Best Practice Statements (BPS) concerning varicocele in the pediatric and adolescent population. An electronic search was performed with the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Scielo databases, as well as guidelines' Web sites until September 2015. Four guidelines were included in the qualitative synthesis. In general, the recommendations provided by the CPG/BPS were consistent despite the existence of some gaps across the studies. The guidelines issued by the American Urological Association (AUA) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) did not provide evidence-based levels for the recommendations given. Most of the recommendations given by the European Association of Urology (EAU) and European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU) were derived from nonrandomized clinical trials, retrospective studies, and expert opinion. Among all CPG/BPS, only one was specifically designed for the pediatric population. The studied guidelines did not undertake independent cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit analysis. The main objectives of these guidelines were to translate the best evidence into practice and provide a framework of standardized care while maintaining clinical autonomy and physician judgment. However, the limitations identified in the CPG/BPS for the diagnosis and management of varicocele in children and adolescents indicate ample opportunities for research and future incorporation of higher quality standards in patient care.

  14. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  15. Spermiogram and sperm head morphometry assessed by multivariate cluster analysis results during adolescence (12-18 years) and the effect of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Fernando; Soler, Carles; Camps, Patricia; Valverde, Anthony; García-Molina, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates sperm head morphometric characteristics in adolescents from 12 to 18 years of age, and the effect of varicocele. Volunteers between 150 and 224 months of age (mean 191, n = 87), who had reached oigarche by 12 years old, were recruited in the area of Barranquilla, Colombia. Morphometric analysis of sperm heads was performed with principal component (PC) and discriminant analysis. Combining seminal fluid and sperm parameters provided five PCs: two related to sperm morphometry, one to sperm motility, and two to seminal fluid components. Discriminant analysis on the morphometric results of varicocele and nonvaricocele groups did not provide a useful classification matrix. Of the semen-related PCs, the most explanatory (40%) was related to sperm motility. Two PCs, including sperm head elongation and size, were sufficient to evaluate sperm morphometric characteristics. Most of the morphometric variables were correlated with age, with an increase in size and decrease in the elongation of the sperm head. For head size, the entire sperm population could be divided into two morphometric subpopulations, SP1 and SP2, which did not change during adolescence. In general, for varicocele individuals, SP1 had larger and more elongated sperm heads than SP2, which had smaller and more elongated heads than in nonvaricocele men. In summary, sperm head morphometry assessed by CASA-Morph and multivariate cluster analysis provides a better comprehension of the ejaculate structure and possibly sperm function. Morphometric analysis provides much more information than data obtained from conventional semen analysis. PMID:27751986

  16. [Varicocele and coincidental abacterial prostato-vesiculitis: negative role about the sperm output].

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Tracia, Angelo; Cardì, Francesco; Donati, Angelo

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency and the role of a coincidentally expressed abacterial prostato-vesiculitis (PV) on sperm output in patients with left varicocele (Vr). We evaluated 143 selected infertile patients (mean age 27 years, range 21-43), with oligo- and/or astheno- and/or teratozoospermia (OAT) subdivided in two groups. Group A included 76 patients with previous varicocelectomy and persistent OAT. Group B included 67 infertile patients (mean age 26 years, range 21-37) with OAT and not varicocelectomized. Patients with Vr and coincidental didymo-epididymal ultrasound (US) abnormalities were excluded from the study. Following rectal prostato-vesicular ultrasonography, each group was subdivided in two subsets on the basis of the absence (group A: subset Vr-/PV-; and group B: subset Vr+/PV-) or the presence of an abacterial PV (group A: subset Vr-/PV+; group B: subset Vr+/PV+). Particularly, PV was present in 47.4% and 41.8% patients of groups A and B, respectively. This coincidental pathology was ipsilateral with Vr in the 61% of the cases. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Patients of group A showed a total sperm number significantly higher than those found in group B. In presence of PV, sperm parameters were not significantly different between matched--subsets (Vr-/PV+ vs. Vr+/PV+). In absence of PV, the sperm density, the total sperm number and the percentage of forward motility from subset with previous varicocelectomy (Vr-/PV) exhibited values significantly higher than those found in the matched--subset (Vr+/PV-). Sperm analysis alone performed in patients with left Vr is not a useful prognostic post-varicocelectomy marker. Since following varicocelectomy a lack of sperm response could mask another coincidental pathology, the identification through US scans of a possible PV may be mandatory. On the other hand, an integrated uro-andrological approach, including US scans, allows to enucleate subsets of patients with Vr alone, who will have an expected

  17. AN ELDERLY PATIENT WITH ACUTE TRANSIENT OUTER RETINAL DISRUPTION RESEMBLING BILATERAL MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Golshani, Cyrus; Gal-Or, Orly; Giovinazzo, Vincent; Freund, K Bailey

    2017-11-07

    To report an unusual case of an elderly patient with transient outer retinal disruption resembling bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Observational case report. Fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography, standard and ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence, and cross-sectional and en face optical coherence tomography were used to characterize and describe the clinical findings. A 67-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and floaters in her left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20-3 in the right eye and 20/80-2 in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed small deep white dots and foveal granularity of the left eye corresponding to hyperautofluorescent spots on fundus autofluorescence and ellipsoid zone disruption on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The asymptomatic right eye had evidence of subretinal deposits on spectral domain optical coherence tomography but was otherwise unremarkable. At 4-week follow-up, the patient noted resolution of her symptoms in the left eye but had developed floaters and blurry vision in her right eye. The left eye showed resolving white spots and ellipsoid zone disruption. However, the right eye had new evidence of white spots corresponding to hyperautofluorescent spots on fundus autofluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated subretinal deposits overlying areas of ellipsoid zone disruption. At 8-week follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic in both eyes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes. The hyperautofluorescent spots on ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence had faded with restoration of ellipsoid zone disruption in both eyes and disappearance of subretinal deposits. Our case demonstrates multimodal retinal imaging findings resembling multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in an elderly patient. The bilateral presentation, presence of subretinal deposits before symptom onset, and older age of the patient were atypical features for this

  18. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery and conventional laparoscopic treatment of varicocele in adolescents: Comparison between two techniques.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Pintozzi, Lucia; Cavaiuolo, Silvia; Parmeggiani, Pio

    2014-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has gained great popularity in paediatric surgery due to its minimally invasive approach and improved cosmetic results. Notwithstanding, reports describing its adoption in children are still fragmentary and some perplexities have been raised by some surgeons. We reviewed our experience with the SILS Palomo varicocelectomy procedure (SIL-V) in children and adolescents, comparing this group with a similar series operated using conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy (CL-V). A total of 69 Palomo laparoscopic varicocelectomies were performed in patients aged 11-17 years from January 2011 to January 2013. Indications for surgery included grades II-III varicocele or ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy. The SIL-V procedure was performed in 44 patients with roticulating and conventional 5 mm instruments. Testicular vessels were isolated "en bloc," clipped and cut. Operating time, visual analogue scale and post-operative results were compared to a similar group of 25 patients operated with CL-V. No patient of the SIL-V group required conversion to conventional laparoscopy, none to open surgery. Mean operative time was 22 min (range: 19-28) in the SIL-V group, not significantly different compared with CL-V (mean 21 min, range: 18-25). All patients experienced a smooth recovery from surgery without any complications, and were discharged on day 1. No difficulties were found in the SIL-V group. The post-operative pain score was significantly better in SIL-V. The SIL-V procedure is safe and effective and allows a fast and efficient isolation of the vascular bundle. The use of conventional instruments is technically feasible in SIL-V.

  19. Resemblance and investment in children.

    PubMed

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  20. [The negative effect in patients with varicocele of coincidental didymo-epididymal morpho-pathology on sperm response before and after surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Vicari, E; Cannizzaro, M A; Piazza, L; D'Agata, R G

    1997-06-01

    In order to assess the relative incidence of varicocele (V) alone and V+ coincidental didymo-epididymal morphological abnormalities (DEMA) and the role of these pathologies on the pre- and post-surgical sperm outcome, 151 selected (previous exclusion of cases with bilateral V, seminal infections, antisperm autoAb) patients (aged 20-41 yrs) affected by left V at Doppler ultrasonography, underwent both ultrasound scrotal content examinations and semen analyses (sperm density, total sperm count, forward motility and normal morphology employing as frequency distribution) before and after varicocelectomy (on months 4-8-12, taking for statistical comparison the maximal post-surgical sperm value registered vs. mean correspective pre-treatment value). One-hundred two (67.5%) patients exhibited V alone (group A), whilst 49 (32.5%) patients showed V+DEMA (group B). As regards V, DEMA lesions (testis size < 12 ml; epididymides abnormalities: increased head (> 11 mm) and/or tail (> 6 mm) diameter, multiple microcysts; large idrocele) were omolaterally in 21/49 (42.8%) eterolaterally in 11/49 (22.5%) or bilaterally in 17/49 (34.7%). An additional group of 25 patients, exhibiting the above ultrasonic DEMA lesions alone without V, served as controls (group C) for semen statistical analysis in the pre-surgical period only. In this phase among groups A vs B, A vs C, B vs C, frequency distributions of all sperm parameters studied (excepted for density not significative only between B and C group patients) were significantly different. The following data were registered from A, B and C patient groups respectively: a) azoospermia was present in 12.7%, 34.8% and 24%; b) oligozoospermia (< 20 mil/ml) in 39.2%, 49% and 48%; c) normozoospermia in 48.1%, 16.3% and 8%; d) total sperm count was < 40 millions/ejaculate in 44.1%, 91.9% and 76%; e) asthenozoospermia (forward motility < 25%) was present in 32.3%, 71.4% e 72%; f) teratozoospermia (oval form <30%) was present in 34.3%, 62.3% and

  1. Varicocele-caused progressive damage in bilateral testis and sertoli cell-only syndrome in homolateral testis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianjun; Ding, Degang; Liu, Jie

    2014-10-14

    We aimed to investigate whether varicocele (VC) in rats can cause Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS). Forty adolescent SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 4-weeks control group, 4-weeks experimental group, 12-weeks control group, and 12-weeks experimental group. Left varicocele models were introduced by partially ligating left kidney veins for the experimental groups, and the sham surgery groups as controls were executed with exactly the same surgery as in the experimental groups except for the ligation. Rats in control and experimental groups for 4 and 12 weeks were killed after laparotomy at 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, the testes were taken out and fixed in fixative containing 4% polyformaldehyde, then were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The density and viability of sperm were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis. Compared with rats in 4-weeks and 12-weeks control group, histological structures of bilateral testes in both experimental groups were impaired, most of them showing as focal focuses. The pathological changes of testes in rats of the 12-weeks experimental group were bilateral, and included atrophy of seminiferous tubules, turbulence of spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules, defluvium of most spermatogenic cells, abortion of spermatogenesis, and degradation of spermatogenic epithelia. One rat in the 12-weeks experimental group was shown having SCOS, with the spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules completely flaked, degraded, or absent, and only Sertoli cells lined the seminiferous tubules. Laboratory VC caused progressive impairment of homolateral testes, and SCOS could be induced when the damage was severe. Our results indicate that asthenozoospermia, azoospermia, and SCOS can be prevented by the earlier treatment of VC.

  2. Recurrent skin eruption in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphocytic infiltrates of the dermis resembling Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, B; Chodorowska, G; Pietrzak, A; Krasowska, D W; Wąsik, Sz; Dybiec, E; Lotti, T; Hercegova, J

    2011-12-01

    Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile dermatosis) is characterized by fever, peripheral neutrophil leukocytosis, acute onset of tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules or plaques), and histological findings of a dense infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils. Malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome constitutes approximately 21% of patients, the majority of whom suffer from hematologic disorder. We report the case of patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with recurrent eruptions of tender, pseudovesiculated nodules and plaques with good response to corticosteroid therapy, resembling Sweet's syndrome. However, histological examination revealed lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis, which made impossible to establish diagnosis of acute febrile dermatosis according to diagnostic criteria. Association of the skin eruptions with leukemia was implied by improvement of skin lesions after chemotherapy. We present review of the literature reporting cases with atypical histopathological presentations which preceded classical histological appearances, that were mainly associated with hematological malignancies and discuss them in the context of our patient.

  3. Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy in the Management of Chronic Scrotal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Elenko; Bourdoumis, Andreas; Akhter, Waseem; El Howairis, Mohamed; Aghaways, Ismaeel; Masood, Junaid; Buchholz, Noor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of laparoscopic varicocelectomy in the management of chronic scrotal pain. Methods: Between 2009 and 2011, 48 patients in total were treated with laparoscopic varicocelectomy for dull scrotal pain that worsened with physical activity and was attributed to varicoceles. All patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months and biannually thereafter with a physical examination, visual analog scale score, and ultrasonographic scan in selected cases. Results: The mean age was 38.2 years (range, 23–54 years). The mean follow-up period was 19.6 months (range, 6–26 months). Bilateral varicoceles were present in 7 patients (14.6%), and a unilateral varicocele was present in 41 (85.4%). The varicocele was grade 3 in 27 patients (56.3%), grade 2 in 20 (41.6%), and grade 1 in 1 (2.1%). The mean preoperative visual analog scale score was 4.8 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean postoperative visual analog scale score at 3 months was 0.8. After the procedure, 42 patients (87.5%) had a significant improvement in the visual analog scale score (P < .001); 5 (10.4%) had symptom improvement, although it was not statistically significant; and 1 (2.1%) remained unchanged. During follow-up, we observed 5 recurrences (10.4%) whereas de novo hydrocele formation was identified in 4 individuals (8.3%). Conclusion: Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is efficient in the treatment of symptomatic varicoceles with a low complication rate. However, careful patient selection is necessary because it appears that individuals presenting with sharp, radiating testicular pain and/or a low-grade varicocele are less likely to benefit from this procedure. PMID:25392634

  4. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Sympathetic Chain Schwannoma Resembling Carotid Body Tumour.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Tallat; Khan, Musaddiq

    2016-06-01

    Schwannomas are rare, benign nerve sheath tumours of parapharyngeal space. Differential diagnosis should include salivary gland tumours, paragangliomas, neurofibromas, and metastatic lymph nodes. The tumours may arise from vagus nerve and cervical sympathetic chain (CSC). Diagnosis is usually made by imaging techniques: contrast CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is useful diagnostic procedure but poor results are seen in neurogenic tumours. Rarely, a vascular CSC schwannoma at the level of carotid arteries bifurcation may mimic carotid body tumour (CBT) on imaging techniques, especially if they are vascular, causing splaying of internal and external carotid arteries. Clinically patient was asymptomatic except for a pulsatile swelling in neck for 5 years. The presented case resembled CBTclinically, on ultrasound and on imaging techniques causing splaying of carotid arteries. FNAC was inconclusive and was always hemorrhagic. During operation, it was found to be CSC schwannoma just posterior to carotid body. CSC was sacrificed and patient developed Horner syndrome postoperatively.

  6. A hypothesis to explain accuracy of wasp resemblances.

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Vane-Wright, Richard I; Wickler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist. We here propose an additional hypothesis to Batesian and Müllerian mimicry (both typically involving selection by learning vertebrate predators; cf. Table 1) that reflects another possible scenario for the evolution of multifold and in particular very accurate resemblances to wasps: an innate, visual inhibition of aggression among look-alike wasps, based on their social organization and high abundance. We argue that wasp species resembling each other need not only be Müllerian mutualists and that other insects resembling wasps need not only be Batesian mimics, but an innate ability of wasps to recognize each other during hunting is the driver in the evolution of a distinct kind of masquerade, in which model, mimic, and selecting agent belong to one or several species (Figure  1b). Wasp mimics resemble wasps not (only) to be mistaken by educated predators but rather, or in addition, to escape attack from their wasp models. Within a given ecosystem, there will be selection pressures leading to masquerade driven by wasps and/or to mimicry driven by other predators that have to learn to avoid them. Different pressures by guilds of these two types of selective agents could explain the widely differing fidelity with respect to the models in assemblages of yellow jackets and yellow jacket look-alikes.

  7. Chromobacterium violaceum- induced sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction, resembling melioidosis in an elderly diabetic patient: A case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Khadanga, Sagar; Karuna, Tadepalli; Dugar, Dharmendra; Satapathy, Shakti Prasad

    2017-01-01

    An elderly diabetic farmer presented with chronic nonhealing ulcer over the left foot, multiple liver abscesses, and right-sided pleural effusion. The patient developed septicemia and multiorgan failure. The pus grew pigment producing Chromobacterium violaceum . He was treated successfully with ciprofloxacin for a total duration of 15 days. This case is reported for its rare clinical presentation and resemblance with melioidosis. Of the 200 C. violaceum cases reported across the globe, this is the 14 th case from India and the oldest in the literature.

  8. Chromobacterium violaceum- induced sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction, resembling melioidosis in an elderly diabetic patient: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Khadanga, Sagar; Karuna, Tadepalli; Dugar, Dharmendra; Satapathy, Shakti Prasad

    2017-01-01

    An elderly diabetic farmer presented with chronic nonhealing ulcer over the left foot, multiple liver abscesses, and right-sided pleural effusion. The patient developed septicemia and multiorgan failure. The pus grew pigment producing Chromobacterium violaceum. He was treated successfully with ciprofloxacin for a total duration of 15 days. This case is reported for its rare clinical presentation and resemblance with melioidosis. Of the 200 C. violaceum cases reported across the globe, this is the 14th case from India and the oldest in the literature. PMID:28966500

  9. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    PubMed

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  10. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  11. Effect of the Oxidant-Antioxidant System in Seminal Plasma on Varicocele and Idiopathic Infertility in Male Humans.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Hayrullah; Halis, Fikret; Nasir, Yasemin; Guzel, Derya; Akdogan, Mehmet; Gokce, Ahmet

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate seminal oxidant-antioxidant activity in idiopathic and varicocele infertility in men. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase (PON1), aryl esterase (ARE), and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in seminal plasma with an autoanalyzer. The TOS/TAC ratio was determined as the oxidative stress index (OSI). A histopathological evaluation of the sperm was performed in the andrology laboratory of the hospital. Number, motility, morphology, volume, pH, and leukocytes were evaluated in all samples according to World Health Organization criteria. The three study groups were as follows: G1, males with idiopathic infertility; G2, males with varicocele infertility; and G3, normal healthy males (had fathered a child in the last 2 years). Each group was composed of 36 men (age, 25 - 40 years). The Rel Assay Diagnostics kit was used to determine the levels of the parameters. The study was conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by Sakarya University Medicine Faculty Ethic Committee (e.n: 16214662/050.01.04/07). Statistical significance was assumed if p < 0.05. All statistical evaluations were performed using SPSS (version 20.0 for Windows; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). No differences were detected between the mean values of antioxidant parameters among the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis test). The p-values of the test parameters (TAC, TOS, PON1, ARE, TTL, OSI) are respectively: 0.494, 0.548, 0.068, 0.151, 0.202, 0.873. The antioxidant parameters of all subjects were compared using the MannWhitney U-test in both groups as fertile (G3) and infertile (G1 + G2). The PON1 levels in infertile subjects were significantly higher than those in fertile subjects. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.042). The other antioxidant parameters had no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The ARE was not performed in group 3 (control) due to a

  12. Increasing infertility in myotonia dystrophica Curschmann-Steinert. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hauser, W; Aulitzky, W; Baltaci, S; Frick, J

    1991-01-01

    A 26-year-old male came to our andrologic out-patient clinic because of his desire to have children. Preliminary examinations revealed a varicocele left and a subclinical varicocele right. Testicular volume was smaller than normal, and spermiogram values were already poor (vitality, motility and morphology). Basic hormones were normal. The anamnesis gave no information on hereditary disorders. Surgical treatment of the varicocele did not bring the desired outcome. A testicular biopsy showed Leydig cell hyperplasia with strongly reduced spermiohistogenesis. In a renewed and extensive anamnesis, the patient revealed that he suffers from myotonia dystrophica Curschmann-Steinert. This disorder causes sclerosis of the tubuli seminiferi contorti, which can ultimately lead to azoospermia.

  13. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    PubMed Central

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  14. Varicocelescintigraphy versus X-ray phlebography

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oei, H.Y.; Arndt, J.W.; Mali, W.P.T.

    1984-01-01

    In this study varicocelescintigraphy (VS) is compared to X-ray phlebography(XP). In 104 patients (pts) suspected for varicocele on physical examination, VS was performed using a large field camera and 5 mCi Tc-99m in-vivo labeled erythrocytes. This was done (without Valsalva) in upright position after taping penis to the abdomen, marking the penisbase and covering the thighs with lead. Twenty 5-sec dynamic images (DY) and 5-min static image (ST) were made. Variocele-size was quantitated by bloodpoolvalue (BPV) using digital image of ST. BPV is the ratio of mean counts/pixel in varicocele and right iliac vessels calculated from adjacent pixels with maximummore » counts. On XP varicocele was diagnosed if the testicular vein was visualized after contrast injection given during Valsalva in the renal vein. In 85 pts varicocele was confirmed on XP. In 67 of them this was recognized easily on both DY and ST; the DY shows activity in the varicocele 10-35 sec later than the iliac artery and the ST shows pooling of activity below the penisbase. In 11 pts the varicocele was only seen on ST and in other 5 pts only on DY. In the remaining 2 pts both DY and ST were false negative. The BPV in 72 pts with abnormal DY and in 11 pts with normal DY varied between 0.4 - 2.2(0.89 +- 0.38) resp. 0.4 - 1.0(0.61 +- 0.19). In 16 of the 19 pts who showed no varicocele on XP, VS also was negative; their BPV varied between 0.2 - 0.4(0.30 +- 0.08). However, in 3 pts who initially had a normal XP, varicocele was diagnosed on both DY and ST, which was confirmed when XP was repeated. Diagnosis of varicocele by physical examination is not accurate. VS is suitable for screenings procedure when both DY and ST are obtained. Pts with abnormal DY have larger varicocele than pts with normal DY.« less

  15. Who Resembles Whom? Mimetic and Coincidental Look-Alikes among Tropical Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resemblance of the model to the “mimic” inadvertently attracts the latter to it, and reinforcement of this social trapping by learned benefits leads to the “mimic” regularly associating with the model. I examine three well known cases of supposed aggressive mimicry among reef-fishes in relation to nine predictions from these hypotheses, and assess which hypothesis offers a better explanation for each. One case, involving precise and complex morphological and behavioral resemblance, is strongly consistent with mimicry, one is inconclusive, and one is more consistent with a social-trap based on coincidental, imprecise resemblance. Few cases of supposed interspecific mimicry among tropical reef fishes have been examined in depth, and many such associations may involve social traps arising from generalized, coincidental resemblance. Mimicry may be much less common among these fishes than is generally thought. PMID:23372795

  16. Metastatic colonic and gastric polyps from breast cancer resembling hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Horimoto, Yoshiya; Hirashima, Tetsuro; Arakawa, Atsushi; Miura, Hiroyoshi; Saito, Mitsue

    2018-03-23

    Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare and is generally found when patients complain of symptoms such as gastrointestinal obstruction. Herein, we report a case with metastatic colonic and gastric lesions from breast cancer, with the formation of mucosal polyps which resembled typical hyperplastic polyps.A 47-year-old woman underwent curable surgery for breast cancer and received standard systemic treatments. Her primary tumor was composed of a mix of invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas. During adjuvant endocrine therapy, she developed multiple colonic metastases, identified by colonoscopy performed as part of a general health check-up. She had no symptoms. Small elevated sessile polyps in the transverse colon and rectum showed histological features of signet-ring cell type adenocarcinoma, similar to the invasive lobular component of the primary breast cancer. During treatments for recurrent disease, she also developed multiple gastric metastases, with the same endoscopic and pathological features as the colonic lesions. Her treatment regimen was switched to oral chemotherapy, and she has since maintained stable disease for nearly 3 years. Multiple bone metastases eventually developed, and she was again switched to another systemic treatment but, to date, has remained free of symptoms.We emphasize that the endoscopic findings of the metastatic lesions in the colon and stomach in this case highly resembled hyperplastic polyps. Since biopsy is not always performed for hyperplastic polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, we believe that this case report may encourage endoscopists to offer biopsies to the patient who has a history of breast cancer.

  17. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  18. [The lh-rh-test in men with fertility disorders (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Höbel, W

    1976-11-01

    89 mal patients with fertility disorders underwent a test with 50 mug synthetic LH-RH. The basal levels of FSH and LH are elevated in patients with azoospermia, with testicular atrophy, varicocele and Klinefelters syndrome. They increase with age. After stimulation with LH-RH the highest relative peaks (maximal value divided by control value) of LH are seen younger patients, in those with varicocele, and oligozoospermia. The FSH-values do not differ significantly between these groups. Low relative peaks of LH are seen in older patients. In Klinefelter's syndrome the relative peaks of FSH and LH are significantly lowered.

  19. Lymphography prior to laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy to prevent postoperative hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Salvatore F; D'Agostino, Sergio; Scarpa, Mariagrazia; Fabbro, Mariangelica; Costa, Lorenzo; Musi, Luciano

    2006-08-01

    We report our experience with preoperative lymphography to identify and perioperatively preserve the ligature of the lymphatic vessels to reduce the incidence of postoperative testicular hydrocele in patients undergoing laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy for adolescent varicocele. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with varicocele had preoperative lymphography. The mean age was 13.5 years (range, 8-18 years) and the mean grade of varicocele was III. We performed lymphography with intrascrotal isosulfan blue. The laparoscopic Palomo procedure was successfully carried out in all patients. In 17 patients (63%) we were able to identify and conserve the lymphatic vessels by lymphography. Mean follow-up was 9.5 months (range, 6-24 months). None of the 27 patients had a recurrence. None of the 17 patients with positive lymphography had a testicular hydrocele. One of the 10 remaining patients developed a sizable hydrocele. Preoperative lymphography prior to laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy is a simple and feasible method for preventing testicular hydrocele. However, the method should be standardized to identify the exact site, the correct level of injection of blue dye, and to determine the optimal time to perform lymphography prior to the procedure.

  20. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a ‘pop-out’ effect for anger, more quickly locating an angry than a happy face in a neutral array, suggests that both age groups may be equally sensitive to emotion resemblance. We used computer modeling to assess the degree to which neutral faces objectively resembled emotions and assessed whether that resemblance predicted trait impressions. We found that both OA and YA showed anger and surprise overgeneralization in ratings of danger and naiveté, respectively, with no significant differences in the strength of the effects for the two age groups. These findings suggest that well-documented OA deficits on emotion recognition tasks may be more due to processing demands than to an insensitivity to the social affordances of emotion expressions. PMID:24058225

  1. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  2. The effect of the degree of left renal vein constriction on the development of adolescent varicocele in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bing; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Han, Da-Yu; Ouyang, Bin; Chen, Xu; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Deng, Chun-Hua; Sun, Xiang-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Experimental models have allowed inquiry into the pathophysiology of varicocele (VC) beyond that possible with human patients. A randomized controlled study in rats was designed to clarify the influence of the degree of left renal vein constriction on the development of adolescent VC. Fifty adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly assigned to five groups of 10: the experimental groups (I-IV) underwent partial ligation of left renal veins with 0.5-, 0.6-, 0.7-, and 0.8-mm diameter needles, respectively. The control group (V) underwent a sham operation. The diameter of the left spermatic vein (LSV) was measured at baseline and 30 days postoperatively. In addition, the lesion of the left kidney was examined with the naked eye and assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. VC was successfully induced in 2 (20%), 4 (40%), 7 (70%), and 10 (100%) rats in groups I-IV, respectively. The other rats failed to develop VCs primarily due to left renal atrophy. No VC was observed in group V. The postsurgical LSV diameters in VC rats in groups III and IV were 1.54 ± 0.16 and 1.49 ± 0.13 mm, respectively (P > 0.05), and their increments were 1.36 ± 0.10 and 1.31 ± 0.10 mm, respectively (P > 0.05). These results suggest that suitable constriction of the left renal vein is critical for adolescent VC development. In addition, the 0.8-mm diameter needle may be more suitable for inducing left renal vein constriction in adolescent rat models.

  3. A Hypomorphic RAG1 Mutation Resulting in a Phenotype Resembling Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Wang, Ning; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Rezaei, Nima; Lee, Yu Nee; Frugoni, Francesco; Notrangelo, Luigi D.; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Background RAG1 deficiency presents a varied spectrum of combined immunodeficiency, ranging from a T−B−NK+type of disease to a T+B+NK+ phenotype. Objective To assess the genetic background of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients. Methods A patient diagnosed with CVID, who was born in a consanguineous family and thus would be expected to show an autosomal recessive inheritance, was subjected to clinical evaluation, immunological assays, homozygosity gene mapping, exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing and functional analysis. Results The 14-year-old patient, who suffered from liver granuloma, extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma and autoimmune neutropenia, is presented with a clinical picture resembling CVID. Genetic analysis of this patient showed a homozygous hypomorphic RAG1 mutation (c.1073 G>A, p.C358Y) with a residual functional capacity of 48% of wild-type protein. Conclusion Our finding broadens the range of disorders associated with RAG1 mutations and may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:24996264

  4. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  5. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    PubMed Central

    Almaliotis, Diamantis; Nakos, Elias; Siempis, Thomas; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Chatzipantazi, Maria; Karampatakis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed. PMID:23762696

  6. Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: The pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Ramos, Óscar; González, Mabel Cristina; Rodríguez, Camilo; Medina, Iliana; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-04-01

    Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern. Heterospecific resemblance in colorful patches was highest between species at the same locality, but unrelated to concomitant variation in toxicity. Surprisingly, resemblance was lower for the conspicuous femoral patches compared to the inconspicuous dorsum. By building visual models, we further tested whether resemblance was affected by the visual system of model predators. As predicted, mimic-model resemblance was higher under the visual system of simulated predators compared to no visual system at all. Our results indicate that femoral patches are aposematic signals and support a role of mimicry in driving phenotypic divergence or mimetic radiation between localities. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  8. High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma on Urine Cytology Resembling Umbrella Cells.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Gould, Edwin W

    2018-01-01

    High-grade urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells have many appearances on urine cytology, but according to The Paris System, they can be easily distinguished from umbrella cells. We aimed to define the incidence and appearance of high-grade UC cells that resemble umbrella cells in Cytospin preparations on urine cytology. Cytospin preparations from 331 cases with biopsy follow-up (230 benign/low-grade and 101 malignant [22 carcinoma in situ, 52 papillary, 19 invasive UC, 8 other] cases) were reviewed. A total of 18 cases with malignant cells resembling umbrella cells were identified (17.8% of the malignant cases) and were the only type of malignant cell in 3% of the cases. Two patterns were identified. Tumor cells were either identifiable by at least 20 abnormal cells which were large, had abundant cytoplasm but an elevated nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, and markedly enlarged, round-to-elongated nucleoli, or else rare cells with abundant cytoplasm but obviously malignant nuclei. Cells without nucleoli or obviously malignant nuclei were not specific. Malignant cells resembling umbrella cells can be seen in up to 17% of urine cytology specimens. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Sclerotherapy of the pampiniform plexus with modified Marmar technique in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Casellato, Stefano; Galasso, Giacomo; Bozzini, Giorgio; Spinelli, Matteo; Dell'Agnola, Carlo Alberto; Rocco, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of varicocele in children is a debated problem for which no validated guidelines exist. Several techniques have been proposed to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of a modified Marmar technique in the treatment of varicocele in children and adolescents. From April 2004 to September 2005, we evaluated 25 patients between the ages of 9 and 18 (mean 14.4) years, who suffered from left-sided varicocele with concomitant testicular hypotrophy. The diagnosis was ascertained clinically and with scrotal color Doppler ultrasound using the Dubin and Amelar classification. In 2 cases phimosis was also present. The operation was performed according to a modified Marmar technique, using embolization of the pampiniform plexus with 2 ml of 3% polidocanol. Patients underwent clinical evaluation and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound at 1 week and 3 and 6 months. The mean duration of the operation was 42 min. At 1 week after surgery no persistence of varicocele was found. In 1 patient, edema of the spermatic cord occurred for about 2 months with spontaneous regression, in 1 patient homolateral hydrocele was observed. At 6 months no other complications were reported. No case of testicular atrophy was observed. The technique described has already been validated in the adult population, and although we present only a small number of cases, the operation proved easy to perform, safe, of low cost and can be considered a valid alternative to the microsurgical technique in children and adolescents. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase-oxidative stress relationship in the internal spermatic vein blood of infertile men with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, T; Rashed, L A; Zeidan, A S; Hosni, A

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to assess glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme- oxidative stress (OS) relationship in the internal spermatic vein (ISV) of infertile men associated with varicocele (Vx). Ninety five infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospemic (OAT) men associated with Vx were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. During inguinal varicocelectomy, GST, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in the blood samples drawn from ISV and median cubital veins. The mean levels of GST, GPx were significantly decreased and the mean level of GPx was significantly increased in the ISV compared with the peripheral blood. The mean level of GST and GPx in the ISV was significantly decreased, and the mean level of MDA was significantly increased in Vx grade III compared with Vx grade II cases. There was nonsignificant difference in the mean level of GST in the ISV in unilateral Vx cases compared with bilateral Vx cases. There was significant positive correlation of GST with sperm count, sperm motility, GPx and significant negative correlation with sperm abnormal forms, MDA. It is concluded that ISV of infertile men associated with Vx has decreased levels of GST compared with peripheral venous circulation that is correlated with both OS and Vx grade. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, María J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Seminal parameters values in the fertile group were very far above from those of the patients, either before or after surgery. No significant improvement in the percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.10), sperm concentration (P = 0.52), total sperm count (P = 0.76), subjective motility (%) (P = 0.97) nor kinematics (P = 0.30) was observed after varicocelectomy when all groups were compared. Neither was significant improvement found in percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.91), sperm concentration (P = 0.10), total sperm count (P = 0.89) or percentage motility (P = 0.77) after varicocelectomy in paired comparisons of preoperative and postoperative data. Analysis of paired samples revealed that the total sperm count (P = 0.01) and most sperm kinetic parameters: curvilinear velocity (P = 0.002), straight-line velocity (P = 0.0004), average path velocity (P = 0.0005), linearity (P = 0.02), and wobble (P = 0.006) improved after surgery. CASA offers the potential for accurate quantitative assessment of each patient's response to varicocelectomy.

  12. Mind-Wandering as a Natural Kind: A Family-Resemblances View.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Kane, Michael J; Smallwood, Jonathan; Schacter, Daniel L; Maillet, David; Schooler, Jonathan W; Smilek, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet they also maintain overlapping characteristics. This conceptual structure suggests that mind-wandering is best considered from a family-resemblances perspective, which entails treating it as a graded, heterogeneous construct and clearly measuring and describing the specific aspect(s) of mind-wandering that researchers are investigating. We believe that adopting this family-resemblances approach will increase conceptual and methodological connections among related phenomena in the mind-wandering family and encourage a more nuanced and precise understanding of the many varieties of mind-wandering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing violence in forensic care - how does it resemble the domains of a recovery-oriented care?

    PubMed

    Olsson, Helen; Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2016-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry is characterized by involuntary treatment and risk of violence. The concept of recovery is rarely in focus as the primary focus is on risk assessment, violence prevention and reducing coercion in care. To determine what resources forensic staff use to avoid or prevent violent situations, and to explore how these practices resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care. Semi-structured interviews with staff who were identified by forensic patients as key workers in their recovery process. Interview texts were analyzed using interpretive content analysis. Staff prevent violent situations using tacit knowledge and experience, and through a shared collegial responsibility. Staff safeguard patients, encourage patient participation, and provide staff consistency. The results have implications for forensic care as well as psychiatry regarding the process of making recovery a reality for patients in the forensic care setting.

  14. Saccular aortic aneurysm that resembled a mediastinal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Naohiro; Kataoka, Hiroumi; Hamada, Masakatsu; Kosako, Yukio; Matsuno, Yasuji; Ishii, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Saccular aortic arch aneurysms in unusual sites may be misdiagnosed as a neoplasm. We present the case of a rare saccular aortic arch aneurysm between trachea and esophagus that resembled a mediastinal neoplasm in the preoperative findings. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 63-year-old male with an abnormal mediastinal shadow on chest X-ray was referred to the hospital. An axial plain computed tomogram of the chest revealed mediastinal soft tissue next to the right side of the aortic arch resembling a neoplasm originating from the gap between the trachea and the esophagus. The coronal view constructed by enhanced 64-row multi detector computed tomography revealed the soft tissue was an aneurysm arising from the inner side of the aortic arch. An aortic arch replacement was performed via a median sternotomy. DISCUSSION A thoracic aortic aneurysm sometimes behaves like a mediastinal neoplasm. The multiple cross-sectional image from multidetector computed tomography was useful for the correct diagnosis of such an aneurysm. CONCLUSION The possibility of an aneurysm should be considered whenever a mass in contact with the aortic wall is identified. PMID:22995656

  15. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Related to IR.

    PubMed

    McEnteggart, Gregory E; Naeem, Muhammad; Skierkowski, Dorothy; Baird, Grayson L; Ahn, Sun H; Soares, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to common diseases treated by and procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR). The following websites were chosen based on their average Google search return for each IR OPEM content area examined in this study: Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), National Library of Medicine, RadiologyInfo, Mayo Clinic, WebMD, and Wikipedia. IR OPEM content area was assessed for the following: peripheral arterial disease, central venous catheter, varicocele, uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and deep vein thrombosis. The following algorithms were used to estimate and compare readability levels: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formula, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Coleman-Liau Index. Data were analyzed using general mixed modeling. On average, online sources that required beyond high school grade-level readability were Wikipedia (15.0), SIR (14.2), and RadiologyInfo (12.4); sources that required high school grade-level readability were CIRSE (11.3), Mayo Clinic (11.0), WebMD (10.6), and National Library of Medicine (9.0). On average, OPEM on uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, varicocele, and peripheral arterial disease required the highest level of readability (12.5, 12.3, 12.3, and 12.2, respectively). The IR OPEM assessed in this study were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and the health literacy level of the average American adult. Many patients in the general public may not have the ability to read and understand health information in IR OPEM. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inguinal and subinguinal micro-varicocelectomy, the optimal surgical management of varicocele: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Xia, Shu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Tao, Le; Ge, Ji-Fu; Xu, Chen-Min; Qiu, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results for the efficacy of various treatments of varicoceles. Therefore, we performed a multiple-treatment meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and safety of 10 methods of varicocelectomy and embolization/sclerotherapy. We systematically reviewed 35 randomized controlled trials and observational studies, from 1966 to August 5, 2013, which compared any of the following treatments for varococeles: laparoscopic, retroperitoneal, open inguinal and subinguinal varicocelectomy, microsurgical subinguinal and inguinal varicocelectomy, percutaneous venous embolization, Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy, retrograde sclerotherapy and expectant therapy (no treatment). Inguinal and subinguinal microsurgery, open inguinal, laparoscopic varicocelectomy showed a significant advantage over expectant therapy in terms of pregnancy rates (odds ratio (OR): 3.48, 2.68, 2.92 and 2.90, respectively). Compared with retroperitoneal open surgery, inguinal microsurgery showed an improvement of sperm density (mean difference (MD): 10.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.92–19.60) and sperm motility (MD: 9.09, 95% CI: 4.88–13.30). Subinguinal and inguinal microsurgery outperformed retroperitoneal open surgery in terms of recurrence (OR: 0.05, 0.06 respectively). Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy and subinguinal microsurgery were associated with the lowest risk of hydrocele formation. The odds of overall complication, compared with retroperitoneal open varicocelectomy, were lowest for inguinal microsurgery (OR = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02–0.19), followed by subinguinal microsurgery (OR = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02–0.19). Inguinal and subinguinal micro-varicocelectomy had the highest pregnancy rates, significant increases in sperm parameters, with low odds of complication. These results warrant additional properly conducted randomized controlled clinical studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:25248652

  18. Phenotype in a patient with p.D50N mutation in GJB2 gene resemble both KID and Clouston syndromes.

    PubMed

    Markova, T G; Brazhkina, N B; Bliznech, E A; Bakhshinyan, V V; Polyakov, A V; Tavartkiladze, G A

    2016-02-01

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome (OMIM 148210) is a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by vascularizing keratitis, congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive erythrokeratoderma. We have found a 148G-A transition in the GJB2 gene, resulting in an asp50-to-asn (D50N) substitution in a girl with congenital deafness. This finding allowed us to diagnose а KID syndrome. But clinical features were uncommon because of a mild skin manifestation, lack of keratitis and unusual appearance resembling Clouston syndrome. Molecular genetic tests showed that it was de novo mutation because parents have normal genotype. Several autosomal dominant mutations in the GJB2 gene (сonnexin 26) now established to underlie many of the affected cases, with the majority of patients harboring the p.D50N mutation. Skin disease-associated mutation of connexin proteins can cause functional disturbances in gap junction intercellular conductance. It is likely that multiple disease mechanisms are involved across the wide spectrum of hereditary diseases relating to connexin proteins. The clinical data may provide additional insights into the dysregulation mechanisms of mutations result in the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  20. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  1. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    PubMed

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  2. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  3. Computer-assisted kinematic evaluation of induced compensatory movements resembling lameness in horses trotting on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Kelmer, Gal; Keegan, Kevin G; Kramer, Joanne; Wilson, David A; Pai, Frank P; Singh, Prableen

    2005-04-01

    To characterize compensatory movements of the head and pelvis that resemble lameness in horses. 17 adult horses. Kinematic evaluations were performed while horses trotted on a treadmill before and after shoe-induced lameness. Lameness was quantified and the affected limb determined by algorithms that measured asymmetry in vertical movement of the head and pelvis. Induced primary lameness and compensatory movements resembling lameness were assessed by the Friedman test. Association between induced lameness and compensatory movements was examined by regression analysis. Compensatory movements resembling lameness in the ipsilateral forelimb were seen with induced lameness of a hind limb. There was less downward and less upward head movement during and after the stance phase of the ipsilateral forelimb. Doubling the severity of lameness in the hind limb increased severity of the compensatory movements in the ipsilateral forelimb by 50%. Compensatory movements resembling lameness of the hind limb were seen after induced lameness in a forelimb. There was less upward movement of the pelvis after the stance phase of the contralateral hind limb and, to a lesser extent, less downward movement of the pelvis during the stance phase of the ipsilateral hind limb. Doubling the severity of lameness in the forelimb increased compensatory movements of the contralateral hind limb by 5%. Induced lameness in a hind limb causes prominent compensatory movements resembling lameness in the ipsilateral forelimb. Induced lameness in a forelimb causes slight compensatory movements resembling lameness in the ipsilateral and contralateral hind limbs.

  4. Trans-scrotal varicocelectomy in adolescents: clinical and surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Nicola; Zampieri, Gianfranco; Antonello, Lucio; Camoglio, Francesco Saverio

    2014-04-01

    The gold standard to treat varicocele in adolescents is still under discussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of trans-scrotal varicocelectomy and show the results obtained by using local anesthesia in combination with preoperative sedation. Between January 2010 and January 2012, this surgical and anesthesiology procedure was proposed to study patients. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were created. Patients received trans-scrotal varicocelectomy with lymphatic and artery sparing technique under local anesthesia with mild sedation anesthesia. Patients were followed for 6 months after surgery, and complications were recorded. Eighteen patients were treated with this technique. Three patients required additional sedation with propofol. None had recurrence of varicocele, and one patient showed post-operative hydrocele. All patients were discharged within 24h following surgery. Three patients used ibuprofen and paracetamol for two days after surgery. Local anesthesia in the pediatric age group could be used for varicocelectomy with mild sedation anesthesia. © 2014.

  5. Differential and exclusive diagnosis of diseases that resemble keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2009-06-01

    Previous articles suggested the presence of various kinds of malignant tumors that resemble keloid or hypertrophic scar, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, trichilemmal carcinoma, and keloidal basal cell carcinoma. Thus, we studied our cases that were diagnosed with diseases other than keloid or hypertrophic scar. From April 2003 to March 2007, we examined 378 patients self diagnosed with keloid or hypertrophic scar.We detected 4 other diseases (1.06%) in the group of patients. All tumors were benign: apocrine cystadenoma, adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma, mixed tumor, and chronic folliculitis. Our study led us to the conclusion that differential or exclusive diagnosis of diseases similar to keloid and hypertrophic scar is important. We found the following considerations important in the examination of keloid or hypertrophic scar: (1) biopsy should be conducted in anomalous cases because malignant disease may be the original or secondary problem, (2) steroid injection should be performed only after careful consideration because malignancy or infections may be present, (3) careful differential diagnosis is particularly challenging in African-Americans because skin and tumor color are often similar, and (4) the presence of bacterial or fungal infection should be investigated.

  6. Parent-Child Resemblance in Weight Status and Its Correlates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lan; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined parent-child resemblance in body weight status using nationally representative data for the US. Design We analyzed Body Mass Index (BMI), weight status, and related correlates for 4,846 boys, 4,725 girls, and their parents based on US nationally representative data from the 2006 and 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Pearson partial correlation coefficients, percent agreement, weighted kappa coefficients, and binary and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine parent-child resemblance, adjusted for complex sampling design. Results Pearson partial correlation coefficients between parent and child’s BMI measures were 0.15 for father-son pairs, 0.17 for father-daughter pairs, 0.20 for mother-son pairs, and 0.23 for mother-daughter pairs. The weighted kappa coefficients between BMI quintiles of parent and child ranged from −0.02 to 0.25. Odds ratio analyses found children were 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 2.8) times more likely to be obese if only their father was obese, 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.4) times more likely if only their mother was obese, and 3.2 (95% CI: 2.5, 4.2) times more likely if both parents were obese. Conclusions Parent-child resemblance in BMI appears weak and may vary across parent-child dyad types in the US population. However, parental obesity status is associated with children’s obesity status. Use of different measures of parent-child resemblance in body weight status can lead to different conclusions. PMID:23762352

  7. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  8. A novel fibrin-based artificial ovary prototype resembling human ovarian tissue in terms of architecture and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Chiti, Maria Costanza; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Mortiaux, Lucie; Zhuge, Flanco; Ouni, Emna; Shahri, Parinaz Asiabi Kohneh; Van Ruymbeke, Evelyne; Champagne, Sophie-Demoustier; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani Andrade

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize fibrin matrix composition in order to mimic human ovarian tissue architecture for human ovarian follicle encapsulation and grafting. Ultrastructure of fresh human ovarian cortex in age-related women (n = 3) and different fibrin formulations (F12.5/T1, F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75), rheology of fibrin matrices and histology of isolated and encapsulated human ovarian follicles in these matrices. Fresh human ovarian cortex showed a highly fibrous and structurally inhomogeneous architecture in three age-related patients, but the mean ± SD of fiber thickness (61.3 to 72.4 nm) was comparable between patients. When the fiber thickness of four different fibrin formulations was compared with human ovarian cortex, F50/T50 and F75/T75 showed similar fiber diameters to native tissue, while F12.5/T1 was significantly different (p value < 0.01). In addition, increased concentrations of fibrin exhibited enhanced storage modulus with F50/T50, resembling physiological ovarian rigidity. Excluding F12.5/T1 from further analysis, only three remaining fibrin matrices (F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75) were histologically investigated. For this, frozen-thawed fragments of human ovarian tissue collected from 22 patients were used to isolate ovarian follicles and encapsulate them in the three fibrin formulations. All three yielded similar follicle recovery and loss rates soon after encapsulation. Therefore, based on fiber thickness, porosity, and rigidity, we selected F50/T50 as the fibrin formulation that best mimics native tissue. Of all the different fibrin matrix concentrations tested, F50/T50 emerged as the combination of choice in terms of ultrastructure and rigidity, most closely resembling human ovarian cortex.

  9. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast in a 48-year-old woman. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection nine years prior. A gastric endoscopy performed for evaluation of nausea and anorexia showed the presence of a slightly elevated mucosal lesion in the cardia, suggestive of a type IIa EGC. A histological examination revealed nests of a carcinoma in the subepithelial lymphatics, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor was positive. This is an extremely rare case with features of type IIa EGC, but the lesion was finally identified as a cancer metastasis to the cardia of the stomach from an IDC of the breast.

  11. Drug-induced cerebral glucose metabolism resembling Alzheimer's Disease: a case study.

    PubMed

    Riepe, Matthias W; Walther, Britta; Vonend, Catharina; Beer, Ambros J

    2015-07-11

    With aging of society the absolute number and the proportion of patients with cognitive deficits increase. Multiple disorders and diseases can foster cognitive impairment, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorder, or polypharmacy. A 74 year old man presented to the Old Age Psychiatry Service with cognitive deficits while being treated for recurrent depressive episodes and essential tremor with Venlafaxine, Lithium, and Primidone. Neuropsychological testing revealed a medio-temporal pattern of deficits with pronounced impairment of episodic memory, particularly delayed recall. Likewise, cognitive flexibility, semantic fluency, and attention were impaired. Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose was performed and revealed a pattern of glucose utilization deficit resembling AD. On cessation of treatment with Lithium and Primidone, cognitive performance improved, particularly episodic memory performance and cognitive flexibility. Likewise, glucose metabolism normalized. Despite normalization of both, clinical symptoms and glucose utilization, the patient remained worried about possible underlying Alzheimer's disease pathology. To rule this out, an amyloid-PET was performed. No cortical amyloid was observed. Pharmacological treatment of older subjects may mimic glucose metabolism and clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. In the present case both, imaging and clinical findings, reversed to normal on change of treatment. Amyloid PET is a helpful tool to additionally rule out underlying Alzheimer's disease in situations of clinical doubt even if clinical or other imaging findings are suggestive of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Parasagittal solitary fibrous tumor resembling hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Shidoh, Satoka; Yoshida, Kazunari; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mikami, Shuji; Mukai, Makio; Kawase, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the central nervous system, and the clinical behavior of this tumor is similar to that of meningioma. We report the case of a Japanese woman with parasagittal SFT that resembled hemangiopericytoma (HPC). Histological examination revealed that the tumor was highly cellular, with cells containing oval- or spindle-shaped nuclei arranged in sheets or a pattern-less growth mode. Focal vascular proliferation was also observed. Some areas showed intercellular stroma containing remarkable eosinophilic collagens. Tumor cells showed a strong immunoreactivity for CD34 but were negative for S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen. MIB-1 labeling index of the tumor was 6.6%. Owing to the high cellularity, high MIB-1 labeling index, and focal vascular proliferation, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from HPC. However, the tumor was finally diagnosed as SFT on the basis of the strong immunostaining for CD34 and absence of pericellular reticulin.

  13. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  14. Startling similarity: Effects of facial self-resemblance and familiarity on the processing of emotional faces

    PubMed Central

    Larra, Mauro F.; Merz, Martina U.; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been associated with positive emotional evaluations, but this effect may be biased by self-face familiarity. Here we report two experiments utilizing startle modulation to investigate how the processing of facial expressions of emotion is affected by subtle resemblance to the self as well as to familiar faces. Participants of the first experiment (I) (N = 39) were presented with morphed faces showing happy, neutral, and fearful expressions which were manipulated to resemble either their own or unknown faces. At SOAs of either 300 ms or 3500–4500 ms after picture onset, startle responses were elicited by binaural bursts of white noise (50 ms, 105 dB), and recorded at the orbicularis oculi via EMG. Manual reaction time was measured in a simple emotion discrimination paradigm. Pictures preceding noise bursts by short SOA inhibited startle (prepulse inhibition, PPI). Both affective modulation and PPI of startle in response to emotional faces was altered by physical similarity to the self. As indexed both by relative facilitation of startle and faster manual responses, self-resemblance apparently induced deeper processing of facial affect, particularly in happy faces. Experiment II (N = 54) produced similar findings using morphs of famous faces, yet showed no impact of mere familiarity on PPI effects (or response time, either). The results are discussed with respect to differential (presumably pre-attentive) effects of self-specific vs. familiar information in face processing. PMID:29216226

  15. Does the number of veins ligated during varicococele surgery influence post-operative semen and hormone results?

    PubMed

    Majzoub, A; Elbardisi, H; Arafa, M; Agarwal, A; Al Said, S; Al Rumaihi, K

    2016-09-01

    Varicocele is a well-established cause of male subfertility, which is directly proportional to its clinical grade. Although newer ultrasonic grading systems have taken into account the existence of pampiniform venous plexi, little is known about the clinical significance of the number of veins ligated during surgery. Very few undersized studies reported an influence which triggered the need to evaluate such association. This is a retrospective study of 378 patients who underwent left microsurgical subinguinal varicocoelectomy. Semen analyses and blood hormone studies performed pre-operatively were compared to those executed 6 months after surgery. Patients were divided into abnormal semen and normal semen groups based on their initial semen results. They were also subdivided according to the number of veins ligated intraoperatively into three groups: <5, 5-10, and >10 veins. Sperm count, total motility, and progressive motility were significantly increased in 62, 60.3, and 53.3% of patients post-operatively (p = 0.001), respectively. No significant differences in hormone levels were detected overall. Of the 378 patients, 332 had an abnormal semen analysis, while the remaining 46 patients had a normal result. Sperm count, total motility, and progressive motility significantly increased after varicocoelectomy in patients with an abnormal initial semen analysis (p = 0.001). In 48.7% of patients, 5-10 veins were ligated during surgery, whereas 28.3% had >10 and 23% had <5 ligated veins. No statistically significant differences were noted in the initial or the follow-up results among the number of vein subgroups. Varicocele ligation improves patients' fertility potential. This improvement, however, is not influenced by the number of veins ligated intraoperatively. Clinical grading maintains its superiority in the evaluation of varicocele patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Recurrence in Uterine Tumors with Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumor Resemblance: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Günsu Kimyon; Kiliç, Çiğdem; Çavuşoğlu, Deniz; Türkmen, Osman; Karalok, Alper; Turan, Taner; Başaran, Derman; Boran, Nurettin

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors of recurrence in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT) and to determine clinical-pathological characteristics, treatment options and outcome. An electronic literature search was conducted from 1976 to 2018. After the comprehensive evaluation and conjunction with our case, the study included 79 cases. The median age at initial diagnosis was 49 years (range; 16-86 years). The age was under 40 years in 21 (26.6%) patients. Whereas 68 patients underwent at least hysterectomy, 9 patients had organ sparing surgery. There was necrosis in 4 (5.1%) patients, atypia in 16 (20.3%) patients, and infiltrative tumor border in 34 (43%) patients. At least one mitosis per 10 high power fields was determined in 36 (45.5%) patients. The tumor involved at least part of the myometrium in 54 (68.3%) patients. Median follow-up time was 30 months (range; 3-296 months). Recurrence was determined in 5 (6.3%) patients. The disease free survival (DFS) was significantly related only to surgery type. None of the pathologic features were associated with DFS. The 5-year DFS was 86% and 96% in patients who underwent organ sparing surgery or not, respectively (p=0.038). The accurate pathologic diagnosis of UTROSCT has great value in shaping surgical management and management during the follow-up period. Organ sparing surgery was related to poor DFS. Although recurrence is rare, it should be kept in mind for patients with UTROSCT.

  17. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with preservation of testicular artery and lymphatic vessels by using intracorporeal knot-tying technique: five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Wu, Chia-Chang; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yang, Stephen Shei Dei; Tsai, Yao-Chou

    2011-08-01

    In this study we present our experience using minilaparoscopic intracorporeal knot tying to ligate internal spermatic veins (ISV) while sparing the spermatic artery and lymphatics. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomies were performed in 87 patients between January 2004 and January 2009. All varicoceles were detected clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and confirmed by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography. The surgical indications were scrotal symptoms in 71, infertility in 16, and both conditions in 2. Three 3.5 mm minilaparoscopic ports were used for the operation. The ISVs were dissected and then ligated with intracorporeal knot-tying. The testicular artery and lymphatic vessels were carefully preserved to minimize procedure-related complications. Unilateral laparoscopic varicocelectomy was performed in 21 (24.2%) patients and bilateral in 66 (75.8%). Mean operative time was 71.1 ± 29.2 and 46.8 ± 12.6 min for bilateral and unilateral varicocelectomies, respectively. All patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Neither immediate major nor late procedure-related complications were noted. Of the 71 patients with scrotal symptoms, the symptoms completely subsided in 55 (77.5%) and partially subsided in 10 (14.1%). Only one (1.2%) recurrent varicocele was detected within a mean follow-up of 21 months (range = 3-42). Neither hydrocele formation nor testicular atrophy was found during the follow-up period. Our 5-year experience revealed that minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with sparing of artery and lymphatic vessels could safely and effectively ligate all spermatic veins and preserve spermatic arteries and lymphatic channels without leading to a high varicocele persistence or recurrence.

  18. Intrinsic Brain Activity of Cognitively Normal Older Persons Resembles More That of Patients Both with and at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease Than That of Healthy Younger Persons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tonch, Annika; Plant, Claudia; Zherdin, Andrew; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Wohlschäger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Alzheimer's disease (AD), recent findings suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ)-pathology might start 20–30 years before first cognitive symptoms arise. To account for age as most relevant risk factor for sporadic AD, it has been hypothesized that lifespan intrinsic (i.e., ongoing) activity of hetero-modal brain areas with highest levels of functional connectivity triggers Aβ-pathology. This model induces the simple question whether in older persons without any cognitive symptoms intrinsic activity of hetero-modal areas is more similar to that of symptomatic patients with AD or to that of younger healthy persons. We hypothesize that due to advanced age and therefore potential impact of pre-clinical AD, intrinsic activity of older persons resembles more that of patients than that of younger controls. We tested this hypothesis in younger (ca. 25 years) and older healthy persons (ca. 70 years) and patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD-dementia (ca. 70 years) by the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, distinct measures of intrinsic brain activity, and different hierarchical clustering approaches. Independently of applied methods and involved areas, healthy older persons' intrinsic brain activity was consistently more alike that of patients than that of younger controls. Our result provides evidence for larger similarity in intrinsic brain activity between healthy older persons and patients with or at-risk for AD than between older and younger ones, suggesting a significant proportion of pre-clinical AD cases in the group of cognitively normal older people. The observed link of aging and AD with intrinsic brain activity supports the view that lifespan intrinsic activity may contribute critically to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24689864

  19. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Predictors for spontaneous pregnancy after microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Quan-Quan; Kuang, You-Lin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Feng; Tian, Yu-Dong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible preoperative predictors of spontaneous pregnancy (SPR) for infertile males with varicocele after microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (MVL) performed in two medical centers in a prospective cohort study. A total of 120 males with varicocele that underwent MVL between June 2013 and June 2014 in two medical centers were documented. Related data, including male and female partner age, male body mass index (BMI), female BMI, preoperative semen parameters, hormone levels, testicular volume, grade and side of varicocele, were collected and analyzed. The follow-up assessment was also conducted within a 2-year period after the surgery. The outcome measure was SPR within the 2-year follow-up reported. The possible determinants of SPR were also analyzed and indentified using Cox regression analysis. Of the 110 patients that accomplished the 2-year follow-up, 42 patients reported pregnancy outcome. Using Cox regression analysis, total motile sperm count [TMC; RR (95% CI) = 1.362 (1.120-1.560), p = 0.003] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH; RR (95% CI) = 0.726 (0.541-0.980), p = 0.020] levels posed significant determinants for SPR. Our study indicated that males who underwent MVL with higher TMC and lower FSH preoperatively have higher possibility of pregnancy postoperatively.

  1. Hubble View of a Galaxy Resembling an Atomic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The spiral galaxy NGC 7252 has a superficial resemblance to an atomic nucleus surrounded by the loops of electronic orbits, and was informally dubbed the "Atoms for Peace" galaxy. These loops are well visible in a wider field of view image. This nickname is quite ironic, as the galaxy’s past was anything but peaceful. Its peculiar appearance is the result of a collision between two galaxies that took place about a billion years ago, which ripped both galaxies apart. The loop-like outer structures, likely made up of dust and stars flung outwards by the crash, but recalling orbiting electrons in an atom, are partly responsible for the galaxy’s nickname. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the inner parts of the galaxy, revealing a pinwheel-shaped disk that is rotating in a direction opposite to the rest of the galaxy. This disk resembles a spiral galaxy like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, but is only about 10,000 light-years across — about a tenth of the size of the Milky Way. It is believed that this whirling structure is a remnant of the galactic collision. It will most likely have vanished in a few billion years’ time, when NGC 7252 will have completed its merging process. Image credit: NASA & ESA, Acknowledgements: Judy Schmidt NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified λ phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  3. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B.; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E.; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  6. A New Occlusion Device: Application of the ArtVentive Endoluminal Occlusion System (EOS)—First in Human Clinical Trial

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Venbrux, Anthony C., E-mail: avenbrux@mfa.gwu.edu; Rudakov, Leon, E-mail: leonrudakov@artventivemedical.com; Plass, Andre, E-mail: andre.plass@usz.ch

    2013-05-24

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new endoluminal occlusion device, ArtVentive endoluminal occlusion system (EOS), to occlude the spermatic vein in symptomatic males with varicoceles.MethodsThe ArtVentive EOS device has been developed for percutaneous, peripheral occlusion of the peripheral arterial and venous vasculature. The system is comprised of an implantable occlusion device and a delivery catheter. At present, there are two device sizes: (a) size 1 for target vessels ranging between 3.5 and 5.5 mm in diameter, and (b) size 2 for target vessels 5.5–8.5 mm in diameter. The treatment group included six adult males,more » ages 22–34 years. Nine target vessels were occluded. A total of 20 devices were implanted in six subjects.ResultsThe acute occlusion rate at the end of the procedure was 100 % occurring in nine of nine vessels. The spermatic veins of all patients remained occluded on venography at 30 days follow-up. Pain scores related to varicoceles decreased in five of six patients.ConclusionsAlthough we recognize this study is limited, initial experience indicates that the ArtVentive EOS is a safe and effective new device for occlusion of vessels (varicoceles). The device has potential applications in other clinical conditions requiring occlusion of veins or arteries.« less

  7. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to…

  8. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  9. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  10. A wolf in sheep's clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini).

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2018-01-01

    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics.

  11. Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena; Wojnowski, Waldemar; Czerniejewska, Hanna; Jackowska, Joanna; Jarmuż, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 6 Final Diagnosis: Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Congenital defects Background: Communication process disorders are very frequent in rare cases of chromosomal aberrations (deletions, insertions, and trisomies) such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome, Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), or Patau syndrome (trisomy 13). Sometimes phenotype may delusively correspond to the characteristic features of a given syndrome, but genotype tests do not confirm its presence. Case Report: We present the case of a 6-year-old girl admitted to the Clinic of Phoniatrics and Audiology for the assessment of communication in the course of congenital malformations with phenotype characteristic for trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome). Immediately upon birth, dysmorphic changes suggesting trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) were observed, but trisomy 18 was excluded after karyotype test results were normal (46, XX). Conclusions: Disturbed articulation was diagnosed: deformed linguo-dental and palatal sounds, interdental realization with flat tongue of the /s/, /z/, /c/, /dz/, /ś/, /ź/, /ć/, /dz/ sounds (sigmatismus interdentalis). Hearing loss was confirmed. PMID:24478819

  12. Lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism: a severe lethal condition resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Merrer, M L; Briard, M L; Girard, S; Mulliez, N; Moraine, C; Imbert, M C

    1988-01-01

    We report eight cases of a lethal association of failure to thrive, facial dysmorphism, ambiguous genitalia, syndactyly, postaxial polydactyly, and internal developmental anomalies (Hirschsprung's disease, cardiac and renal malformation). This syndrome is likely to be autosomal recessive and resembles Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. However, the lethality, the common occurrence of polydactyly, and the sexual ambiguity distinguishes this condition from SLO syndrome. A review of published reports supports the separate classification of this syndrome for which we propose the name lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism. Images PMID:2831368

  13. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A wolf in sheep’s clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini)

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Gonzalo D.

    2018-01-01

    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics. PMID:29364905

  15. Varicocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... the scrotum Possible problems with fertility or decreased sperm count Some men do not have symptoms. Exams ... of your testicle. If you have surgery, your sperm count will likely increase. However, it will not ...

  16. The heuristic basis of remembering and classification: fluency, generation, and resemblance.

    PubMed

    Whittlesea, B W; Leboe, J P

    2000-03-01

    People use 3 heuristics (fluency, generation, and resemblance) in remembering a prior experience of a stimulus. The authors demonstrate that people use the same 3 heuristics in classifying a stimulus as a member of a category and interpret this as support for the idea that people have a unitary memory system that operates by the same fundamental principles in both remembering and nonremembering tasks. The authors argue that the fundamental functions of memory are the production of specific mental events, under the control of the stimulus, task, and context, and the evaluation of the coherence of those events, which controls the subjective experience accompanying performance.

  17. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    PubMed

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  18. Sarcoid-resembling granulomatous lung disease secondary to occupational magnetite iron dust exposure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lewis; Kookana, Anil; McClure, Robert; Heraganahally, Subash

    2018-08-01

    Non-caseating granulomatous pulmonary conditions resembling sarcoidosis secondary to industrial/occupation exposure to magnetite iron ore dusts have been rarely documented in the literature. This is a case report of a 58-year-old blast crew member involved in iron ore/magnetite mining who presented with a 12-month history of chronic dry cough. High-resolution computed tomography revealed bilateral interstitial opacities. Lung biopsy demonstrated sarcoid-like granulomatous inflammation. Oral corticosteroid treatment improved the cough. Radiological features did not resolve despite treatment and yet remained stable following no subsequent exposure to iron mining dust.

  19. Family Resemblances: Human Reproductive Cloning as an Example for Reconsidering the Mutual Relationships between Bioethics and Science Fiction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Solveig L

    2018-03-08

    In the traditions of narrative ethics and casuistry, stories have a well-established role. Specifically, illness narratives provide insight into patients' perspectives and histories. However, because they tend to see fiction as an aesthetic endeavour, practitioners in these traditions often do not realize that fictional stories are valuable moral sources of their own. In this paper I employ two arguments to show the mutual relationship between bioethics and fiction, specifically, science fiction. First, both discourses use imagination to set a scene and determine a perspective. Second, bioethics and science fiction share the family resemblance of expressing moral beliefs. I then consider how understanding bioethics and science fiction as interrelated discourses can be the basis of a methodology for inquiry into relational autonomy in the context of biotechnologies and medicine. As an example of this methodology, I analyse Fay Weldon's novel The Cloning of Joanna May (1989).

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax

    PubMed Central

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  2. Circulating CD21low B cells in common variable immunodeficiency resemble tissue homing, innate-like B cells

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Keller, Baerbel; Gutenberger, Sylvia; Foerster, Christian; Hoenig, Manfred; Driessen, Gertjan; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques J.; Wiech, Elisabeth; Visentini, Marcella; Quinti, Isabella; Prasse, Antje; Voelxen, Nadine; Salzer, Ulrich; Goldacker, Sigune; Fisch, Paul; Eibel, Hermann; Schwarz, Klaus; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Warnatz, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The homeostasis of circulating B cell subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy adults is well regulated, but in disease it can be severely disturbed. Thus, a subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) presents with an extraordinary expansion of an unusual B cell population characterized by the low expression of CD21. CD21low B cells are polyclonal, unmutated IgM+IgD+ B cells but carry a highly distinct gene expression profile which differs from conventional naïve B cells. Interestingly, while clearly not representing a memory population, they do share several features with the recently defined memory-like tissue, Fc receptor-like 4 positive B cell population in the tonsils of healthy donors. CD21low B cells show signs of previous activation and proliferation in vivo, while exhibiting defective calcium signaling and poor proliferation in response to B cell receptor stimulation. CD21low B cells express decreased amounts of homeostatic but increased levels of inflammatory chemokine receptors. This might explain their preferential homing to peripheral tissues like the bronchoalveolar space of CVID or the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, as a result of the close resemblance to the gene expression profile, phenotype, function and preferential tissue homing of murine B1 B cells, we suggest that CD21low B cells represent a human innate-like B cell population. PMID:19666505

  3. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  4. Organisational aspects of dental practices: do dental students think like patients or like general dental practitioners?

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, R E; Brands, W G; Bronkhorst, E M; Welie, J V M; Truin, G J

    2013-02-01

    In view of transparency in health care, the widespread desire for more patient-centred care, and in an attempt to facilitate educational programmes that effectively respond to these changes, two research questions are formulated: (i) How do dental students rate the importance of various organisational aspects of dental practices compared with dental patients and general dental practitioners (GDPs), and what prescripts, defined as specific operational responsibilities of GDPs in these matters, do dental students propose? and (ii) In doing so, do students resemble patients or GDPs? In two survey studies, dental students (n = 198), patients (n = 3127) and GDPs (n = 303) were asked to rate by questionnaire the importance of 41 organisational aspects of a general dental practice and proposed specific operational responsibilities ('prescripts'). Seven of 41 aspects were rated as important by the majority of the students. Although in a different rank order, three aspects were predominantly selected by all three groups: continuing education, accessibility by telephone and Dutch-speaking GDP. For most aspects, significant differences were found between the prescripts proposed by students and those proposed by patients, and few differences were found between students and GDPs. The findings do not permit the general conclusion that the views of dental students resemble those of patients or GPDs. Looking at the overall rank order, the three respondent groups showed a great resemblance although significant differences were found for specific aspects. With regard to the proposed prescripts, students showed realistic views and the majority wants to participate in continuing education and work with protocols and guidelines. In this, they tend to resemble GDPs more than they resemble patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional community sample.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K; Whyte, Susan R; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-09-21

    Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been successfully established in randomised clinical trials. However, the best methods for the translation of this evidence into effective population-wide interventions remain unclear. To assess whether households could be a target for T2D prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients. Logistic regression with household as a random effect was used to calculate the ORs for individuals having a condition or risk factor if another household member had the same condition. The strongest degree of household member resemblances in T2D risk factors was seen in relation to fitness status (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent-offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57). Overall, parent-offspring and sibling pairs were the dyads with strongest resemblance, followed by spouses. The marked degree of resemblance in T2D risk factors at household level and between spouses, parent-offspring and sibling dyads suggest that shared behavioural and environmental factors may influence risk factor levels among cohabiting individuals, which point to the potential of the household setting for screening and prevention of T2D. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  6. Resemblance of dinner meals consumption among mother and preschool-aged child dyads from families with limited incomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parents’ eating habits are associated with food and nutrient intake of their children; yet, the associations have not always been very strong. The objective of this study was to expand the current literature to include an examination of resemblance in intakes of foods, within the context of a meal, ...

  7. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Ömür, Dilek; Oğuzalp, Hüseyin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Ekin, Serpil; Alan, Cabir; Ersay, Ahmet R; Hancı, Volkan

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effect of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block administered before varicocele surgery. This study was completed at the Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, between January 2011 and April 2013. In a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study, 40 male patients scheduled for elective varicocele operations were randomized to group T (treatment group) or group C (controls). After receiving general anesthesia, group T received a TAP block using 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine on the operation side, whereas group C received a control block using 20 mL 0.9% Sodium chloride. During the first 24 hours after surgery, the patient pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and while coughing. Postoperative patient controlled analgesia morphine consumption, VAS scores, and side effects were recorded. Of 34 patients, Group T (n=18) had significantly lower VAS pain scores than Group C (n=16) both at rest and while coughing. The total morphine consumed was  lower (7.7 ± 4.0) versus 21.6 ± 12.4 mg, p less than 0.001) in the 24 hours after surgery. As part of a multimodal analgesic regime after varicocelectomy surgery, morphine consumption and VAS pain scores were significantly lower among those receiving 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine administered for a TAP block than among controls.

  8. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality:The self-sacrificing patient.

    PubMed

    Kallergis, George

    2015-01-01

    Imparting the bad news has become a hard task for the doctor, and is usually perceived as unpleasant by the patient to whom the bad news is revealed. It is vital that the physician's approach be tailored to the cancer patient's personality. Gathering by the informing process protocols already suggested the hardest step for the doctors to take is empathic understanding which, presupposes tailoring to the individual's needs. The aim of this article was to describe the self-sacrificing type of personality thoroughly, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to their needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. Assessing the denial mechanism is hard for a person that regards disease as punishment and propitiation. The physician must mobilize his countertransference, the sense he gets from the discussions with the patient and their overall communication. If he finds that the patient has self-control, then the approach of imparting the news resembles that of the controlling-orderly personality. If he ascertains that the patient has a lasting embarrassment, he should be more careful and impart the news gradually, his approach resembling that of the dependent person.

  9. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  10. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  11. Varicocele Embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will be admitted. You will be positioned on the examining table. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into a ...

  12. Multicentric squamous cell carcinona in a paca (Agouti paca) resembling Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Costa, Maria E L T; Motta, Rafael O C; Santos, Renato L

    2008-06-01

    An 8-yr-old female paca (Agouti paca) was admitted at the Veterinary Hospital of the Belo Horizonte Zoo (Brazil) with an ulcerated cutaneous nodule of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter in the left ear. One week later, other cutaneous nodules were detected in various body locations. The animal died during a surgical procedure to remove the tumors. All cutaneous nodules were histologically similar with features of squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the predominant in situ nature of the lesion as well as its multicentric localization, the disease reported here closely resembles Bowen's disease, which has been described in humans and which has been identified as a rare neoplastic disease of cats, with one single report in a dog. This is the first report of a neoplastic disease in Agouti

  13. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK1 receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Dudley, Julia A; Tsai, Yuan-Chen; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mice with functional ablation of substance P-preferring neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R−/− mice) display behavioural abnormalities resembling those in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the ADHD treatment, guanfacine, alleviated the hyperactivity and impulsivity/inattention displayed by NK1R−/− mice in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-choice serial reaction–time task (5-CSRTT), respectively. Following reports of co-morbid anxiety in ADHD, we also investigated effects of guanfacine on anxiety-like behaviour displayed by NK1R−/− and wild-type (WT) mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Experimental Approach Mice were treated with guanfacine (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), vehicle or no injection and tested in the 5-CSRTT or the LDEB. Only the lowest dose of guanfacine was used in the EPM assays. Key Results In the 5-CSRTT, a low dose of guanfacine (0.1 mg·kg−1) increased attention in NK1R−/− mice, but not in WT mice. This dose did not affect the total number of trials completed, latencies to respond or locomotor activity in the LDEB. Impulsivity was decreased by the high dose (1.0 mg·kg−1) of guanfacine, but this was evident in both genotypes and is likely to be secondary to a generalized blunting of behaviour. Although the NK1R−/− mice displayed marked anxiety-like behaviour, guanfacine did not affect the behaviour of either genotype in the EPM. Conclusions and Implications This evidence that guanfacine improves attention at a dose that did not affect arousal or emotionality supports our proposal that NK1R−/− mice express an attention deficit resembling that of ADHD patients. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:25074741

  14. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    PubMed

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  15. GPR56-Related Polymicrogyria: Clinicoradiologic Profile of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neelu A; Udani, Vrajesh

    2015-11-01

    Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria is an autosomal recessive cortical malformation associated with abnormalities of neuronal migration, white matter changes, and mild brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. Affected patients present with delayed milestones, intellectual disability, epilepsy, ataxia, and eye movement abnormalities. The clinicoradiologic profile resembles congenital muscular dystrophy. However, no muscle disease or characteristic eye abnormalities of congenial muscular dystrophy are detected in these children. GPR56 is the only confirmed gene associated with bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Antenatal diagnosis is possible if the index case is genetically confirmed. Four patients from different Indian families with a distinct clinicoradiologic profile resembling congenital muscular dystrophy with mutations in the GPR56 gene are described. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  17. Retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cobellis, Giovanni; Mastroianni, Luciano; Cruccetti, Alba; Amici, Giuseppe; Martino, Ascanio

    2005-05-01

    In the pediatric population the failure rate of sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicocele has been reported to be up to 35%. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy (RV) in children and adolescents. A total of 97 patients were operated on for left-sided varicocele using the retroperitoneoscopic approach between January 1999 and July 2003. Median age was 12.3 years (range, 6-16 years). A 10-mm subcostal retroperitoneoscopic port was used. The operation was performed through an operative laparoscope according to Palomo's technique, with the mass division of spermatic vessels after bipolar coagulation below the renal vein. Elective conversion to laparoscopic transperitoneal varicocelectomy was performed in cases of difficulties in identifying the vessels. The postoperative follow-up included clinical and ultrasound assessment (range, 6-48 months). A total of 17 (17.6%) patients needed elective conversion to laparoscopic transperitoneal varicocelectomy. In RV, the mean operative time was 28 minutes (range, 15-55 minutes), the mean hospital stay was 2 days, persistence rate was 11.2%, and hydrocele occurrence was 6.2%. Our results indicate that the RV is an acceptable technique to achieve the high division of the spermatic vessels. The advantage of this anatomic approach is its very low invasiveness.

  18. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  19. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting.

  20. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  1. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica) relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Horacio A; Ortega, Hugo H; Ramos, Jorge G; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2003-01-01

    Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis). Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed

  2. [Diagnostic approach and therapeutic strategy in 133 infertile patients with astheno-necrozoospermia].

    PubMed

    Vicari, E

    1999-02-01

    One-hundred thirty-three patients (aged 22 to 48, median 27 years) found affected by repetitive severe astheno-necrozoospermia (ASNE) (forward sperm motility < 10%; viable forms < 25%) in their ejaculates detected by both conventional viability tests (eosin Y exclusion and HOS tests) associated with oligo (51.1%), poly (3.7%), terato- (82.7%), -zoospermia, hyperdesfoliation of seminal spermatids (36.8%), hypospermia (11.3%), a comprehensive (history analysis; physical examination; lab: hormonal, microbiological, hemato-chemical blood screening, ultrasound scans at didymo-epididymal and prostato-vesicular glands, genital venous doppler) work-up allowed to recognize the following possible causes of ASNE: infectious (24.1%), spermiotoxyc (16.5%), hormonal (15.0%), iatrogenic (12.8%), chronic extratesticular diseases (CETD) (10.9%), varicocele (6.8%), idiopathic (14.3%). Overall population, except CETD patients gave their written informed consent about trial options for a three month period: a. rational, evidence-based treatment, group-standardised for doses and lenght (treated patients = subgroups T: total number = 71); b. short-term treatment/no treatment, (matched-control = subgroups Co: total number = 47). Follow-up semen data performed after completion of the assigned trial, together detected a conventionally normal percentage (> 25%) of viable sperm (necrozoospermic-responders (NR) in 37 (52.1%) out of subgroup-T patients. All subgroups-T patient, excepted subgroup-T patient affected by idiophathic ASNE (NR = 0%), exhibited NR rate (range 50-69.2%) values always significantly higher than subgroups-Co (NR = 0%, in all subgroups). Moreover, in each subgroup-T patients the percentages of viable and forward motile sperms values were significantly higher than matched-controls. The results of this study indicate that in patients affected by ASNE an andrological comprehensive work-up is mandatory because ASNE has a heterogeneous pathogenesis and a favourable prognosis

  3. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Renate R.; van Ruijven, Peter W. M.; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H. A. Martino; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100°C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100°C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100°C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall. PMID:20644976

  4. Familial resemblance of body composition, physical activity, and resting metabolic rate in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Djafarian, Kurosh; Speakman, John R; Stewart, Joanne; M Jackson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR), and physical activity (PA) of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Methods: Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. Results: There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM) between children and their mothers (P=0.02), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (average of father and mother value) (P=0.002) when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM) between children and mothers (P<0.01), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (P=0.001). There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers’ morning activities (P<0.01) and mid-parent (P=0.009). No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. Conclusion: These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents. PMID:26989715

  5. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  6. Personality resemblances in adoptive families when the children are late-adolescent or adult.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, J C; Willerman, L; Horn, J M

    1985-02-01

    Members of 220 families who had adopted one or more children from a Texas home for unwed mothers at least 14 years ago completed the California Psychological Inventory and the Thurstone Temperament Schedule. Consistent with other recent adoption studies in Minnesota and Texas, there was very little resemblance between parents and adopted children or between adoptive siblings (average correlations about .05). The presence of a biological relationship raised correlations a little, but only a little, to about .15, suggesting that much of the explanation for personality variation must lie in within-family environmental variation or nonadditive genetic effects. In an earlier study, young adopted children appeared to be better adjusted, on the average, than biological children in the same families. This was no longer true for the late-adolescents and young adults of the present study.

  7. Autoeroticism, mental health, and organic disturbances in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Boddi, Valentina; Bandini, Elisa; Lotti, Francesco; Fisher, Alessandra D; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Masturbation is a common, but often neglected, male sexual behavior. To investigate the psychobiological correlates of self-reported masturbation in the last 3 months. A consecutive series of 2,786 heterosexual male patients (mean age 48.4 +/- 13.2) consulting an outpatient clinic for erectile dysfunction (ED) was studied. Several hormonal, biochemical and instrumental parameters (penile Doppler ultrasound [PDU]) were investigated. Patients were interviewed, prior to the beginning of any treatment, with Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) and ANDROTEST structured interviews. They also completed the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a brief self-reported questionnaire for the screening of the symptoms of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting. Among the patients studied, 1,781 (61.9%) reported they had masturbated at least once per month in the preceding 3 months. The frequency of masturbation was inversely related to age (r = -0.329; P < 0.0001) and directly associated with education level (adj r = 0.052, P < 0.05 after adjustment for age). A feeling of guilt during masturbation was reported by 274 (15.4%) patients. After adjusting for age, masturbation was positively associated with testosterone levels, stressful conditions, and both unstable and long-lasting couple relationship. Urogenital problems such as varicocele and prostate abnormalities also increased the chance of masturbation. Reported guiltiness during autoeroticism was associated with psychological disturbances, low prolactin, low testosterone, and increased relational problems. An erection not normal during masturbation was declared by 1,361 (76.4%) patients and associated with a prevalent organic component of ED, because of lower peak systolic velocity PDU and higher SIEDY Scale 1 scores. This study indicates that masturbation is a relatively frequent behavior in male subjects with ED. Inquiring about this sexual behavior is an important issue for understanding overall patients

  8. Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression.

    PubMed

    Kammertoens, Thomas; Friese, Christian; Arina, Ainhoa; Idel, Christian; Briesemeister, Dana; Rothe, Michael; Ivanov, Andranik; Szymborska, Anna; Patone, Giannino; Kunz, Severine; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Engels, Boris; Leisegang, Matthias; Textor, Ana; Fehling, Hans Joerg; Fruttiger, Marcus; Lohoff, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Yu, Hua; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Uckert, Wolfgang; Hübner, Norbert; Gerhardt, Holger; Beule, Dieter; Schreiber, Hans; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2017-05-04

    The relative contribution of the effector molecules produced by T cells to tumour rejection is unclear, but interferon-γ (IFNγ) is critical in most of the analysed models. Although IFNγ can impede tumour growth by acting directly on cancer cells, it must also act on the tumour stroma for effective rejection of large, established tumours. However, which stroma cells respond to IFNγ and by which mechanism IFNγ contributes to tumour rejection through stromal targeting have remained unknown. Here we use a model of IFNγ induction and an IFNγ-GFP fusion protein in large, vascularized tumours growing in mice that express the IFNγ receptor exclusively in defined cell types. Responsiveness to IFNγ by myeloid cells and other haematopoietic cells, including T cells or fibroblasts, was not sufficient for IFNγ-induced tumour regression, whereas responsiveness of endothelial cells to IFNγ was necessary and sufficient. Intravital microscopy revealed IFNγ-induced regression of the tumour vasculature, resulting in arrest of blood flow and subsequent collapse of tumours, similar to non-haemorrhagic necrosis in ischaemia and unlike haemorrhagic necrosis induced by tumour necrosis factor. The early events of IFNγ-induced tumour ischaemia resemble non-apoptotic blood vessel regression during development, wound healing or IFNγ-mediated, pregnancy-induced remodelling of uterine arteries. A better mechanistic understanding of how solid tumours are rejected may aid the design of more effective protocols for adoptive T-cell therapy.

  9. Two rare cases of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in inflammatory bowel disease patients on thiopurines and other immunosuppressive medications.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, K; Cherian, M; Jain, S; Latimer, M; Corbett, M; D'Rozario, J; Pavli, P

    2013-12-01

    The setting of chronic immunosuppression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may promote the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-positive neoplastic clones. We report two rare cases of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in IBD patients: one resembled lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and the other was a lymphoma resembling Hodgkin lymphoma. There are currently no guidelines for the prevention of lymphoproliferative disorder in IBD patients on immunosuppressive therapy. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human endomembrane H+ pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Südhof, T C; Fried, V A; Stone, D K; Johnston, P A; Xie, X S

    1989-01-01

    Preparations of mammalian H+ pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H+ pump are unknown from animal cells. We report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H+ pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H+ gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H+ pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine. PMID:2527371

  12. The establishment and characterization of the first canine hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, which resembles human oncogenic expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Boomkens, Sacha Y; Spee, Bart; IJzer, Jooske; Kisjes, Ronald; Egberink, Herman F; van den Ingh, Ted SGAM; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C

    2004-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most worldwide frequent primary carcinomas resulting in the death of many cirrhotic patients. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms of this cancer are not well understood; therefore, we need a good model system to study HCC. The dog is recognized as a promising model for human medical research, namely compared with rodents. The objective of this study was to establish and characterize a spontaneous canine tumor cell line as a potential model for studies on HCC. Results Histomorphological, biochemical, molecular biological and quantitative assays were performed to characterize the canine HCC cell line that originated from a dog with a spontaneous liver tumor. Morphological investigations provided strong evidence for the hepatocytic and neoplastic nature of the cell line, while biochemical assays showed that they produced liver-specific enzymes. PCR analysis confirmed expression of ceruloplasmin, alpha-fetoprotein and serum albumin. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the canine HCC cell line resembles human HCC based on the measurements of expression profiles of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusions We have developed a novel, spontaneous tumor liver cell line of canine origin that has many characteristics of human HCC. Therefore, the canine HCC cell line might be an excellent model for comparative studies on the molecular pathogenesis of HCC. PMID:15566568

  13. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  14. Recent advances in clinical/molecular andrology.

    PubMed

    Hafez, B

    1998-01-01

    -peptide with it. Varicocele occurs unilaterally on the left side in 78% to 93% of men. Typically the presence of a varicocele is associated with an abnormal semen analysis (sperm density and morphology) and a decreased testicular volume on the affected side. Impaired sperm motility occurs in 89.5% of all varicocele patients. Varicocele ligation improves semen parameters in two thirds of patients. A few studies on andropause included sexual dysfunction, hormonal changes, medical/psychological correlates of impotence, ostenopenia/osteoporosis and bone loss; indices of bone remodeling, testosterone supplementation, androgen, negative feedback and hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis. Prostatic cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for men between the ages of 60 and 80. Early detection involves a simple blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA). Regular screening and early detection are essential. This is an important test because a high antigen count can be the only symptom. Since no screening is 100% accurate, physicians recommend both a PSA blood test and a physical examination. Although heredity plays a major role in whether a man will develop prostate cancer, men who lead healthy lives can dramatically reduce their chances of cancer: low-fat diet, eating plenty of fruits and vegetables and not smoking. Recent advances in molecular andrology include peptide hormone binding proteins; gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists/antagonists analog; gonadotropins/their receptors; growth factors/reproduction; peptides as intratesticular regulators; molecular cloning of reproductive proteins/peptides. Gene cloning is applied for characterization/expression of genes coding. The interaction of gp120 with CD4 receptor plays a role in syncytium formation, apoptosis and CD4 cell deletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The recombinant V3 peptide of fragment 307-330 of HIV-1 can induce sperm head agglutination. The generation process of react

  15. Disseminated alveolar echinococcosis resembling metastatic malignancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Caire Nail, Laura; Rodríguez Reimundes, Ezequiel; Weibel Galluzzo, Christelle; Lebowitz, Dan; Ibrahim, Yasmine Lucile; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Chappuis, François

    2017-04-18

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis caused by larval forms of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Humans are aberrant intermediate hosts who become infected by ingestion of egg-contaminated food or water or via physical contact with domestic or wild animals that carry the parasite in their small intestine. In humans, the disease usually affects the liver and can spread to other organs causing metastatic infiltration. In this report, we describe an advanced presentation of human alveolar echinococcosis mimicking metastatic malignancy. A 62-year-old white woman was evaluated for fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain, associated with significant weight loss. She lived in a rural area in Switzerland and used to eat wild forest fruits and mushrooms. She owned cats that used to hunt rodents. On physical examination, she appeared severely ill with cachexia, altered mental status, jaundice, and massive hepatomegaly. Laboratory tests showed cholestasis with preserved liver function. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed an enlarged liver with a huge cystic mass in the right lobe extending into the left lobe, infiltrating her hepatic hilum, causing intrahepatic bile duct dilation and occlusion of her right portal vein. A chest computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified bilateral pulmonary nodules. Her clinical and radiological presentation resembled an advanced neoplastic disease. Serologic tests for Echinococcus multilocularis were positive. The diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis was established on her past history of exposure, imaging, and serology results. Clinical presentation and radiologic imaging findings of disseminated alveolar echinococcosis can mimic metastatic malignancy, and diagnosis can be challenging in atypically advanced cases. As the incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis appears to be increasing in Europe and Switzerland, physicians should be aware of alveolar echinococcosis, its epidemiology, and its clinical

  16. Intravenous methylene blue venography during laparoscopic paediatric varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J B; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2014-02-01

    One of the challenges of varicocele surgery is to prevent hydrocele formation while still ensuring success. Methylene blue has been used to identify and preserve lymphatic vessels, and venography has been a standard component of sclerotherapy and percutaneous retrograde techniques. The authors have combined both approaches during laparoscopic varicocelectomy and report their experience. A prospective study was performed of adolescents with idiopathic varicocele and spontaneous venous reflux on Doppler ultrasound. A pampiniform plexus vein was cannulated via scrotal incision before creating the pneumoperitoneum. A mixture of methylene blue and Omnipaque™ was injected into the pampiniform plexus with fluoroscopic screening. Laparoscopic selective vein ligation was then performed using 5mm endoscopic clips or a bipolar vessel sealing device such as Plasmakinetic™ or Ligasure™. Venography was repeated to confirm complete ligation of the internal testicular veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery with clinical examination and Doppler ultrasound. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic selective vein ligation with venography and methylene blue injection. The median age was 14.7 (14.6-15.7) years. The recurrence rate was 12%. No patients developed a hydrocele. The length of surgery was 120 (100-126) minutes. Intra-operative intra-venous methylene blue injection and venography helps to identify venous duplications of the internal testicular veins and enhances the success rate of laparoscopic selective vein ligation. This approach prevents hydrocele formation but has a 12% recurrence rate, which appears to be higher than some techniques described in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  18. Comparison of Laparoscopic and Microscopic Subinguinal Varicocelectomy in terms of Postoperative Scrotal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Penbegül, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Altunoluk, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In this study, 2 different varicocelectomy methods were compared with regard to postoperative scrotal pain, length of operation, and complications. Methods: Forty varicocele patients, who visited our clinic because of infertility or scrotal pain between 2008 and 2009, were enrolled in this clinical study. Microscopic subinguinal varicocelectomy was performed on 20 patients in Group I, and laparoscopic varicocelectomy was performed on 20 patients in Group II. Following surgery, the patients were assessed for postoperative requirements for analgesia; return to normal activity; varicocele recurrence; hydrocele formation; scrotal pain at postoperative days 1, 3, and 7; and other complications. Results: Mean age was 24.2±3.4 years in Group I and 25.1±2.1 years in Group II. Mean pain scores at postoperative 1, 3, and 7 days in Group I were (5.20±1.14, 4.60±0.97, and 3.50±0.97, respectively) significantly higher than those of Group II (0.70±0.82, 0.60±0.84, and 0.10±0.32, respectively). Time to return to normal activity was significantly shorter in Group II (3.7±2.1 days) compared with Group I (6.8±3.4 days) (p=0.028). However, the number of recurrences and hydroceles, as a complication of varicocelectomy, was 2 times higher in Group II (10%) than in Group I (5%). Conclusions: We believe that laparoscopic varicocelectomy is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive procedure. Furthermore, reduced postoperative discomfort and earlier return to normal activity are additional advantages of this method. PMID:23477168

  19. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Kavaklieva, S.; Yordanova, I.; Bruckner-Tuderman, L.; Has, C.

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741–1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult. PMID:24019772

  20. [Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in an alcoholic patient].

    PubMed

    Kozian, R; Otto, F G

    2000-09-01

    We introduce a case of a 66 year-old male with chronic alcoholism who suffered from confusion, Wernicke-aphasia and epileptic seizures. Several EEG revealed periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. The patient's case resembles the symptoms of a subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures which can occur in alcoholics.

  1. Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis in a patient of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhagra, S; Ganju, S A; Sood, A; Guleria, R C; Kanga, A K

    2013-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum, a geophillic dermatophyte is rarely isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum, an uncommon aetiological agent, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from our region. The clinical presentation resembled psoriasis characterised by atypical, scaly and hyperkeratotic lesions.

  2. Cytokines in the blood and semen of infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentyna; Boyko, Yaryna; Kril, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55). The male infertility group was further subdivided into patients with: varicocele (n = 22), idiopathic infertility (n = 13) and partners of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; n = 20). Semen analysis was determined following WHO criteria. The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-18; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon g (IFN-g) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) contents in serum and seminal plasma were determined by quantitative ELISA. An interesting marker of male infertility appears to be TGF-β1 (blood) significantly elevated in idiopathically infertile males and in the RSA group. Besides elevated TGF-β1 in a group of idiopathic infertility significantly elevated IL-10, IL-18, IFN-g (blood) and statistically decreased IL-1β while increased IFN-g were revealed in seminal plasma compared to healthy controls. We may postulate novel cytokine micropatterns for patients with different background of infertility. Therefore, circulating cytokines: IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-β1, IFN-g and IL-1β, IFN-g and TGF-β1 in seminal plasma should be extended in evaluation of specific types of male infertility. PMID:26648778

  3. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  4. Human Pif1 helicase unwinds synthetic DNA structures resembling stalled DNA replication forks

    PubMed Central

    George, Tresa; Wen, Qin; Griffiths, Richard; Ganesh, Anil; Meuth, Mark; Sanders, Cyril M.

    2009-01-01

    Pif-1 proteins are 5′→3′ superfamily 1 (SF1) helicases that in yeast have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial and nuclear genome stability. The functions and activities of the human enzyme (hPif1) are unclear, but here we describe its DNA binding and DNA remodeling activities. We demonstrate that hPif1 specifically recognizes and unwinds DNA structures resembling putative stalled replication forks. Notably, the enzyme requires both arms of the replication fork-like structure to initiate efficient unwinding of the putative leading replication strand of such substrates. This DNA structure-specific mode of initiation of unwinding is intrinsic to the conserved core helicase domain (hPifHD) that also possesses a strand annealing activity as has been demonstrated for the RecQ family of helicases. The result of hPif1 helicase action at stalled DNA replication forks would generate free 3′ ends and ssDNA that could potentially be used to assist replication restart in conjunction with its strand annealing activity. PMID:19700773

  5. Voting pattern of mental patients in a community state hospital.

    PubMed

    Klein, M M; Grossman, S A

    1967-06-01

    The voting pattern of mental patients in a community-based state hospital was studied. Patients were polled on the New York City mayoralty race. A comparison to the vote of the general population revealed that the hospital sample vote resembled most closely the election results of the hospital district. The results highlight the advantage of community-centered mental health facilities, which undertake the treatment and rehabilitation of mental patients under conditions that maintain ties with family and community.

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated neutrophilic dermatosis--an underrecognized neutrophilic dermatosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Allison R; Granter, Scott R

    2014-03-01

    Neutrophilic dermatoses are an uncommon manifestation of lupus. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neutrophilic dermatoses, 2 of whom had no prior history of SLE. Thirteen patients were female, ranging in age from 27 to 62 years (mean age, 42.8 years). One patient was a 20-year-old man. Most lesions were described as erythematous papules and plaques and showed annular morphology in 6 patients and a photodistribution in 2 patients. Histopathologic examination in all cases showed an interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasis that ranged from sparse in 5 cases and moderate to dense in 9 cases. With one exception, those cases with moderate to dense infiltrates resembled Sweet's syndrome at scanning magnification. Two cases resembled bullous SLE, and 1 case showed overlapping features of bullous SLE and Sweet's syndrome. Interface changes were seen in 8 patients, which were subtle and vacuolar in 7. One case was associated with a florid interface tissue reaction. Dermal mucin was seen in 4 cases and was a prominent feature in only one of these. One case showed a minute discrete focus resembling palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis. It is important to consider SLE-associated neutrophilic dermatosis in the differential diagnosis of neutrophilic tissue reactions particularly because some patients will have no prior history of lupus. It is also important to be aware of the broad histologic spectrum that may be encountered in SLE-associated neutrophilic dermatosis, ranging from subtle paucicellular lesions to florid Sweet's-like lesions associated with a dense neutrophilic infiltrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Powassan virus encephalitis resembling herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Embil, J A; Camfield, P; Artsob, H; Chase, D P

    1983-02-01

    A boy from New York traveling in Nova Scotia had olfactory hallucinations and other signs of temporal lobe involvement, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient was treated with vidarabine and made a complete recovery. However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the pathogen. Shortly before his trip to Nova Scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where POW encephalitis had occurred in humans (the eastern part of the state of New York), and he also came in contact with a known reservoir of POW infection (a groundhog) at home.

  8. Ductal Breast Carcinoma Metastatic to the Stomach Resembling Primary Linitis Plastica in a Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Leonardi, Giulia Costanza; Ravaioli, Noemi; De Giglio, Andrea; Brambilla, Marta; Prosperi, Enrico; Ribacchi, Franca; Meacci, Marialuisa; Crinò, Lucio; Maiettini, Daniele; Chiari, Rita; Metro, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are very rare occurrences. Among the histological subtypes of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinomas have a high capacity of metastasis to uncommon sites including the stomach. Conversely, there has not been sufficient evidence supporting the gastric metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma. Herein, we report a unique case of metastatic ductal breast carcinoma mimicking primary linitis plastica in a male patient, particularly focusing on the clinical and pathological features of presentation. Moreover, we propose a immunohistochemical panel of selected antibodies including those for cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 7, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, E-cadherin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, and GATA binding protein 3 for an accurate differential diagnosis.

  9. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  10. Intramural esophageal bleeding in a hemodialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Lien, J. W. K.; Dufresne, L. R.; Daly, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A case of intramural esophageal hemorrhage in a hemodialysis patient is described. The hemorrhage followed an episode of vomiting and violent retching. Spontaneous resolution occurred with conservative management. The clinical course resembled that of previous case reports of intramural esophageal hemorrhage, whether or not associated with chronic renal failure and intermittent hemodialysis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4434294

  11. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular ... 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  12. Multisystemic Eosinophilia Resembling Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in a Colony-Bred Owl Monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Rosenberg, Helene F; Elkins, William R; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    In animals, multisystemic eosinophilic disease is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in various organs. This disorder resembles the human disease known as hypereosinophilic syndrome, a condition defined by prolonged peripheral eosinophilia in the absence of recognizable etiology and associated with end-organ damage. In this report we describe a research-naïve, colony-born, juvenile female owl monkey (Aotus vociferans) who presented clinically with severe respiratory distress and histologically with multiple end-organ infiltration with phenotypically mature eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. No tumors or infectious agents were noted either macroscopically or microscopically. Cultures from lung samples revealed no bacteria or fungi. Histologic examination of lung, heart, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, and colon revealed no migrating nematode larvae, other parasites, or foreign material that might trigger eosinophilia, nor was there any evidence of or history consistent with an allergic etiology. Given that we ruled out most exogenous and endogenous triggers of eosinophilia, the signs, symptoms, and pathologic findings support the diagnosis of multisystemic eosinophilic disease. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of presumptive hypereosinophilic syndrome in a nonhuman primate. PMID:19476722

  13. Undescended Testicles (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) Varicocele Male Reproductive System View more ... 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  14. Resemblance profiles as clustering decision criteria: Estimating statistical power, error, and correspondence for a hypothesis test for multivariate structure.

    PubMed

    Kilborn, Joshua P; Jones, David L; Peebles, Ernst B; Naar, David F

    2017-04-01

    Clustering data continues to be a highly active area of data analysis, and resemblance profiles are being incorporated into ecological methodologies as a hypothesis testing-based approach to clustering multivariate data. However, these new clustering techniques have not been rigorously tested to determine the performance variability based on the algorithm's assumptions or any underlying data structures. Here, we use simulation studies to estimate the statistical error rates for the hypothesis test for multivariate structure based on dissimilarity profiles (DISPROF). We concurrently tested a widely used algorithm that employs the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to estimate the proficiency of clustering with DISPROF as a decision criterion. We simulated unstructured multivariate data from different probability distributions with increasing numbers of objects and descriptors, and grouped data with increasing overlap, overdispersion for ecological data, and correlation among descriptors within groups. Using simulated data, we measured the resolution and correspondence of clustering solutions achieved by DISPROF with UPGMA against the reference grouping partitions used to simulate the structured test datasets. Our results highlight the dynamic interactions between dataset dimensionality, group overlap, and the properties of the descriptors within a group (i.e., overdispersion or correlation structure) that are relevant to resemblance profiles as a clustering criterion for multivariate data. These methods are particularly useful for multivariate ecological datasets that benefit from distance-based statistical analyses. We propose guidelines for using DISPROF as a clustering decision tool that will help future users avoid potential pitfalls during the application of methods and the interpretation of results.

  15. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to sunlight resembles the phenom of persistence.

    PubMed

    Forte Giacobone, Ana F; Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2015-01-01

    During exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stationary phase cells to natural solar radiation, a reduction in the rate of loss of bacterial viability was observed when survival fractions were lower than 1/10,000. This reduction was independent of the growth medium used and of the initial bacterial concentration, and was also observed when irradiation was performed with artificial UVA radiation (365nm, 47Wm(-2)). These results indicate the presence of a small bacterial subpopulation with increased tolerance to radiation. Such a tolerance is non-heritable, since survival curves comparable to those of the parental strain were obtained from survivors to long-term exposure to radiation. The radiation response described here resembles the phenomenon called persistence, which consists of the presence of a small subpopulation of slow-growing cells which are able to survive antibiotic treatment within a susceptible bacterial population. The condition of persister cells is acquired via a reversible switch and involves active defense systems towards oxidative stress. Persistence is probably responsible for biphasic responses of bacteria to several stress conditions, one of which may be exposure to sunlight. The models currently used to analyze the lethal action of sunlight overestimate the effect of high-dose irradiation. These models could be improved by including the potential formation of persister cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a Chlamydomonas Transposon, Gulliver, Resembling Those in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    While pursuing a chromosomal walk through the mt(+) locus of linkage group VI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, I encountered a 12-kb sequence that was found to be present in approximately 12 copies in the nuclear genome. Comparison of various C. reinhardtii laboratory strains provided evidence that the sequence was mobile and therefore a transposon. One of two separate natural isolates interfertile with C. reinhardtii, C. smithii (CC-1373), contained the transposon, but at completely different locations in its nuclear genome than C. reinhardtii; and a second, CC-1952 (S1-C5), lacked the transposon altogether. Genetic analysis indicated that the transposon was found at dispersed sites throughout the genome, but had a conserved structure at each location. Sequence homology between the termini was limited to an imperfect 15-bp inverted repeat. An 8-bp target site duplication was created by insertion; transposon sequences were completely removed upon excision leaving behind both copies of the target site duplication, with minor base changes. The transposon contained an internal region of unique repetitive sequence responsible for restriction fragment length heterogeneity among the various copies of the transposon. In several cases it was possible to identify which of the dozen transposons in a given strain served as the donor when a transposition event occurred. The transposon often moved into a site genetically linked to the donor, and transposition appeared to be nonreplicative. Thus the mechanism of transposition and excision of the transposon, which I have named Gulliver, resembles that of certain higher plant transposons, like the Ac transposon of maize. PMID:2570007

  17. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  18. Physical dependence on nitrous oxide in mice: resemblance to alcohol but not to opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Milne, B; Cervenko, F W; Jhamandas, K H

    1981-01-01

    Mice of two strains, Crl:CD-1(1CR)Br and C57BL6, were exposed to nitrous oxide at concentrations of 50, 65 and 80 per cent for 34 or 68 hours. Cessation of nitrous oxide resulted in characteristic convulsions similar to those seen in alcohol withdrawal in all mice. These peaked in severity within 2-3 minutes after removal from nitrous oxide and declined over 6 hours. The severity and duration of these convulsions were related to the nitrous oxide concentration and duration of exposure. Naloxone or naltrexone produced no significant increase in severity of convulsions. The narcotic antagonists did not precipitate acute weight loss or characteristic jumping behaviour seen in animals dependent on opiates. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to nitrous oxide results in development of physical dependence which resembles alcohol and not opiate dependence. Analgesia and physical dependence produced by nitrous oxide appear to be mediated through separate mechanisms.

  19. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2·nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures. PMID:27853166

  20. Proteome analysis reveals that de novo regenerated mucosa over fibula flap-reconstructed mandibles resembles mature keratinized oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay V; James, Bonney L; Ruß, Manuela; Mikkat, Stefan; Suresh, Amritha; Kämmerer, Peer W; Glocker, Michael O

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-oral de novo regenerated mucosa (D) that grew over free fibula flap reconstructed-mandibles resembled the donor tissue i.e. external skin (S) of the lateral leg, or the recipient site tissue, i.e. keratinized oral mucosa (K). Differential proteome analysis was performed with ten tissue samples from each of the three groups: de novo regenerated mucosa (D), external skin (S), and keratinized oral mucosa (K). Expression differences of cornulin and involucrin were validated by Western blot analysis and their spatial distributions in the respective tissues were ascertained by immunohistochemistry. From all three investigated tissue types a total of 1188 proteins were identified, 930 of which were reproducibly and robustly quantified by proteome analysis. The best differentiating proteins were assembled in an oral mucosa proteome signature that encompasses 56 differentially expressed proteins. Principal component analysis of both, the 930 quantifiable proteins and the 56 oral mucosa signature proteins revealed that the de novo regenerated mucosa resembles keratinized oral mucosa much closer than extra-oral skin. Differentially expressed cornification-related proteins comprise proteins from all subclasses of the cornified cell envelope. Prominently expressed in intra-oral mucosa tissues were (i) cornifin-A, cornifin-B, SPRR3, and involucrin from the cornified-cell-envelope precursor group, (ii) S100A9, S100A8 and S100A2 from the S100 group, and (iii) cornulin which belongs to the fused-gene-protein group. According to its proteome signature de novo regenerated mucosa over the free fibula flap not only presents a passive structural surface layer but has adopted active tissue function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-granulomatous myositis in a patient with ulcerative colitis who showed symptoms resembling gastrocnemius myalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Inoue, Manabu; Tachibana, Naoko; Tsuzaki, Koji; Shibata, Yoko; Hamano, Toshiaki

    2017-02-25

    The patient was a 36-year-old man. His initial symptom was bilateral thigh and calf pain. When he developed ulcerative colitis in the following year, he also noticed wasting of the calf muscles. The clinical feature is similar to gastrocnemius myalgia syndrome, although the left upper limb was also involved. A high-intensity lesion in the left calf and soleus muscles was observed on MRI, which was lead to the diagnosis of non-granulomatous myositis with infiltration of CD68-positive cells based on muscle biopsy. After steroids were administered, his pain subsided. Evaluation with needle EMG, MRI, and muscle biopsy is important when muscle pain accompanies inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. [Scrotal masses in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Markku; Ala-Lipasti, Mika; Marttila, Timo; Paaso, Ilkka; Raitanen, Mika

    2009-01-01

    GPs often encounter patients with scrotal masses. Most of these are easily diagnosed by means of palpation and transillumination. Scrotal ultrasound is the primary radiological investigation, and should be done in cases of uncertain clinical diagnosis or when a solid mass in the scrotum is suspected. Benign processes such as hydrocele, spermatocele and varicocele are the most common causes for scrotal abnormalities. Symptomatic cases are treated with surgery or percutaneous sclerotherapy/embolization. Malignant testicular tumours, although less frequently seen, need prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Radical orchidectomy is the primary treatment, followed by radiochemotherpy in selected cases.

  3. Somatosensory profiles in subgroups of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorders and Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Doreen B; Rolke, Roman; Nickel, Ralf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Daublaender, Monika

    2009-12-15

    Some patients with myofascial pain from temporomandibular disorders (TMD) report pain in extra-trigeminal body regions. Our aim was to distinguish TMD as regional musculoskeletal pain syndrome (n=23) from a widespread pain syndrome (FMS; n=18) based on patients' tender point scores, pain drawings and quantitative sensory testing (QST) profiles. Referenced to 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects significant group differences for cold, pressure and pinprick pain thresholds, suprathreshold pinprick sensitivity and mechanical detection thresholds were found. Pain sensitivity in TMD patients ranged between those of FMS patients and healthy controls. The group of TMD patients was inhomogeneous with respect to their tender point count with an insensitive group (n=12) resembling healthy controls and a sensitive TMD group (n=9) resembling FMS patients. Nevertheless sensitive TMD patients did not fulfil diagnostic criteria for FMS in regard to widespread pain as shown by their pain drawings. TMD subgroups did not differ with respect to psychological parameters. The sensitive subgroup was more sensitive compared to healthy controls and to insensitive TMD patients in regard to their QST profile over all test areas as well as to their tenderness over orofacial muscles and trigeminal foramina. However, sensitive TMD patients had a short pain duration arguing against a transition from TMD to FMS over time. Data rather suggest an overlap in pathophysiology with FMS, e.g. a disturbance of central pain processing, in this subgroup of TMD patients. Those patients could be identified on the basis of their tender point count as an easy practicable screening tool.

  4. Cardiac sarcoidosis resembling panic disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tokumitsu, Keita; Demachi, Jun; Yamanoi, Yukichi; Oyama, Shigeto; Takeuchi, Junko; Yachimori, Koji; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2017-01-13

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology, in which granulomas develop in various organs, including the skin, lungs, eyes, or heart. It has been reported that patients with sarcoidosis are more likely to develop panic disorder than members of the general population. However, there are many unknown factors concerning the causal relationship between these conditions. We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who appeared to have panic disorder, as she experienced repeated panic attacks induced by transient complete atrioventricular block, associated with cardiac sarcoidosis. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy were not effective in the treatment of her panic attacks. However, when we implanted a permanent pacemaker and initiated steroid treatment for cardiac sarcoidosis, panic attacks were ameliorated. Based on these findings, we diagnosed the patient's symptoms as an anxiety disorder associated with cardiac sarcoidosis, rather than panic disorder. This report highlights the importance of considering cardiac sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of panic disorder. This cardiac disease should be considered especially in patients have a history of cardiac disease (e.g., arrhythmia) and atypical presentations of panic symptoms. Panic disorder is a psychiatric condition that is typically diagnosed after other medical conditions have been excluded. Because the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is difficult in some patients, caution is required. The palpitations and symptoms of heart failure associated with cardiac sarcoidosis can be misdiagnosed as psychiatric symptoms of panic disorder. The condition described in the current case study appears to constitute a physical disease, the diagnosis of which requires significant consideration and caution.

  5. Distinct alkaline phosphatase in serum of patients with lymphatic leukemia and infectious mononucleosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neumann, H.; Moran, E.M.; Russell, R.M.

    1974-10-11

    A distinct alkaline phosphatase (phosphatase N) was demonstrated in the serum of patients with acute lymphatic leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, and infectious mononucleosis. This enzyme closely resembles that extracted from the thymus of mice with lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia, both in its electrophoretic mobility and its substrate specificity. The phosphatase N activity was related to the clinical state of patients with lymphatic leukemia and disappeared with recovery from infectious mononucleosis.

  6. Cells resembling intraventricular macrophages are present in the subretinal space of human foetal eyes.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, P G; Loeffler, K U

    1990-06-01

    The subretinal spaces (SRS) in 17 human foetal eyes were investigated by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A hitherto undocumented group of pleomorphic cells was detected on the apical surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and on the undersurface of the neural retina. These cells formed a regularly spaced array in the peripheral SRS, particularly in the most anterior portion nearest the ciliary body anlage. The morphology of the SRS cells ranged from a small round or ovoid form with a few short basal pseudopodia to an extremely flattened dendritic form. Ultrastructural features, such as large melanophagolysosomes, consistent with a phagocytic function, were observed in some cells. These SRS cells bore remarkable resemblance to epiplexus and supraependymal cells, considered to be the resident population of macrophages on the ventricular surfaces of the brain. This morphological parallelism, together with the anatomically homologous location, is strong evidence that SRS cells represent a normal population of macrophages in the developing human eye. No features consistent with an RPE or neuronal origin were observed. The possible role of these cells as transient phagocytes in the SRS with a possible destiny as retinal microglia is discussed.

  7. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  8. Resting-state fMRI in sleeping infants more closely resembles adult sleep than adult wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Elison, Jed; Emerson, Robert W.; Shen, Mark D.; Wolff, Jason J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette M.; Evans, Alan; Gerig, Guido; Hazlett, Heather C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Schultz, Robert T.; Styner, Martin A.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs. sleep are well documented. To investigate this question, we compared functional connectivity and BOLD signal propagation patterns in 6, 12, and 24 month old sleeping infants with patterns in adult wakefulness and non-REM sleep. We find that important functional connectivity features seen during infant sleep closely resemble those seen during adult sleep, including reduced default mode network functional connectivity. However, we also find differences between infant and adult sleep, especially in thalamic BOLD signal propagation patterns. These findings highlight the importance of considering sleep state when drawing developmental inferences in infant rs-fMRI. PMID:29149191

  9. Resting-state fMRI in sleeping infants more closely resembles adult sleep than adult wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anish; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Elison, Jed; Emerson, Robert W; Shen, Mark D; Wolff, Jason J; Botteron, Kelly N; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette M; Evans, Alan; Gerig, Guido; Hazlett, Heather C; Paterson, Sarah J; Schultz, Robert T; Styner, Martin A; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Piven, Joseph; Pruett, John R; Raichle, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs. sleep are well documented. To investigate this question, we compared functional connectivity and BOLD signal propagation patterns in 6, 12, and 24 month old sleeping infants with patterns in adult wakefulness and non-REM sleep. We find that important functional connectivity features seen during infant sleep closely resemble those seen during adult sleep, including reduced default mode network functional connectivity. However, we also find differences between infant and adult sleep, especially in thalamic BOLD signal propagation patterns. These findings highlight the importance of considering sleep state when drawing developmental inferences in infant rs-fMRI.

  10. Scrotal Masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most likely cause. Varicocele. This is the enlargement of the veins within the scrotum that carry ... that carries semen from the testicle to the penis. This painful condition cuts off blood to the ...

  11. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    PubMed

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Granulocyte colony-stimulating-factor-induced psoriasiform dermatitis resembles psoriasis with regard to abnormal cytokine expression and epidermal activation.

    PubMed

    Mössner, R; Beckmann, I; Hallermann, C; Neumann, C; Reich, K

    2004-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by accumulation of Th1-type T cells and neutrophils, regenerative keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and enhanced epidermal production of antimicrobial peptides. The underlying cause is unknown, but there are some similarities with the immunologic defense program against bacteria. Development of psoriasiform skin lesions has been reported after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine induced in monocytes by bacterial antigens. To further investigate the relation between this type of cytokine-induced dermatitis and psoriasis, we analyzed the cutaneous cytokine profile [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p35 and p40, and IL-8] and expression of markers of epidermal activation [Ki-67, cytokeratin-16, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)] in a patient who developed G-CSF-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology. The histologic picture resembled psoriasis with regard to epidermal hyperparakeratosis and the accumulation of lymphocytes in the upper corium. CD8(+) T cells were found to infiltrate the epidermis which was associated with an aberrant expression of Ki-67, cytokeratin-16, MHC class II, and ICAM-1 on adjacent keratinocytes. As compared to normal skin (n = 7), there was an increased expression of TNF-alpha, IL-12p40, and IL-8, a decreased expression of TGF-beta1, and a lack of IL-10, similar to the findings in active psoriasis (n = 8). Therefore, G-CSF may cause a lymphocytic dermatitis that, similar to psoriasis, is characterized by a pro-inflammatory Th1-type cytokine milieu and an epidermal phenotype indicative of aberrant maturation and acquisition of non-professional immune functions.

  13. An Investigation into the Mechanics of Windblown Dust Entrainment from Nickel Slag Surfaces Resembling Armoured Desert Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Robert Steven

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the dynamics of PM 10 emission from a nickel slag stockpile that closely resembles a desert pavement in physical characteristics. In the field, it was observed that slag surfaces develop by natural processes into a well-armoured surface over some period of time. The surface then consists of two distinct layers; a surficial armour layer containing only non-erodible gravel and cobble-sized clasts, and an underlying dust-laden layer, which contains a wide size range of slag particles, from clay-sized to cobble-sized. This surficial armour layer protects the underlying fines from wind entrainment, at least under typical wind conditions; however, particle emissions still do occur under high wind speeds. The dynamics of particle entrainment from within these surfaces are investigated herein. It is shown that the dynamics of the boundary layer flow over these lag surfaces are influenced by the inherent roughness and permeability of the surficial armour layer, such that the flow resembles those observed over and within vegetation canopies, and those associated with permeable gravel-bed river channels. Restriction of air flow within the permeable surface produces a high-pressure zone within the pore spaces, resulting in a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability, which triggers coherent motions in the form of repeating burst-sweep cycles. Using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), it is demonstrated that the lower boundary layer is characterized by both Q4 sweeping motions and Q2 bursting motions, while the upper boundary layer is dominated by Q2 bursts. Pore air motions within the slag material were measured using buried pressure ports. It is shown that the mean pressure gradient which forms within the slag material results in net upward displacement of air, or wind pumping. However, this net upward motion is a result of rapid oscillatory motions which are directly driven by coherent boundary layer motions. It is also demonstrated that

  14. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  15. Psychosis in Patients with Narcolepsy as an Adverse Effect of Sodium Oxybate

    PubMed Central

    Sarkanen, Tomi; Niemelä, Valter; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Partinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are characteristic symptoms of narcolepsy, as are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy patients may also experience daytime hallucinations unrelated to sleep–wake transitions. The effect of medication on hallucinations is of interest since treatment of narcolepsy may provoke psychotic symptoms. We aim to analyze the relation between sodium oxybate (SXB) treatment and psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy patients. Furthermore, we analyze the characteristics of hallucinations to determine their nature as mainly psychotic or hypnagogic and raise a discussion about whether SXB causes psychosis or if psychosis occurs as an endogenous complication in narcolepsy. Method: We present altogether four patients with narcolepsy who experienced psychotic symptoms during treatment with SXB. In addition, we searched the literature for descriptions of hallucinations in narcolepsy and similarities and differences with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Results: Three out of four patients had hallucinations typical for psychosis and one had symptoms that resembled aggravated hypnagogic hallucinations. Two patients also had delusional symptoms primarily associated with mental disorders. Tapering down SXB was tried and helped in two out of four cases. Adding antipsychotic treatment (risperidone) alleviated psychotic symptoms in two cases. Conclusion: Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy may appear during SXB treatment. Hallucinations resemble those seen in schizophrenia; however, the insight that symptoms are delusional is usually preserved. In case of SXB-induced psychotic symptoms or hallucinations, reducing SXB dose or adding antipsychotic medication can be tried. PMID:25191304

  16. Psychosis in patients with narcolepsy as an adverse effect of sodium oxybate.

    PubMed

    Sarkanen, Tomi; Niemelä, Valter; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Partinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are characteristic symptoms of narcolepsy, as are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy patients may also experience daytime hallucinations unrelated to sleep-wake transitions. The effect of medication on hallucinations is of interest since treatment of narcolepsy may provoke psychotic symptoms. We aim to analyze the relation between sodium oxybate (SXB) treatment and psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy patients. Furthermore, we analyze the characteristics of hallucinations to determine their nature as mainly psychotic or hypnagogic and raise a discussion about whether SXB causes psychosis or if psychosis occurs as an endogenous complication in narcolepsy. We present altogether four patients with narcolepsy who experienced psychotic symptoms during treatment with SXB. In addition, we searched the literature for descriptions of hallucinations in narcolepsy and similarities and differences with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Three out of four patients had hallucinations typical for psychosis and one had symptoms that resembled aggravated hypnagogic hallucinations. Two patients also had delusional symptoms primarily associated with mental disorders. Tapering down SXB was tried and helped in two out of four cases. Adding antipsychotic treatment (risperidone) alleviated psychotic symptoms in two cases. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy may appear during SXB treatment. Hallucinations resemble those seen in schizophrenia; however, the insight that symptoms are delusional is usually preserved. In case of SXB-induced psychotic symptoms or hallucinations, reducing SXB dose or adding antipsychotic medication can be tried.

  17. An enigmatic fossil fungus from the 410 Ma Rhynie chert that resembles Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota).

    PubMed

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Martin, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Litter layers in the Lower Devonian (~ 410 Ma) Rhynie chert were inhabited by a wide variety of saprotrophic fungi, however, only a few of these organisms have been described formally. A new microfungus, Trewinomyces annulifer gen. et sp. nov., occurs as tufts on decaying land plant axes from the Rhynie chert. The fungus consists of an intramatrical rhizoidal system and an erect extramatrical hypha (stalk) that bears a single, terminal sporangium. One or two successive rings often are present in the stalk immediately below the sporangium base. Overall morphology of T. annulifer resembles the extant genera Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota). However, the rhizoids are septate or pseudoseptate, a feature not known in extant zoosporic fungi, and thus render the systematic affinities of T. annulifer unresolved. Trewinomyces annulifer offers a rare view of the morphology of a distinctive Early Devonian saprotrophic microfungus. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho(-/-) (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl(-/-) mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl(-/-) mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis.

  19. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M. Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho-/- (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl-/- mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl-/- mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:25080854

  20. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-28

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 μm) showed a power conversion efficiency (η) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (η = 6.1%).

  1. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to HOXA+ hemogenic vasculature that resembles the aorta-gonad-mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elizabeth S; Azzola, Lisa; Bruveris, Freya F; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Phipson, Belinda; Vlahos, Katerina; Hirst, Claire; Jokubaitis, Vanta J; Yu, Qing C; Maksimovic, Jovana; Liebscher, Simone; Januar, Vania; Zhang, Zhen; Williams, Brenda; Conscience, Aude; Durnall, Jennifer; Jackson, Steven; Costa, Magdaline; Elliott, David; Haylock, David N; Nilsson, Susan K; Saffery, Richard; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Oshlack, Alicia; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G

    2016-11-01

    The ability to generate hematopoietic stem cells from human pluripotent cells would enable many biomedical applications. We find that hematopoietic CD34 + cells in spin embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) lack HOXA expression compared with repopulation-competent human cord blood CD34 + cells, indicating incorrect mesoderm patterning. Using reporter hESC lines to track the endothelial (SOX17) to hematopoietic (RUNX1C) transition that occurs in development, we show that simultaneous modulation of WNT and ACTIVIN signaling yields CD34 + hematopoietic cells with HOXA expression that more closely resembles that of cord blood. The cultures generate a network of aorta-like SOX17 + vessels from which RUNX1C + blood cells emerge, similar to hematopoiesis in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). Nascent CD34 + hematopoietic cells and corresponding cells sorted from human AGM show similar expression of cell surface receptors, signaling molecules and transcription factors. Our findings provide an approach to mimic in vitro a key early stage in human hematopoiesis for the generation of AGM-derived hematopoietic lineages from hESCs.

  2. Source misattributions and false recognition errors: examining the role of perceptual resemblance and imagery generation processes.

    PubMed

    Foley, Mary Ann; Bays, Rebecca Brooke; Foy, Jeffrey; Woodfield, Mila

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine the extent to which participants' memory errors are affected by the perceptual features of an encoding series and imagery generation processes. Perceptual features were examined by manipulating the features associated with individual items as well as the relationships among items. An encoding instruction manipulation was included to examine the effects of explicit requests to generate images. In all three experiments, participants falsely claimed to have seen pictures of items presented as words, committing picture misattribution errors. These misattribution errors were exaggerated when the perceptual resemblance between pictures and images was relatively high (Experiment 1) and when explicit requests to generate images were omitted from encoding instructions (Experiments 1 and 2). When perceptual cues made the thematic relationships among items salient, the level and pattern of misattribution errors were also affected (Experiments 2 and 3). Results address alternative views about the nature of internal representations resulting in misattribution errors and refute the idea that these errors reflect only participants' general impressions or beliefs about what was seen.

  3. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    PubMed

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  4. Rhythmicity in Mice Selected for Extremes in Stress Reactivity: Behavioural, Endocrine and Sleep Changes Resembling Endophenotypes of Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ruschel, Jörg; Palme, Rupert; Holsboer, Florian; Kimura, Mayumi; Landgraf, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hyper- or hypo-activity of the stress hormone system, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as major depression (MD). Further biological hallmarks of MD are disturbances in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Applying a translational approach, an animal model has recently been developed, focusing on the deviation in sensitivity to stressful encounters. This so-called ‘stress reactivity’ (SR) mouse model consists of three separate breeding lines selected for either high (HR), intermediate (IR), or low (LR) corticosterone increase in response to stressors. Methodology/Principle Findings In order to contribute to the validation of the SR mouse model, our study combined the analysis of behavioural and HPA axis rhythmicity with sleep-EEG recordings in the HR/IR/LR mouse lines. We found that hyper-responsiveness to stressors was associated with psychomotor alterations (increased locomotor activity and exploration towards the end of the resting period), resembling symptoms like restlessness, sleep continuity disturbances and early awakenings that are commonly observed in melancholic depression. Additionally, HR mice also showed neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to symptoms of MD patients such as reduced amplitude of the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm and elevated trough levels. The sleep-EEG analyses, furthermore, revealed changes in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep as well as slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and REM sleep disinhibition in HR mice. Conclusion/Significance Thus, we could show that by selectively breeding mice for extremes in stress reactivity, clinically relevant endophenotypes of MD can be modelled. Given the importance of rhythmicity and sleep disturbances as biomarkers of MD, both animal and clinical studies on the interaction of behavioural, neuroendocrine and sleep parameters may reveal

  5. Congenital symmetrical weakness of the upper limbs resembling brachial plexus palsy: a possible sequel of drug toxicity in first trimester of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Philpot, J; Muntoni, F; Skellett, S; Dubowitz, V

    1995-01-01

    We report a 14-month-old girl with a symmetrical paralysis from birth, limited to the upper limbs and resembling a severe, complete bilateral brachial plexus palsy. The presence of dimples over the wrists, shoulders and scapulae and abnormal palmar dermatoglyphics suggested an early prenatal onset. Previous reports and the course of the disease in our case suggest this sporadic condition is not progressive. Although no definitive causative factor has been identified in previously reported cases, the affection in our case is possibly related to Debendox (Bendectin) and nitrofurantoin taken in early pregnancy for nausea and renal tract infection, respectively.

  6. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers: the healthy eating and active lifestyles from school to home for kids study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers. Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago during fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, as well as logistic regression models. Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal-weight mothers than in mothers with overweight or obesity. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (P<0.05). Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association.

  7. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a 'theory of mind'.

    PubMed

    Penn, Derek C; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2007-04-29

    After decades of effort by some of our brightest human and non-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand the concept of a 'mental state'. In the present paper, we confront four related and contentious questions head-on: (i) What exactly would it mean for a non-verbal organism to have an 'understanding' or a 'representation' of another animal's mental state? (ii) What should (and should not) count as compelling empirical evidence that a non-verbal cognitive agent has a system for understanding or forming representations about mental states in a functionally adaptive manner? (iii) Why have the kind of experimental protocols that are currently in vogue failed to produce compelling evidence that non-human animals possess anything even remotely resembling a theory of mind? (iv) What kind of experiments could, at least in principle, provide compelling evidence for such a system in a non-verbal organism?

  8. Exploring Animal Models That Resemble Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Jun; Rubio, Gustavo A.; Limper, Andrew H.; Williams, Kurt; Elliot, Sharon J.; Ninou, Ioanna; Aidinis, Vassilis; Tzouvelekis, Argyrios; Glassberg, Marilyn K.

    2017-01-01

    Large multicenter clinical trials have led to two recently approved drugs for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); yet, both of these therapies only slow disease progression and do not provide a definitive cure. Traditionally, preclinical trials have utilized mouse models of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis—though several limitations prevent direct translation to human IPF. Spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis occurs in other animal species, including dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. While the fibrotic lungs of these animals share many characteristics with lungs of patients with IPF, current veterinary classifications of fibrotic lung disease are not entirely equivalent. Additional studies that profile these examples of spontaneous fibroses in animals for similarities to human IPF should prove useful for both human and animal investigators. In the meantime, studies of BLM-induced fibrosis in aged male mice remain the most clinically relevant model for preclinical study for human IPF. Addressing issues such as time course of treatment, animal size and characteristics, clinically irrelevant treatment endpoints, and reproducibility of therapeutic outcomes will improve the current status of preclinical studies. Elucidating the mechanisms responsible for the development of fibrosis and disrepair associated with aging through a collaborative approach between researchers will promote the development of models that more accurately represent the realm of interstitial lung diseases in humans. PMID:28804709

  9. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more) ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. Results From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy) ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such sporophylls represent the

  10. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  11. Twenty-four-hour respiratory quotient: the role of diet and familial resemblance.

    PubMed

    Toubro, S; Sørensen, T I; Hindsberger, C; Christensen, N J; Astrup, A

    1998-08-01

    Body weight and obesity show familial resemblance that could be the result of familial correlation of fat oxidation, low levels of which have been implicated in the etiology of weight gain and obesity. We studied the familial correlation of both 24-h respiratory quotient (RQ), an index of the ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation, and the possible influence of dietary macronutrient composition expressed by the food quotient (FQ), i.e. the theoretical RQ produced by the diet. We measured the habitual FQ of the 7 days diet by weighed food records, followed by measurement of 24-h RQ in respiration chambers in 71 healthy Caucasian siblings from 31 families. After adjustment for age, gender, and 24-h energy balance, 24-h RQ correlated in families as indicated by an intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)) of 0.31 (P = 0.03). FQ, adjusted for age and gender, was also a familial trait for the two days immediately preceding diet (r(i) = 0.32, P < 0.01). The familial effect on 24-h RQ, adjusted for age, gender, and 24-h energy balance, remained after adjustment for the FQ of the two days preceding diet (r(i) = 0.27, P < 0.05) and was reduced but not abolished after further adjustment for fasting plasma insulin plus free fatty acids (r(i) = 0.24, P < 0.09). By a correlation analysis aimed at separating familial and individual nonfamilial factors influencing both 24-h RQ and FQ, we found a great but insignificant familial (etaF = 0.49, P < 0.18) and a somewhat lower, but significant individual nonfamilial correlation (etaNF = 0.35, P < 0.03). We conclude that substrate oxidation rates measured by RQ exhibit familial correlation after proper adjustment for confounders such as energy balance, gender, and age, and that this effect could not be fully explained by preceding diet composition, fasting plasma insulin, and free fatty acids. Further RQ and the habitual dietary composition shared familial and nonfamilial factors.

  12. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with Addison disease.

    PubMed

    Punnam, Sujeeth Reddy; Gourineni, Nandu; Gupta, Vishal

    2010-10-08

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (Broken Heart Syndrome) is increasingly being reported in the medical literature. Its clinical picture resembles of an acute coronary syndrome with transient apical dyskinesia and normal coronary arteries. We report here a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with Addison disease with reversible cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one other reported case of this syndrome with Addison disease but with a different outcome. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The motor and cognitive features of Parkinson's disease in patients with concurrent Gaucher disease over 2 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lucy M; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Morris, Elizabeth; Deegan, Patrick; Cox, Timothy M; Barker, Roger A

    2018-05-29

    We report the cognitive features and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) in five patients with concurrent Gaucher disease. The patients presented at an earlier age than patients with sporadic PD, as previously noted by others; but in contrast to many previous reports, our patients followed a variable clinical course. While two patients developed early cognitive deficits and dementia, three others remained cognitively intact over the follow-up period. Thus, in this small case series, PD in the context of GD more closely resembles idiopathic PD in terms of its clinical heterogeneity in contrast to PD associated with GBA heterozygote mutations.

  14. Mechanism of insulin fibrillation: the structure of insulin under amyloidogenic conditions resembles a protein-folding intermediate.

    PubMed

    Hua, Qing-xin; Weiss, Michael A

    2004-05-14

    Insulin undergoes aggregation-coupled misfolding to form a cross-beta assembly. Such fibrillation has long complicated its manufacture and use in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Of interest as a model for disease-associated amyloids, insulin fibrillation is proposed to occur via partial unfolding of a monomeric intermediate. Here, we describe the solution structure of human insulin under amyloidogenic conditions (pH 2.4 and 60 degrees C). Use of an enhanced sensitivity cryogenic probe at high magnetic field avoids onset of fibrillation during spectral acquisition. A novel partial fold is observed in which the N-terminal segments of the A- and B-chains detach from the core. Unfolding of the N-terminal alpha-helix of the A-chain exposes a hydrophobic surface formed by native-like packing of the remaining alpha-helices. The C-terminal segment of the B-chain, although not well ordered, remains tethered to this partial helical core. We propose that detachment of N-terminal segments makes possible aberrant protein-protein interactions in an amyloidogenic nucleus. Non-cooperative unfolding of the N-terminal A-chain alpha-helix resembles that observed in models of proinsulin folding intermediates and foreshadows the extensive alpha --> beta transition characteristic of mature fibrils.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-related lymph node lesion resembling autoimmune disease-like clinicopathological findings in elderly patients. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masaru; Yamane, Yuko; Itoh, Hideaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Shiro; Masawa, Nobuhide; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2003-12-01

    Three cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative disorders in elderly patients showing autoimmune disease-associated lymphadenopathy-like clinicopathological findings have been reported. Clinically, they were characterized by systemic lymphadenopathy, "B" symptoms, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated serum LDH and transient presence of various autoantibodies, and absence of atypical lymphocytosis in peripheral blood. One case was associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The clinical course was self-limiting. Histologically, they exhibited numerous lymphoid follicles with hyperplastic germinal centers and atypical interfollicular widening with prominent vascular proliferation. In the paracortical area, there was a mixed infiltrate comprising small to medium-sized lymphocytes and plasma cells, and variable numbers of eosinophils and T- and B-immunoblasts. In situ hybridization demonstrated a varying number of EBV-infected lymphocytes in the germinal center as well as in the interfollicular area. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that neither clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma-gene nor immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement was detected in two of the cases examined. Although acute EBV infection rarely occurs in older adults, EBV related to reactive lymphoproliferative disorder should be added to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune disease-associated lymphadenopathy and node-based peripheral T-cell lymphoma in elderly patients.

  16. Meckel's Diverticulum with Small Bowel Obstruction Presenting as Appendicitis in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adolfo; Corpron, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital anomaly resulting from incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. The incidence ranges from 0.3% to 2.5% with most patients being asymptomatic. In some cases, complications involving a Meckel's diverticulum may mimic other disease processes and obscure the clinical picture. Methods: This case presents an 8-year-old male with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting and an examination resembling appendicitis. Results: A CT scan revealed findings consistent with appendicitis with dilated loops of small bowel. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the appendix appeared unimpressive, and an inflamed Meckel's diverticulum was found with an adhesive band creating an internal hernia with small bowel obstruction. The diverticulum was resected after the appendix was removed. Conclusion: The incidence of an internal hernia with a Meckel's diverticulum is rare. A diseased Meckel's diverticulum can be overlooked in many cases, especially in those resembling appendicitis. It is recommended that the small bowel be assessed in all appendectomy cases for a pathological Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:22643517

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis resembling Rasmussen's encephalitis on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Sureka, Jyoti; Panwar, Sanuj

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressing but invariably fatal disease that is related to a prior measles virus infection and most commonly affects paediatric patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for determining such changes in white matter. SSPE typically demonstrates bilateral but asymmetric periventricular and subcortical white matter involvement. We herein report a rare case of unilateral white matter involvement in a 13-year-old boy with SSPE that closely simulated Rasmussen's encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an atypical presentation on MR imaging in which SSPE was a rare cause of unilateral brain parenchymal involvement in a patient with intractable seizures.

  18. Familial resemblance and shared latent familial variance in recurrent fall risk in older women

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A.; Roth, Stephen M.; Kammerer, Candace; Stone, Katie; Hillier, Teresa A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A possible familial component to fracture risk may be mediated through a genetic liability to fall recurrently. Methods: Our analysis sample included 186 female sibling-ships (n = 401) of mean age 71.9 yr (SD = 5.0). Using variance component models, we estimated residual upper-limit heritabilities in fall-risk mobility phenotypes (e.g., chair-stand time, rapid step-ups, and usual-paced walking speed) and in recurrent falls. We also estimated familial and environmental (unmeasured) correlations between pairs of fall-risk mobility phenotypes. All models were adjusted for age, height, body mass index, and medical and environmental factors. Results: Residual upper-limit heritabilities were all moderate (P < 0.05), ranging from 0.27 for usual-paced walking speed to 0.58 for recurrent falls. A strong familial correlation between usual-paced walking speed and rapid step-ups of 0.65 (P < 0.01) was identified. Familial correlations between usual-paced walking speed and chair-stand time (−0.02) and between chair-stand time and rapid step-ups (−0.27) were both nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Environmental correlations ranged from 0.35 to 0.58 (absolute values), P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions: There exists moderate familial resemblance in fall-risk mobility phenotypes and recurrent falls among older female siblings, which we expect is primarily genetic given that adult siblings live separate lives. All fall-risk mobility phenotypes may be coinfluenced at least to a small degree by shared latent familial or environmental factors; however, up to approximately one-half of the covariation between usual-paced walking speed and rapid step-ups may be due to a common set of genes. PMID:20167680

  19. Brain processing of pain in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Markl, Alexandra; Yu, Tao; Vogel, Dominik; Müller, Friedemann; Kotchoubey, Boris; Lang, Simone

    2013-01-01

    By definition, patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) do not experience pain, but it is still not completely understood how far their brain can process noxious stimuli. The few positron emission tomography studies that have examined pain processing did not yield a clear and consistent result. We performed an functional magnetic resonance imaging scan in 30 UWS patients of nontraumatic etiology and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants (HC). In a block design, noxious electrical stimuli were presented at the patients' left index finger, alternating with a resting baseline condition. Sixteen of the UWS patients (53%) showed neural activation in at least one subsystem of the pain-processing network. More specifically, 15 UWS patients (50%) showed responses in the sensory-discriminative pain network, 30% in the affective pain network. The data indicate that some patients completely fulfilling the clinical UWS criteria have the neural substrates of noxious stimulation processing, which resemble that in control individuals. We therefore suppose that at least some of these patients can experience pain. PMID:23533065

  20. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state.

    PubMed

    Vareka, Tomas; Vecka, Marek; Jirak, Roman; Tvrzicka, Eva; Macasek, Jaroslav; Zak, Ales; Zeman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance (IR), connected with altered fatty acid (FA) composition, namely with decreased proportion of polyunsaturated FA could participate in these associations. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of FA in plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as indices of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the patients with depressive disorder. Parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis, concentrations of FA in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and conjugated dienes in LDL were investigated in a group of 47 patients (9M/38F) with depression and compared with 47 control persons (16M/31F). Delta-9 desaturase (D9D) and D6D desaturase were estimated as product to precursor fatty acid ratios. In depressive patients increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid and total monounsaturated FA with decreased proportion of total polyunsaturated FA n-6 (PUFA n-6) (all p<0.05) in CE were found, while in PC increased proportion of saturated FA was observed (p<0.05). Moreover, index of D6D activity was significantly increased in PC and CE (p<0.05). Concomitantly, in depressive patients higher levels of plasma triacylglycerols (p<0.05), conjugated dienes in LDL (p<0.001) and HOMA index of IR (p<0.05) were found. Esterified FA composition of depressive patients revealed changes, similar to those, usually observed in insulin resistance. Dysregulation of FA could participate in the pathogenesis of depression and be associated with an increased risk of CVD and DM2.

  1. Tokenism in patient engagement.

    PubMed

    Hahn, David L; Hoffmann, Amanda E; Felzien, Maret; LeMaster, Joseph W; Xu, Jinping; Fagnan, Lyle J

    2017-06-01

    Patient engagement throughout research is a way to generate more relevant patient-important research questions, methods and results with the ultimate aim of facilitating translation of research into practice. Tokenism is defined as the practice of making perfunctory or symbolic efforts to engage communities or patients. We wanted to explore how tokenism might influence engaging patients in research to help researchers work towards more genuine engagement. The Community Clinician Advisory Group and Patient and Clinician Engagement program held a workshop at the 2015 North American Primary Care Research Group meeting titled 'How Do We Move beyond Tokenism in Patient Engagement?' Patients, clinicians and academic researchers contributed examples of genuine and token engagement characteristics based on personal experience and knowledge. Data were iteratively collated and categorized into domains and items. Examples of genuine and token engagement were categorized into three domains: Methods/Structure of engagement, Intent and Relationship building. Members with experience in patient-engaged research projects felt that longitudinal engagement was a key element to effectively translating research into local community and practice. The group (i) highly valued genuine intent and relationship building as elements to combat tokenism; (ii) noted that early genuine attempts at engagement may superficially resemble tokenism as researchers build enduring and trusting relationships with patient/community partners and (iii) emphasized the importance of seeking and utilizing patient experiences throughout research. These observations may contribute to more formal methods to help researchers (and reviewers) evaluate where engagement processes sit along the 'genuine-token' continuum. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Creatine kinase as an indicator of sperm quality and maturity in men with oligospermia.

    PubMed

    Hallak, J; Sharma, R K; Pasqualotto, F F; Ranganathan, P; Thomas, A J; Agarwal, A

    2001-09-01

    To determine the differences among the creatine kinase (CK) levels in the spermatozoa of subfertile men with mild, moderate, or severe oligospermia and to examine the differences in CK activity between infertile patients with various clinical diagnoses and a group of normal healthy donors (control). CK is a marker of sperm maturity that correlates with the sperm fertilizing capacity. Elevated levels are associated with an increased rate of functional abnormalities and increased cytoplasmic retention. We compared the CK levels in 51 oligospermic men who could not initiate a pregnancy. Patients were categorized according to their degree of oligospermia as defined by the total sperm count: mild (greater than 10 to 40 x 10(6); n = 30), moderate (5 to 10 x 10(6); n = 11), and severe (less than 5 x 10(6); n = 10). These patients were further classified according to their diagnosis (ie, varicocele, n = 24; unexplained infertility, n = 17; vasectomy reversal, n = 9; and unknown diagnosis, n = 1). A separate group consisting of 25 healthy donors was included as a control group. A computer-assisted semen analyzer assessed the sperm characteristics, and the CK levels were measured using a CK test kit after the enzyme was extracted with Triton-X. The CK levels were significantly higher in the sperm of the severely oligospermic group (8.8 +/- 6.5 IU/10(8) sperm) than in the moderate (0.50 +/- 0.19 IU/10(8) sperm) and mild (0.49 +/- 0.15 IU/10(8) sperm) groups (P <0.0001). The mean CK level in the severely oligospermic group was 18-fold higher than that in the moderate (P = 0.03) and mild (P <0.001) groups. The CK levels were significantly higher in all three infertile groups compared with the donor group (0.06 +/- 0.01 IU/10(8) sperm). Patients with varicocele had the highest CK level (3.42 +/- 2.56 IU/10(8) sperm) compared with patients in the vasectomy reversal group (1.73 +/- 0.98 IU/10(8) sperm) and the idiopathic infertility group (0.26 +/- 0.08 IU/10(8) sperm). Elevated

  3. Invasive Infection with Fusarium chlamydosporum in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Brahm H.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Liu, Johnson M.; Wilson, Jon D.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first case of invasive disease caused by Fusarium chlamydosporum. The patient had aplastic anemia with prolonged neutropenia and was treated with immunosuppressive therapy. While she was receiving empirical amphotericin B, a dark crusted lesion developed on her nasal turbinate. Histologic analysis revealed invasive hyaline hyphae and some darkly pigmented structures that resembled conidia of dematiaceous molds. Only after the mold was grown in culture were characteristic colonial morphology, phialides, conidia, and chlamydospores evident, thus permitting the identification of F. chlamydosporum. This case illustrates the ever-increasing spectrum of pathogenic Fusarium spp. in immunocompromised patients and emphasizes the potential pitfalls in histologic diagnosis, which may have important treatment implications. PMID:9620419

  4. Extending the honey bee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, M; Cardoen, D; Formesyn, E M; Brunain, M; Van Driessche, G; Blank, S; Spillner, E; Verleyen, P; Wenseleers, T; Schoofs, L; Devreese, B; de Graaf, D C

    2013-04-01

    Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  5. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2009-01-16

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  6. SeizAlert could give patients 4.5 hour warning of seizure

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Lee Hively and Kara Kruse

    2017-12-09

    One percent of Americans, 3 million people, suffer from epilepsy. And their lives are about to be dramatically changed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For 15 years, Dr. Lee Hively has been working on "SeizAlert", a seizure-detecting device that resembles a common PDA. "It allows us to analyze scalp brain waves and give us up to 4.5 hours' forewarning of that event," he said. With the help of partner Kara Kruse, he's now able to help patients predict the previously unpredictable.

  7. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Generation of Patient-Specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Sendai Reprogramming Vectors.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Segovia, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) technology has changed preclinical research since their generation was described by Shinya Yamanaka in 2006. iPSCs are derived from somatic cells after being reprogrammed back to an embryonic state by specific combination of reprogramming factors. These reprogrammed cells resemble all the characteristic of embryonic stem cells (ESC). The reprogramming technology is even more valuable to research diseases biology and treatment by opening gene and cell therapies in own patient's iPSC. Patient-specific iPSC can be generated from a large variety of patient cells by any of the myriad of reprogramming platforms described. Here, we describe the generation of patient-specific iPSC from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Sendai Reprogramming vectors.

  9. Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina

    2014-08-15

    Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum amyloid beta peptides in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented controls as detected by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; van Campen, Jos P C M; Tulner, Linda R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2008-09-01

    By using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation- time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) an amyloid beta (Abeta) profile was shown in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with dementia. To investigate the Abeta-profile in serum with SELDI-TOF MS, to evaluate if this profile resembles CSF profiles and to investigate the correlation between intensity of Abeta-peptide-peaks in serum and clinical, demographical and genetic variables. Duplicate profiling of Abeta by an SELDI-TOF MS immunocapture assay was performed in 106 patients, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the intensities of four selected Abeta peaks as dependent variables in relation to the independent clinical, demographic or genetic variables. Abeta37, Abeta38 and Abeta40 were found among additional unidentified Abeta peptides, with the most pronounced Abeta peak at a molecular mass of 7752. This profile partly resembled the CSF profile. The clinical diagnosis was not a predictive independent variable, however ABCB1 genotypes C1236T, G2677T/A, age and creatinine level showed to be related to Abeta peak intensities in multivariate analyses. We found an Abeta profile in serum that partly resembled the CSF profile in demented patients. Age, creatinine levels, presence of the APOE epsilon4 allele and ABCB1 genotypes (C1236T and G2677T/A) were correlated with the Abeta serum profile. The role of P-gp as an Abeta transporter and the role of ABCB1 genotypes deserves further research. The investigated serum Abeta profile is probably not useful in the diagnosis of dementia.

  11. Supporting Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer during ixabepilone therapy.

    PubMed

    Bourdeanu, Laura; Wong, Siu-Fun

    2010-05-01

    Ixabepilone is currently FDA-approved in metastatic breast cancer, and most patients in the registrational trials were Caucasian. Studies in Asian populations receiving other cytotoxic agents have revealed differential pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. As such, clinicians should understand the possible contributions of Asian ethnicity and culture to the clinical profile of ixabepilone. Studies in Asian patients receiving other chemotherapeutics reported altered toxicity profiles for myelosuppression, neurotoxicity and gastrointestinal symptoms. Encouragingly, the limited clinical data in Asian patients receiving ixabepilone suggest that efficacy and toxicity in these women resemble those reported in the ixabepilone registrational trials. The reader will better understand how Asian genetics and culture may influence treatment outcomes and patient attitudes toward therapy and interaction with caregivers. Management of ixabepilone-related adverse events is also discussed with an emphasis on special considerations for Asian patients. Awareness of possible altered drug response in Asian patients will aid clinicians in monitoring for toxicity, recognizing the need for dose modification and educating patients. Sensitivity to cultural aspects that are unique to Asians may improve adherence, reporting of adverse events and trust among Asian patients receiving ixabepilone.

  12. Designing and Validation of One-Step T-ARMS-PCR for Genotyping the eNOS rs1799983 SNP

    PubMed Central

    Heidar, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transversion of G to T (G894T) in human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene has profound effects such as male infertility, recurrent miscarriage, multiple sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Development of a new Multiplex Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System - Polymerase Chain Reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) for detection of rs1799983 (G894T) in the human eNOS was sought. Materials and Methods: A T-ARMS-PCR for rs1799983 polymorphism in a single-step PCR was carried out, and the results were confirmed by PCR-RFLP technique in 82 infertile men with varicocele. Results: The results showed that GG (varicocele infertile men), GT and TT genotypes appear to be 53.65%, 34.14%, and 12.19%, respectively. Full accordance between PCR-RFLP and T-ARMS-PCR methods for genotyping of rs1799983 polymorphism was found. Conclusions: This is the first work that describes a rapid, relatively cheap, high throughput detection of G894T polymorphism in eNOS that can be used in large scale clinical studies. PMID:29845071

  13. Designing and Validation of One-Step T-ARMS-PCR for Genotyping the eNOS rs1799983 SNP.

    PubMed

    Heidar, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transversion of G to T (G894T) in human endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS ) gene has profound effects such as male infertility, recurrent miscarriage, multiple sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Development of a new Multiplex Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System - Polymerase Chain Reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) for detection of rs1799983 (G894T) in the human eNOS was sought. Materials and Methods: A T-ARMS-PCR for rs1799983 polymorphism in a single-step PCR was carried out, and the results were confirmed by PCR-RFLP technique in 82 infertile men with varicocele. Results: The results showed that GG (varicocele infertile men), GT and TT genotypes appear to be 53.65%, 34.14%, and 12.19%, respectively. Full accordance between PCR-RFLP and T-ARMS-PCR methods for genotyping of rs1799983 polymorphism was found. Conclusions: This is the first work that describes a rapid, relatively cheap, high throughput detection of G894T polymorphism in eNOS that can be used in large scale clinical studies.

  14. The new and improved learning community at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine resembles that at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rosalyn W; Barker, Allison R; Shochet, Robert B; Wright, Scott M

    2007-05-01

    In July 2005, a learning community was created at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) to foster camaraderie, networking, advising, mentoring, professionalism, clinical skills, and scholarship--The Colleges. The cultural and structural changes that emerged with the creation of this program have resulted in JHUSOM bearing a resemblance to J. K. Rowling's fictional Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. This manuscript will describe the similarities between these two revered schools, and highlight the innovations and improvements made to JHUSOM's learning environment. The intense, stressful, and lengthy professional training required to achieve competency in the practice of medicine and in the practice of witchcraft (albeit fictional) have meaningful parallels. The supportive learning environment at these two schools should afford the next generation of graduates to have an even more enriching experience than those who have come before them.

  15. Establishment of an oral infection model resembling the periodontal pocket in a perfusion bioreactor system

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Akgül, Baki; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal infection involves a complex interplay between oral biofilms, gingival tissues and cells of the immune system in a dynamic microenvironment. A humanized in vitro model that reduces the need for experimental animal models, while recapitulating key biological events in a periodontal pocket, would constitute a technical advancement in the study of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to use a dynamic perfusion bioreactor in order to develop a gingival epithelial-fibroblast-monocyte organotypic co-culture on collagen sponges. An 11 species subgingival biofilm was used to challenge the generated tissue in the bioreactor for a period of 24 h. The histological and scanning electron microscopy analysis displayed an epithelial-like layer on the surface of the collagen sponge, supported by the underlying ingrowth of gingival fibroblasts, while monocytic cells were also found within the sponge mass. Bacterial quantification of the biofilm showed that in the presence of the organotypic tissue, the growth of selected biofilm species, especially Campylobacter rectus, Actinomyces oris, Streptococcus anginosus, Veillonella dispar, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, was suppressed, indicating a potential antimicrobial effect by the tissue. Multiplex immunoassay analysis of cytokine secretion showed that interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-2, IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in cell culture supernatants were significantly up-regulated in presence of the biofilm, indicating a positive inflammatory response of the organotypic tissue to the biofilm challenge. In conclusion, this novel host-biofilm interaction organotypic model might resemble the periodontal pocket and have an important impact on the study of periodontal infections, by minimizing the need for the use of experimental animal models. PMID:25587671

  16. Use of hydrodynamic forces to engineer cartilaginous tissues resembling the non-uniform structure and function of meniscus.

    PubMed

    Marsano, Anna; Wendt, David; Raiteri, Roberto; Gottardi, Riccardo; Stolz, Martin; Wirz, Dieter; Daniels, Alma U; Salter, Donald; Jakob, Marcel; Quinn, Thomas M; Martin, Ivan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that differences in the local composition of bi-zonal fibrocartilaginous tissues result in different local biomechanical properties in compression and tension. Bovine articular chondrocytes were loaded into hyaluronan-based meshes (HYAFF-11) and cultured for 4 weeks in mixed flask, a rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS), or statically. Resulting tissues were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, by scanning electron microscopy and mechanically in different regions. Local mechanical analyses in compression and tension were performed by indentation-type scanning force microscopy and by tensile tests on punched out concentric rings, respectively. Tissues cultured in mixed flask or RCCS displayed an outer region positively stained for versican and type I collagen, and an inner region positively stained for glycosaminoglycans and types I and II collagen. The outer fibrocartilaginous capsule included bundles (up to 2 microm diameter) of collagen fibers and was stiffer in tension (up to 3.6-fold higher elastic modulus), whereas the inner region was stiffer in compression (up to 3.8-fold higher elastic modulus). Instead, molecule distribution and mechanical properties were similar in the outer and inner regions of statically grown tissues. In conclusion, exposure of articular chondrocyte-based constructs to hydrodynamic flow generated tissues with locally different composition and mechanical properties, resembling some aspects of the complex structure and function of the outer and inner zones of native meniscus.

  17. Mutations in ORC1, encoding the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Louise S; Walker, Sarah; Klingseisen, Anna; Stiff, Tom; Leitch, Andrea; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Martin, Carol-Anne; Yeyati, Patricia; Al Sanna, Nouriya; Bober, Michael; Johnson, Diana; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A

    2011-02-27

    Studies into disorders of extreme growth failure (for example, Seckel syndrome and Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II) have implicated fundamental cellular processes of DNA damage response signaling and centrosome function in the regulation of human growth. Here we report that mutations in ORC1, encoding a subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome. We establish that these mutations disrupt known ORC1 functions including pre-replicative complex formation and origin activation. ORC1 deficiency perturbs S-phase entry and S-phase progression. Additionally, we show that Orc1 depletion in zebrafish is sufficient to markedly reduce body size during rapid embryonic growth. Our data suggest a model in which ORC1 mutations impair replication licensing, slowing cell cycle progression and consequently impeding growth during development, particularly at times of rapid proliferation. These findings establish a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of microcephalic dwarfism and show a surprising but important developmental impact of impaired origin licensing.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis resembling Rasmussen’s encephalitis on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Sureka, Jyoti; Panwar, Sanuj

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressing but invariably fatal disease that is related to a prior measles virus infection and most commonly affects paediatric patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for determining such changes in white matter. SSPE typically demonstrates bilateral but asymmetric periventricular and subcortical white matter involvement. We herein report a rare case of unilateral white matter involvement in a 13-year-old boy with SSPE that closely simulated Rasmussen’s encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an atypical presentation on MR imaging in which SSPE was a rare cause of unilateral brain parenchymal involvement in a patient with intractable seizures. PMID:26451061

  19. Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum (PSTCC) diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephanie; Goltz, Jan P; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Kunz, Andreas S; Bley, Thorsten A; Klein, Detlef; Petritsch, Bernhard

    2014-12-17

    Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum (PSTCC) is a rare disease predominantly occurring in young men. Cardinal symptoms are pain and perineal swelling. Although several risk factors are described in the literature, the exact etiology of penile thrombosis remains unclear in most cases. MRI or ultrasound (US) is usually used for diagnosing this condition. We report a case of penile thrombosis after left-sided varicocele ligature in a young patient. The diagnosis was established using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and was confirmed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI). Successful conservative treatment consisted of systemic anticoagulation using low molecular weight heparin and acetylsalicylic acid. PSTCC is a rare condition in young men and appears with massive pain and perineal swelling. In case of suspected PSTCC utilization of CEUS may be of diagnostic benefit.

  20. Crystal structure of the YGR205w protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: close structural resemblance to E. coli pantothenate kinase.

    PubMed

    Li de La Sierra-Gallay, Ines; Collinet, Bruno; Graille, Marc; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Liger, Dominique; Minard, Philippe; Blondeau, Karine; Henckes, Gilles; Aufrère, Robert; Leulliot, Nicolas; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Sorel, Isabelle; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Poupon, Anne; Janin, Joël; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2004-03-01

    The protein product of the YGR205w gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was targeted as part of our yeast structural genomics project. YGR205w codes for a small (290 amino acids) protein with unknown structure and function. The only recognizable sequence feature is the presence of a Walker A motif (P loop) indicating a possible nucleotide binding/converting function. We determined the three-dimensional crystal structure of Se-methionine substituted protein using multiple anomalous diffraction. The structure revealed a well known mononucleotide fold and strong resemblance to the structure of small metabolite phosphorylating enzymes such as pantothenate and phosphoribulo kinase. Biochemical experiments show that YGR205w binds specifically ATP and, less tightly, ADP. The structure also revealed the presence of two bound sulphate ions, occupying opposite niches in a canyon that corresponds to the active site of the protein. One sulphate is bound to the P-loop in a position that corresponds to the position of beta-phosphate in mononucleotide protein ATP complex, suggesting the protein is indeed a kinase. The nature of the phosphate accepting substrate remains to be determined. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Dermoscopic Clues for Diagnosing Melanomas That Resemble Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Sonia; Aguilera, Paula; Scalvenzi, Massimiliano; Longo, Caterina; Barreiro, Alicia; Broganelli, Paolo; Cavicchini, Stefano; Llambrich, Alex; Zaballos, Pedro; Thomas, Luc; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Zalaudek, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Importance Melanomas that clinically mimic seborrheic keratosis (SK) can delay diagnosis and adequate treatment. However, little is known about the value of dermoscopy in recognizing these difficult-to-diagnose melanomas. Objective To describe the dermoscopic features of SK-like melanomas to understand their clinical morphology. Design, Setting, and Participants This observational retrospective study used 134 clinical and dermoscopic images of histopathologically proven melanomas in 134 patients treated in 9 skin cancer centers in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria. Without knowledge that the definite diagnosis for all the lesions was melanoma, 2 dermoscopy-trained observers evaluated the clinical descriptions and 48 dermoscopic features (including all melanocytic and nonmelanocytic criteria) of all 134 images and classified each dermoscopically as SK or not SK. The total dermoscopy score and the 7-point checklist score were assessed. Images of the lesions and patient data were collected from July 15, 2013, through July 31, 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures Frequencies of specific morphologic patterns of (clinically and dermoscopically) SK-like melanomas, patient demographics, and interobserver agreement of criteria were evaluated. Results Of the 134 cases collected from 72 men and 61 women, all of whom were white and who had a mean (SD) age of 55.6 (17.5) years, 110 (82.1%) revealed dermoscopic features suggestive of melanoma, including pigment network (74 [55.2%]), blue-white veil (72 [53.7%]), globules and dots (68 [50.7%]), pseudopods or streaks (47 [35.1%]), and blue-black sign (43 [32.3%]). The remaining 24 cases (17.9%) were considered likely SKs, even by dermoscopy. Overall, lesions showed a scaly and hyperkeratotic surface (45 [33.6%]), yellowish keratin (42 [31.3%]), comedo-like openings (41 [30.5%]), and milia-like cysts (30 [22.4%]). The entire sample achieved a mean (SD) total dermoscopy score of 4.7 (1.6) and a 7-point checklist score of 4.4 (2

  2. Simultaneous compression and encryption of closely resembling images: application to video sequences and polarimetric images.

    PubMed

    Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2014-09-22

    This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images.

  3. Inflammatory Monocytes Recruited to the Liver within 24 Hours after Virus-Induced Inflammation Resemble Kupffer Cells but Are Functionally Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Movita, Dowty; Biesta, Paula; Kreefft, Kim; Haagmans, Bart; Zuniga, Elina; Herschke, Florence; De Jonghe, Sandra; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Gama, Lucio; Boonstra, Andre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to a scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for viral hepatitis, little is known about the early innate immune responses in the liver. In various hepatotoxic models, both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of recruited monocytes have been described. In this study, we compared the effect of liver inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with that of a persistent virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, on early innate intrahepatic immune responses in mice. LCMV infection induces a remarkable influx of inflammatory monocytes in the liver within 24 h, accompanied by increased transcript levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in whole liver. Importantly, while a single LPS injection results in similar recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the liver, the functional properties of the infiltrating cells are dramatically different in response to LPS versus LCMV infection. In fact, intrahepatic inflammatory monocytes are skewed toward a secretory phenotype with impaired phagocytosis in LCMV-induced liver inflammation but exhibit increased endocytic capacity after LPS challenge. In contrast, F4/80high-Kupffer cells retain their steady-state endocytic functions upon LCMV infection. Strikingly, the gene expression levels of inflammatory monocytes dramatically change upon LCMV exposure and resemble those of Kupffer cells. Since inflammatory monocytes outnumber Kupffer cells 24 h after LCMV infection, it is highly likely that inflammatory monocytes contribute to the intrahepatic inflammatory response during the early phase of infection. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the early immunological events during virus-induced liver disease and point toward inflammatory monocytes as potential target cells for future treatment options in viral hepatitis. IMPORTANCE Insights into how the immune system deals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are scarce due to the lack of

  4. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  5. Holland's Theory Applied to Medical Specialty Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that medical specialties classified as technique oriented or patient oriented would be distinguished by RIASEC code, with technique-oriented specialists resembling Investigative-Realistic types and patient-oriented specialists resembling Investigative-Social types. Using longitudinal data obtained from 447…

  6. Proximal Neuropathy and Associated Skeletal Muscle Changes Resembling Denervation Atrophy in Hindlimbs of Chronic Hypoglycaemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Molck, Anne-Marie; Soeborg, Henrik; Nowak, Jette; Chapman, Melissa; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bogh, Ingrid B

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle changes. Aims of this study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible. Chronic IIH was induced by infusion of human insulin, followed by an infusion-free recovery period in some of the animals. Sciatic, plantar nerves and thigh muscle were examined histopathologically after four or eight weeks of infusion and after the recovery period. IIH resulted in high incidence of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerves and low incidence in plantar nerves indicating proximo-distal progression of the neuropathy. The neuropathy progressed in severity (sciatic nerve) and incidence (sciatic and plantar nerve) with the duration of IIH. The myopathy consisted of groups of angular atrophic myofibres which resembled histopathologic changes classically seen after denervation of skeletal muscle, and severity of the myofibre atrophy correlated with severity of axonal degeneration in sciatic nerve. Both neuropathy and myopathy were still present after four weeks of recovery, although the neuropathy was less severe. In conclusion, the results suggest that peripheral neuropathy induced by IIH progresses proximo-distally, that severity and incidence increase with duration of the hypoglycaemia and that these changes are partially reversible within four weeks. Furthermore, IIH-induced myopathy is most likely secondary to the neuropathy. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. How to Spot Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Resembling the Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome? A Brief Review of Clinical, Electrophysiological, and Genetics Features.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Kay, Claudia Suemi Kamoi; Werneck, Lineu Cesar; Horvath, Rita; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2018-06-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous genetic diseases in which neuromuscular transmission is compromised. CMS resembling the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (CMS-LEMS) are emerging as a rare group of distinct presynaptic CMS that share the same electrophysiological features. They have low compound muscular action potential amplitude that increment after brief exercise (facilitation) or high-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation. Although clinical signs similar to LEMS can be present, the main hallmark is the electrophysiological findings, which are identical to autoimmune LEMS. CMS-LEMS occurs due to deficits in acetylcholine vesicle release caused by dysfunction of different components in its pathway. To date, the genes that have been associated with CMS-LEMS are AGRN, SYT2, MUNC13-1, VAMP1, and LAMA5. Clinicians should keep in mind these newest subtypes of CMS-LEMS to achieve the correct diagnosis and therapy. We believe that CMS-LEMS must be included as an important diagnostic clue to genetic investigation in the diagnostic algorithms to CMS. We briefly review the main features of CMS-LEMS.

  8. How do online sports gambling disorder patients compare with land-based patients?

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Rodríguez, Raquel; Díaz, Noelia; Granero, Roser; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo Del; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; López-González, Hibai; Jauregui, Paula; Onaindia, Jaione; Martín-Romera, Virginia; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent technological developments have brought about notable changes in the way people gamble. The widespread use of mobile Internet devices and gambling websites has led to a significant leap in the number of people who recreationally gamble. However, for some, gambling can turn into a psychiatric disorder resembling substance addiction. At present, there is a shortage of studies examining differences between adults with gambling disorder (GD) who exclusively make sports bets online, GD patients that are non-sports Internet gamblers, and offline gamblers. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the differences between these three groups, considering sociodemographic, personality, and clinical characteristics. Methods The sample consisted of 2,743 treatment-seeking male patients from the Pathological Gambling Unit at a university hospital. All patients met DSM-5 criteria for GD. Results We found that gamblers who exclusively engaged in non-sports Internet gambling activities were younger than offline gamblers and online sports gamblers. Non-sports Internet gamblers were also more likely to have greater levels of debt compared with offline gamblers. In terms of personality characteristics, our sample displayed low levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness and high levels of novelty seeking. In addition, online sports gamblers obtained higher scores in persistence than non-sports Internet gamblers and offline gamblers. Discussion and conclusion Although differences if terms of gambling severity were not identified between groups, GD patients who exclusively bet online appear to possess distinct personality characteristics and higher debt levels compared with offline gamblers.

  9. Chaperone expression profiles correlate with distinct physiological states of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular chaperones have been shown to be important in the growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and inhibition of chaperone function by pharmacological agents has been shown to abrogate parasite growth. A recent study has demonstrated that clinical isolates of the parasite have distinct physiological states, one of which resembles environmental stress response showing up-regulation of specific molecular chaperones. Methods Chaperone networks operational in the distinct physiological clusters in clinical malaria parasites were constructed using cytoscape by utilizing their clinical expression profiles. Results Molecular chaperones show distinct profiles in the previously defined physiologically distinct states. Further, expression profiles of the chaperones from different cellular compartments correlate with specific patient clusters. While cluster 1 parasites, representing a starvation response, show up-regulation of organellar chaperones, cluster 2 parasites, which resemble active growth based on glycolysis, show up-regulation of cytoplasmic chaperones. Interestingly, cytoplasmic Hsp90 and its co-chaperones, previously implicated as drug targets in malaria, cluster in the same group. Detailed analysis of chaperone expression in the patient cluster 2 reveals up-regulation of the entire Hsp90-dependent pro-survival circuitries. In addition, cluster 2 also shows up-regulation of Plasmodium export element (PEXEL)-containing Hsp40s thought to have regulatory and host remodeling roles in the infected erythrocyte. Conclusion In all, this study demonstrates an intimate involvement of parasite-encoded chaperones, PfHsp90 in particular, in defining pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:20719001

  10. Primary Follicular Dystrophy with Scarring Dermatitis in C57BL/6 Mouse Substrains Resembles Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Taylor, Douglas; Lorch, Gwendolen; Miller, Jim; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, Beth A.; Roopenian, Derry; Sperling, Leonard; Ong, David; King, Lloyd E.; Everts, Helen

    2011-01-01

    A number of C57BL/6 (B6) substrains are commonly used by scientists for basic biomedical research. One of several B6 strain specific background diseases is focal alopecia that may resolve or progress to severe, ulcerative dermatitis. Clinical and progressive histologic changes of skin disease commonly observed in C57BL/6J and preliminary studies in other closely related substrains are presented. Lesions develop due to a primary follicular dystrophy with rupture of severely affected follicles leading to formation of secondary foreign body granulomas (trichogranulomas) in affected B6 substrains of mice. Histologically these changes resemble the human disease called central centrifugal cicatrical alopecia (CCCA). Four B6 substrains tested have a polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (Adh4) that reduces its activity and potentially affects removal of excess retinol. Using immunohistochemistry, differential expression of epithelial retinol dehydrogenase (DHRS9) was detected which may partially explain anecdotal reports of frequency differences between B6 substrains. The combination of these two defects have the potential to make high dietary vitamin A levels toxic in some B6 substrains while not affecting most other commonly used inbred strains. PMID:20861494

  11. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population. PMID:27914143

  12. Left spermatic vein retrograde sclerosis: comparison between sclerosant agent injection through a diagnostic catheter versus through an occluding balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Basile, Antonio; Failla, Giovanni; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Calogero, Aldo; Vicari, Enzo; Granata, Antonio; Mundo, Elena; Caltabiano, Giuseppe; Pizzarelli, Marco; Messina, Martina; Scavone, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Franz; Iezzi, Roberto; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the technical success between left spermatic vein (LSV) scleroembolisation achieved with the injection of sclerosant through a diagnostic catheter and through an occluding balloon (OB), in the treatment of male varicocele. From January 2012 to September 2013, we prospectively enrolled 100 patients with left varicocele and an indication for LSV scleroembolisation related to symptoms or spermiogram anomalies; patients were randomised to two groups (we wrote a list of 100 lines assigned casually with A or B and each patient was consecutively allocated to group A or B on the basis of this list). Patients in group A underwent injection of the sclerosing agent through an angiographic diagnostic catheter (free catheter technique) and patients in group B through an OB catheter (OB technique). In cases of incomplete occlusion of the LSV, the procedure was completed with coils. Total occlusion of the LSV at post-treatment phlebography during a Valsalva manoeuvre before any coil embolisation was considered a technical success. The rate of complications was also evaluated. The Fischer's test was used for statistical analysis. We evaluated a total of 90 patients because five patients for each group were not included in the statistical analysis owing to technical problems or complications. In group A we had a technical success of 75.6 versus 93.4 % in group B, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.003); in particular, we had to complete the embolisation with insertion of coils in 11 cases (24.4 %) in group A, and in three cases in group B (6.6 %). In group A, LSV rupture occurred in four cases (8 %) so the procedure was completed by sclerosant injection through the OB located distally to the lesion. These patients were not considered for evaluation. In another case, a high flow shunt towards the inferior vena cava was detected, so the patient underwent OB injection to stop the flow to the shunt, and was not included

  13. Acute ECG changes and chest pain induced by neck motion in patients with cervical hernia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Güler, N; Bilge, M; Eryonucu, B; Cirak, B

    2000-10-01

    We report two cases of acute cervical angina and ECG changes induced by anteflexion of the head. Cervical angina is defined as chest pain that resembles true cardiac angina but originates from cervical discopathy with nerve root compression. In these patients, Prinzmetal's angina, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, left ventricular aneurysm, and cardiomyopathy were excluded. After all, the patient's chest pain was reproduced by anteflexion of head, at this time, their ECGs showed nonspecific ST-T changes in the inferior and anterior leads different from the basal ECG. ECG changes returned to normal when the patient's neck moved to the neutral position. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of cervical angina associated with acute ECG changes by neck motion.

  14. Injection of celiac disease patient sera or immunoglobulins to mice reproduces a condition mimicking early developing celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Suvi; Caja, Sergio; Frias, Rafael; Laurila, Kaija; Koskinen, Outi; Niemelä, Onni; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R; Lindfors, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Typical features of celiac disease are small-bowel villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and inflammation which develop gradually concomitant with ingestion of gluten. In addition, patients have anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2) autoantibodies in their serum and tissues. The aim of this study was to establish whether celiac disease can be passively transferred to mice by serum or immunoglobulins. Serum aliquots or purified immunoglobulins (Ig) were intraperitoneally injected into Hsd:Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu mice for 8 or 27 days. As mice do not have proper IgA transport from peritoneum to blood, sera with a high content of IgG class anti-TG2 antibodies from untreated IgA-deficient celiac patients were used. Mouse sera were tested for celiac disease-specific autoantibodies, and several tissues were analyzed for autoantibody deposits targeted to TG2. Morphological assessment was made of the murine small intestinal mucosa. Injection of celiac disease patient sera or total IgG led to a significant delay in weight gain and mild diarrhea in a subset of mice. The mice injected with celiac patient sera or IgG had significantly decreased villus height crypt depth (Vh/CrD) ratios and celiac disease-specific autoantibody deposits targeted to TG2 in several tissues, including the small intestine. None of these features were observed in control mice. We conclude that administration of IgA-deficient celiac disease patient serum or total IgG induces both deterioration of the intestinal mucosa and clinical features of celiac disease in mice. The experimentally induced condition in the mice injected with patient serum or IgG resembles early developing celiac disease in humans. Celiac disease patient sera or total IgG was injected into athymic mice. A significant delay in weight gain and mild diarrhea was observed. Mice evinced significantly decreased villus height crypt depth ratios. Celiac disease-specific autoantibody deposits were present in several tissues. The condition in mice

  15. Smoking and Soldier Performance: A Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Army Medical Research June 1986 • dud uevelopment Command 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-5012 223 " 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME...the LIS Army Medical Research and Development Command.- This literature review resulted - from an unsolicited proposal submitted by Research Solutions... medical drugs .1.... % e) Varicocele incidence. ............................ 151,i’ f) Body size and weigh !5. 4’ f de .......................... g

  16. Mycosis fungoides-like lesions in a patient with diffuse cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Cotino Sánchez, Adriana; Torres-Alvarez, Bertha; Gurrola Morales, Teodoro; Méndez Martínez, Silvia; Saucedo Gárate, Mauricio; Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis acquired by traumatic inoculation or inhalation of fungal conidia. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix, which causes different clinical presentations, being the cutaneous and lymphocutaneous variants being the most frequent. The disseminated cutaneous form is a rare presentation occurring in a minority of cases in Mexico. We report an atypical case of disseminated sporotrichosis in an alcoholic and iatrogenically immunosuppressed patient, whose clinical lesions resembled tumoral-stage mycosis fungoides. Histological examination and culture revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200mg per day for 4 months with clinical resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of clinical manifestation. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Peroxisomal membrane ascorbate peroxidase is sorted to a membranous network that resembles a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, R T; Lisenbee, C S; Miernyk, J A; Trelease, R N

    1999-01-01

    The peroxisomal isoform of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a novel membrane isoform that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) and protection against toxic reactive oxygen species. The intracellular localization and sorting of peroxisomal APX were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Epitope-tagged peroxisomal APX, which was expressed transiently in tobacco BY-2 cells, localized to a reticular/circular network that resembled endoplasmic reticulum (ER; 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide-stained membranes) and to peroxisomes. The reticular network did not colocalize with other organelle marker proteins, including three ER reticuloplasmins. However, in vitro, peroxisomal APX inserted post-translationally into the ER but not into other purified organelle membranes (including peroxisomal membranes). Insertion into the ER depended on the presence of molecular chaperones and ATP. These results suggest that regions of the ER serve as a possible intermediate in the sorting pathway of peroxisomal APX. Insight into this hypothesis was obtained from in vivo experiments with brefeldin A (BFA), a toxin that blocks vesicle-mediated protein export from ER. A transiently expressed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-peroxisomal APX (CAT-pAPX) fusion protein accumulated only in the reticular/circular network in BFA-treated cells; after subsequent removal of BFA from these cells, the CAT-pAPX was distributed to preexisting peroxisomes. Thus, plant peroxisomal APX, a representative enzymatic peroxisomal membrane protein, is sorted to peroxisomes through an indirect pathway involving a preperoxisomal compartment with characteristics of a distinct subdomain of the ER, possibly a peroxisomal ER subdomain. PMID:10559442

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of patients with suspected Silver-Russell syndrome: genome-wide copy number analysis in 82 patients without imprinting defects.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takanobu; Nakamura, Akie; Fuke, Tomoko; Yamazawa, Kazuki; Sano, Shinichiro; Matsubara, Keiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Matsukura, Yoshika; Harashima, Chie; Hasegawa, Tatsuji; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Tsumura, Kumi; Kizaki, Zenro; Oka, Akira; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki; Kagami, Masayo

    2017-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal growth failure and dysmorphic features. Recently, pathogenic copy number variations (PCNVs) and imprinting defects other than hypomethylation of the H19 -differentially methylated region (DMR) and maternal uniparental disomy chromosome 7 have been reported in patients with the SRS phenotype. This study aimed to clarify the frequency and clinical features of patients with SRS phenotype caused by PCNVs. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization analysis using a catalog array for 54 patients satisfying the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system (NH-CSS) (SRS-compatible) and for 28 patients presenting with three NH-CSS items together with triangular face and/or fifth finger clinodactyly and/or brachydactyly (SRS-like) without abnormal methylation levels of 9 DMRs related to known imprinting disorders. We then investigated the clinical features of patients with PCNVs. Three of the 54 SRS-compatible patients (5.6%) and 2 of the 28 SRS-like patients (7.1%) had PCNVs. We detected 3.5 Mb deletion in 4p16.3, mosaic trisomy 18, and 3.77-4.00 Mb deletion in 19q13.11-12 in SRS-compatible patients, and 1.41-1.97 Mb deletion in 7q11.23 in both SRS-like patients. Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) were identified in two patients and moderate to severe global developmental delay was observed in four patients. Of the patients in our study, 5.6% of SRS-compatible and 7.1% of SRS-like patients had PCNVs. All PCNVs have been previously reported for genetic causes of contiguous deletion syndromes or mosaic trisomy 18. Our study suggests patients with PCNVs, who have a phenotype resembling SRS, show a high tendency towards CHDs and/or apparent developmental delay.

  19. [Is laparoscopic surgery the technique of choice in nephrectomy?].

    PubMed

    Ribó, J M; García-Aparicio, L; Julià, V; Tarrado, X; Rovira, J; Morales, L

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic is performed in adults for the treatment of benign renal diseases. It is widely accepted that laparoscopic surgery has more advantages than open surgery in many procedures such as nephrectomy, but there is no further experience in this technique. In pediatric urology laparoscopy has become an accepted approach for varicocele, non palpable testis, bladder augmentation, adrenalectomy and urinary diversion. We report our experience with 25 laparoscopic nephrectomies in children.

  20. Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

  1. Objectifying facial expressivity assessment of Parkinson's patients: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Gonzalez, Isabel; Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as "facial masking," a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed.

  2. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  3. The Hypoxic Testicle: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Juan G.; Farias, Jorge G.; Henríquez-Olavarrieta, Sebastián; Madrid, Eva; Parraga, Mario; Zepeda, Andrea B.; Moreno, Ricardo D.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex biological process occurring in the seminiferous tubules in the testis. This process represents a delicate balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In most mammals, the testicles are kept in the scrotum 2 to 7°C below body core temperature, and the spermatogenic process proceeds with a blood and oxygen supply that is fairly independent of changes in other vascular beds in the body. Despite this apparently well-controlled local environment, pathologies such as varicocele or testicular torsion and environmental exposure to low oxygen (hypoxia) can result in changes in blood flow, nutrients, and oxygen supply along with an increased local temperature that may induce adverse effects on Leydig cell function and spermatogenesis. These conditions may lead to male subfertility or infertility. Our literature analyses and our own results suggest that conditions such as germ cell apoptosis and DNA damage are common features in hypoxia and varicocele and testicular torsion. Furthermore, oxidative damage seems to be present in these conditions during the initiation stages of germ cell damage and apoptosis. Other mechanisms like membrane-bound metalloproteinases and phospholipase A2 activation could also be part of the pathophysiological consequences of testicular hypoxia. PMID:23056665

  4. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents: Does Dietary Quality Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Bogl, Leonie H; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Williams, Garrath; Michels, Nathalie; Molnár, Dénes; Page, Angie S; Pala, Valeria; Papoutsou, Stalo; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia A; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Moreno, Luis A; Lissner, Lauren; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-08-17

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2-19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent-offspring ( r = 0.11-0.33), sibling ( r = 0.21-0.43), and spouse ( r = 0.15-0.33) correlations were modest. Parent-offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy ( r = 0.33) than unhealthy ( r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54-68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23-38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62-81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38-58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children's intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to

  5. Artificial food lump from porous neoprene and the method of its use for the evaluation of adaptation patients to the dental constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A.; Urakov, A.; Kasatkin, A.; Soiher, M. G.; Kopylov, M.

    2016-04-01

    New dental product called artificial food lump is offered for dental practices. In its size and shape it is similar to the natural food bolus, which is formed in adult's mouth when chewing white bread. This innovative product resembles an inedible and non-swallowable chewing gum. Artificial lump is made of porous neoprene; it is elastic and has food flavor. It is not destroyed by chewing and has stable elasticity during chewing. Besides, artificial lump is manufactured in a way that it can be attached to the patient's clothes with a braid line. New medical device is intended to create the masticatory loading in patients' mouth in order to evaluate the quality of mounted dental restorations as well as patient's adaptation to it during the chewing process.

  6. Higher Prevalence of “Low T3 Syndrome” in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Tarasse, Rabab; Vogelaar, Emar F.; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D. A.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disease with unknown cause(s). CFS symptoms resemble a hypothyroid state, possibly secondary to chronic (low-grade) (metabolic) inflammation. We studied 98 CFS patients (21–69 years, 21 males) and 99 age- and sex-matched controls (19–65 years, 23 males). We measured parameters of thyroid function, (metabolic) inflammation, gut wall integrity and nutrients influencing thyroid function and/or inflammation. Most remarkably, CFS patients exhibited similar thyrotropin, but lower free triiodothyronine (FT3) (difference of medians 0.1%), total thyroxine (TT4) (11.9%), total triiodothyronine (TT3) (12.5%), %TT3 (4.7%), sum activity of deiodinases (14.4%), secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (14.9%), 24-h urinary iodine (27.6%), and higher % reverse T3 (rT3) (13.3%). FT3 below the reference range, consistent with the “low T3 syndrome,” was found in 16/98 CFS patients vs. 7/99 controls (OR 2.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.00–6.54). Most observations persisted in two sensitivity analyses with more stringent cutoff values for body mass index, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and WBC. We found possible evidence of (chronic) low-grade metabolic inflammation (ferritin and HDL-C). FT3, TT3, TT4, and rT3 correlated positively with hsCRP in CFS patients and all subjects. TT3 and TT4 were positively related to hsCRP in controls. Low circulating T3 and the apparent shift from T3 to rT3 may reflect more severely depressed tissue T3 levels. The present findings might be in line with recent metabolomic studies pointing at a hypometabolic state. They resemble a mild form of “non-thyroidal illness syndrome” and “low T3 syndrome” experienced by a subgroup of hypothyroid patients receiving T4 monotherapy. Our study needs confirmation and extension by others. If confirmed, trials with, e.g., T3 and iodide supplements might be indicated. PMID:29615976

  7. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  8. Acute osteomyelitis of the mandible caused by Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompromised patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rallis, George; Dais, Panayotis; Gkinis, George; Mourouzis, Constantinos; Papaioannou, Vasiliki; Mezitis, Michael

    2012-10-01

    We present the first case of acute osteomyelitis of the mandible caused by Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompromised patient. A 53-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient clinic, because of a swelling of the left submental and submandibular spaces. The patient was immunocompromised owing to medication against myasthenia gravis and type II diabetes mellitus. The patient underwent surgical debridement under local anesthesia. Histologic examination showed acute osteomyelitis and both blood and pus cultures isolated Rhodococcus equi. The patient was discharged on linezolid 600 mg orally twice a day for 6 months and remains free of the disease 2 years postoperatively. Most patients with Rhodococcus infection are immunocompromised. Infection with this organism is rare and usually causes a distinct clinical syndrome resembling pulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is frequently missed or delayed. Not only clinicians but also laboratory specialists should be aware of this organism, so as to contribute to prompt diagnosis and treatment of such infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    PubMed

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  10. Misdiagnosed crusted scabies in an AIDS patient leads to hyperinfestation.

    PubMed

    Yari, Niloofar; Malone, C Helen; Rivas, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Crusted scabies is a severe, highly contagious form of classic scabies caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis . Crusted scabies is more common in immunosuppressed populations and overcrowded environments. In this condition, the host's immune system is overwhelmed and unable to defend against the mites on the skin, resulting in hyperinfestation of the host. Diagnosis can be challenging because the condition resembles other common skin conditions, such as plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can lead to worsening of the condition. We report a case of crusted scabies that was initially misdiagnosed in a 34-year-old incarcerated man with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. The patient had a complicated but complete recovery after treatment with permethrin and ivermectin was instituted.

  11. Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

  12. Medical acupuncture in Germany: patterns of consumerism among physicians and patients.

    PubMed

    Frank, Robert; Stollberg, Gunnar

    2004-04-01

    Since the (re) emergence of heterodox medicine across the Western world, there have been numerous interpretations of this phenomenon by the social sciences. Heterodox patients were said to be active consumers holding postmodern values, while heterodox physicians were described as heretics. Medical doctors taking up heterodox medicine were criticised for acting in their own financial interests. To examine these notions, we selected the most prominent heterodox mode of treatment in the German healthcare system: acupuncture. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews with medical acupuncturists and their patients were conducted. On the physicians' side, we analyse their styles of practice. To what extent is acupuncture incorporated into biomedical models? Were there any doctors who completely converted to Chinese ideas about health and illness? The patients' activities before and during treatment are addressed. What made them choose acupuncture? How thoroughly did- and do- they collect information on heterodox treatment? The patients' perception of their relationship with their physicians and the decision-making processes during the consultations are also examined. Finally, we argue that while some modes of heterodox medicine resemble parallel forms of general practice, acupuncture tends to become a medical speciality in which physicians tailor their practice to the individual patient's (perceived) demands. From the patients' perspectives, a passive rather than active form of consumerism emerges, involving ideas on medical services that closely correspond to classical modernity.

  13. Comparison of surgical effect and postoperative patient experience between laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Zheng, Shu-Juan; Yu, Wen; Han, You-Feng; Chen, Hai; Chen, Yun; Dai, Yu-Tian

    2017-01-01

    The present meta-analysis was conducted to compare the clinical effect and patient experience of laparoendoscopic single-site varicocelectomy (LESSV) and conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy. The candidate studies were included after literature search of database Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Related information on essential data and outcome measures was extracted from the eligible studies by two independent authors, and a meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Subgroup analyses were conducted by study design (RCT and non-RCT). The odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the outcome measures. Seven articles were included in our meta-analysis. The results indicated that patient who had undergone LESSV had a shorter duration of back to work (overall: SMD = −1.454, 95% CI: −2.502–−0.405, P = 0.007; non-RCT: SMD = −2.906, 95% CI: −3.796–−2.017, P = 0.000; and RCT: SMD = −0.841, 95% CI: −1.393–−0.289, P = 0.003) and less pain experience at 3 h or 6 h (SMD = −0.447, 95% CI: −0.754–−0.139, P = 0.004), day 1 (SMD = −0.477, 95% CI: −0.905–−0.05, P = 0.029), and day 2 (SMD = −0.612, 95% CI: −1.099–−0.125, P = 0.014) postoperatively based on RCT studies. However, the meta-analyses based on operation time, clinical effect (improvement of semen quality and scrotal pain relief), and complications (hydrocele and recurrence) yielded nonsignificant results. In conclusion, LESSV had a rapid recovery and less pain experience over conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two varicocelectomy techniques in terms of the clinical effect and the incidence of hydrocele and varicocele recurrence. More high-quality studies are warranted for a comprehensive conclusion. PMID:27212128

  14. Successful use of alternate waste nitrogen agents and hemodialysis in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berry, G T; Bridges, N D; Nathanson, K L; Kaplan, P; Clancy, R R; Lichtenstein, G R; Spray, T L

    1999-04-01

    Lethal hyperammonemic coma has been reported in 2 adults after lung transplantation. It was associated with a massive elevation of brain glutamine levels, while plasma glutamine levels were normal or only slightly elevated. In liver tissue, glutamine synthetase activity was markedly reduced, and the histologic findings resembled those of Reye syndrome. The adequacy of therapy commonly used for inherited disorders of the urea cycle has not been adequately evaluated in patients with this form of secondary hyperammonemia. To determine whether hemodialysis, in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy, would be efficacious in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after solid-organ transplantation. Case report. A children's hospital. A 41-year-old woman with congenital heart disease developed a hyperammonemic coma with brain edema 19 days after undergoing a combined heart and lung transplantation. Ammonium was measured in plasma. Amino acids were quantitated in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by column chromatography. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed by measuring plasma ammonium levels and intracranial pressure and performing sequential neurological examinations. The patient had the anomalous combination of increased cerebrospinal fluid and decreased plasma glutamine levels. To our knowledge, she is the first patient with this complication after solid-organ transplantation to survive after combined therapy with sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, arginine hydrochloride, and hemodialysis. Complications of the acute coma included focal motor seizures, which were controlled with carbamazepine, and difficulty with short-term memory. The aggressive use of hemodialysis in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy may allow survival in patients after solid-organ transplantation. An acute acquired derangement in extra-central nervous system glutamine

  15. Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Maxilla Resembling a Persistent Endodontic Lesion.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Hossein; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sharifi, Sanaz; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from pain in the anterior maxillary region, presented to the clinic. Examination revealed a draining sinus tract in the buccal vestibule of the maxilla in the left anterior segment and expansion in the middle of palate. On conventional radiographic examination the lesion was initially assumed to be a periapical problem related to the incisors but subsequently it was diagnosed to be a bisphosphonate osteonecrosis. Acquiring a comprehensive medical history from the patients, conducting the clinical vitality tests and most importantly being familiar with the non-odontogenic lesions that can be side effects of specific medications are important requirements for reaching a correct diagnosis.

  16. Auditory and behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to impulsive sounds resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions.

    PubMed

    Finneran, J J; Schlundt, C E; Carder, D A; Clark, J A; Young, J A; Gaspin, J B; Ridgway, S H

    2000-07-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure masked underwater hearing thresholds in two bottlenose dolphins and one beluga whale before and after exposure to impulsive underwater sounds with waveforms resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions. An array of piezoelectric transducers was used to generate impulsive sounds with waveforms approximating those predicted from 5 or 500 kg HBX-1 charges at ranges from 1.5 to 55.6 km. At the conclusion of the study, no temporary shifts in masked-hearing thresholds (MTTSs), defined as a 6-dB or larger increase in threshold over pre-exposure levels, had been observed at the highest impulse level generated (500 kg at 1.7 km, peak pressure 70 kPa); however, disruptions of the animals' trained behaviors began to occur at exposures corresponding to 5 kg at 9.3 km and 5 kg at 1.5 km for the dolphins and 500 kg at 1.9 km for the beluga whale. These data are the first direct information regarding the effects of distant underwater explosion signatures on the hearing abilities of odontocetes.

  17. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings in typhoid fever: a comparison between typhoid patients and those with non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Adachi, Yasuo; Iwata, Yoshinori; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Shigemitu, Kazuaki; Todoroki, Miwako; Ide, Mituru

    2012-03-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in many developing countries and its clinical features are similar to other types of bacterial enterocolitis. Definitive diagnosis by blood culture requires several days and is often unfeasible to perform in developing countries. More efficient and rapid diagnostic methods for typhoid are needed. We compared the pathological changes in the bowel and adjacent tissues of patients having typhoid fever with those having bacterial enterocolitis using ultrasonography. A characteristic of patients with non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was mural thickening of the terminal ileum; only mild mural swelling or no swelling was observed in patients with typhoid fever. Mesenteric lymph nodes in patients with typhoid fever were significantly more enlarged compared to patients with other types of bacterial enterocolitis. Our findings suggest typhoid fever is not fundamentally an enteric disease but rather resembles mesenteric lymphadenopathy and ultrasound is a promising modality for diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries.

  18. Epilepsy in fragile-X-syndrome mimicking panayiotopoulos syndrome: Description of three patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Casellato, Susanna; Fabbro, Franco; Negrin, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Fragile-X-syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10-20% of individuals with Fragile-X-syndrome. A frequent seizure/electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern resembles that of benign rolandic epilepsy. We describe the clinical features, EEG findings and evolution in three patients affected by Fragile-X-syndrome and epilepsy mimicking Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Age at seizure onset was between 4 and about 7 years. Seizures pattern comprised a constellation of autonomic symptoms with unilateral deviation of the eyes and ictal syncope. Duration of the seizures could be brief or lengthy. Interictal EEGs revealed functional multifocal abnormalities. The evolution was benign in all patients with seizures remission before the age of 14. This observation expands the spectrum of benign epileptic phenotypes present in Fragile-X-syndrome and may be quite helpful in guiding anticonvulsant management and counseling families as to expectations regarding seizure remission. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of three-dimensional brain arteriovenous malformation model for patient communication and young neurosurgeon education.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mengqi; Chen, Guangzhong; Qin, Kun; Ding, Xiaowen; Zhou, Dong; Peng, Chao; Zeng, Shaojian; Deng, Xianming

    2018-01-15

    Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer. The size and morphology of the models were compared to brain digital subtraction arteriography of the same patients. 3D brain AVM models were used for preoperative patient communication and young neurosurgeon education. Two brain AVM models were successfully produced. By neurosurgeons' evaluation, the printed models have high fidelity with the actual brain AVM structures of the patients. The patient responded positively toward the brain AVM model specific to himself. Twenty surgical residents from residency programs tested the brain AVM models and provided positive feedback on their usefulness as educational tool and resemblance to real brain AVM structures. Patient-specific 3D printed models of brain AVM can be constructed with high fidelity. 3D printed brain AVM models are proved to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation, surgical planning and resident training.

  20. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How to grow a kidney: patient-specific kidney organoids come of age.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2017-01-01

    The notion of regrowing a patient's kidney in a dish has fascinated researchers for decades and has spurred visions of revolutionary clinical applications. Recently, this option has come closer to reality. Key technologies have been developed to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and to edit their genome. Several laboratories have devised protocols to differentiate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells into kidney cells or into in vitro organoids that resemble the kidney with respect to cell types, tissue architecture and disease pathology. This was possible because of rapidly expanding knowledge regarding the cellular and molecular basis of embryonic kidney development. Generating kidney cells or organoids from patient-specific stem cells may prove to be clinically useful in several ways. First, patient-specific kidney cells or organoids could be used to predict an individual's response to stressors, toxins or medications and thereby develop personalized treatment decisions. Second, patient-specific stem cells harbour the individual's genetic defects. This may potentially enable genetic rescue attempts to establish the significance of a genetic defect in a stem cell-derived organoid or it may allow testing of patient-specific targeted therapies for kidney disease in vitro. From a tissue engineering perspective, patient-specific kidney organoids might provide a key advance towards engineering immunocompatible transplantable kidneys. This review article summarizes recent developments in the field and discusses its current limitations and future perspectives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic nicotine in hearts with healed ventricular myocardial infarction promotes atrial flutter that resembles typical human atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Mizuho; Qu, Zhilin; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Pak, Hui; Mandel, William J; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S

    2005-06-01

    The potential of chronic nicotine exposure for atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) in hearts with and without chronic myocardial infarction (MI) remains poorly explored. MI was created in dogs by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and dogs were administered nicotine (5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) sc) for 1 mo using osmotic minipumps. High-resolution epicardial (1,792 bipolar electrodes) and endocardial Halo catheters were used to map activation during induced atrial rhythms. Nicotine promoted inducible sustained AFL at a mean cycle length of 134 +/- 10 ms in all MI dogs (n = 6) requiring pacing and electrical shocks for termination. No AFL could be induced in MI dogs (n = 6), control (non-MI) dogs (n = 3) not exposed to nicotine, and dogs with no MI and exposed to nicotine (n = 3). Activation maps during AFL showed a single reentrant wavefront in the right atrium that rotated either clockwise (60%) or counterclockwise (40%) around the crista terminalis and through the isthmus. Ablation of the isthmus prevented the induction of AFL. Nicotine caused a significant (P < 0.01) but highly heterogeneous increase in atrial interstitial fibrosis (2- to 10-fold increase in left and right atria, respectively) in the MI group but only a 2-fold increase in the right atrium in the non-MI group. Nicotine also flattened (P < 0.05) the slope of the epicardial monophasic action potential duration (electrical restitution) curve of both atria in the MI but not in non-MI dogs. Two-dimensional simulation in an excitable matrix containing an isthmus and nicotine's restitutional and reduced gap junctional coupling (fibrosis) parameters replicated the experiments. Chronic nicotine in hearts with MI promotes AFL that closely resembles typical human AFL. Increased atrial interstitial fibrosis and flattened electrical restitution are important substrates for the AFL.

  3. Altered synaptic phospholipid signaling in PRG-1 deficient mice induces exploratory behavior and motor hyperactivity resembling psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Patrick; Petzold, Sandra; Sommer, Angela; Nitsch, Robert; Schwegler, Herbert; Vogt, Johannes; Roskoden, Thomas

    2018-01-15

    Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knockout (PRG-1 -/- ) mice and PRG-1/LPA 2 -receptor double knockout (PRG-1 -/- /LPA 2 -/- ) mice in two open field settings of different size and assessing motor behavior in the Rota Rod test. PRG-1 -/- mice displayed significantly longer path lengths and higher running speed in both open field conditions. In addition, PRG-1 -/- mice spent significantly longer time in the larger open field and displayed rearing and self-grooming behavior. Furthermore PRG-1 -/- mice displayed stereotypical behavior resembling phenotypes of psychiatric disorders in the smaller sized open field arena. Altogether, this behavior is similar to the stereotypical behavior observed in animal models for psychiatric disease of autistic spectrum disorders which reflects a disrupted balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. These differences indicate an altered excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal circuits in PRG-1 -/- mice as recently shown in the somatosensory cortex [38]. In contrast, PRG-1 -/- /LPA 2 -/- did not show significant changes in behavior in the open field suggesting that these specific alterations were abolished when the LPA 2 -receptor was lacking. Our findings indicate that PRG-1 deficiency led to over-excitability caused by an altered LPA/LPA 2 -R signaling inducing a behavioral phenotype typically observed in animal models for psychiatric disorders. Copyright

  4. An ENU mutagenesis-derived mouse model with a dominant Jak1 mutation resembling phenotypes of systemic autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Janas, Eva; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan A; Rathkolb, Birgit; Adler, Thure; Cohrs, Christian; Hans, Wolfgang; Diener, Susanne; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Busch, Dirk H; Höfler, Heinz; Ollert, Markus; Strom, Tim M; Wolf, Eckhard; Neff, Frauke; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Within the Munich, Germany, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mouse mutagenesis program, we isolated a dominant Jak1 mouse model resembling phenotypic characteristics related to autoimmune disease. Chromosomal sequencing revealed a new Jak1 (p.Ser645Pro) point mutation at the conserved serine of the pseudokinase domain, corresponding to a somatic human mutation (p.Ser646Phe) inducing a constitutive activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. Morphologically, all Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed a progressive structural deterioration of ears starting at the age of 4 months, with mononuclear cell infiltration into the dermis. Female mutant mice, in particular, developed severe skin lesions in the neck from 7 months of age. The IHC analysis of these lesions showed an activation of Stat3 downstream to Jak1(S645P) and elevated tissue levels of IL-6. Histopathological analysis of liver revealed a nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In the spleen, the number of Russell bodies was doubled, correlating with significant increased levels of all immunoglobulin isotypes and anti-DNA antibodies in serum. Older mutant mice developed thrombocytopenia and altered microcytic red blood cell counts. Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed phenotypes related to impaired bone metabolism as increased carboxy-terminal collagen cross-link-1 levels and alkaline phosphatase activities in plasma, hypophosphatemia, and strongly decreased bone morphometric values. Taken together, Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed an increased activation of the IL-6-JAK-STAT pathway leading to a systemic lupus erythematosus-like phenotype and offering a new valuable tool to study the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in disease development. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Maxilla Resembling a Persistent Endodontic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mosaferi, Hossein; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sharifi, Sanaz; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from pain in the anterior maxillary region, presented to the clinic. Examination revealed a draining sinus tract in the buccal vestibule of the maxilla in the left anterior segment and expansion in the middle of palate. On conventional radiographic examination the lesion was initially assumed to be a periapical problem related to the incisors but subsequently it was diagnosed to be a bisphosphonate osteonecrosis. Conclusion: Acquiring a comprehensive medical history from the patients, conducting the clinical vitality tests and most importantly being familiar with the non-odontogenic lesions that can be side effects of specific medications are important requirements for reaching a correct diagnosis. PMID:26843881

  6. Gynecomastia induced by H1-antihistamine (ebastine) in a patient with idiopathic anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwa Sik; Park, Chan-Ho; Park, Young Tae; Bae, Mi Ae; Lee, Youn Im; Kang, Byung Ju; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong Joon

    2015-01-01

    H1-antihistamine is generally a well-tolerated and safe drug. However, in resemblance with all other drugs, H1-antihistamines can also prompt adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We recently encountered the very unusual ADR of H1-antihistamine-induced gynecomastia. A 21-year-old man with idiopathic anaphylaxis was treated with ebastine (Ebastel), a second-generation H1-antihistamine, for the prevention of anaphylaxis. Three months later, the patient remained well without anaphylaxis, but had newly developed gynecomastia. Because anaphylaxis recurred after the cessation of H1-antihistamine, the preventive medication was changed to omalizumab. A few months later, his gynecomastia had entirely disappeared. Physicians should be aware of this exceptional ADR of H1-antihistamine. PMID:26240797

  7. Effects of body and organ size on absorbed dose: there is no standard patient. [Radiation dose distribution in patients following radionuclide administration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the absorbed dose to organs and tissues of the human body due to the presence of a radiopharmaceutical in one or more organs is discussed. Complications are introduced by the fact that the body is not homogeneous and in many cases the organ shapes are not regular. Publications of the MIRD Committee have provided a direct means of estimating the absorbed dose (or absorbed fraction) for a number of radioisotopes. These estimates are based on Monte Carlo calculations for monoenergetic photons distributed uniformly in organs of an adult phantom. The medical physicist finds that his patientmore » does not resemble the adult phantom. In addition, the absorbed fractions for the adult are not reasonable values for the child. This paper examines how these absorbed fraction estimates apply to a nonstandard patient. (auth)« less

  8. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in an elderly female patient

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Xaver; Degen, Lukas; Muenst, Simone; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Protein loss via the gut can be caused by a number of gastrointestinal disorders, among which intestinal lymphangiectasia has been described to not only lead to a loss of proteins but also to a loss of lymphocytes, resembling secondary immunodeficiency. We are reporting on a 75-year-old female patient who came to our hospital because of a minor stroke. She had no history of serious infections. During the diagnostic work-up, we detected an apparent immunodeficiency syndrome associated with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. Trying to characterize the alterations of the immune system, we not only found hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia primarily affecting CD4+, and also CD8+ T cells, but also marked hypocomplementemia affecting levels of complement C4, C2, and C3. The loss of components of the immune system most likely was due to a chronic loss of immune cells and proteins via the intestinal lymphangiectasia, with levels of complement components following the pattern of protein electrophoresis. Thus, intestinal lymphangiectasia should not only be considered as a potential cause of secondary immune defects in an elderly patient, but can also be associated with additional hypocomplementemia. PMID:28767614

  9. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents: Does Dietary Quality Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Intemann, Timm; Michels, Nathalie; Molnár, Dénes; Page, Angie S.; Papoutsou, Stalo; Pigeot, Iris; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Moreno, Luis A.; Lissner, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent–offspring (r = 0.11–0.33), sibling (r = 0.21–0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15–0.33) correlations were modest. Parent–offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy (r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54–68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23–38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62–81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38–58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children’s intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention

  10. Functional connectivity of dissociation in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    van der Kruijs, Sylvie J M; Bodde, Nynke M G; Vaessen, Maarten J; Lazeron, Richard H C; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Hofman, Paul A M; Backes, Walter H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2012-03-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) resemble epileptic seizures, but lack epileptiform brain activity. Instead, the cause is assumed to be psychogenic. An abnormal coping strategy may be exhibited by PNES patients, as indicated by their increased tendency to dissociate. Investigation of resting-state networks may reveal altered routes of information and emotion processing in PNES patients. The authors therefore investigated whether PNES patients differ from healthy controls in their resting-state functional connectivity characteristics and whether these connections are associated with the tendency to dissociate. 11 PNES patients without psychiatric comorbidity and 12 healthy controls underwent task-related paradigms (picture-encoding and Stroop paradigms) and resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). Global cognitive performance was tested using the Raven's Matrices test and participants completed questionnaires for evaluating dissociation. Functional connectivity analysis on rsfMRI was based on seed regions extracted from task-related fMRI activation maps. The patients displayed a significantly lower cognitive performance and significantly higher dissociation scores. No significant differences were found between the picture-encoding and Stroop colour-naming activation maps between controls and patients with PNES. However, functional connectivity maps from the rsfMRI were statistically different. For PNES patients, stronger connectivity values between areas involved in emotion (insula), executive control (inferior frontal gyrus and parietal cortex) and movement (precentral sulcus) were observed, which were significantly associated with dissociation scores. The abnormal, strong functional connectivity in PNES patients provides a neurophysiological correlate for the underlying psychoform and somatoform dissociation mechanism where emotion can influence executive control, resulting in altered motor function (eg, seizure-like episodes).

  11. Cerebral microbleed detection in traumatic brain injury patients using 3D convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standvoss, K.; Crijns, T.; Goerke, L.; Janssen, D.; Kern, S.; van Niedek, T.; van Vugt, J.; Alfonso Burgos, N.; Gerritse, E. J.; Mol, J.; van de Vooren, D.; Ghafoorian, M.; van den Heuvel, T. L. A.; Manniesing, R.

    2018-02-01

    The number and location of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important to determine the severity of trauma and may hold prognostic value for patient outcome. However, manual assessment is subjective and time-consuming due to the resemblance of CMBs to blood vessels, the possible presence of imaging artifacts, and the typical heterogeneity of trauma imaging data. In this work, we present a computer aided detection system based on 3D convolutional neural networks for detecting CMBs in 3D susceptibility weighted images. Network architectures with varying depth were evaluated. Data augmentation techniques were employed to improve the networks' generalization ability and selective sampling was implemented to handle class imbalance. The predictions of the models were clustered using a connected component analysis. The system was trained on ten annotated scans and evaluated on an independent test set of eight scans. Despite this limited data set, the system reached a sensitivity of 0.87 at 16.75 false positives per scan (2.5 false positives per CMB), outperforming related work on CMB detection in TBI patients.

  12. [Development of an integrative cognitive rehabilitation program for brain injured patients in the post-acute stage].

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Ran; Seo, Wha Sook; Seo, Yeon Ok

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation program that can be easily applied to brain injured patients by family members or nurses in community or hospital settings. A Systemic literature review design was used. Thirty-three related studies were reviewed. Based on the results of the literature review, the training tasks for attention were designated to enhancing 4 hierarchical areas, i.e., focused, selective, alternating, and divided attention. On the other hand, the memory rehabilitation tasks mainly consisted of mnemonic skills, such as the association method which helps patients memorize given information by linking together common attributes, the visual imagery method, and self-instruction method. The problem solving rehabilitation program included a task of games or plays which stimulated the patients' curiosity and interest. The training tasks for problem solving were to encourage the process of deriving reasonable solutions for a problematic situation resembling real problems that the patients were faced with in their everyday life. It is expected that the cognitive rehabilitation program developed from this study could help patients having difficulty in their every day life, due to a reduced cognitive ability resulting from brain injury, to effectively adapt to every day life.

  13. Performance on a probabilistic inference task in healthy subjects receiving ketamine compared with patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Almahdi, Basil; Sultan, Pervez; Sohanpal, Imrat; Brandner, Brigitta; Collier, Tracey; Shergill, Sukhi S; Cregg, Roman; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy participants receiving ketamine would adopt a JTC response pattern resembling that of patients. The paradigmatic task used to investigate JTC has been the ‘urn’ task, where participants are shown a sequence of beads drawn from one of two ‘urns’, each containing coloured beads in different proportions. Participants make a decision when they think they know the urn from which beads are being drawn. We compared performance on the urn task between controls receiving acute ketamine or placebo with that of patients with schizophrenia and another group of controls matched to the patient group. Patients were shown to exhibit a JTC response pattern relative to their matched controls, whereas JTC was not evident in controls receiving ketamine relative to placebo. Ketamine does not appear to promote JTC in healthy controls, suggesting that ketamine does not affect probabilistic inferences. PMID:22389244

  14. An immunocompetent young patient with tuberculosis of the penis: a challenging case.

    PubMed

    Rotaru, Maria; Tăban, Sorina; Ţăroi, Mona; Pătraşcu, Virgil; Popa, Florina Ligia

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous chancre is an extremely rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. The genital area is a possible site of presentation. We present a case of a young male with a persistent balanopreputial ulceration resembling a luetic chancre with negative serology for syphilis. The diagnosis was based on the specific pathologic features and the positive intradermal reaction to tuberculin. A successful treatment was achieved by combining antituberculosis treatment and surgical approach with circumcision. After six months of antituberculosis treatment, the patient developed paradoxical inguinal lymph node enlargement, which, after surgical excision and biopsy, was not followed by a relapse of the disease and needed no further therapy. Tuberculosis should be considered a potential diagnosis in the case of a persistent genital ulcer.

  15. Endocrinological evaluation of GH deficient patient with acromegaloidism showing excessive growth.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, N; Kodama, M; Miike, T

    1992-02-01

    In this report we describe the first case of a girl with acromegaloidism in Japan. She had large and coarse facial features with acral enlargement accompanying height overgrowth; these resemble the manifestations of acromegaly and gigantism due to growth hormone (GH) overproduction. However, pituitary function studies revealed a dysfunction of her GH secretion. Moreover, markedly decreased serum somatomedin C (SM-C) levels also indicated impairment of GH secretion. Therefore, GH and SM-C cannot have been responsible for promoting somatic growth. However, serum alkaline-phosphatase (Al-P) and osteocalcin, were increased, indicating that stimulation of bone metabolism was increased without GH and SM-C effects. The patient is a typical case showing growth without GH, and these data suggest the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor that is independent of GH and SM-C.

  16. Clinical characteristics in patients with asymmetric idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Sean J; Xia, Meng; Murray, Susan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-10-01

    A group of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presents with disease affecting one lung markedly more than the other. At this time, it is unclear how this population differs from those who present with more symmetric disease. We sought to explain the characteristics of the asymmetric group and how their disease progresses. In this retrospective case-control study we accessed an interstitial lung disease (ILD) database and identified 14 asymmetric IPF cases via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring of each lung lobe's disease severity. We identified 28 symmetric IPF controls from the same database using the same methods, and compared the clinical features of each group. Patients with asymmetric disease exhibited similar demographics as those in the general IPF population; they were predominantly male (64%), elderly (69 years old), and used tobacco (57%). We found a trend toward significantly increased all-cause mortality in the case population two years following diagnosis (p = 0.089). Pulmonary function tests were significantly lower in the case group at the time of diagnosis, then both groups experienced gradual decline. We found no statistically significant differences in number of IPF exacerbations (cases 43%, controls 39%, p = 0.824) and gastro-esophageal reflux (both groups 50%). Patients with asymmetric IPF resemble patients in the general IPF population but may have a lower overall survival rate. Further systemic factors may be studied to identify reasons for disease asymmetry and clinical decline in this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. How Patients With Schizophrenia Use the Internet: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Unger, Annemarie; Amering, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet is an important source of health information for people with psychiatric conditions. Little is known about the way patients with schizophrenia use the Internet when it comes to issues related to their illness. Data on their specific needs, difficulties, and the consequences related to Internet use are lacking. Objective Our objective was to investigate the nature and subjective consequences of health-related Internet use among patients with schizophrenia. Methods In all, 26 individual semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed qualitatively in groups of 4 until theoretical saturation was achieved. Results Study results suggest that the Internet is an influential source of illness-related information for patients with schizophrenia. Many aspects of their behavior around the Internet resemble those of individuals not afflicted by mental illness. Importantly, problems specific to patients with schizophrenia were stimulus overflow, an inability to deal with the abundance of information, difficulties with concentration, lack of energy, paranoid ideas, symptom provocation, and the need to distance themselves from illness-related topics as part of the recovery process. Internet information was subjectively perceived as having the potential to significantly change patients’ attitudes toward medication and their relationships with doctors. Conclusions These findings provide insight into how individuals with schizophrenia handle illness-related Internet information. The data could contribute to the continuous development of Internet-based interventions and offer novel approaches to optimizing traditional treatment options. PMID:21169176

  18. Histological varieties of Epstein-Barr virus-related lymph node lesion resembling autoimmune disease-like clinicopathological findings in middle-aged and elderly patients: a study of six cases.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masaru; Sugiura, Isamu; Itoh, Hideaki; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Murayama, Kayoko; Motoori, Tadashi; Shimano, Shunichi; Masawa, Nobuhide; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2006-01-01

    Six cases were studied to further clarify clinicopathological findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymph node lesions showing autoimmune disease-like clinicopathological findings (EBVAID) in middle-aged and elderly patients. The patients, four males and two females, ranged in age from 53 to 74 years, with a median age of 62 years. Clinically, they were characterized by systemic lymphadenopathy, "B"symptoms, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and a transient presence of various autoantibodies, as well as an infrequent presence of atypical lymphocytosis in peripheral blood. Two cases were associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The clinical course was self-limiting. Histologically, three patterns could be delineated: pattern A, follicular hyperplasia with pronounced arborizing vasculature in the expanded paracortex (n=3); pattern B, follicular hyperplasia with pronounced interfollicular B-immunoblastic/plasma cell proliferation (n=2); and pattern C, paracortical hyperplasia containing numerous large transformed lymphocytes (n=1). In situ hybridization demonstrated a varying number of EBV-infected lymphocytes in the germinal center and in the interfollicular area. Polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that neither clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma-chain nor immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement was detected in the three cases examined. Although EBVAID appears to be rare in middle-aged and older adults, EBVAID exhibits histological variations and should be added to the differential diagnosis of various atypical or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, in particular autoimmune-disease-associated lymphadenopathy and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a hyperplastic germinal center in middle-aged and elderly patients.

  19. Video-EEG study of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: differential characteristics in patients with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mari, Francesco; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Vanacore, Nicola; Fattouch, Jinane; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Egeo, Gabriella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Manfredi, Mario; Prencipe, Massimiliano; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are episodes that may resemble epileptic seizures (ES) but are not associated with abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. Video-EEG recording of a typical episode is considered the best diagnostic tool available. PNES are, however, also documented in patients with epilepsy (PNES/ES). The purpose of this study was to assess this comorbid population, focusing on the differences between patients with PNES/ES and patients with PNES alone. We reviewed 110 PNES episodes, occurring spontaneously or induced by means of suggestion techniques, recorded in our video-EEG laboratory over a period of eight years. We identified two subgroups of patients, consisting of 85 PNES cases and 25 PNES/ES cases, and assessed any differences in their characteristics by reviewing a number of variables (age, sex, clinical features, antiepileptic therapy, age of onset, time to diagnosis, pathological history, and length of follow-up). The comparison between the two subgroups revealed that PNES/ES patients displayed some statistically significant differences when compared with PNES alone patients, i.e., younger age, a higher percentage of spontaneously activated events, a shorter disease duration, a longer time to PNES diagnosis, and a lower percentage lost at follow-up. This study confirms that PNES is a common, though probably underestimated, occurrence in epilepsy services. Our results shed light on some different characteristics between PNES and PNES/ES patients.

  20. Sporadic infantile epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in PCDH19 resembles Dravet syndrome but mainly affects females.

    PubMed

    Depienne, Christel; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Cheuret, Emmanuel; Poirier, Karine; Trouillard, Oriane; Benyahia, Baya; Quelin, Chloé; Carpentier, Wassila; Julia, Sophie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Gautier, Agnès; Rivier, François; Meyer, Sophie; Berquin, Patrick; Hélias, Marie; Py, Isabelle; Rivera, Serge; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Nabbout, Rima; Leguern, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41 probands were screened for micro-rearrangements with Illumina high-density SNP microarrays. A hemizygous deletion on chromosome Xq22.1, encompassing the PCDH19 gene, was found in one male patient. To confirm that PCDH19 is responsible for a Dravet-like syndrome, we sequenced its coding region in 73 additional SCN1A-negative patients. Nine different point mutations (four missense and five truncating mutations) were identified in 11 unrelated female patients. In addition, we demonstrated that the fibroblasts of our male patient were mosaic for the PCDH19 deletion. Patients with PCDH19 and SCN1A mutations had very similar clinical features including the association of early febrile and afebrile seizures, seizures occurring in clusters, developmental and language delays, behavioural disturbances, and cognitive regression. There were, however, slight but constant differences in the evolution of the patients, including fewer polymorphic seizures (in particular rare myoclonic jerks and atypical absences) in those with PCDH19 mutations. These results suggest that PCDH19 plays a major role in epileptic encephalopathies, with a clinical spectrum overlapping that of DS. This disorder mainly affects females. The identification of an affected mosaic male strongly supports the hypothesis that cellular interference is the pathogenic mechanism.

  1. Phenotypic feature quantification of patient derived 3D cancer spheroids in fluorescence microscopy image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Rhee, Seon-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2017-03-01

    Patients' responses to a drug differ at the cellular level. Here, we present an image-based cell phenotypic feature quantification method for predicting the responses of patient-derived glioblastoma cells to a particular drug. We used high-content imaging to understand the features of patient-derived cancer cells. A 3D spheroid culture formation resembles the in vivo environment more closely than 2D adherent cultures do, and it allows for the observation of cellular aggregate characteristics. However, cell analysis at the individual level is more challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate image-based phenotypic screening of the nuclei of patient-derived cancer cells. We first stitched the images of each well of the 384-well plate with the same state. We then used intensity information to detect the colonies. The nuclear intensity and morphological characteristics were used for the segmentation of individual nuclei. Next, we calculated the position of each nucleus that is appeal of the spatial pattern of cells in the well environment. Finally, we compared the results obtained using 3D spheroid culture cells with those obtained using 2D adherent culture cells from the same patient being treated with the same drugs. This technique could be applied for image-based phenotypic screening of cells to determine the patient's response to the drug.

  2. Curriculum Innovation: Difference and Resemblance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Una; Torrance, Harry

    2011-01-01

    How do teachers respond to a mathematics curriculum innovation? This paper reports some of the findings from a UK Research Council (ESRC)-funded project investigating how teachers in English secondary schools (students aged 12-16 years) responded to innovation. A Gatsby Foundation funded program implemented new materials; the project investigated…

  3. In quest of the perfect analogy for using in vitro fertilization patients as oocyte donors.

    PubMed

    Nisker, J A

    1997-01-01

    Whether painted in totalitarian terror, like the organ farm story and The Handmaid's Tale, the science-fiction reality of Make Room! Make Room!, the cinema noir urban tragedy of prostitution, or the portrayals of slavery (Afro-American, Nazi-European, and Russian), this series of resemblances, I hope, illustrates the power of analogy to surface sensitivity to ethical issues in the efficient, and possibly entertaining, texture demanded by medical personnel. Although my quest was quixotic from the start, I hope that this exercise will encourage your consideration of using analogy as an educational tool to heighten the awareness in medical personnel to many issues, to allow our better service of patients and society.

  4. Cardiac Autoantibodies from Patients Affected by a New Variant of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus in Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Michael S.; Jiao, Zhe; Gao, Weiqing; Yi, Hong; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Duque-Ramírez, Mauricio; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Several patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF) have experienced a sudden death syndrome, including persons below the age of 50. El Bagre-EPF patients share several autoantigens with paraneoplastic pemphigus patients, such as reactivity to plakins. Further, paraneoplastic pemphigus patients have autoantibodies to the heart. Therefore, we tested 15 El Bagre-EPF patients and 15 controls from the endemic area for autoreactivity to heart tissue using direct and indirect immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and immunoelectron microscopy utilizing heart extracts as antigens. We found that 7 of 15 El Bagre patients exhibited a polyclonal immune response to several cell junctions of the heart, often colocalizing with known markers. These colocalizing markers included those for the area composita of the heart, such as anti-desmoplakins I and II; markers for gap junctions, such as connexin 43; markers for tight junctions, such as ezrin and junctional adhesion molecule A; and adherens junctions, such pan-cadherin. We also detected colocalization of the patient antibodies within blood vessels, Purkinje fibers, and cardiac sarcomeres. We conclude that El Bagre-EPF patients display autoreactivity to multiple cardiac epitopes, that this disease may resemble what is found in patients with rheumatic carditis, and further, that the cardiac pathophysiology of this disorder warrants further evaluation. PMID:21796504

  5. Occlusal force discrimination by denture patients.

    PubMed

    Pacer, R J; Bowman, D C

    1975-06-01

    A study was conducted on subjects with conventional dentures and with overlay dentures to compare their abilities to discriminate between occlusal forces. Perpendicular forces were applied to the dynamic center of the occlusal table of the mandibular denture. Each subject's ability to distinguish differences in values of force was observed and recorded. All subjects with dentures showed sensory threshold values close to those reported for natural teeth. A graphic plotting showed that the responses of subjects with overlay-type dentures were more closely correlated with the psychophysical law as expressed by Stevens as a power function. Since this phenomenon holds true for natural teeth, the overlay denture more closely resembles natural teeth in this type of sensory function than does the conventional denture. In addition to recognized advantages, such as preservation of the ridge and improved retention and stability, the overlay denture provides more typical sensory function than is provided by the conventional denture. This advantage should further motivate dentists and patients to consider the retention and utilization of at least two suitable teeth in an overlay-type denture service.

  6. Accretion of biopsy specimens of vaginal adenosis from patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, when transplanted to athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, M M; Mann, L C; Rosloniec, E F; Welsch, C W

    1979-03-01

    Vaginal adenosis biopsy specimens from 10 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were transplanted for 30 days into athymic (nude) mice. Almost all grafts were recovered, and they had morphologic features closely resembling those of the original biopsy specimens, i.e., cystic, complex, and simple occult glands covered mainly with an endocervical type of epithelium showing extensive squamous metaplasia. Autoradiographic analysis of these grafts after pulse administration of [3H]thymidine into the mice revealed extensive labeling of epithelial cells. These results imply that female athymic (nude) mice are compatible hosts for accretion of the human adenosis.

  7. Noachian-Age Silica Deposits on Mars with Features Resembling Modern Hot Spring Biosignatures at El Tatio, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  8. Behçet's disease patients with multiple sclerosis-like features: discriminative value of Barkhof criteria.

    PubMed

    Akman-Demir, Gulsen; Mutlu, Melike; Kiyat-Atamer, Asli; Shugaiv, Erkingul; Kurtuncu, Murat; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Tuzun, Erdem; Eraksoy, Mefkure; Bahar, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic auto-inflammatory disorder of unknown cause, which may affect the central nervous system in around 5% of the patients [neuro-BD (NBD)], usually causing large lesions encompassing brainstem, diencephalon and basal ganglia regions. Occasionally NBD patients present with white matter lesions necessitating differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, the efficacy of Barkhof criteria was tested in diagnostic differentiation of NBD and MS. Charts and MRIs of 84 NBD patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical and radiological features of NBD patients fulfilling (Barkhof+) and not fulfilling Barkhof criteria (Barkhof-) were compared. While the Barkhof- patients (n=73) mostly displayed typical large lesions covering brainstem, diencephalon and basal ganglia regions and neurological findings consistent with brainstem involvement, all Barkhof+ (n=11) patients demonstrated MS-like white matter lesions, fulfilled McDonald's criteria and showed reduced frequency of brainstem symptoms and increased frequency of hemiparesis, hemihypesthesia and spinal cord symptoms. Moreover, the Barkhof+ group had more female patients, increased number of attacks, higher rate of oligoclonal band positivity and less patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. A subgroup of BD patients with neurological complaints displays MS-like lesions, fulfills the clinical and radiological criteria of MS and presents with clinical and laboratory features resembling those of MS rather than NBD. These results suggest that Barkhof+ patients are either an overlapping group between NBD and MS, or they represent MS patients with concomitant systemic findings of BD, rather than NBD. Barkhof criteria appear to be effective in discriminating these patients.

  9. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects.

    PubMed

    Hassa, Thomas; de Jel, Esther; Tuescher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  10. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2008-04-30

    The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination of the expression of Zic genes demonstrated that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 were expressed by the progenitor cells in the septum and cortical hem, the sites of generation of the Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that Zic proteins were abundantly expressed in the meningeal cells and that the majority of the CR cells distributed in the medial and dorsal cortex also expressed Zic proteins in the mid-late embryonic and postnatal cortical marginal zones. During embryonic cortical development, Zic1/Zic3 double-mutant and hypomorphic Zic2 mutant mice showed a reduction in the number of CR cells in the rostral cortex, whereas the cell number remained unaffected in the caudal cortex. These mutants also showed mislocalization of the CR cells and cortical lamination defects, resembling the changes noted in type II (cobblestone) lissencephaly, throughout the brain. In the Zic1/3 mutant, reduced proliferation of the meningeal cells was observed before the thinner and disrupted organization of the pial basement membrane (BM) with reduced expression of the BM components and the meningeal cell-derived secretory factor. These defects correlated with the changes in the end feet morphology of the radial glial cells. These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly.

  11. Intratumoral Vasculopathy in Leiomyoma Treated With Tranexamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kudose, Satoru; Krigman, Hannah R

    2017-07-01

    Although intravascular thrombi and infarct-type necrosis have been reported in leiomyomas following tranexamic acid therapy, intratumoral vasculopathy resembling acute atherosis has not been reported to date in patients without exposure to gonadotropin receptor agonist. We describe a case of intratumoral vasculopathy resembling acute atherosis in a leiomyoma in a 49-year-old woman, with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and menorrhagia, treated with tranexamic acid. The patient had no exposure to gonadotropin receptor agonists. Pathologic examination of the hysterectomy specimen showed a 5.7-cm submucosal leiomyoma containing multiple arteries with fibrinoid change accompanied with abundant subintimal foamy macrophages and occasional luminal thrombi. The vascular media showed scant lymphocytic inflammation without necrosis. The leiomyoma contained numerous mast cells and edematous areas. Vessels outside of the leiomyoma showed neither fibrinoid changes nor inflammation. The patient is alive and well with no signs of systemic vasculitis. We demonstrate that intratumoral vasculopathy resembling acute atherosis may be seen in leiomyomas from patients taking tranexamic acid and postulate that this change results in vascular thrombosis, tumoral edema, and infarct-type necrosis.

  12. Phenotype and genotype in 17 patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maas, S M; Lombardi, M P; van Essen, A J; Wakeling, E L; Castle, B; Temple, I K; Kumar, V K A; Writzl, K; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2009-10-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome or focal dermal hypoplasia is a highly variable, X-linked dominant syndrome with abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. In 2007, mutations in the PORCN gene were found to be causative in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. A series of 17 patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is reported on, and their phenotype and genotype are described. In 14 patients (13 females and one male), a PORCN mutation was found. Mutations included nonsense (n = 5), frameshift (n = 2), aberrant splicing (n = 2) and missense (n = 5) mutations. No genotype-phenotype correlation was found. All patients with the classical features of the syndrome had a detectable mutation. In three females with atypical signs, no mutation was found. The male patient had classical features and showed mosaicism for a PORCN nonsense mutation in fibroblasts. Two affected sisters had a mutation not detectable in their parents, supporting germline mosaicism. Their father had undergone radiation for testicular cancer in the past. Two classically affected females had three severely affected female fetuses which all had midline thoracic and abdominal wall defects, resembling the pentalogy of Cantrell and the limb-body wall complex. Thoracic and abdominal wall defects were also present in two surviving patients. PORCN mutations can possibly cause pentalogy of Cantrell and limb-body wall complexes as well. Therefore, particularly in cases with limb defects, it seems useful to search for these. PORCN mutations can be found in all classically affected cases of Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, including males. Somatic and germline mosaicism occur. There is no evident genotype-phenotype correlation.

  13. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema: a rare case report of two brothers.

    PubMed

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Khani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Negative Pressure Pulmonary O/Edema (NPPE) is potentially life-threatening and it is a general anaesthesia side effect. We are mentioning a rare case report of two brothers who were referred to our hospital for elective surgeries (varicocele and septoplasty) in a 3 years period. Both of them were athletes and their coagulation factors were disturbed after surgeries. Pulmonary oedema was healed after treating it by reintubation, mechanical ventilation by Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), diuretics, morphine, Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and liquid bounding.

  14. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Oedema: A Rare Case Report of Two Brothers

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Khani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Negative Pressure Pulmonary O/Edema (NPPE) is potentially life-threatening and it is a general anaesthesia side effect. We are mentioning a rare case report of two brothers who were referred to our hospital for elective surgeries (varicocele and septoplasty) in a 3 years period. Both of them were athletes and their coagulation factors were disturbed after surgeries. Pulmonary oedema was healed after treating it by reintubation, mechanical ventilation by Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), diuretics, morphine, Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and liquid bounding. PMID:24298513

  15. Bimanual Force Coordination in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gorniak, Stacey L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies of bimanual actions similar to activities of daily living (ADLs) are currently lacking in evaluating fine motor control in Parkinson’s disease patients implanted with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulators. We investigated basic time and force characteristics of a bimanual task that resembles performance of ADLs in a group of bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients. Methods Patients were evaluated in three different DBS parameter conditions off stimulation, on clinically derived stimulation parameters, and on settings derived from a patient-specific computational model. Model-based parameters were computed as a means to minimize spread of current to non-motor regions of the subthalamic nucleus via Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. Patients were evaluated off parkinsonian medications in each stimulation condition. Results The data indicate that DBS parameter state does not affect most aspects of fine motor control in ADL-like tasks; however, features such as increased grip force and grip symmetry varied with the stimulation state. In the absence of DBS parameters, patients exhibited significant grip force asymmetry. Overall UPDRS-III and UPDRS-III scores associated with hand function were lower while patients were experiencing clinically-derived or model-based parameters, as compared to the off-stimulation condition. Conclusion While bilateral subthalamic DBS has been shown to alleviate gross motor dysfunction, our results indicate that DBS may not provide the same magnitude of benefit to fine motor coordination. PMID:24244388

  16. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ~12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. PMID:22575170

  17. Early events in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.

    PubMed

    Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on early to late events in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The early neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most early transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these early events were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.

  18. Evaluation of mirrored muscle activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2014-10-01

    Motor dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) has been associated with bilateral changes in central motor processing, suggesting abnormal coupling between the affected and unaffected limb. We evaluated the occurrence of involuntary muscle activity in a limb during voluntary movements of the contralateral limb (i.e., mirror activity) in unilaterally affected patients to examine disinhibition of contralateral motor activity in CRPS. Mirror activity was examined during unimanual rhythmic flexion-extension movements of the wrist through in-depth analysis of electromyography recordings from the passive arm in 20 CRPS patients and 40 controls. The number of mirror-epochs was comparable for both arms in both CRPS patients and controls. Mirror-epochs in the affected arm of patients were comparable to those in controls. Mirror-epochs in the unaffected arm were shorter and showed less resemblance (in terms of rhythm and timing) to activity of the homologous muscle in the moving arm compared to mirror-epochs in controls. No evidence for disinhibition of contralateral motor activity was found during unimanual movement. Although motor dysfunction in CRPS has been associated with bilateral changes in cortical motor processing, the present findings argue against disinhibition of interhemispheric projections to homologous muscles in the contralateral limb during unimanual movement. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Masking release with changing fundamental frequency: Electric acoustic stimulation resembles normal hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    Auinger, Alice Barbara; Riss, Dominik; Liepins, Rudolfs; Rader, Tobias; Keck, Tilman; Keintzel, Thomas; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH). All CI and EAS users were implanted with a MED-EL cochlear implant and had at least 12 months of experience with the implant. Speech perception was assessed with the Oldenburg sentence test (OlSa) using one sentence from the test corpus as speech masker. The F0 in this masking sentence was shifted upwards by 4, 8, or 12 semitones. For each of these masker conditions the speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed by adaptively varying the masker level while presenting the target sentences at a fixed level. A statistically significant improvement in speech perception was found for increasing difference in F0 between target sentence and masker sentence in EAS users (p = 0.038) and in NH listeners (p = 0.003). In CI users (classic CI or EAS users with electrical stimulation only) speech perception was independent from differences in F0 between target and masker. A release from masking with increasing difference in F0 between target and masking speech was only observed in listeners and configurations in which the low-frequency region was presented acoustically. Thus, the speech information contained in the low frequencies seems to be crucial for allowing listeners to separate multiple sources. By combining acoustic and electric information, EAS users even manage tasks as complicated as segregating the audio streams from multiple talkers. Preserving the natural code, like fine-structure cues in

  20. Socio-demographic profile of patients with sarcoidosis vis-à-vis tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D; Vinay, N; Agarwal, R; Agarwal, A N

    2013-11-25

    Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis closely resemble each other and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been implicated as a causative agent for sarcoidosis. Herein we explore the socio-demographic features of patients with sarcoidosis vis-a-vis tuberculosis. In a prospective case-control design, we studied hundred patients each of newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy controls. Socio-demographic profile was recorded on a standardized questionnaire. Information about tobacco smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cooking fuels was also collected. Various parameters were compared among the three groups. Compared to tuberculosis, patients with sarcoidosis were elder, had better body mass index (BMI), higher urban residence (OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.02-4.69), were better educated (ORs 8.50 to 74.25 for different categories), had higher per capita income (OR 13.33; 95% CI: 6.79-26.19) and belonged to better overall socio-economic status (SES) (ORs 8.57-195.0 for different categories). All these differences were also significant when sarcoidosis patients were compared to healthy controls albeit to a lesser degree. Tobacco smoking, ETS exposure and use of fossil/biomass fuels for cooking were more commonly seen in TB patients. In the multivariate analysis, as compared to TB or controls, sarcoidosis patients had higher odds for a better SES after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, religion, smoking, ETS exposure and cooking fuel. Patients with sarcoidosis are likely to be better educated and more affluent compared to those with tuberculosis and healthy controls and this can be useful in clinical differential diagnosis of the two conditions in populations with high prevalence of TB.

  1. Identification of cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus-6 DNA in a patient with corneal endotheliitis.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    To report the case of a patient with unilateral corneal endotheliitis in which both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) DNA was identified in the aqueous humor. A 67-year-old man with corneal endotheliitis OD was referred to us for decreased visual acuity. Local corneal stromal edema, pigmented keratic precipitates, a coin-shaped lesion and minimal anterior chamber reaction were observed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cells with owl's eye appearance in the endothelial cell layer were observed by in vivo laser confocal microscopy. The patient had rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated by oral prednisolone and intravenous abatacept. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous humor samples detected both CMV and HHV6 DNA, but not other HHVs. Treatment with topical ganciclovir and systemic valganciclovir resulted in a clear cornea. A patient with corneal endotheliitis had both CMV and HHV6 DNA identified in the aqueous humor. Although both viruses were identified in this case, clinical manifestations resembled CMV corneal endotheliitis, and it was unclear whether HHV6 could affect the clinical course. Systemic abatacept and corticosteroid therapy might play a positive role in cases with both CMV and HHV6 DNA in this corneal endotheliitis.

  2. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  3. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis, an endocrine emergency: clinical and genetic features in 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Silva, Magnus R Dias da; Chiamolera, Maria Izabel; Kasamatsu, Teresa S; Cerutti, Janete M; Maciel, Rui M B

    2004-02-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a medical emergency characterized by acute attacks of weakness, hypokalemia, and thyrotoxicosis that resolve with the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Attacks are transient, self-limited, associated with hypokalemia and resemble those of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (FHPP), an autosomal dominant neurological channelopathy. This study reviews the clinical features and genetic findings of THPP in 25 Brazilian patients. Most patients had weight loss, taquicardia, goiter, tremor, and ophthalmopathy. Most often attacks arose during the night and recovered spontaneously but some patients evolved to total quadriplegia, and few experienced cardiac arrhythmias. All patients had suppressed TSH and elevated T4 and most had positive anti-thyroid antibodies, indicating autoimmunity thyrotoxic etiology. Potassium was low in all patients during the crisis. Prophylactic potassium therapy has not been shown to prevent attacks; however it was useful for curbing the paralysis during the crisis. We identified the mutation R83H in the KCNE3 gene in one sporadic case, and M58V in the KCNE4 gene in one case with family history. Furthermore, we identified other genetic polymorphisms in the CACNA1S, SCN4A, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE1L, KCNJ2, KCNJ8 e KCNJ11 genes. We conclude that THPP is the most common treatable cause of acquired periodic paralysis; therefore, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of acute muscle weakness.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in 510 Finnish non--small-cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Nevala, Satu; Rönty, Mikko; Morel, Mike; Gomez, Maria; Dawson, Zoe; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Telaranta-Keerie, Aino; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari

    2014-06-01

    Among the driver gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer, mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the most important because of their predictive role in selecting patients eligible for targeted therapy. Our aim was to study EGFR mutations in a Finnish non-small-cell lung cancer cohort of 528 patients. Mutation testing was conducted on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tumor material using the following real-time polymerase chain reaction-based kits: Therascreen EGFR PCR Kit and cobas EGFR Mutation Test. EGFR mutation frequency was 11.4% and all positive cases were adenocarcinomas, of which a majority had an acinar predominant pattern. Mutations were seen significantly more often in females and never-smokers than in males and smokers. The most frequent mutations were L858R in exon 21 and deletions in exon 19. Overall survival of the patients, not treated with EGFR inhibitor, did not differ between EGFR mutation-positive and EGFR mutation-negative patients. EGFR mutation profile in this Finnish non-small-cell lung cancer cohort resembles in many respect with that of other Western European cohorts, even though the overall frequency of mutations is slightly higher. We show the occurrence of EGFR mutations in patients with occupational asbestos exposure and also in those diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who have not been often investigated before.

  5. Debulking surgery for elephantiasis nostras with large ectatic podoplanin-negative lymphatic vessels in patients with lipo-lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Nowak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo-lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. We present 2 cases of advanced lipo-lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo-lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas.

  6. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  7. Associations between andrological measures, hormones and semen quality in fertile Australian men: inverse relationship between obesity and sperm output.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T M; Liu, D Y; Garrett, C; Jørgensen, N; Brown, E H; Baker, H W G

    2009-07-01

    The World Health Organization developed a time to pregnancy (TTP) study (number of menstrual cycles taken to conceive) to determine whether the average TTP is increasing and semen quality decreasing with time. The present study describes clinical, semen and hormone characteristics obtained from male partners of pregnant women in Melbourne, Australia, and examines the associations between these characteristics. Male partners (n = 225) of pregnant women (16-32 weeks) who conceived naturally had physical examination, health and lifestyle questionnaires, semen and hormone (FSH, LH, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone and Inhibin B) analyses. Previously known associations between semen, hormone and clinical variables were confirmed as significant: sperm numbers (concentration and total sperm count) correlated positively with Inhibin B and inversely with FSH and left varicocele, while total testicular volume correlated positively with sperm numbers and Inhibin B and inversely with FSH. However, only abstinence, total testicular volume, varicocele grade and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) were independently significantly related to total sperm count. Compared with those with BMI < 30 (n = 188), obese subjects (n = 35) had significantly lower total sperm count (mean 324 versus 231 million, P = 0.013) and Inhibin B (187 versus 140 pg/ml, P < 0.001) but not FSH (3.4 versus 4.0 IU/l, P = 0.6). Obese fertile men appear to have reduced testicular function. Whether this is cause or effect, i.e. adiposity impairing spermatogenesis or reduced testicular function promoting fat deposition, remains to be determined.

  8. Alternatives to Testosterone Therapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eric M; Rodriguez, Katherine M; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Khera, Mohit

    2018-01-01

    Although testosterone therapy (TTh) is an effective treatment for hypogonadism, recent concerns regarding its safety have been raised. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about potential cardiovascular risks resulting from TTh. Fertility preservation is another reason to search for viable alternative therapies to conventional TTh, and in this review we evaluate the literature examining these alternatives. To review the role and limitations of non-testosterone treatments for hypogonadism. A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify relevant studies examining medical and non-medical alternatives to TTh. Search terms included hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, testosterone therapy, testosterone replacement alternatives, diet and exercise and testosterone, varicocele repair and testosterone, stress reduction and testosterone, and sleep apnea and testosterone. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Medical therapies examined include human chorionic gonadotropins, aromatase inhibitors, and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Non-drug therapies that are reviewed include lifestyle modifications including diet and exercise, improvements in sleep, decreasing stress, and varicocele repair. The high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the United States suggests that disease modification could represent a viable treatment approach for affected men with hypogonadism. These alternatives to TTh can increase testosterone levels and should be considered before TTh. Lo EM, Rodriguez KM, Pastuszak AW, Khera M. Alternatives to Testosterone Therapy: A Review. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:106-113. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Medication information leaflets for patients: the further validation of an analytic linguistic framework.

    PubMed

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Hirsh, Di; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    While clinicians may routinely use patient information leaflets about drug therapy, a poorly conceived leaflet has the potential to do harm. We previously developed a novel approach to analysing leaflets about a rheumatoid arthritis drug, using an analytic approach based on systemic functional linguistics. The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of the linguistic framework by applying it to two further arthritis drug leaflets. The findings confirmed the applicability of the framework and were used to refine it. A new stage or 'move' in the genre was identified. While the function of many of the moves appeared to be 'to instruct' the patient, the instruction was often unclear. The role relationships expressed in the text were critical to the meaning. As with our previous study, judged on their lexical density, the leaflets resembled academic text. The framework can provide specific tools to assess and produce medication information leaflets to support readers in taking medication. Future work could utilize the framework to evaluate information on other treatments and procedures or on healthcare information more widely.

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of Testicular Microlithiasis in Children and Adolescents: Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of the Italian Society of Pediatric Urology.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Pintozzi, Lucia; Cretì, Giuseppe; Chiesa, Pierluigi Lelli; Renzo, Dacia Di; Gasparella, Marco; Maggio, Giovanni Di; Bagnara, Vincenzo; Merlini, Emilio; Tadini, Barbara; Caldarulo, Eustachio; Sangiorgio, Luciano; Battaglino, Gianfranco; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni; Caione, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Introduction  Testicular microlithiasis (TM), characterized by the presence of intratubular calcifications in a single or both the gonads, is an uncommon entity with unknown etiology and outcome in pediatric and adolescent age. In this study, the results of a multicenter long-term survey are presented. Materials and Methods  From 11 units of pediatric urology/surgery, patients with TM were identified and yearly, followed up in a 7-year period, adopting a specific database. The recorded items were: age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms/associated abnormalities, ultrasonographic finding, surgery and histology at biopsy, if performed. Results  Out of 85 patients, 81 were evaluated yearly (4 patients lost to follow-up). TM was bilateral in 66.6% of the patients. Associate genital abnormalities were present in 90%, more frequently undescended/retractile testis (23.4%) and varicocele (22.2%). TM remained unchanged at 4.7 years follow-up in 77 patients (93.8%) and was reduced in 4 patients after 1 to 5 years of inguinoscrotal surgery. Orchiectomy was performed in three patients (3.7%), one for severe testicular hypoplasia and two for seminoma (2.5%), respectively, concurrent and metachronous to diagnosis of TM. Tumorectomy with parenchymal sparing surgery was performed in a teratoma associated with TM. Conclusion  TM is a controversial entity, often associated with several inguinogenital features, which rarely can recover. Testicular malignancy, although present in TM, has not proven definitively associated to microliths. Proper counseling, yearly ultrasound, and self-examination are long-term recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. ECG parameters predict left ventricular conduction delay in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Gianni; Maines, Massimiliano; Marcantoni, Lina; Zanon, Francesco; Noventa, Franco; Corbucci, Giorgio; Baracca, Enrico; Aggio, Silvio; Picariello, Claudio; Lanza, Daniela; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carraro, Mauro; Roncon, Loris; Barold, S Serge

    2016-12-01

    Estimating left ventricular electrical delay (Q-LV) from a 12-lead ECG may be important in evaluating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of Q-LV interval on ECG configuration. One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients undergoing CRT implantation were divided electrocardiographically into 3 groups: left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD). The IVCD group was further subdivided into 81 patients with left (L)-IVCD and 15 patients with right (R)-IVCD (resembling RBBB, but without S wave in leads I and aVL). The Q-LV interval in the different groups and the relationship between ECG parameters and the maximum Q-LV interval were analyzed. Patients with LBBB presented a long Q-LV interval (147.7 ± 14.6 ms, all exceeding cutoff value of 110 ms), whereas RBBB patients presented a very short Q-LV interval (75.2 ± 16.3 ms, all <110 ms). Patients with an IVCD displayed a wide range of Q-LV intervals. In L-IVCD, mid-QRS notching/slurring showed the strongest correlation with a longer Q-LV interval, followed, in decreasing order, by QRS duration >150 ms and intrinsicoid deflection >60 ms. Isolated mid-QRS notching/slurring predicted Q-LV interval >110 ms in 68% of patients. The R-IVCD group presented an unexpectedly longer Q-LV interval (127.0 ± 12.5 ms; 13/15 patients had Q-LV >110 ms). Patients with LBBB have a very prolonged Q-LV interval. Mid-QRS notching in lateral leads strongly predicts a longer Q-LV interval in L-IVCD patients. Patients with R-IVCD constitute a subgroup of patients with a long Q-LV interval. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in patients with celiac disease and the effects of a gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Fabio; Vázquez, Horacio; González, Andrea; Andrenacci, Paola; Compagni, Liliana; Reyes, Hugo; Sugai, Emilia; Moreno, María Laura; Smecuol, Edgardo; Hwang, Hui Jer; Sánchez, Inés Pinto; Mauriño, Eduardo; Bai, Julio César

    2011-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) patients often complain of symptoms consistent with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess the prevalence of GERD symptoms at diagnosis and to determine the impact of the gluten-free diet (GFD). We evaluated 133 adult CD patients at diagnosis and 70 healthy controls. Fifty-three patients completed questionnaires every 3 months during the first year and more than 4 years after diagnosis. GERD symptoms were evaluated using a subdimension of the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale for heartburn and regurgitation domains. At diagnosis, celiac patients had a significantly higher reflux symptom mean score than healthy controls (P < .001). At baseline, 30.1% of CD patients had moderate to severe GERD (score >3) compared with 5.7% of controls (P < .01). Moderate to severe symptoms were significantly associated with the classical clinical presentation of CD (35.0%) compared with atypical/silent cases (15.2%; P < .03). A rapid improvement was evidenced at 3 months after initial treatment with a GFD (P < .0001) with reflux scores comparable to healthy controls from this time point onward. GERD symptoms are common in classically symptomatic untreated CD patients. The GFD is associated with a rapid and persistent improvement in reflux symptoms that resembles the healthy population. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoglobulin heavy chain V-D-J gene rearrangement and mutational status in Uruguayan patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sergio; Moreno, Pilar; Landoni, Ana Inés; Naya, Hugo; Oppezzo, Pablo; Dighiero, Guillermo; Gabús, Raúl; Pritsch, Otto

    2010-11-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of long-lived circulating clonal leukemic B-cells, although the etiopathogenesis remains unclear. The incidence of CLL is variable in different regions around the world. While it is the most frequent chronic leukemia in Western countries, it has a low incidence in Asia. In this work we have investigated the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and mutational status in 80 Uruguayan patients with CLL, and compared these results with those obtained in other geographic regions. Our results demonstrate that Uruguayan patients with CLL display an IGHV gene usage which resembles that observed in Mediterranean countries and exhibits certain differences compared with Brazilian and Asian series, as expected, considering the ethnic basis of the Uruguayan population. This suggests that genetic influences could be important in the development and etiopathogenesis of CLL, but larger studies are necessary to substantiate this possibility.

  14. Production and Distribution of {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni in a Three-dimensional Supernova Model Resembling Cassiopeia A

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Müller, Ewald

    The spatial and velocity distributions of nuclear species synthesized in the innermost regions of core-collapse supernovae can yield important clues about explosion asymmetries and the operation of the still disputed explosion mechanism. Recent observations of radioactive {sup 44}Ti with high-energy satellite telescopes ( Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array [ NuSTAR ], INTEGRAL ) have measured gamma-ray line details, which provide direct evidence of large-scale explosion asymmetries in SN 1987A and in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) even by mapping of the spatial brightness distribution ( NuSTAR ). Here we discuss a 3D simulation of a neutrino-driven explosion, using a parameterized neutrino engine,more » whose {sup 44}Ti distribution is mostly concentrated in one hemisphere pointing opposite to the neutron star (NS) kick velocity. Both exhibit intriguing resemblance to the observed morphology of the Cas A remnant, although neither the progenitor nor the explosion was fine-tuned for a perfect match. Our results demonstrate that the asymmetries observed in this remnant can, in principle, be accounted for by a neutrino-driven explosion, and that the high {sup 44}Ti abundance in Cas A may be explained without invoking rapid rotation or a jet-driven explosion, because neutrino-driven explosions generically eject large amounts of high-entropy matter. The recoil acceleration of the NS is connected to mass ejection asymmetries and is opposite to the direction of the stronger explosion, fully compatible with the gravitational tugboat mechanism. Our results also imply that Cas A and SN 1987A could possess similarly “one-sided” Ti and Fe asymmetries, with the difference that Cas A is viewed from a direction with large inclination angle to the NS motion, whereas the NS in SN 1987A should have a dominant velocity component pointing toward us.« less

  15. White feces syndrome of shrimp arises from transformation, sloughing and aggregation of hepatopancreatic microvilli into vermiform bodies superficially resembling gregarines.

    PubMed

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  16. Movement and Other Neurodegenerative Syndromes in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Diseases: A Case Series of 8 Patients and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rikitha; Pantelyat, Alexander; Izbudak, Izlem; Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury.Seven rheumatic disease patients (5 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease patients) were referred and could be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. However, all of these patients were ultimately diagnosed as having other movement or neurodegenerative disorders. Findings inconsistent with and more expansive than Parkinson's disease included cerebellar degeneration, dystonia with an alien-limb phenomenon, and nonfluent aphasias.A notable finding was that individual patients could be affected by cooccurring movement and other neurodegenerative disorders, each of which could be exceptionally rare (ie, prevalence of ∼1:1000), and therefore with the collective probability that such disorders were merely coincidental and causally unrelated being as low as ∼1-per-billion. Whereas our review of the literature revealed that ubiquitous patterns of clinical injury were frequently associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of a widespread vasculopathy, our patients did not have such neuroimaging findings. Instead, our patients could have syndromes which phenotypically resembled paraneoplastic and other inflammatory disorders which are known to be associated with antineuronal antibodies. We similarly identified immune-mediated and inflammatory markers of injury

  17. Reliability of cystometrically obtained intravesical pressures in patients with neurogenic bladders.

    PubMed

    Hess, Marika J; Lim, Lance; Yalla, Subbarao V

    2002-01-01

    Urodynamic studies in patients with neurogenic bladder detect and categorize neurourodynamic states, identify the risk for urologic sequelae, and determine the necessity for interventions. Because urodynamic studies serves as a prognostic indicator and guides patient management, pressure measurements during the study must accurately represent bladder function under physiologic conditions. Because nonphysiologic bladder filling used during conventional urodynamic studies may alter the bladder's accommodative properties, we studied how closely the intravesical pressures obtained before filling cystometry resembled those obtained during the filling phase of the cystometrogram. Twenty-two patients (21 men, 1 woman) with neurogenic bladders underwent standard urodynamic studies. A 16F triple-lumen catheter was inserted into the bladder, and the intravesical pressures were recorded (physiologic volume-specific pressures, PVSP). After emptying the bladder, an equal volume of normal saline solution was reinfused, and the pressures were recorded again (cystometric volume-specific pressure, CVSP). All patients underwent routine fluoroscopically assisted urodynamic testing. The PVSP and the CVSP were compared using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P value of .05 was significant. The mean PVSP was 14.5 cmH2O (range, 4-42 cmH2O) and mean CVSP was 20.6 cmH2O (range, 6-70 cmH2O). The CVSP was significantly higher than the PVSP (P = .01). Filling pressures during cystometry (CVSP) were significantly higher than the pressures measured at rest (PVSP). This study also suggests a strong correlation between PVSP and CVSP.

  18. Transcriptome and ultrastructural changes in dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa resemble skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Andrea; Weber, Manuela; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Bruckner, Daniela; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Bauer, Johann W.; Breitenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aging process of skin has been investigated recently with respect to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We have here observed striking phenotypic and clinical similarity between skin aging and recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is caused by recessive mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, COL7A1. Ultrastructural changes, defects in wound healing, and inflammation markers are in part shared with aged skin. We have here compared the skin transcriptomes of young adults suffering from RDEB with that of sex‐ and age‐matched healthy probands. In parallel we have compared the skin transcriptome of healthy young adults with that of elderly healthy donors. Quite surprisingly, there was a large overlap of the two gene lists that concerned a limited number of functional protein families. Most prominent among the proteins found are a number of proteins of the cornified envelope or proteins mechanistically involved in cornification and other skin proteins. Further, the overlap list contains a large number of genes with a known role in inflammation. We are documenting some of the most prominent ultrastructural and protein changes by immunofluorescence analysis of skin sections from patients, old individuals, and healthy controls. PMID:26143532

  19. Transcriptome and ultrastructural changes in dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa resemble skin aging.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Jenny S; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Trost, Andrea; Weber, Manuela; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Bruckner, Daniela; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Bauer, Johann W; Breitenbach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The aging process of skin has been investigated recently with respect to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We have here observed striking phenotypic and clinical similarity between skin aging and recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is caused by recessive mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII,COL7A1. Ultrastructural changes, defects in wound healing, and inflammation markers are in part shared with aged skin. We have here compared the skin transcriptomes of young adults suffering from RDEB with that of sex- and age-matched healthy probands. In parallel we have compared the skin transcriptome of healthy young adults with that of elderly healthy donors. Quite surprisingly, there was a large overlap of the two gene lists that concerned a limited number of functional protein families. Most prominent among the proteins found are a number of proteins of the cornified envelope or proteins mechanistically involved in cornification and other skin proteins. Further, the overlap list contains a large number of genes with a known role in inflammation. We are documenting some of the most prominent ultrastructural and protein changes by immunofluorescence analysis of skin sections from patients, old individuals, and healthy controls.

  20. [Acquired angioedema – clinical characteristic of the patients diagnosed in 2012-2016 with acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency].

    PubMed

    Stobiecki, Marcin; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    Acquired angioedema is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor with recurrent swelling symptoms. It may occur in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders or autoimmune diseases. Symptoms resemble hereditary angioedema, and the only differentiating features is negative family history, late onset of symptoms and accompanying lymphoproliferative disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze the cases of acquired angioedema. The retrospective analysis of 341 patients from the registry of patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. Results: We identified 4 patients among 119 with HAE (3.57%) diagnosed in this same period of time 2012-2016 who fulfilled the criteria of acquired edema. In two cases the primary reason of angioedema was lymphoproliferive disease, in two monoclonal gammapathy of unknown reason. We analyzed also the results of laboratory tests C4, C1 inhibitor, C1q. In all cases the face was dominated localization. After the treatment of primary lymphoproliferive disease, in two cases, we observed total remission of angioedema. Only one patient with gammapathy require treatment with C1 inhibitor during the attacks. In these case we observed both plasma deriver, and recombinant C1 inhibitor were effective.

  1. The occurrence of molds in patients with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Twarużek, Magdalena; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species.

  2. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  3. Cortical Drive to Breathe during Wakefulness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Launois, Claire; Attali, Valérie; Georges, Marjolaine; Raux, Mathieu; Morawiec, Elise; Rivals, Isabelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) involves recurrent sleep-related upper airways (UA) collapse. UA mechanical properties and neural control are altered, imposing a mechanical load on inspiration. UA collapse does not occur during wakefulness, hence arousal-dependent compensation. Experimental inspiratory loading in normal subjects elicits respiratory-related cortical activity. The objective of this study was to test whether awake OSAS patients would exhibit a similar cortical activity. Descriptive physiology study. Sleep laboratory in a large university affiliated tertiary hospital. 26 patients with moderate OSAS according to polysomnography (5 < apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≤ 30, n = 14) or severe OSAS (AHI > 30, n = 12); 13 non-OSAS patients for comparison. None. Respiratory time-locked electroencephalographic segments ensemble averaged and analyzed for slow premotor potentials preceding inspiration ("pre-inspiratory potentials" [PIPs]). PIPs were present in 1/13 controls and 11/26 patients (P = 0.0336; 4/14 "moderate" and 7/12 "severe" patients). Awake OSAS patients therefore exhibit respiratory-related cortical activity during quiet breathing significantly more frequently than non-OSAS individuals. The corresponding PIPs resemble those observed during prepared voluntary inspirations and in response to experimental inspiratory loads in normal subjects, which involve a cortical network comprising the supplementary motor area. A respiratory-related cortical activity could contribute to the increased neural drive to upper airway and to inspiratory muscles that has previously been described in obstructive sleep apnea, and could therefore contribute to the arousal-dependent compensation of upper airway abnormalities. Whether or not such cortical compensatory mechanisms have cognitive consequences remains to be determined. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Who Governs Federally Qualified Health Centers?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brad

    2017-01-01

    To make them more responsive to their community’s needs, federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are required to have a governing board comprised of at least 51% consumers. However, the extent to which consumer board members actually resemble the typical FQHC patient has not been assessed, which according to the political science literature on representation may influence the board’s ability to represent the community. This mixed-methods study uses four years of data from the Health Resources and Services Administration, combined with Uniform Data System, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Area Resource File data to describe and identify factors associated with the composition of FQHC governing boards. Board members are classified into one of three groups: non-consumers, non-representative consumers (who do not resemble the typical FQHC patient), and representative consumers (who resemble the typical FQHC patient). The analysis finds that a minority of board members are representative consumers, and telephone interviews with a stratified random sample of 30 FQHC board members confirmed the existence of significant socioeconomic gaps between consumer board members and FQHC patients. This may make FQHCs less responsive to the needs of the predominantly low-income communities they serve. PMID:23052684

  5. Periosteal pseudotumor in complex total knee arthroplasty resembling a neoplastic process.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Madhav; Dipane, Matthew V; McPherson, Edward J

    2018-05-18

    This case report describes in detail an erosive distal diaphyseal pseudotumor that occurred 6 years after a complex endoprosthetic hinge total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A female patient had conversion of a knee fusion to an endoprosthetic hinge TKA at the age of 62. At her scheduled 6-year follow-up, she presented with mild distal thigh pain and radiographs showing a 6-7 cm erosive lytic diaphyseal lesion that looked very suspicious for a neoplastic process. An en bloc resection of the distal femur and femoral endoprosthesis was performed. Histologic review showed the mass to be a pseudotumor with the wear debris emanating from within the femoral canal due to distal stem loosening. We deduce that mechanized stem abrasion created microscopic titanium alloy particles that escaped via a small diaphyseal crack and stimulated an inflammatory response resulting in a periosteal erosive pseudotumor. The main lesson of this report is that, in the face of a joint replacement surgery of the knee, pseudotumor formation is a more likely diagnosis than a neoplastic process when encountering an expanding bony mass. Thus, a biopsy prior to en bloc resection, would be our recommended course of action any time a suspicious mass is encountered close to a TKA.

  6. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Mosmann, Camila Borges; Costa, Veridiana Borges; Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe; Rosito, Guido Aranha

    2014-01-01

    Background There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. Objective The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. Methods All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. Results A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Conclusion Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries. PMID:24759948

  7. Laparoscopic telesurgery between the United States and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, B R; Png, D J; Liew, L; Fabrizio, M; Li, M K; Jarrett, J W; Kavoussi, L R

    2000-09-01

    Telemedicine is the use of electronic digital signals to transfer information from one site to another. With the advent of a telepresence operative system and development of remote robotic arms to hold and manoeuvre the laparoscope, telemedicine is finding its role in surgery, especially laparoscopic surgery. CLINICAL FEATURES AND TREATMENT: We report two successful cases of laparoscopic surgery--radical nephrectomy and varicocelectomy for a 3-cm renal tumour and for bilateral varicoceles causing pain, where a less experienced laparoscopic surgeon in Singapore was telementored by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon located remotely in the United States. Both patients recovered uneventfully and returned home on postoperative day 4 and on the day of surgery, respectively. This study demonstrates that telementored laparoscopic systems are feasible and safe, between countries halfway across the world. As the Internet expands in utility and the cost of higher bandwidth telecommunication lines decreases, even to remote countries, telementoring systems will become more affordable and may potentially pave the way for advanced surgical and laparoscopic applications and training for the future.

  8. Clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing: practice recommendations based on clinical scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C.; Ko, Edmund; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has been generally acknowledged as a valuable tool for male fertility evaluation. While its detrimental implications on sperm function were extensively investigated, little is known about the actual indications for performing SDF analysis. This review delivers practice based recommendations on commonly encountered scenarios in the clinic. An illustrative description of the different SDF measurement techniques is presented. SDF testing is recommended in patients with clinical varicocele and borderline to normal semen parameters as it can better select varicocelectomy candidates. High SDF is also linked with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and can influence outcomes of different assisted reproductive techniques. Several studies have shown some benefit in using testicular sperm rather than ejaculated sperm in men with high SDF, oligozoospermia or recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. Infertile men with evidence of exposure to pollutants can benefit from sperm DNA testing as it can help reinforce the importance of lifestyle modification (e.g., cessation of cigarette smoking, antioxidant therapy), predict fertility and monitor the patient’s response to intervention. PMID:28078226

  9. Expression patterns of Xenopus FGF receptor-like 1/nou-darake in early Xenopus development resemble those of planarian nou-darake and Xenopus FGF8.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shuichi; Itoh, Mari; Taira, Sumiko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Taira, Masanori

    2004-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate many cell-to-cell signaling events during early development. Nou-darake (ndk), a gene encoding an FGF receptor (FGFR)-like molecule, was found to be highly and specifically expressed in the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and its functional analyses provided strong molecular evidence for the existence of a brain-inducing circuit based on the FGF signaling pathway. To analyze the role of ndk during vertebrate development, we isolated the Xenopus ortholog of ndk, the vertebrate FGFR-like 1 gene (XFGFRL1). Expression of XFGFRL1/Xndk was first detected in the anterior region at the late gastrula stage and dramatically increased at the early neurula stage in an overall anterior mesendodermal region, including the prechordal plate, paraxial mesoderm, anterior endoderm, and archenteron roof. This anterior expression pattern resembles that of ndk in planarians, suggesting that the expression of FGFRL1/ndk is conserved in evolution between these two distantly diverged organisms. During the tail bud stages, XFGFRL1/Xndk expression was detected in multiple regions, including the forebrain, eyes, midbrain-hindbrain boundary, otic vesicles, visceral arches, and somites. In many of these regions, XFGFRL1/Xndk was coexpressed with XFGF8, indicating that XFGFRL1/Xndk is a member of the XFGF8 synexpression group, which includes sprouty, sef, and isthmin. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Decreased Bacterial Diversity Characterizes an Altered Gut Microbiota in Psoriatic Arthritis and Resembles Dysbiosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Jose U.; Ubeda, Carles; Artacho, Alejandro; Attur, Mukundan; Isaac, Sandrine; Reddy, Soumya M.; Marmon, Shoshana; Neimann, Andrea; Brusca, Samuel; Patel, Tejas; Manasson, Julia; Pamer, Eric G.; Littman, Dan R.; Abramson, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the diversity and taxonomic relative abundance of the gut microbiota in patients with never-treated, recent-onset psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods High-throughput 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was utilized to compare community composition of gut microbiota in PsA patients (n=16), subjects with psoriasis of the skin (Ps) (n=15) and healthy, matched-controls (n=17). Samples were further assessed for the presence and levels of fecal and serum secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), pro-inflammatory proteins and fatty-acids. Results The gut microbiota observed in PsA and Ps patients was less diverse when compared to healthy controls. These could be attributed to the reduced presence of several taxa. While both groups showed a relative decrease in Coprococcus spp., PsA samples were characterized by a significant reduction in Akkermansia, Ruminococcus, and Pseudobutyrivibrio. Supernatants of fecal samples from PsA patients revealed an increase in sIgA and a decrease in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) levels. Fatty acid analysis revealed low levels of hexanoate and heptanoate in PsA and Ps patients. Conclusion PsA and Ps patients had a lower relative abundance of multiple intestinal bacteria. Although some genera were concomitantly decreased in both conditions, PsA samples had lower abundance of reportedly beneficial taxa. This gut microbiota profile in PsA was similar to that published for patients with IBD and was associated with changes in specific inflammatory proteins unique to this group, and distinct from Ps and controls. Thus, the role of gut microbiota in the continuum of Ps-PsA pathogenesis and the associated immune response merits further study. PMID:25319745

  11. PubMed Central

    Maziade, Jean; Théorêt, Johanne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the patients residents see in one hospital's family medicine unit and to determine whether these patients resemble family medicine patients in other Quebec hospitals. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Urban teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients 20 years and older who were admitted to the family medicine unit at Hôpital du St-Sacrement between April 1, 1999, and March 31, 2000, were compared with all patients admitted in general medicine to Quebec hospitals during this period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex, age, main diagnosis, secondary diagnoses, types of diseases, length of stay, number of consultations and specialties involved, referral after hospitalization. RESULTS: Patients hospitalized in this unit were older, had more secondary diagnoses, and stayed in hospital slightly longer than patients hospitalized in general medicine in Quebec as a whole. Residents were, therefore, exposed to patients who were more medically complex. CONCLUSION: Patients to whom residents were exposed resemble patients they will see in future hospital practice. PMID:15648384

  12. The Epidemiology of Anti-Sperm Antibodies Among Couples with Unexplained Infertility in North West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Anas Lotfi; Yasin, Ahmad Lotfi; Basha, Walid Salim

    2016-03-01

    Anti sperm antibodies (ASA) can present in serum and semen and they may lead to impair the sperms function leading to infertility. The precise mechanism of generation of these antibodies is yet to be discovered. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in patients with unexplained infertility. The study was initiated also to explore the possible factors that may associate with ASA formation and how ASA status is associated with pregnancy rates after going with in vitro fertilization - intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 42 normal infertile couples consulting Razan Medical Center for Infertility & I.V.F. in Nablus, Palestine, from December 2012 - March 2013. Serum levels of immunoglobulins G (IgG) ASA were measured in participants (males and females) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, participants also filled a questionnaire about the presence of previous varicocele repair, inguinal hernia repair, orchitis, testicular trauma and vasectomy reversal among males and severe coitus bleeding and coitus during menses or puerperium among females. Couples were also asked about previous IVF-ICSI procedures and the outcome of the procedure in terms of either they got pregnant or not. Data was analysed using SPSS software. The prevalence of ASA was 14.3% (6/42) among all couples, 9.5% (4/42) among males and 4.8% (2/42) among females. There was no significant relationship between previous varicocele repair, previous inguinal hernia repair, or orchitis and formation of ASA (p value =0.64, 0.56, and 0.26 respectively). Previous trauma, vasovasostomy, severe coitus bleeding and coitus during menses or puerperium were not observed in any of the study sample. ASA did not seem to affect the outcome of IVF-ICSI (p-value =0.54). Prevalence of ASA in infertile couples in the north part of Palestine is similar to that obtained worldwide. ASA formation does not relate to

  13. Active tuberculosis patients have high levels of IgA anti-alpha-crystallin and isocitrate lyase proteins.

    PubMed

    Talavera-Paulín, M; García-Morales, L; Ruíz-Sánchez, B P; Caamal-Ley, Á D; Hernández-Solis, A; Ramírez-Casanova, E; Cicero-Sabido, R; Espitia, C; Helguera-Repetto, C; González-Y-Merchand, J A; Flores-Mejía, R; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-García, I; Chacón-Salinas, R; Wong-Baeza, I; Serafín-López, J

    2016-12-01

    Mexico City, Mexico. To identify proteins synthetised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic culture, which resemble more closely a granuloma environment than aerobic culture, and to determine if they are recognised by antibodies from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Soluble extracts from M. tuberculosis H37Rv cultured under aerobic or hypoxic conditions were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and proteins over-expressed under hypoxia were identified by mass spectrometry. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM antibodies against these proteins was determined in the serum of 42 patients with active PTB and 42 healthy controls. We selected three M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins (alpha-crystallin protein [Acr, Rv2031c], universal stress protein Rv2623 and isocitrate lyase [ICL, RV0467]) that were over-expressed under hypoxia. Titres of anti-Acr and anti-ICL IgA antibodies were higher in patients than in healthy controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 for anti-ICL IgA antibodies. ICL could be used in combination with other M. tuberculosis antigens to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current serological TB diagnostic methods.

  14. Analysis of survival in breast cancer patients by using different parametric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enera Amran, Syahila; Asrul Afendi Abdullah, M.; Kek, Sie Long; Afiqah Muhamad Jamil, Siti

    2017-09-01

    In biomedical applications or clinical trials, right censoring was often arising when studying the time to event data. In this case, some individuals are still alive at the end of the study or lost to follow up at a certain time. It is an important issue to handle the censoring data in order to prevent any bias information in the analysis. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the right censoring data with three different parametric models; exponential model, Weibull model and log-logistic models. Data of breast cancer patients from Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru from 30 December 2008 until 15 February 2017 was used in this study to illustrate the right censoring data. Besides, the covariates included in this study are the time of breast cancer infection patients survive t, age of each patients X1 and treatment given to the patients X2 . In order to determine the best parametric models in analysing survival of breast cancer patients, the performance of each model was compare based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and log-likelihood value using statistical software R. When analysing the breast cancer data, all three distributions were shown consistency of data with the line graph of cumulative hazard function resembles a straight line going through the origin. As the result, log-logistic model was the best fitted parametric model compared with exponential and Weibull model since it has the smallest value in AIC and BIC, also the biggest value in log-likelihood.

  15. Retroperitoneal Varix ligation with sclerotherapy: a prospective randomized comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Yaser M.; Saeed, Waleed M.; Elganainy, Ehab O.; Ahmed, Abdelfatah I.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this article is to compare the results of high varix ligation with and without sclerotherapy. Material and methods Between November 2014 and December 2015, sixty patients with varicocele were included in this study. Patients were divided into two equal groups; group I (underwent high varix ligation), and group II (underwent high varix ligation with a retrograde injection of 2 mL of 5% ethanolamine oleate in the lower end of the bisected gonadal vein). The operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, improvement of semen parameters, incidence of recurrence and achieving of unassisted pregnancy were recorded for both groups. Results The age range was 19–34 years in group I and 21–37 years in group II. The operative time was shorter in group I (34.6 ±7.81 min) than group II (43.3 ±8.5 min) (P <0.001), which was statistically significant. Improvement of semen parameters and the occurrence of spontaneous pregnancy were insignificant between both groups. No intraoperative complications occurred. The postoperative complications were statistically insignificant in both groups. Conclusions Combined varix ligation with retrograde sclerotherapy does not offer significant advantages over high varix ligation alone with a longer operative time and prolonged post-operative pain. PMID:29104794

  16. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  17. Prolonged intestinal transit and diarrhea in patients with an activating GUCY2C mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brønstad, Ingeborg; Gilja, Odd Helge; R. Tronstad, Rune; Sangnes, Dag Andre; Nortvedt, Ragnar; Hausken, Trygve; Dimcevski, Georg; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Nylund, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increased intestinal hydration by activation of the epithelial enzyme linked receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) is a pharmacological principle for treating constipation. Activating mutations in the GUCY2C gene encoding GC-C cause Familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) which has been diagnosed with severe dysmotility. Aim To investigate gut motility and hormones before and after a meal in FGDS patients and compare with healthy controls (HC). Subjects and methods Bristol stool chart and stool frequency was assessed. Before and after a meal occlusive and non-occlusive contractions were obtained using ultrasound. A wireless motility capsule (WMC) recorded gut transit time, pH, contractions and pressure. Plasma levels of selected gut hormones were measured at different time points. Results The FGDS patients had 4 (range 1–10) loose stools/day and prolonged total gut transit time compared to HC, 55.5 h vs 28.5 h, respectively,with significantly increased colon transit time. In FGDS patients, pH in duodenum, small bowel and colon was increased and the number of contractions and the intraluminal pressure were significantly decreased, measured by WMC. Ultrasound showed in small bowel increased number of non-occlusive contractions in the FGDS patients. Serotonin (5-HT) plasma levels in the HC peaked 30 min after the meal, while the FGDS patients had no response. Conclusion Despite having diarrhea, the FGDS patients have prolonged transit time through the gut compared to HC, particularly in colon. The reduced number of intestinal contractions and lack of 5-HT release after a meal in FGDS patients surprisingly resemble colonic motility disturbances seen in patients with constipation. PMID:28957388

  18. Surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Finland: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, T.; Stenvik, M.

    2000-01-01

    WHO recommends that surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) be used to demonstrate the eradication of wild poliovirus. In this article we report the results of a study to assess the frequency of AFP patients referred to Finnish hospitals and whether virological diagnostic coverage could be improved by repeated reminders and active feedback. For this purpose, we sent monthly questionnaires to all neurological and paediatric neurological units in Finland, requesting retrospective reporting on investigated paralytic patients with defined clinically relevant diagnoses, rather than AFP. Reminder letters included a pre-paid return envelope. Virological investigations were offered cost free. Of the 492 reporting forms sent, 415 (84%) were returned, evenly covering both the population and the study period (July 1997 to June 1998). Of the 90 patients reported, 83 were evaluable. The apparent incidences of the diagnoses covered were 1.6 per 100,000 at any age, and 1.0 per 100,000 for under--15-year-olds. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common diagnosis (0.80 per 100,000). The two faecal specimens required were virologically investigated in nine out of the 10 patients under 15 years of age, but in only 46% of all patients. Four adenovirus strains, but no polioviruses or other enteroviruses, were isolated. We conclude that a satisfactory monthly reporting system was readily established and that a sufficient number of patients with diagnoses resembling AFP are being referred to Finnish hospitals. Active feedback did not increase the proportion of virologically investigated patients to an acceptable level in all age groups. It is clear that other approaches must be used to quantify the circulation of poliovirus in Finland. PMID:10812725

  19. The influence of interferon β-1b on gut microbiota composition in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Álvarez, F; Pérez-Matute, P; Oteo, J A; Marzo-Sola, M E

    2018-06-09

    The association between gut microbiota and animal models of multiple sclerosis has been well established; however, studies in humans are scarce. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study comparing the relative composition of gut microbiota in 30 patients with multiple sclerosis (15 treated with interferon β-1b, 15 not receiving this treatment) and 14 healthy controls using next generation sequencing. Patients with multiple sclerosis and controls showed differences in the proportion of Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Lentisphaerae phyla and in 17 bacterial species. More specifically, we found significant differences in the proportion of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Lentisphaerae and 6 bacteria species between controls and untreated patients; however, these differences disappeared when compared with treated patients. Untreated patients showed a significant reduction in the proportion of Prevotella copri compared to controls, while the bacteria was significantly more abundant in patients treated with interferon β-1b than in untreated patients, with levels resembling those observed in the healthy control group. We observed differences in gut microbiota composition between patients with multiple sclerosis and controls, and between patients treated and not treated with interferon β-1b. In most cases, no differences were observed between treated patients and healthy controls, particularly for P. copri levels. This suggests that the clinical improvements observed in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving interferon β-1b may result from the effect of the drug on gut microbiota. Longitudinal and functional studies are necessary to establish a causal relationship. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Microcephalic primordial dwarfism in an Emirati patient with PNKP mutation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pratibha; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Mohamed, Madiha; Saif, Fatima; Tawfiq, Nafisa; El Halik, Majdi; Al-Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Bastaki, Fatma

    2016-08-01

    Microcephaly is a rare neurological condition, both in isolation and when it occurs as part of a syndrome. One of the syndromic forms of microcephaly is microcephaly, seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ) (OMIM #613402), a rare autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of phenotypic severity, and known to be caused by mutations in the polynucleotide kinase 3' phosphatase (PNKP) gene. The PNK protein is a key enzyme involved in the repair of single and double stranded DNA breaks, a process which is particularly important in the nervous system. We describe an Emirati patient who presented with microcephaly, short stature, uncontrollable tonic-clonic seizures, facial dysmorphism, and developmental delay, while at the same time showing evidence of brain atrophy and agenesis of the corpus callosum. We used whole exome sequencing to identify homozygosity for a missense c.1385G > C (p.Arg462Pro) mutation in PNKP in the patient and heterozygosity for this mutation in her consanguineous parents. The Arg 462 residue forms a part of the lid subdomain helix of the P-loop Kinase domain. Although our patient's phenotype resembled that of MCSZ, the short stature and evidence of brain atrophy distinguished it from other classic cases of the condition. The report raises the question of whether to consider this case as an atypical variant of MCSZ or as a novel form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Atypical lymphocytosis resembling non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in peritoneal effusion of infectious mononucleosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Seiji; Ohyama, Satoko; Arai, Hanako; Kojima, Masaru; Johshita, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    Peritoneal effusion appears to be an unusual complication of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The cytological features of peritoneal effusion from a patient affected by IM are presented. The patient was a 21-year-old Japanese woman, with typical and physical findings of IM. Ascites disappeared with resolution of acute IM. The cytospin smears of the ascitic fluid were highly cellular, consisting exclusively of lymphoid cells. Lymphoid cells were composed of large cells with broad basophilic cytoplasm, as well as of small to medium-sized cells having scant cytoplasm and irregularly shaped nuclei. The overall cytomorphological pictures posed serious difficulties in differentiating this condition from those of peripheral T-cell lymphomas manifesting ascites. The majority of atypical lymphocytes, including large cells, expressed CD3 and CD8. The present case indicates that IM should be added to the list of lesions considered for the differential diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the peritoneal fluid, particularly regarding young adults.

  2. Debulking Surgery for Elephantiasis Nostras With Large Ectatic Podoplanin-Negative Lymphatic Vessels in Patients With Lipo-Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Nowak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo-lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. Methods: We present 2 cases of advanced lipo-lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. Results: The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Conclusions: Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo-lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas. PMID:24741382

  3. A high-threshold heat-activated channel in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons resembles TRPV2 and is blocked by gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Andreas; Linte, Ramona Madalina; Nau, Carla; Reeh, Peter; Babes, Alexandru

    2007-07-01

    Heat-activated ion channels from the vanilloid-type TRP group (TRPV1-4) seem to be central for heat-sensitivity of nociceptive sensory neurons. Displaying a high-threshold (> 52 degrees C) for activation, TRPV2 was proposed to act as a sensor for intense noxious heat in mammalian sensory neurons. However, although TRPV2 is expressed in a distinct population of thinly myelinated primary afferents, a widespread expression in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues suggests a more diverse physiological role of TRPV2. In its role as a heat-sensor, TRPV2 has not been thoroughly characterized in terms of biophysical and pharmacological properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that the features of heterologously expressed rat TRPV2 closely resemble those of high-threshold heat-evoked currents in medium- and large-sized capsaicin-insensitive rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Both in TRPV2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK)293t cells and in DRGs, high-threshold heat-currents were sensitized by repeated activation and by the TRPV1-3 agonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). In addition to a previously described block by ruthenium red, we identified the trivalent cations, lanthanum (La(3+)) and gadolinium (Gd(3+)) as potent blockers of TRPV2. Thus, we present a new pharmacological tool to distinguish between heat responses of TRPV2 and the closely related capsaicin-receptor, TRPV1, which is strongly sensitized by trivalent cations. We demonstrate that self-sensitization of heat-evoked currents through TRPV2 does not require extracellular calcium and that TRPV2 can be activated in cell-free membrane patches in the outside-out configuration. Taken together our results provide new evidence for a role of TRPV2 in mediating high-threshold heat responses in a subpopulation of mammalian sensory neurons.

  4. Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Ory, Nicolas Christian; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Thiel, Martin

    2017-05-15

    An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey. Sixteen (80%) of the scad had ingested one to five microplastics, mainly blue polyethylene fragments that were similar in colour and size to blue copepod species consumed by the same fish. These results suggest that planktivorous fish, as a consequence of their feeding behaviour as visual predators, are directly exposed to floating microplastics. This threat may be exacerbated in the clear oceanic waters of the subtropical gyres, where anthropogenic litter accumulates in great quantity. Our study highlights the menace of microplastic contamination on the integrity of fragile remote ecosystems and the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization of the Human Stomach Microbiota in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Torres, Javier; Hu, Nan; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Humphrys, Michael S; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Ravel, Jacques; Taylor, Philip R; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications.

  6. Molecular Characterization of the Human Stomach Microbiota in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoqin; Torres, Javier; Hu, Nan; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Humphrys, Michael S.; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Ravel, Jacques; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Goldstein, Alisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications. PMID:28730144

  7. Comparison of inguinal approach, scrotal sclerotherapy and subinguinal antegrade sclerotherapy in varicocele treatment: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fayez, A; El Shantaly, K M; Abbas, M; Hauser, S; Müller, S C; Fathy, A

    2010-01-01

    We compared outcome and complications of three simple varicocelectomy techniques. Groups were divided according to whether they would receive the Ivanissevich technique (n = 55), Tauber's technique (n = 51) or subinguinal sclerotherapy (n = 49). Selection criteria were: infertility >1 year, subnormal semen, sonographic diameter of veins >3 mm and time of regurge >2 s. Patients were randomly assigned to the groups of treatment, with follow-up every 3 months for 1 year. Improvement was only in sperm count and total motility for all groups. Pregnancy rates were 20, 13.73 and 12.24%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Hydrocele occurred only in the group which received the Ivanissevich technique (5.5%). Tauber's technique is simple; however, it has the disadvantage of multiple branching of small veins. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Three new species of the Indo-Pacific fish genus Hime (Aulopidae, Aulopiformes), all resembling the type species H. japonica (Günther 1877).

    PubMed

    Gomon, Martin F; Struthers, Carl D

    2015-11-19

    Descriptions of three new species of the aulopid genus Hime from the central and western Pacific and presumably the easternmost Indian Ocean are presented. Hime surrubea sp. nov., confined to the Hawaiian Island region, has been misidentified in species accounts and faunal lists as H. japonica and although resembling it is separable from that species by its shorter caudal peduncle, slightly larger head, larger eye, especially relative to head size, and slightly smaller pectoral and pelvic fins. Hime capitonis sp. nov. is known conclusively only from seamounts off the southern tip of New Caledonia and Vanuatu, and is distinguishable by its distinctively large head (32.3-35.6% SL) and eyes (orbital diameter 10.8-13.0% SL) and relatively few scales between the anus and anal fin origin (7-9). The Indonesian H. caudizoma sp. nov. is so far known from only 8 specimens, acquired in markets in southeastern Lombok and presumably caught nearby in what would be regarded the eastern reaches of the Indian Ocean. The species is recognisable by its dorsal fin of rather uniform moderate height with nearly straight distal margin and 17 rather than 16 rays, none of which is filamentous in either sex, the second penultimate ray rather than anterior rays the longest in males. Like the other two described here, H. caudizoma has among the largest head and eyes of the family. Observations on the dorsal fin form and other features of H. microps Parin & Kotlyar, 1989 are provided based on a large male specimen collected at Rapa Iti, Austral Islands and a re-evaluation of the original description.

  9. The Warthin-Like Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparison with Classic Type in the Patients with Coexisting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Bae, Ja Seong; Lee, Sohee; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid (WLPTC) is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) resembling Warthin tumors of the salivary glands. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathologic and molecular features of WLPTC remain unclear. Methods. Of the 2,139 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PTC from 2012 to 2013, 40 patients with WLPTC were identified and compared to 200 consecutive patients with classic PTC. BRAF mutation was tested with pyrosequencing. Results. There were no significant differences in age, predilection for women, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis between WLPTC and classic PTC. However, WLPTCs were more commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than classic PTCs (93% versus 36%, resp., P < 0.001) and showed significantly lower rate of BRAF mutation when compared to classic PTCs (65% versus 84%, resp., P = 0.007). In classic PTC, the frequency of BRAF mutations was negatively correlated with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. When we compared WLPTC and classic PTC in the patients with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics or the BRAF mutational rate between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with WLPTC have similar demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics to those with classic PTC coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  10. The Warthin-Like Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparison with Classic Type in the Patients with Coexisting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Min-kyung; Bae, Ja Seong; Lim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Youn Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid (WLPTC) is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) resembling Warthin tumors of the salivary glands. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathologic and molecular features of WLPTC remain unclear. Methods. Of the 2,139 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PTC from 2012 to 2013, 40 patients with WLPTC were identified and compared to 200 consecutive patients with classic PTC. BRAF mutation was tested with pyrosequencing. Results. There were no significant differences in age, predilection for women, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis between WLPTC and classic PTC. However, WLPTCs were more commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than classic PTCs (93% versus 36%, resp., P < 0.001) and showed significantly lower rate of BRAF mutation when compared to classic PTCs (65% versus 84%, resp., P = 0.007). In classic PTC, the frequency of BRAF mutations was negatively correlated with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. When we compared WLPTC and classic PTC in the patients with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics or the BRAF mutational rate between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with WLPTC have similar demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics to those with classic PTC coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:25983754

  11. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    PubMed Central

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  12. Reactive pectus carinatum in patients treated for pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jordan W; Colombani, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The Ravitch and minimally invasive Nuss procedures have brought widespread relief to children with pectus excavatum, chest wall deformities, over the last half century. Generally accepted long-term complications of pectus excavatum repair are typically limited to recurrence of the excavatum deformity or persistent pain. This study examines the authors' experience with patients who develop a subsequent carinatum deformity within 1 year of pectus excavatum repair. The authors retrospectively assessed the charts of all patients diagnosed as having a carinatum deformity subsequent to treatment for pectus excavatum at a tertiary urban hospital. We noted age at original correction of pectus excavatum, time from original correction to diagnosis of carinatum deformity, age at correction of carinatum deformity, complaints before correction, methods of repair, postoperative complications, and we reviewed relevant radiography. Three patients who underwent pectus excavatum repair between January 2000 and August 2007 developed a subsequent carinatum deformity. Two patients initially underwent minimally invasive Nuss correction of pectus excavatum; 1 patient underwent the Ravitch procedure. Within 1 year of original correction and despite intraoperative achievement of neutral sternal position, a protruding anterior chest deformity resembling de novo pectus carinatum emerged in each patient; we term this condition reactive pectus carinatum. The mean age of patients undergoing initial pectus excavatum repair was 13 years (range, 11-16 years). The pathophysiology of this reactive lesion is not well understood but is thought to originate from reactive fibroblastic stimulation as a result of sternal manipulation and bar placement. Patients who underwent Nuss correction initially were managed with early bar removal. Two of the patients eventually required surgical resection of the carinatum deformity at a time interval of 3 to 6 years after initial excavatum repair. In one patient

  13. [Scrotal temperature in 258 healthy men, randomly selected from a population of men aged 18 to 23 years old. Statistical analysis, epidemiologic observations, and measurement of the testicular diameters].

    PubMed

    Valeri, A; Mianné, D; Merouze, F; Bujan, L; Altobelli, A; Masson, J

    1993-06-01

    Scrotal hyperthermia can induce certain alterations in spermatogenesis. The basal scrotal temperature used to define hyperthermia is usually 33 degrees C. However, no study, conducted according to a strict methodology has validated this mean measurement. We therefore randomly selected 258 men between the ages of 18 and 23 years from a population of 2,000 young French men seen at the National Service Selection Centre in order to measure the scrotal temperature over each testis and in the median raphe in order to determine the mean and median values for these temperatures. For a mean room temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C with a range of 18 to 31 degrees C, the mean right and left scrotal temperature was 34.2 +/- 0.1 degree C and the mean medioscrotal temperature was 34.4 +/- 0.1 degree C. Scrotal temperature was very significantly correlated to room temperature and its variations. It was therefore impossible to define a normal value for scrotal temperature. Only measurement of scrotal temperature at neutral room temperature, between 21 and 25 degrees C, is able to provide a reference value for scrotal temperature. In this study, the mean scrotal temperature under these conditions was 34.4 +/- 0.2 degree C, i.e. 2.5 degrees C less than body temperature. In the 12.9% of cases with left varicocele, left scrotal temperature was significantly higher than in the absence of varicocele and was also higher than right Scrotal temperature. The authors also determined the dimensions of the testes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Rheumatic manifestations associated with Chikungunya virus infection: A study of 307 patients with 32-month follow-up (RHUMATOCHIK study).

    PubMed

    Bouquillard, Eric; Fianu, Adrian; Bangil, Marianne; Charlette, Nathalie; Ribéra, Anne; Michault, Alain; Favier, François; Simon, Fabrice; Flipo, René-Marc

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Chikungunya epidemic which struck Reunion Island in 2005 and 2006, we conducted a prospective, multicentre study (RHUMATOCHIK) whose main objective was analyse the characteristics and progression of rheumatic manifestations in patients with post-Chikungunya joint pain. A cohort of 307 consecutively included patients underwent rheumatological examinations for pain secondary to Chikungunya virus infection. The long-term evaluation was conducted by telephone survey 1 and 2 years after the onset of the viral infection. At inclusion, mean age was 54 years (24-87) and 83.1% of the patients were female. Chronic joint pain was associated with synovitis in 64.2% of the patients, affecting primarily the wrists, the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers, and the ankles. Attempts to detect the viral genome in joint fluid (10 patients) and synovial tissue (6 patients) using the RT-PCR technique were repeatedly unsuccessful. With a mean follow-up of 32 months, joint pain persisted in 83.1% of the patients. Functional impairment, however, was moderate, with a HAQ score of 0.44±0.5. Chikungunya virus infection is frequently the cause of joint manifestations that can persist for several months, or even several years. In some cases, the clinical symptoms closely resemble those usually associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are necessary to improve the therapeutic management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychopathological and demographic characteristics of hallucinating patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an analysis based on AMDP data.

    PubMed

    Baethge, Christopher; Jänner, Michaela; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Malevani, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10). Hallucinating versus non-hallucinating patients and age- and gender-matched hallucinating schizophrenic versus schizoaffective patients were compared with regard to key psychopathological and demographic characteristics. Relative to patients with schizoaffective disorder, patients with schizophrenia more often hallucinated at admission (36.6 vs. 16.2 %, RR: 2.3, p < 0.001). By subtype, frequency of hallucinations ranked auditory verbal > other auditory > visual > somatic/tactile > olfactory/gustatory. Hallucinating patients of either disorder were more often affected with respect to delusions (83 vs. 62 % and 81 vs. 48 % among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively [both p < 0.0001]) and anxiety. Hallucinating patients with schizoaffective disorder did not differ from hallucinating patients with schizophrenia. This is one of the few studies providing data on hallucinations in a routine clinical care setting. Hallucinations are a sign and likely a cause of greater illness severity. Patients with schizoaffective disorder less often experience hallucinations than patients with schizophrenia, but if they do, they seem to resemble patients with schizophrenia with regard to illness severity.

  16. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of breast cancer patients of eastern India: A multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Bhaumik, Gautam; Chattopadhyay, Bhargab

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of any significant data on the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer patients from the eastern part of India. This study aims to document the ER and PR status of breast cancer patients in the eastern Indian population, as catered by two premier tertiary care hospitals in Kolkata. All breast cancer patients registered between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, in the Departments of Oncology, of IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals and R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, who had at least undergone a core biopsy or surgery, were analyzed retrospectively for documentation of their ER and PR status, using the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) interpretation guidelines. Over a period of 3 years, a total of 927 patients were included for the study. A total of 825 (89%) patients had their ER and PR data available for evaluation. ER and PR positive was seen in 312 (37.82%) patients, ER and PR negative in 399 (48.36%) patients, ER positive and PR negative in 71 (8.6%) patients, and ER negative and PR positive results was found in 43 (5.21%) patients. This is the first multi-institutional documentation of ER and PR status from eastern India, having a modest number of patients and one of the earliest documentations using the latest ASCO/CAP interpretation guidelines. These findings resemble the data from the south and also reiterate the fact that majority of the Indian breast cancer patients are still ER and PR negative in spite of the changes in the interpretation guidelines.

  17. Immune cells and type 1 IFN in urine of SLE patients correlate with immunopathology in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Scott, Eric; Dooley, Mary Anne; Vilen, Barbara J; Clarke, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The immunopathological events in the kidneys of lupus nephritis (LN) patients are poorly understood due in part to the difficulty in acquiring serial biopsies and the inherent limitations in their analysis. To identify a means to circumvent these limitations, we investigated whether immune cells of kidney origin are present in patient urine and whether they correlate with kidney pathology. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on peripheral blood and urine cells of 69 SLE patients, of whom 41 were LN patients. In addition, type I IFN (IFNα/β) levels were determined in plasma and urine by bioassay. Approximately 60% of non-LN patients had urine lymphocytes. In these patients, T cells were always present and predominantly CD8(+), while B cells were either absent or a mixture of naïve and memory B cells. In contrast, >90% of LN patients had urine lymphocytes. In half, the B and T cells resembled those in non-LN patient urine; however, in the remaining patients, the B cells were exclusively Ig-secreting plasmablasts or plasma cells (PB/PCs) and the T cells were predominantly CD4(+). In addition, pDCs and IFNα/β frequently accompanied PB/PCs. The majority of patients with urine PB/PCs presented with proliferative nephritis and a significant loss of kidney function, which in some cases had progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD). In conclusion, urine can provide access to cells of kidney resident populations for phenotypic and functional characterization. Analysis of these cells provides insight into the kidney immunopathology and may serve as biomarkers to identify patients at risk for developing LN and progressing to ESRD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inferior Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation in Purebred Eurasier Dogs with Familial Non-Progressive Ataxia: A Retrospective and Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J.; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A.; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A.; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5 – 6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:25668516

  19. Family Resemblance in Attitudes to Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares young adults with their parents and explores food preferences and attitudes to food, especially sensitivity to cleanliness and contamination of foods. Results indicate small positive parent-child correlations for food preferences but larger correlations for contamination sensitivity. (Author/AS)

  20. Hubble Supernova Bubble Resembles Holiday Ornament

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image release December 14, 2010 A delicate sphere of gas, photographed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, floats serenely in the depths of space. The pristine shell, or bubble, is the result of gas that is being shocked by the expanding blast wave from a supernova. Called SNR 0509-67.5 (or SNR 0509 for short), the bubble is the visible remnant of a powerful stellar explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small galaxy about 160,000 light-years from Earth. Ripples in the shell's surface may be caused by either subtle variations in the density of the ambient interstellar gas, or possibly driven from the interior by pieces of the ejecta. The bubble-shaped shroud of gas is 23 light-years across and is expanding at more than 11 million miles per hour (5,000 kilometers per second). Astronomers have concluded that the explosion was one of an especially energetic and bright variety of supernovae. Known as Type Ia, such supernova events are thought to result from a white dwarf star in a binary system that robs its partner of material, takes on much more mass than it is able to handle, and eventually explodes. Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys observed the supernova remnant on Oct. 28, 2006 with a filter that isolates light from glowing hydrogen seen in the expanding shell. These observations were then combined with visible-light images of the surrounding star field that were imaged with Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 on Nov. 4, 2010. With an age of about 400 years as seen from Earth, the supernova might have been visible to southern hemisphere observers around the year 1600, however, there are no known records of a "new star" in the direction of the LMC near that time. A more recent supernova in the LMC, SN 1987A, did catch the eye of Earth viewers and continues to be studied with ground- and space-based telescopes, including Hubble. For images and more information about SNR 0509, visit: hubblesite.org/news/2010/27 heritage.stsci.edu/2010/27 www.nasa.gov/hubble The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., in Washington, D.C. Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J. Hughes (Rutgers University) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  1. Fifty seven years of follow-up of the Israeli cohort of Laron Syndrome patients-From discovery to treatment.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi; Kauli, Rivka

    2016-06-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations of dwarfed children newly Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Middle East and who resembled patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency were started by our group in 1958. In 1963 when we found that they have high serum levels of hGH, we knew that we had discovered a new disease of primary GH insensitivity. It was subsequently coined Laron Syndrome (LS, OMIM #262500). The etiopathogenesis was disclosed by 2 liver biopsies demonstrating a defect in the GH receptor. Subsequent investigations demonstrated deletions or mutations in the GHR gene. The defect lead to an inability of IGF-I generation, resulting in severe dwarfism, obesity, and other morphologic and biochemical pathologies due to IGF-I deficiency. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Following closely our cohort of 69 patients with LS enabled us to study its features in untreated and IGF-I treated patients. This syndrome proved to be a unique model to investigate the effects of IGF-I dissociated from GH stimulation. In recent studies we found that homozygous patients for the GHR mutations are protected lifelong from developing malignancies, opening new directions of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple skin ulcers due to Serratia marcescens in a immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, M; Pennica, A; Muscianese, M; Bottoni, U; Abruzzese, C; Giubettini, M; Pranteda, G; Pranteda, G

    2014-06-01

    Serratia marcescens is a species of gram negative bacillus, classified as a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, mainly involved in opportunistic infections, particulary in the hospital environment. Cutaneous infections have rarely reported in literature and are predominantly observed in elderly or in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations of skin infections include granulomatous lesions, necrotizing fasciitis, nodules, cellulitis, ulcers, dermal abscesses. Infections caused by S. marcescens may be difficult to treat because of resistance to a variety of antibiotics, including ampicillin and first and second generation cephalosporins. Aminoglycosides have good activity against S. marcescens, but resistant strains have also been described. We report a very intriguing case of S. marcescens infection, in an immunocompetent 18-year-old man, causing multiple rounded ulcers of varying sizes, along with few pustular lesions that both clinically and histopathologically mimic a pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). This is a non infectious neutrophilic skin disorder, characterized by painful and rapidly progressing skin ulceration. According to our experience, we would strongly recommend to perform cultures of multiple skin ulcers resembling PG, even in young healthy patients, to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment, since resistant to conventional antibiotics bacteria such as S. marcescens may be the cause of these lesions, like in the case here reported.

  3. Geographic distribution and characteristics of genotype A hepatitis B virus infection in acute and chronic hepatitis B patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiyoaki; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Masaya; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Saito, Takafumi; Arase, Yasuji; Imazeki, Fumio; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Umemura, Takeji; Ichida, Takafumi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Yoneda, Masashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Michitaka, Kojiro; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Tanuma, Junko; Korenaga, Masaaki; Murata, Kazumoto; Masaki, Naohiko; Koike, Kazuhiko; Mizokami, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted acute infections of the genotype A hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been increasing in Japan. Genotype A HBV is associated with an increased risk of HBV progression to chronic infection after acute hepatitis B (AHB) in adults. A nationwide survey was conducted to evaluate the geographic distribution, clinical, and virologic characteristics of genotype A AHB and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Japan. Five hundred seventy AHB patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010, and 3682 CHB patients were recruited between 2010 and 2011. HBV genotypes were determined for 552 and 3619 AHB and CHB patients, respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared among different genotypes in AHB and CHB patients. Genomic characteristics of HBV genotype A were examined by molecular evolutionary analysis. Hepatitis B virus genotype A was the predominant genotype for AHB between 2005 and 2010. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains in the AHB patients with genotype A were classified into subtype Ae. Among CHB patients, the occurrence of genotype A was 4.1%, and genotype A was spreading in young adults. In genotype A CHB patients, early stage liver diseases were predominant, although liver diseases progressed to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in some patients. The distribution of HBV genotypes is quite different between AHB and CHB in Japanese patients. Genotype A infection is spreading in young adults of Japanese CHB patients. Sequences derived from Japanese AHB patients were identical to or closely resembled the sequences derived from other Japanese AHB patients. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Changes in task-based effective connectivity in language networks following rehabilitation in post-stroke patients with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Glynn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined regions in the left and right hemisphere language network that were altered in terms of the underlying neural activation and effective connectivity subsequent to language rehabilitation. Eight persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia and eight normal controls participated in the current study. Patients received a 10 week semantic feature-based rehabilitation program to improve their skills. Therapy was provided on atypical examples of one trained category while two control categories were monitored; the categories were counterbalanced across patients. In each fMRI session, two experimental tasks were conducted: (a) picture naming and (b) semantic feature verification of trained and untrained categories. Analysis of treatment effect sizes revealed that all patients showed greater improvements on the trained category relative to untrained categories. Results from this study show remarkable patterns of consistency despite the inherent variability in lesion size and activation patterns across patients. Across patients, activation that emerged as a function of rehabilitation on the trained category included bilateral IFG, bilateral SFG, LMFG, and LPCG for picture naming; and bilateral IFG, bilateral MFG, LSFG, and bilateral MTG for semantic feature verification. Analysis of effective connectivity using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) indicated that LIFG was the consistently significantly modulated region after rehabilitation across participants. These results indicate that language networks in patients with aphasia resemble normal language control networks and that this similarity is accentuated by rehabilitation. PMID:26106314

  5. Decision-making deficits in patients diagnosed with disordered gambling using the Cambridge Gambling task: the effects of substance use disorder comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Zois, Evangelos; Kortlang, Noreen; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Lemenager, Tagrid; Beutel, Martin; Mann, Karl; Fauth-Bühler, Mira

    2014-07-01

    Disordered gambling (DG) has often been associated with impaired decision-making abilities, suggesting a dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To our knowledge, no previous study has accurately considered the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity (including nicotine dependence) on decision-making impairments in DG. We employed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to assess a big cohort of patients diagnosed with DG (N = 80) against matched healthy controls (HCs) (N = 108). The cohort included DG patients with nicotine and alcohol dependence, alcohol dependence only and 12 "pure" nonsmokers with only DG diagnosis. Pure nonsmoking, nicotine dependent as well as alcoholic DGs with current nicotine dependence, demonstrated a decision making profile, characterized by poor decision-making abilities and failure to make right choices (rational), closely resembling that of patients with vmPFC damage. This suggests that DGs with and without SUD comorbidity are equally affected in that domain of decision making abilities. Additionally, gambling diagnosis combined with alcohol and nicotine dependence involves a group of gambling patients with a relatively riskier decision making profile, showing that these patients apart from making irrational decisions take also more risks. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for SUD comorbidities with useful implications for future research and therapy. Limitations of the current investigation are discussed.

  6. Movement and Other Neurodegenerative Syndromes in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rikitha; Pantelyat, Alexander; Izbudak, Izlem; Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury. Seven rheumatic disease patients (5 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease patients) were referred and could be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. However, all of these patients were ultimately diagnosed as having other movement or neurodegenerative disorders. Findings inconsistent with and more expansive than Parkinson's disease included cerebellar degeneration, dystonia with an alien-limb phenomenon, and nonfluent aphasias. A notable finding was that individual patients could be affected by cooccurring movement and other neurodegenerative disorders, each of which could be exceptionally rare (ie, prevalence of ∼1:1000), and therefore with the collective probability that such disorders were merely coincidental and causally unrelated being as low as ∼1-per-billion. Whereas our review of the literature revealed that ubiquitous patterns of clinical injury were frequently associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of a widespread vasculopathy, our patients did not have such neuroimaging findings. Instead, our patients could have syndromes which phenotypically resembled paraneoplastic and other inflammatory disorders which are known to be associated with antineuronal antibodies. We similarly identified immune-mediated and inflammatory markers

  7. Thinking about thinking: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Clinical medicine, a learned, rational, science-using practice, is labelled a science even though physicians have the good sense not to practise it that way. Rather than thinking like scientists - or how we think scientists think - physicians are engaged in analogical, interpretive reasoning that resembles Aristotle's phronesis, or practical reasoning, more closely than episteme, or scientific reasoning. In medicine, phronesis is clinical judgment; and while it depends on both a fund of information and extensive experience, somehow it is not quite teachable. This practical, clinical rationality relies on case narrative for teaching and learning about illness and disease, for recording and communicating about patient care and, inevitably, for thinking about and remembering the details, as well as the overarching rules of practice. At the same time, "anecdotal" remains the most pejorative word in medicine, and the tension between the justifiable caution this disdain expresses and the pervasive narrative structure of medical knowledge is characteristic of clinical knowing generally: a tug-of-war between apparent irreconcilables that can be settled only by an appeal to the circumstances of the clinical situation. Practical rationality in the clinical encounter is characterized by a productive circulation between the particular details of the patient's presentation and general information about disease stored as a taxonomy of cases. Evidence-based medicine can improve this negotiation between general knowledge and the patient's particulars, but it cannot replace it. In a scientific era, clinical judgment remains the quintessential intellectual strength of the clinician. Why, then, do we not teach the epistemology of medicine? Understanding the mis-description of physicians' thinking - and the accompanying claim that medicine is, in itself, a science - could mitigate the misplaced perfectionism that makes mistakes in medicine personal and unthinkable.

  8. Translating medical documents improves students' communication skills in simulated physician-patient encounters.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Anja; Bittner, Johannes; Jonietz, Ansgar; Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-02-27

    Patient-physician communication should be based on plain and simple language. Despite communication skill trainings in undergraduate medical curricula medical students and physicians are often still not aware of using medical jargon when communicating with patients. The aim of this study was to compare linguistic communication skills of undergraduate medical students who voluntarily translate medical documents into plain language with students who do not participate in this voluntary task. Fifty-nine undergraduate medical students participated in this study. Twenty-nine participants were actively involved in voluntarily translating medical documents for real patients into plain language on the online-platform https://washabich.de (WHI group) and 30 participants were not (non-WHI group). The assessment resembled a virtual consultation hour, where participants were connected via skype to six simulated patients (SPs). The SPs assessed participants' communication skills. All conversations were transcribed and assessed for communication skills and medical correctness by a blinded expert. All participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire on their communication skills. Across all raters, the WHI group was assessed significantly (p = .007) better than the non-WHI group regarding the use of plain language. The blinded expert assessed the WHI group significantly (p = .018) better regarding the use of stylistic devices of communication. The SPs would choose participants from the WHI group significantly (p = .041) more frequently as their personal physician. No significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to the medical correctness of the consultations. Written translation of medical documents is associated with significantly more frequent use of plain language in simulated physician-patient encounters. Similar extracurricular exercises might be a useful tool for medical students to enhance their communication skills with

  9. Monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil.

    PubMed

    Roche, Julien; Shen, Yang; Lee, Jung Ho; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2016-02-09

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ(1-42) compared to that of Aβ(1-40) are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings ((3)JHNHα, (3)JC'C', (3)JC'Hα, (1)JHαCα, (2)JNCα, and (1)JNCα) recorded for Aβ(1-40) were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ(1-42), suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process.

  10. Is the use of AGILE patency capsule prior to videocapsule endoscopy useful in all patients with spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Andrada; Zahiu, Denise Carmen Mihaela; Voiosu, Theodor Alexandru; Mateescu, Bogdan Radu; Voiosu, Mihail Radu; Rimbaş, Mihai

    2017-06-01

    As already known, spondyloarthritis patients present a striking resemblance in intestinal inflammation with early Crohn's disease. Moreover, the frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is an important part of their treatment. Both conditions could lead to intestinal stenoses. Therefore we proposed to investigate the usefulness of the patency capsule test in patients with spondyloarthritis. 64 consecutive patients (33 males; mean age 38 ± 11 years) that fulfilled the AMOR criteria for seronegative spondyloarthropathy (59.4% ankylosing spondylitis) lacking symptoms or signs of intestinal stenosis were enrolled and submitted to an AGILE™ capsule patency test followed by a video capsule endoscopy (PillCam SB2™), as part of a protocol investigating the presence of intestinal inflammatory lesions. After reviewing the VCE recordings, the Lewis score (of small bowel inflammatory involvement) was computed. In only 5 patients (7.8%) of the study group, the luminal patency test was negative. However, there was no retention of the videocapsule in any of the patients. From the 59 patients with a positive patency test, 3 patients presented single small bowel stenoses (two with ulcerated overlying inflamed mucosa, one cicatricial), all being traversed by the videocapsule along the length of the recording. None of the patients with a negative test had bowel stenoses. There was no correlation between the patency test and the Lewis score, the C reactive protein value, diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, or the family history of spondyloarthritis, psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease. The AGILE patency capsule does not seem to be a useful tool for all patients with spondyloarthritis prior to small bowel videocapsule endoscopy (ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT 00768950).

  11. Low incidence of heparin-induced skin lesions in orthopedic surgery patients with low-molecular-weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Schindewolf, M; Paulik, M; Kroll, H; Kaufmann, R; Wolter, M; Boehncke, W-H; Lindhoff-Last, E; Recke, A; Ludwig, R J

    2018-04-23

    Heparins are widely prescribed for prevention and therapy of arterial and venous thromboembolic diseases. Heparin-induced skin lesions are the most frequent adverse effects of subcutaneous heparin treatment in non-surgical patients (7.5-39.8%); no data exist on surgical patients. Commonly, they are due to a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), but may also be a manifestation of life-threatening heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Lesions of both entities resemble initially. The risk of HIT is highest among heparin-anticoagulated orthopedic surgery patients. To determine incidence and causes of heparin-induced skin lesions in major orthopedic surgery patients. In a prospective cohort study consecutive patients with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) treatment were examined for cutaneous adverse effects. Further diagnostics (skin biopsy, clinical/laboratory assessment for thrombosis, bleeding, HIT, cross-allergies) were performed. Six of 316 enrolled patients (1.9%; 95% CI 0.4%-3.4%) developed heparin-induced skin lesions. All were caused by a DTH reaction, none was due to HIT or other rare heparin-associated skin diseases. Therapeutic use (dosage) of LMWH was identified as only risk factor (odds ratio: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.4-4.9; p=0.00141). In addition to DTH, 5 thromboembolic, 4 major bleeding complications but no cases of HIT or cross-allergies were observed. Orthopedic surgery patients have - unlike non-surgical patients - a low risk for heparin-induced skin lesions during LMWH treatment; all lesions were due to a DTH reaction. The risk for DTH differs considerably between individual patient cohorts. No association with HIT was observed. These data help to tailor anticoagulatory treatment individually and to increase patient safety. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts.

    PubMed

    Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Paju, P; Vihljajev, V; Pomm, K; Ladva, R; Korrovits, P; Laan, M

    2017-01-01

    /388 cases (82.7%), and for cryptozoospermia in 54/130 cases (41.5%). In contrast, 75% of oligozoospermia cases remained unexplained. The main cause of aspermia was severe sexual dysfunction (71.7% of aspermia patients). Azoospermia patients accounted for 86.4% of all cases diagnosed with secondary hypogonadism and 97.1% of patients with seminal tract obstruction. Of patients with a known genetic factor, 87.4% had extreme infertility (azoo-, crypto- or aspermia). The prevalence of congenital anomalies in the uro-genital tract was not clearly correlated with the severity of impaired sperm production. Previously defined 'potential contributing factors' varicocele and leukocytospermia were excluded as the primary causes of male infertility. However, their incidence was >2-fold higher (31.0 vs 13.5% and 16.1 vs 7.4%; P < 0.001) in the idiopathic infertility group compared to controls. In addition, the proportions of overweight (or obese) patients and patients suffering from a chronic disease were significantly increased in almost all of the patient subgroups. The study included only subjects with reduced total spermatozoa counts. Thus, these findings cannot be automatically applied to all male factor infertility cases. The novel insights and improved clarity achieved in the comprehensive analysis regarding the absolute, causative and plausible factors behind male infertility, as well as the 'potential contributing factors', will be valuable tools in updating the current clinical guidelines. The study highlights knowledge gaps and reiterates an urgent need to uncover the causes and mechanisms behind, and potential treatments of, oligozoospermic cases, representing the majority of idiopathic infertility patients (86.3%). The project was financed by the EU through the ERDF, project HAPPY PREGNANCY, no. 3.2.0701.12-004 (M.P., M.L.) and the Estonian Research Council: grants PUT181 (M.P.) and IUT34-12 (M.L.). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis

  13. Equitable access to elective hospital services: the introduction of patient choice in a decentralised healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen

    2012-02-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, increased waiting times for elective surgery was perceived to be a major accessibility problem in many countries. In an attempt to improve access, hospital choice reforms were introduced in a number of countries. In Norway, a nationwide reform to improve access came into effect in 2001. At the same time, renewed support was expressed for the long-standing political aim of ensuring equal access to healthcare services for all citizens regardless of their social position. The current aim is to analyse the relationship of the hospital choice reform and the goal of equitable access to hospital services. A survey conducted among Norwegian patients in 2004 provided information about whether a choice of hospital had been made. Information from the survey was merged with administrative data from the hospital that performed the treatment. The survey provided data on patients' socioeconomic position. Demographics, medical need, and prior use of healthcare services were controlled for to determine the effect of socioeconomic position on hospital choice. The patient's socioeconomic position, measured by education, was found to be significantly associated with hospital choice. The relationship resembled that of a social gradient. Patients with a primary education were less likely to have made a choice, followed by those with secondary education or a lower university degree. Patients with higher university education were most likely to have chosen. Hospital selection is a demanding task for many patients. Policymakers should therefore focus on crafting and implementing tools necessary for supporting uptake of choice in disadvantaged groups.

  14. [Patients' decision for aesthetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Fansa, H; Haller, S

    2011-12-01

    . Influence on patients' decision is only possible by high quality operation results, which in turn lead to good reputation with (non-aesthetic) physicians and patients. In contrast to print advertisements, the provision of information via the internet is of tremendous importance and must be both information and comprehensible. Not only the aesthetic result should be depicted, but also questions such as "when will I be fit after surgery", and possible problems and complications should be described honestly. Besides the described word-of-mouth recommendations web fora resemble a virtual extension of recommendation. Whether such web based fora will prevail as a significant source of information remains unclear. Board certification in plastic and aesthetic surgery ("Facharzt" qualification) was assessed as very important. Thus, this is relevant information which should be emphasized. Most important for the patients' decision, however, was patient-doctor communication. To develop a basis of trust, communication should be open and reliable. An adequate time span has to be planned for the first appointment with the patient. In addition to aesthetic results, risks and possible complications have to be discussed. An open and comprehensible conversation which does not sugar-coat the operation is assessed as very positive. Finally, based on this consultation the surgeon is suggestive of his surgical competence. This underlines that core competence in aesthetic surgery is a medical one. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Informing patients: oculoplastic surgery and the internet.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, F H; Jones, C A

    2009-11-01

    Oculoplastic surgery has received little attention compared with other subspecialties in terms of how the internet influences patient expectations. Blepharoplasty resembles a model for oculoplastic operations. We aimed to assess the quality of information accessed by patients on blepharoplasty using the internet as a resource. After surveying doctors and lay persons, the word 'blepharoplasty' and related terms were studied using an advanced keyword search. This scanned average monthly search volume over a recent 12-month period. The three most popular search terms that were found were entered into the Google search engine. Criteria published in the Journal of the American Medical Associationfor qualifying information from the internet were used in the analysis, yielding a possible score from 0 to a maximum of 4. Of the 150 websites that were studied, these criteria were fully applied to 101 websites. Only 2.5% of sites scored favourably on all four criteria; 6.5% scored three points; 10% scored two points; 41% scored one point; 40% of sites scored zero for objective quality. Superior scores were achieved by online encyclopaedias ('medipedias'), peer-reviewed journals, online abstracts, and book chapters. The websites of professional bodies scored poorly. The lowest scored were private clinics and National Health Service (NHS) hospital websites. Using the internet, the quality of information obtained for oculoplastic surgery seems far inferior to other subspecialties within ophthalmology as well as non-ophthalmic specialties. These findings are specifically relevant to surgeons carrying out blepharoplasty and of general relevance to ophthalmic plastic surgeons.

  16. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that deliberation is advantageous. Research suggests that simple, fast and frugal heuristic decision strategies sometimes result in better judgments and decisions. Durand et al. have developed two fast and frugal heuristic-based VCMs. To critically analyse the suitability of the 'take the best' (TTB) and 'tallying' fast and frugal heuristics in the context of patient decision making. Analysis of the structural similarities between the environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have been proven successful and the context of patient decision making and of the potential of these heuristic decision processes to support patient decision making. The specific nature of patient preference-sensitive decision making does not seem to resemble environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have proven successful. Encouraging patients to consider less rather than more relevant information potentially even deteriorates their values clarification process. Values clarification methods promoting the use of more intuitive decision strategies may sometimes be more effective. Nevertheless, we strongly recommend further theoretical thinking about the expected value of such heuristics and of other more intuitive decision strategies in this context, as well as empirical assessments of the mechanisms by which inducing such decision strategies may impact the quality and outcome of values clarification. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Observation of freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles support my idea that many dark comets were arrested and lurked in the solar system after every impaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    New observations show that some asteroids are looked like comets. http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles.html, http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/astronomers-puzzle-over-newfound.html. It supports my idea that ``many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system'' - ``Sun's companion-dark hole seasonal took its dark comets belt and much dark matter to impact near our earth. And some of them probability hit on our earth. So this model kept and triggered periodic mass extinctions on our earth every 25 to 27 million years. After every impaction, many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system. Because some of them picked up many solar matter, so it looked like the asteroids. When the dark hole-Tyche goes near the solar system again, they will impact near planets.'' The idea maybe explains why do the asteroid looks like the comet? Where are the asteroids come from? What relationship do they have with the impactions and extinctions? http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/CAL12/Event/181168, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.MAR.H1.267. During 2009 to 2010, I had presented there are many dark comets like dark Asteroids near the orbit of Jupiter in ASP Meetings. In 2010, NASA's WISE found them. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17, http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20100122.html Avoid Earth Extinction Associ.

  18. Pseudohypoparathyroidism vs. tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome: patient reclassification.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Arrate; Azriel, Sharona; Bonet, Mariona; Garin, Intza; Gener, Blanca; Lecumberri, Beatriz; de Nanclares, Guiomar Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Given that tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) and pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP/PPHP) are very rare monogenic disorders that share some features (distinctive facies, short stature, brachydactyly and, in some patients, intellectual disability) that lead to their misdiagnosis in some cases, our objective was to identify clinical, biochemical or radiological signs that could help to distinguish these two syndromes. We report on two cases, which were referred to the Endocrinology and Pediatric Endocrinology Services for obesity. Clinical evaluation initially suggested the diagnosis of PHP-Ia [phenotype suggestive of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) with parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance] and PPHP (phenotype resembling AHO, without PTH resistance), but (epi)genetic analysis of the GNAS locus ruled out the suspected diagnosis. Further clinical re-evaluation prompted us to suspect TRPS, and this was confirmed genetically. TRPS was mistakenly identified as PHP/PPHP because of the coexistence of obesity and brachydactyly, with PTH resistance in one of the cases. Specific traits such as sparse scalp hair and a pear-shaped nose, present in both cases, can be considered pathognomonic signs of TRPS, which could help us to reach a correct diagnosis.

  19. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting, E-mail: BTZhu@kumc.edu

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid developmentmore » of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid

  20. Clinical features and outcome of 6 new patients carrying de novo KCNB1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Marini, Carla; Romoli, Michele; Parrini, Elena; Costa, Cinzia; Mei, Davide; Mari, Francesco; Parmeggiani, Lucio; Procopio, Elena; Metitieri, Tiziana; Cellini, Elena; Virdò, Simona; De Vita, Dalila; Gentile, Mattia; Prontera, Paolo; Calabresi, Paolo; Guerrini, Renzo

    2017-12-01

    To describe electroclinical features and outcome of 6 patients harboring KCNB1 mutations. Clinical, EEG, neuropsychological, and brain MRI data analysis. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 95 epilepsy gene panel. The mean age at seizure onset was 11 months. The mean follow-up of 11.3 years documented that 4 patients following an infantile phase of frequent seizures became seizure free; the mean age at seizure offset was 4.25 years. Epilepsy phenotypes comprised West syndrome in 2 patients, infantile-onset unspecified generalized epilepsy, myoclonic and photosensitive eyelid myoclonia epilepsy resembling Jeavons syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and focal epilepsy with prolonged occipital or clonic seizures in each and every one. Five patients had developmental delay prior to seizure onset evolving into severe intellectual disability with absent speech and autistic traits in one and stereotypic hand movements with impulse control disorder in another. The patient with Jeavons syndrome evolved into moderate intellectual disability. Mutations were de novo, 4 missense and 2 nonsense, 5 were novel, and 1 resulted from somatic mosaicism. KCNB1 -related manifestations include a spectrum of infantile-onset generalized or focal seizures whose combination leads to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy including West, Lennox-Gastaut, and Jeavons syndromes. Long-term follow-up highlights that following a stormy phase, seizures subside or cease and treatment may be eased or withdrawn. Cognitive and motor functions are almost always delayed prior to seizure onset and evolve into severe, persistent impairment. Thus, KCNB1 mutations are associated with diffuse brain dysfunction combining seizures, motor, and cognitive impairment.

  1. Case Report: A Rosette-forming Glioneuronal Tumor in the Tectal Plate in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type I.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Emily P; Payne, Russell; Langan, Sara; Specht, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old female with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) who developed a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) in the tectal plate. This tumor was diagnosed in 2002 when the patient presented with obstructive hydrocephalus, which was subsequently treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and then an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Initially thought to be a pilocytic astrocytoma, it was followed with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) until tumor progression and development of a large fourth ventricular cystic component prompted resection via suboccipital craniotomy. Histological examination demonstrated an RGNT, a WHO Grade 1 tumor, with neurocytic rosettes, perivascular pseudorosettes, and elements resembling a pilocytic astrocytoma. Initially, the patient did well after her craniotomy, but postoperative complications set in that eventually led to her death. In this case report, we describe a relatively rare tumor that, despite its benign nature, leads to frequent complications and deficits due to its surgically challenging location. Along with previously reported examples, this cases raises the possibility of a causal relationship between NF1 and RGNT.

  2. The effect of body mass index on the outcomes of varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Pham, Khanh N; Sandlow, Jay I

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a potential contributor to male factor infertility. There are no studies to date to our knowledge that have examined the success of varicocelectomy in obese men. We determined if body mass index significantly affects the outcome of varicocelectomy. Retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent varicocelectomy from September 2003 to December 2009. Patients were placed into 3 groups based on body mass index, and categorized as normal weight (group 1-38 patients, body mass index 18.5 to 24.9), overweight (group 2-59 patients, body mass index 25 to 29.9) or obese (group 3-46 patients, body mass index 30 or greater). Significant improvement was defined as a greater than 50% increase in the total motile per ejaculate parameter on postoperative semen analysis. A total of 143 patients were available for analysis. There were no significant differences among patients in the 3 groups except for body mass index. Significant improvement in total motile/ejaculate on semen analyses was 71.1% (group 1), 61.0% (group 2) and 58.7% (group 3). Pregnancy rates were 43.8% (group 1), 43.5% (group 2) and 46.3% (group 3). There were no significant differences in improvement in total motile per ejaculate (p = 0.21, p = 0.17) or pregnancy rate (p = 0.60, p = 0.51) between the normal body mass index group, and the overweight and obese groups. Varicocelectomy for men with clinically palpable varicoceles has a significant chance of improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates regardless of preoperative body mass index. The outcomes of varicocelectomy in overweight and obese patients were similar to those of normal weight men. Therefore, varicocelectomy can be performed effectively and safely in overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone ER in patients with unsatisfactorily controlled schizophrenia by other antipsychotics: a flexible-dose approach.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Mauro; Mauri, Massimo C; Adami, Marina; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Giulio, Corrivetti

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of paliperidone ER in patients with symptomatic but not highly acute schizophrenia in terms of efficacy, safety, and patients' perception of their social functioning and well-being. This is a multicenter, open-label prospective study with a flexible-dose approach; 133 patients were enrolled and followed for 13 weeks after switching to paliperidone ER. Outcome efficacy measures were as follows: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale, and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale; in addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics (SWN-20) scale, the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), and the sleep evaluation scale were used. Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), adverse events, and subjective side effects were recorded. 118/133(88.7%) patients completed the study. The mean PANSS score decreased (88.98 ± 10.09 to 66.52 ± 16.29; P < 0.001); 40.5% of the patients achieved improvement of at least 30%. PSP and CGI-S scores as well as DAI-30 and SWN-20 decreased (P < 0.001). ESRS (P < 0.001) decreased significantly from the baseline. Throughout the trial, no deaths occurred and only one serious adverse event was reported. Paliperidone ER has proved to be efficacious, safe, and well tolerated also with this approach more closely resembling actual clinical practice. Patient-relevant outcome parameters such as social functioning and quality of life improved, which is crucial for treatment adherence in clinical practice.

  4. Mutational screening of the USH2A gene in Spanish USH patients reveals 23 novel pathogenic mutations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Usher Syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Among the three genes implicated, mutations in the USH2A gene account for 74-90% of the USH2 cases. Methods To identify the genetic cause of the disease and determine the frequency of USH2A mutations in a cohort of 88 unrelated USH Spanish patients, we carried out a mutation screening of the 72 coding exons of this gene by direct sequencing. Moreover, we performed functional minigene studies for those changes that were predicted to affect splicing. Results As a result, a total of 144 DNA sequence variants were identified. Based upon previous studies, allele frequencies, segregation analysis, bioinformatics' predictions and in vitro experiments, 37 variants (23 of them novel) were classified as pathogenic mutations. Conclusions This report provide a wide spectrum of USH2A mutations and clinical features, including atypical Usher syndrome phenotypes resembling Usher syndrome type I. Considering only the patients clearly diagnosed with Usher syndrome type II, and results obtained in this and previous studies, we can state that mutations in USH2A are responsible for 76.1% of USH2 disease in patients of Spanish origin. PMID:22004887

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  6. An explorative, cross-sectional study into abnormal muscular coupling during reach in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many stroke patients arm function is limited, which can be related to an abnormal coupling between shoulder and elbow joints. The extent to which this can be translated to activities of daily life (ADL), in terms of muscle activation during ADL-like movements, is rather unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the occurrence of abnormal coupling on functional, ADL-like reaching movements of chronic stroke patients by comparison with healthy persons. Methods Upward multi-joint reaching movements (20 repetitions at a self-selected speed to resemble ADL) were compared in two conditions: once facilitated by arm weight compensation and once resisted to provoke a potential abnormal coupling. Changes in movement performance (joint angles) and muscle activation (amplitude of activity and co-activation) between conditions were compared between healthy persons and stroke patients using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results The present study showed slight changes in joint excursion and muscle activation of stroke patients due to shoulder elevation resistance during functional reach. Remarkably, in healthy persons similar changes were observed. Even the results of a sub-group of the more impaired stroke patients did not point to an abnormal coupling between shoulder elevation and elbow flexion during functional reach. Conclusions The present findings suggest that in mildly and moderately affected chronic stroke patients ADL-like arm movements are not substantially affected by abnormal synergistic coupling. In this case, it is implied that other major contributors to limitations in functional use of the arm should be identified and targeted individually in rehabilitation, to improve use of the arm in activities of daily living. PMID:20233402

  7. Teaching Medical Students about Treatment Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Barry; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To demonstrate poor patient compliance, medical students who preregistered for a conference on patient compliance were asked to adopt the role of "patient" and to take "medication" (Vitamin C) for one week, to observe certain dietary restrictions, and to complete an attitude and health beliefs questionnaire. Student attitudes resembled those of…

  8. Galectins in Intestinal Inflammation: Galectin-1 Expression Delineates Response to Treatment in Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sundblad, Victoria; Quintar, Amado A.; Morosi, Luciano G.; Niveloni, Sonia I.; Cabanne, Ana; Smecuol, Edgardo; Mauriño, Eduardo; Mariño, Karina V.; Bai, Julio C.; Maldonado, Cristina A.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.

    2018-01-01

    Galectins, a family of animal lectins characterized by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates, modulate several immune cell processes shaping the course of innate and adaptive immune responses. Through interaction with a wide range of glycosylated receptors bearing complex branched N-glycans and core 2-O-glycans, these endogenous lectins trigger distinct signaling programs thereby controling immune cell activation, differentiation, recruitment and survival. Given the unique features of mucosal inflammation and the differential expression of galectins throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we discuss here key findings on the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease (CeD) patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions. In addition, we present new data highlighting the regulated expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1), a proto-type member of the galectin family, during intestinal inflammation in untreated and treated CeD patients. Our results unveil a substantial upregulation of Gal-1 accompanying the anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic response associated with gluten-free diet in CeD patients, suggesting a major role of this lectin in favoring resolution of inflammation and restoration of mucosal homeostasis. Thus, a coordinated network of galectins and their glycosylated ligands, exerting either anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory responses, may influence the interplay between intestinal epithelial cells and the highly specialized gut immune system in physiologic and pathologic settings. PMID:29545799

  9. Galectins in Intestinal Inflammation: Galectin-1 Expression Delineates Response to Treatment in Celiac Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Victoria; Quintar, Amado A; Morosi, Luciano G; Niveloni, Sonia I; Cabanne, Ana; Smecuol, Edgardo; Mauriño, Eduardo; Mariño, Karina V; Bai, Julio C; Maldonado, Cristina A; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2018-01-01

    Galectins, a family of animal lectins characterized by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates, modulate several immune cell processes shaping the course of innate and adaptive immune responses. Through interaction with a wide range of glycosylated receptors bearing complex branched N-glycans and core 2-O-glycans, these endogenous lectins trigger distinct signaling programs thereby controling immune cell activation, differentiation, recruitment and survival. Given the unique features of mucosal inflammation and the differential expression of galectins throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we discuss here key findings on the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease (CeD) patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions. In addition, we present new data highlighting the regulated expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1), a proto-type member of the galectin family, during intestinal inflammation in untreated and treated CeD patients. Our results unveil a substantial upregulation of Gal-1 accompanying the anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic response associated with gluten-free diet in CeD patients, suggesting a major role of this lectin in favoring resolution of inflammation and restoration of mucosal homeostasis. Thus, a coordinated network of galectins and their glycosylated ligands, exerting either anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory responses, may influence the interplay between intestinal epithelial cells and the highly specialized gut immune system in physiologic and pathologic settings.

  10. Adverse Effects of Common Sports and Recreational Activities on Male Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panara, Kush; Masterson, John M; Savio, Luis F; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2018-05-03

    Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction can be associated with sports with high rates of head injuries, such as American football. Although early reports linked other sports, such as bicycling, to erectile dysfunction, subsequent studies isolated these associations to sports cycling rather than recreational cycling. Certain sports (football, basketball, handball, and volleyball) were linked to increasing prevalence and severity of varicocele, offering a potential link to male infertility. In addition, recreational activities such as sauna, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, heated car seats, and laptop use were associated with high testicular temperature, which can impair spermatogenesis. Radio frequency electromagnetic waves from cell phones and laptops have also been shown to have deleterious effects on sperm viability and motility. Many common sports and daily activities represent potential sources of male infertility. Clinicians should be aware of these associations in explaining idiopathic infertility in males. Male infertility is an often overlooked component of a couple's inability to conceive. We outline many common and often overlooked sports and recreational exposures that have been associated with male infertility. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Cannabis Intoxication Case Series: The Dangers of Edibles Containing Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Vo, Kathy T; Horng, Howard; Li, Kai; Ho, Raymond Y; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis and its principal active constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are increasingly available as edibles resembling commercially available food products. In this case series, we describe a population of predominantly pediatric patients who were inadvertently exposed to a THC-containing product in San Francisco. Twelve children and 9 adults were identified, with 16 patients having detectable serum THC and THC metabolites. All patients presented to hospitals with a variety of constitutional symptoms and all were discharged home within 12 hours. In general, pediatric patients had more severe symptoms and longer hospital length of stay, and, uniquely, a majority presented with leukocytosis and elevated lactic acid levels. We recommend that efforts be made to increase general public awareness in regard to the potential hazards of THC-containing edibles resembling commercially available food products. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision-making deficits in patients diagnosed with disordered gambling using the Cambridge Gambling task: the effects of substance use disorder comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Zois, Evangelos; Kortlang, Noreen; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Lemenager, Tagrid; Beutel, Martin; Mann, Karl; Fauth-Bühler, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Background Disordered gambling (DG) has often been associated with impaired decision-making abilities, suggesting a dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Aims To our knowledge, no previous study has accurately considered the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity (including nicotine dependence) on decision-making impairments in DG. Methods and Materials We employed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to assess a big cohort of patients diagnosed with DG (N = 80) against matched healthy controls (HCs) (N = 108). The cohort included DG patients with nicotine and alcohol dependence, alcohol dependence only and 12 “pure” nonsmokers with only DG diagnosis. Results Pure nonsmoking, nicotine dependent as well as alcoholic DGs with current nicotine dependence, demonstrated a decision making profile, characterized by poor decision-making abilities and failure to make right choices (rational), closely resembling that of patients with vmPFC damage. Discussion This suggests that DGs with and without SUD comorbidity are equally affected in that domain of decision making abilities. Additionally, gambling diagnosis combined with alcohol and nicotine dependence involves a group of gambling patients with a relatively riskier decision making profile, showing that these patients apart from making irrational decisions take also more risks. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for SUD comorbidities with useful implications for future research and therapy. Limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:25161815

  13. Antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections: a mixed-methods study of patient experiences of non-medical prescriber management.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; MacLure, Katie; Peters, Sarah; Stewart, Derek

    2017-03-15

    To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. Mixed methods. Primary care. Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22