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Sample records for varying talker identity

  1. Children and adults integrate talker and verb information in online processing.

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Creel, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Children seem able to efficiently interpret a variety of linguistic cues during speech comprehension, yet have difficulty interpreting sources of non-linguistic and paralinguistic information that accompany speech. The current study asked whether (paralinguistic) voice-activated role knowledge is rapidly interpreted in coordination with a linguistic cue (a sentential action) during speech comprehension in an eye-tracked sentence comprehension task with children (aged 3-10) and college-aged adults. Participants were initially familiarized with two talkers who identified their respective roles (e.g. PRINCESS and PIRATE) before hearing a previously-introduced talker name an action and object (“I want to hold the sword,” in the pirate's voice). As the sentence was spoken, eye-movements were recorded to four objects that varied in relationship to the sentential talker and action (Target: SWORD, Talker-Related: SHIP, Action-Related: WAND, and Unrelated: CARRIAGE). The task was to select the named image. Even young child listeners rapidly combined inferences about talker identity with the action, allowing them to fixate on the Target before it was mentioned, although there were developmental and vocabulary differences on this task. Results suggest that children, like adults, store real-world knowledge of a talker's role and actively use this information to interpret speech. PMID:24611671

  2. On-Line Acoustic and Semantic Interpretation of Talker Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that listeners utilize talker-specific information in the speech signal to inform real-time language processing. However, there are multiple representational levels at which this may take place. Listeners might use acoustic cues in the speech signal to access the talker's identity and information about what they tend to…

  3. Talker differences in clear and conversational speech: Vowel intelligibility for normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus Ferguson, Sarah

    2004-10-01

    Several studies have shown that when a talker is instructed to speak as though talking to a hearing-impaired person, the resulting ``clear'' speech is significantly more intelligible than typical conversational speech. While variability among talkers during speech production is well known, only one study to date [Gagné et al., J. Acad. Rehab. Audiol. 27, 135-158 (1994)] has directly examined differences among talkers producing clear and conversational speech. Data from that study, which utilized ten talkers, suggested that talkers vary in the extent to which they improve their intelligibility by speaking clearly. Similar variability can be also seen in studies using smaller groups of talkers [e.g., Picheny, Durlach, and Braida, J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985)]. In the current paper, clear and conversational speech materials were recorded from 41 male and female talkers aged 18 to 45 years. A listening experiment demonstrated that for normal-hearing listeners in noise, vowel intelligibility varied widely among the 41 talkers for both speaking styles, as did the magnitude of the speaking style effect. While female talkers showed a larger clear speech vowel intelligibility benefit than male talkers, neither talker age nor prior experience communicating with hearing-impaired listeners significantly affected the speaking style effect. .

  4. The Contributions of Talker Familiarity and Individual Talker Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierloh, Maren; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The article details a two-phase study investigating the relative contributions of talker-familiarity and talker-intelligibility to L2 listening comprehension by learners in a classroom setting. Students from beginning to low-intermediate German FL classes participated in German language listening tasks, being exposed to speech by their German…

  5. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner. PMID:25618071

  6. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner.

  7. Talker Identification across Source Mechanisms: Experiments with Laryngeal and Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine listeners' ability to learn talker identity from speech produced with an electrolarynx, explore source and filter differentiation in talker identification, and describe acoustic-phonetic changes associated with electrolarynx use. Method: Healthy adult control listeners learned to identify…

  8. EEG activity evoked in preparation for multi-talker listening by adults and children.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2016-06-01

    Selective attention is critical for successful speech perception because speech is often encountered in the presence of other sounds, including the voices of competing talkers. Faced with the need to attend selectively, listeners perceive speech more accurately when they know characteristics of upcoming talkers before they begin to speak. However, the neural processes that underlie the preparation of selective attention for voices are not fully understood. The current experiments used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the time course of brain activity during preparation for an upcoming talker in young adults aged 18-27 years with normal hearing (Experiments 1 and 2) and in typically-developing children aged 7-13 years (Experiment 3). Participants reported key words spoken by a target talker when an opposite-gender distractor talker spoke simultaneously. The two talkers were presented from different spatial locations (±30° azimuth). Before the talkers began to speak, a visual cue indicated either the location (left/right) or the gender (male/female) of the target talker. Adults evoked preparatory EEG activity that started shortly after (<50 ms) the visual cue was presented and was sustained until the talkers began to speak. The location cue evoked similar preparatory activity in Experiments 1 and 2 with different samples of participants. The gender cue did not evoke preparatory activity when it predicted gender only (Experiment 1) but did evoke preparatory activity when it predicted the identity of a specific talker with greater certainty (Experiment 2). Location cues evoked significant preparatory EEG activity in children but gender cues did not. The results provide converging evidence that listeners evoke consistent preparatory brain activity for selecting a talker by their location (regardless of their gender or identity), but not by their gender alone. PMID:27178442

  9. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.

  10. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  11. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations.

  12. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION.

    PubMed

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Conrey, Brianna; Pisoni, David B

    2005-06-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners' categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect.

  13. Learning to Recognize Talkers From Natural, Sinewave, and Reversed Speech Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sheffert, Sonya M.; Pisoni, David B.; Fellowes, Jennifer M.; Remez, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors investigated how listeners learn to recognize unfamiliar talkers and how experience with specific utterances generalizes to novel instances. Listeners were trained over several days to identify 10 talkers from natural, sinewave, or reversed speech sentences. The sinewave signals preserved phonetic and some suprasegmental properties while eliminating natural vocal quality. In contrast, the reversed speech signals preserved vocal quality while distorting temporally based phonetic properties. The training results indicate that listeners learned to identify talkers even from acoustic signals lacking natural vocal quality. Generalization performance varied across the different signals and depended on the salience of phonetic information. The results suggest similarities in the phonetic attributes underlying talker recognition and phonetic perception. PMID:12542137

  14. Auralization studies on talker comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jessica; Torres, Rendell R.

    2003-10-01

    Although much research has focused on determining optimal acoustical environments for students in classrooms, relatively little has addressed the classroom as an acoustical workspace for teachers, who may suffer from stress and vocal strain due in part to poor acoustical environments. Although the primary problem is typically the background noise level (whether due to ventilation or students), it is also interesting to study systematically how controlling early reflections may improve the audible ``room response'' at the teacher's speaking location without inordinately increasing the reverberant level of the background noise. Moreover, the room response at the talker's position may help reduce the perceived need to strain the voice, as long as the reflections are not so delayed as to be disturbing. In this study approximately ten configurations of absorptive and reflective surfaces in a ``typical-sized'' classroom are auralized in real time. For each room condition, subjects rate the ``talker comfort'' in terms of perceived loudness of their speech, possible disturbance from echoes or increased background noise, and other factors. The primary descriptive physical parameter is essentially the relative amplitude and delay of clusters of early reflections, which are not always well characterized by the classical room-acoustics descriptors. Initial results of the modeling and subject testing will be presented.

  15. Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent…

  16. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker's face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker's face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  17. Relative roles of consonants and vowels in perceiving phonetic versus talker cues in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Gina; Owren, Michael J.

    2002-05-01

    Perceptual experiments tested whether consonants and vowels differentially contribute to phonetic versus indexical cueing in speech. In 2 experiments, 62 total participants each heard 128 American-English word pairs recorded by 8 male and 8 female talkers. Half the pairs were synonyms, while half were nonsynonyms. Further, half the pairs were words from the same talker, and half from different, same-sex talkers. The first word heard was unaltered, while the second was edited by setting either all vowels (``Consonants-Only'') or all consonants (``Vowels-Only'') to silence. Each participant responded to half Consonants-Only and half Vowels-Only trials, always hearing the unaltered word once and the edited word twice. In experiment 1, participants judged whether the two words had the same or different meanings. Participants in experiment 2 indicated whether the word pairs were from the same or different talkers. Performance was measured as latencies and d values, and indicated significantly greater sensitivity to phonetic content when consonants rather than vowels were heard, but the converse when talker identity was judged. These outcomes suggest important functional differences in the roles played by consonants and vowels in normative speech.

  18. Listening to speech in a background of other talkers: Effects of talker number and noise vocoding

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Stuart; Souza, Pamela; Ekelund, Caroline; Majeed, Arooj A

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most common interfering background sounds a listener experiences are the sounds of other talkers. In Experiment 1, recognition for natural Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) sentences was measured in normal-hearing adults at two fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 16 backgrounds with the same long-term spectrum: unprocessed speech babble (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 talkers), noise-vocoded versions of the babbles (12 channels), noise modulated with the wide-band envelope of the speech babbles, and unmodulated noise. All talkers were adult males. For a given number of talkers, natural speech was always the most effective masker. The greatest changes in performance occurred as the number of talkers in the maskers increased from 1 to 2 or 4, with small changes thereafter. In Experiment 2, the same targets and maskers (1, 2, and 16 talkers) were used to measure speech reception thresholds (SRTs) adaptively. Periodicity in the target was also manipulated by noise-vocoding, which led to considerably higher SRTs. The greatest masking effect always occurred for the masker type most similar to the target, while the effects of the number of talkers were generally small. Implications are drawn with reference to glimpsing, informational vs energetic masking, overall SNR, and aspects of periodicity. PMID:23556608

  19. Generalization to unfamiliar talkers in artificial language learning

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Sara

    2013-01-01

    While there is evidence that talker-specific details are encoded in the phonetics of the lexicon (Kraljic, Samuel, & Brennan, 2008; Logan, Lively, & Pisoni, 1991) and in sentence processing (Nygaard & Pisoni, 1998), it is unclear whether categorical linguistic patterns are also represented in terms of talker-specific details. The present study provides evidence that adult learners form talker-independent representations for productive linguistic patterns. Participants were able to generalize a novel linguistic pattern to unfamiliar talkers. Learners were exposed to spoken words that conformed to a pattern in which vowels of a word agreed in place of articulation, referred to as vowel harmony. All items were presented in the voice of one single talker. Participants were tested on items that included both the familiar talker and an unfamiliar talker. Participants generalized the pattern to novel talkers when the talkers spoke with a familiar accent (Experiment 1), as well as with an unfamiliar accent (Experiment 2). Learners showed a small advantage for talker familiarity when the words were familiar, but not when the words were novel. These results are consistent with a theory of language processing in which the lexicon stores fine-grained, talker specific phonetic details, but productive linguistic processes are subject to abstract, talker-independent representations. PMID:23456327

  20. The Distribution of Attention Across a Talker's Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malmberg, Jeanne; Goodell, Neil K.; Boring, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, a novel experimental paradigm investigated how spatial attention is distributed across a talker's face during auditory-visual speech discourse processing. Dots were superimposed onto several talkers' faces for 17-msec durations on the talker's left side, mouth, right side, and eyebrow area. Participants reported the locations of…

  1. Talker Versus Dialect Effects on Speech Intelligibility: A Symmetrical Study.

    PubMed

    McCloy, Daniel R; Wright, Richard A; Souza, Pamela E

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the relative effects of talker-specific variation and dialect-based variation on speech intelligibility. Listeners from two dialects of American English performed speech-in-noise tasks with sentences spoken by talkers of each dialect. An initial statistical model showed no significant effects for either talker or listener dialect group, and no interaction. However, a mixed-effects regression model including several acoustic measures of the talker's speech revealed a subtle effect of talker dialect once the various acoustic dimensions were accounted for. Results are discussed in relation to other recent studies of cross-dialect intelligibility. PMID:26529902

  2. Talker Versus Dialect Effects on Speech Intelligibility: A Symmetrical Study.

    PubMed

    McCloy, Daniel R; Wright, Richard A; Souza, Pamela E

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the relative effects of talker-specific variation and dialect-based variation on speech intelligibility. Listeners from two dialects of American English performed speech-in-noise tasks with sentences spoken by talkers of each dialect. An initial statistical model showed no significant effects for either talker or listener dialect group, and no interaction. However, a mixed-effects regression model including several acoustic measures of the talker's speech revealed a subtle effect of talker dialect once the various acoustic dimensions were accounted for. Results are discussed in relation to other recent studies of cross-dialect intelligibility.

  3. Effects of Talker Variability on Perceptual Learning of Dialects

    PubMed Central

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of listeners learned to categorize a set of unfamiliar talkers by dialect region using sentences selected from the TIMIT speech corpus. One group learned to categorize a single talker from each of six American English dialect regions. A second group learned to categorize three talkers from each dialect region. Following training, both groups were asked to categorize new talkers using the same categorization task. While the single-talker group was more accurate during initial training and test phases when familiar talkers produced the sentences, the three-talker group performed better on the generalization task with unfamiliar talkers. This cross-over effect in dialect categorization suggests that while talker variation during initial perceptual learning leads to more difficult learning of specific exemplars, exposure to intertalker variability facilitates robust perceptual learning and promotes better categorization performance of unfamiliar talkers. The results suggest that listeners encode and use acoustic-phonetic variability in speech to reliably perceive the dialect of unfamiliar talkers. PMID:15697151

  4. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  5. Culturally Consistent Treatment for Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Christine; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kan, Pui Fong; Blaiser, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss cultural influences on clinical interactions when treating late talkers, 2- to 3-year-old children with primary language delays. They use the literature to examine the cultural relevance of core components of early language treatment and propose alternative professional actions in the cases of cultural mismatches. Alternative…

  6. The impact of intended emotion on dynamic changes in talker amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieberg, Kimberly; Hall, Michael D.

    2003-10-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on auditory affect, and less research has focused on quantifying the nature of potential acoustic cues to emotion. A production study was conducted to address the possibility that one dynamic acoustic variable, talker amplitude, may systematically vary as a function of intended affect. Six talkers (three male, three female) were instructed to produce 200 target words with different emotional valences (e.g., joy versus sadness). Target words were phonetically balanced (PB), and each word was produced within a standard carrier phrase. Temporally specific intensity measurements were recorded for each target word. Descriptively and statistically distinct contours were obtained as a function of intended emotion. Furthermore, talkers differed in the way they produced amplitude contours for each emotion. The perceptual relevance of the observed affect-based differences in amplitude then was evaluated. Average contours for joy and sadness were applied to an emotionally neutral set of (CV) stimuli. Listeners discriminated the resulting contours within a two-alternative forced choice task, and sensitivity was evaluated using signal detection analyses. Implications for the potential role of amplitude in the perception of emotion, as well as for the representation of talker information, in words will be discussed.

  7. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student's Experience in Peer Discussions.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student's social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions.

  8. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student’s Experience in Peer Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student’s social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561

  9. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student's Experience in Peer Discussions.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student's social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561

  10. Talker versus dialect effects on speech intelligibility: a symmetrical study

    PubMed Central

    McCloy, Daniel R.; Wright, Richard A.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative effects of talker-specific variation and dialect-based variation on speech intelligibility. Listeners from two dialects of American English performed speech-in-noise tasks with sentences spoken by talkers of each dialect. An initial statistical model showed no significant effects for either talker or listener dialect group, and no interaction. However, a mixed-effects regression model including several acoustic measures of the talker’s speech revealed a subtle effect of talker dialect once the various acoustic dimensions were accounted for. Results are discussed in relation to other recent studies of cross-dialect intelligibility. PMID:26529902

  11. Identification and discrimination of bilingual talkers across languages.

    PubMed

    Winters, Stephen J; Levi, Susannah V; Pisoni, David B

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which language familiarity affects the perception of the indexical properties of speech by testing listeners' identification and discrimination of bilingual talkers across two different languages. In one experiment, listeners were trained to identify bilingual talkers speaking in only one language and were then tested on their ability to identify the same talkers speaking in another language. In the second experiment, listeners discriminated between bilingual talkers across languages in an AX discrimination paradigm. The results of these experiments indicate that there is sufficient language-independent indexical information in speech for listeners to generalize knowledge of talkers' voices across languages and to successfully discriminate between bilingual talkers regardless of the language they are speaking. However, the results of these studies also revealed that listeners do not solely rely on language-independent information when performing these tasks. Listeners use language-dependent indexical cues to identify talkers who are speaking a familiar language. Moreover, the tendency to perceive two talkers as the "same" or "different" depends on whether the talkers are speaking in the same language. The combined results of these experiments thus suggest that indexical processing relies on both language-dependent and language-independent information in the speech signal.

  12. Effects of fundamental frequency and vocal-tract length changes on attention to one of two simultaneous talkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, Christopher J.; Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments used the Coordinated Response Measure task to examine the roles that differences in F0 and differences in vocal-tract length have on the ability to attend to one of two simultaneous speech signals. The first experiment asked how increases in the natural F0 difference between two sentences (originally spoken by the same talker) affected listeners' ability to attend to one of the sentences. The second experiment used differences in vocal-tract length, and the third used both F0 and vocal-tract length differences. Differences in F0 greater than 2 semitones produced systematic improvements in performance. Differences in vocal-tract length produced systematic improvements in performance when the ratio of lengths was 1.08 or greater, particularly when the shorter vocal tract belonged to the target talker. Neither of these manipulations produced improvements in performance as great as those produced by a different-sex talker. Systematic changes in both F0 and vocal-tract length that simulated an incremental shift in gender produced substantially larger improvements in performance than did differences in F0 or vocal-tract length alone. In general, shifting one of two utterances spoken by a female voice towards a male voice produces a greater improvement in performance than shifting male towards female. The increase in performance varied with the intonation patterns of individual talkers, being smallest for those talkers who showed most variability in their intonation patterns between different utterances.

  13. Differences in Talker Recognition by Preschoolers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Jimenez, Sofia R.

    2012-01-01

    Talker variability in speech influences language processing from infancy through adulthood and is inextricably embedded in the very cues that identify speech sounds. Yet little is known about developmental changes in the processing of talker information. On one account, children have not yet learned to separate speech sound variability from…

  14. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  15. The Ebb and Flow of Ethnicity: Constructing Identity in Varied School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Ann Locke; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of ethnicity on students, discussing how the meaning and practice of ethnic identity are shaped by school experiences. The article suggests ethnicity is negotiated across time and social situations, rather than solely from group membership. Daily social interaction mediates and reshapes institutionally produced social or…

  16. Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

  17. Attention and word learning in toddlers who are late talkers.

    PubMed

    Macroy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel pseudo-words for unfamiliar objects over ten training sessions. The toddlers' attention allocation during the word-learning sessions was measured as well as their comprehension of the newly learned words. Late talkers showed reduced attention allocation to objects during word-training sessions, and also comprehended fewer of the novel words than toddlers with typical language development. Attention allocation was found to be a stronger predictor of word learning as compared to cognition and auditory comprehension. Reduced attention allocation may contribute to the early lexical delay characteristic in late talkers. PMID:27464621

  18. Training to Use Voice Onset Time as a Cue to Talker Identification Induces a Left-Ear/Right-Hemisphere Processing Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Alexander L.; Driscoll, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of perceptual training on a well-established hemispheric asymmetry in speech processing. Eighteen listeners were trained to use a within-category difference in voice onset time (VOT) to cue talker identity. Successful learners (n = 8) showed faster response times for stimuli presented only to the left ear than for those…

  19. Talker-specific influences on phonetic category structure.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Rachel M; Myers, Emily B; Lomibao, Janice A

    2015-08-01

    A primary goal for models of speech perception is to describe how listeners achieve reliable comprehension given a lack of invariance between the acoustic signal and individual speech sounds. For example, individual talkers differ in how they implement phonetic properties of speech. Research suggests that listeners attain perceptual constancy by processing acoustic variation categorically while maintaining graded internal category structure. Moreover, listeners will use lexical information to modify category boundaries to learn to interpret a talker's ambiguous productions. The current work examines perceptual learning for talker differences that signal well-defined, unambiguous category members. Speech synthesis techniques were used to differentially manipulate talkers' characteristic productions of the stop voicing contrast for two groups of listeners. Following exposure to the talkers, internal category structure and category boundary were examined. The results showed that listeners dynamically adjusted internal category structure to be centered on experience with the talker's voice, but the category boundary remained fixed. These patterns were observed for words presented during training as well as novel lexical items. These findings point to input-driven constraints on functional plasticity within the language architecture, which may help to explain how listeners maintain stability of linguistic knowledge while simultaneously demonstrating flexibility for phonetic representations. PMID:26328722

  20. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners responded to target words in an English word-monitoring task in which sequences of words were randomized. Half of the sequences were spoken by a single talker and the other half by multiple talkers. Results Mandarin listeners living in China were slower and less accurate than both English listeners and Mandarin listeners living in the United States. Mandarin listeners living in the United States were less accurate than English natives only in the more cognitively demanding mixed-talker condition. Conclusions Mixed-talker speech affects processing in native and nonnative listeners alike, although the decrement is larger in nonnatives and further exaggerated in less proficient listeners. Language immersion improves listeners' ability to resolve talker variability, and this suggests that immersion may automatize nonnative processing, freeing cognitive resources that may play a crucial role in speech perception. These results lend support to the active control model of speech perception. PMID:25811169

  1. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant group difference was on the third person regular –s inflection. This was also the only significant difference when we compared late talkers with continuing delay, late bloomers (who scored within 1 standard deviation of the comparison group in mean length of utterance), and typically developing peers. The late talker and comparison children differed greatly in mean total scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (Scarborough, 1990), a measure of syntactic complexity. The group with continuing delay scored significantly lower on the IPSyn than the late bloomer and typically developing groups, which did not differ from each other. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the higher order language group differences found through adolescence in these late talkers relative to comparison peers with similar socioeconomic status and similar nonverbal abilities, supporting the notion that late talkers have an ongoing weakness in language endowment that manifests differently over the course of development. PMID:25631704

  2. Cellular response to high pulse repetition rate nanosecond pulses varies with fluorescent marker identity.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Zachary A; Tolstykh, Gleb P; Beier, Hope T; Ibey, Bennett L

    2016-09-23

    Nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP's) are a well-studied phenomena in biophysics that cause substantial alterations to cellular membrane dynamics, internal biochemistry, and cytoskeletal structure, and induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. While several studies have attempted to measure the effects of multiple nanosecond pulses, the effect of pulse repetition rate (PRR) has received little attention, especially at frequencies greater than 100 Hz. In this study, uptake of Propidium Iodide, FM 1-43, and YO-PRO-1 fluorescent dyes in CHO-K1 cells was monitored across a wide range of PRRs (5 Hz-500 KHz) using a laser-scanning confocal microscope in order to better understand how high frequency repetition rates impact induced biophysical changes. We show that frequency trends depend on the identity of the dye under study, which could implicate transmembrane protein channels in the uptake response due to their chemical selectivity. Finally, YO-PRO-1 fluorescence was monitored in the presence of Gadolinium (Gd(3+)), Ruthenium Red, and in calcium-free solution to elucidate a mechanism for its unique frequency trend. PMID:27553279

  3. Courtship attention in sagebrush lizards varies with male identity and female reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica; Martins, Emília P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous experiments suggest that males spend more time with the more receptive of 2 novel females or the one with the higher fitness potential. However, males often court individual females repeatedly over a season; for example, male lizards sequentially visit familiar females as they patrol territorial boundaries. It may benefit males to vary display intensity as they move between multiple females. In this study, we explored the factors influencing amount of male courtship to familiar females in the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus. We tested whether males vary the amount of courtship exhibited due to individual differences among males, female reproductive state, or female fitness potential. Each male was allowed to interact separately, but repeatedly, with 2 females until both females laid eggs. Male courtship behavior with each of the 2 females was assayed at an intermediate point, after 3 weeks of interaction. We found that individual differences among males were considerable. The number of male courtship displays was also positively correlated with female latency to lay eggs, with males displaying more often toward females with eggs that had not yet been fertilized. Courtship behavior was not well predicted by the number of eggs laid or by female width, both measures of female quality. Thus, male S. graciosus appear to alter courtship intensity more in response to signals of female reproductive state than in response to variation in potential female fitness. PMID:19458780

  4. Liana competition with tropical trees varies seasonally but not with tree species identity.

    PubMed

    Leonor, Alvarez-Cansino; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Reid, Joseph P; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Lianas in tropical forests compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources and limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana competition with adult canopy trees may be particularly strong, and, if lianas compete more intensely with some tree species than others, they may influence tree species composition. We performed the first systematic, large-scale liana removal experiment to assess the competitive effects of lianas on multiple tropical tree species by measuring sap velocity and growth in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree sap velocity increased 60% soon after liana removal compared to control trees, and tree diameter growth increased 25% after one year. Although tree species varied in their response to lianas, this variation was not significant, suggesting that lianas competed similarly with all tree species examined. The effect of lianas on tree sap velocity was particularly strong during the dry season, when soil moisture was low, suggesting that lianas compete intensely with trees for water. Under the predicted global change scenario of increased temperature and drought intensity, competition from lianas may become more prevalent in seasonal tropical forests, which, according to our data, should have a negative effect on most tropical tree species. PMID:26236888

  5. Liana competition with tropical trees varies seasonally but not with tree species identity.

    PubMed

    Leonor, Alvarez-Cansino; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Reid, Joseph P; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Lianas in tropical forests compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources and limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana competition with adult canopy trees may be particularly strong, and, if lianas compete more intensely with some tree species than others, they may influence tree species composition. We performed the first systematic, large-scale liana removal experiment to assess the competitive effects of lianas on multiple tropical tree species by measuring sap velocity and growth in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree sap velocity increased 60% soon after liana removal compared to control trees, and tree diameter growth increased 25% after one year. Although tree species varied in their response to lianas, this variation was not significant, suggesting that lianas competed similarly with all tree species examined. The effect of lianas on tree sap velocity was particularly strong during the dry season, when soil moisture was low, suggesting that lianas compete intensely with trees for water. Under the predicted global change scenario of increased temperature and drought intensity, competition from lianas may become more prevalent in seasonal tropical forests, which, according to our data, should have a negative effect on most tropical tree species.

  6. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  7. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds. PMID:25618106

  8. Do the rich get richer? Varying effects of tree species identity and diversity on the richness of understory taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Champagne, Juilette; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Schoolmaster, Donald; Stejskal, Robert; Volařík, Daniel; Šebesta, Jan; Trnka, Filip; Koutecký, Tomáš; Švarc, Petr; Svátek, Martin; Hector, Andy; Matula, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Understory herbs and soil invertebrates play key roles in soil formation and nutrient cycling in forests. Studies suggest that diversity in the canopy and in the understory are positively associated, but these studies often confound the effects of tree species diversity with those of tree species identity and abiotic conditions. We combined extensive field sampling with structural equation modeling to evaluate the simultaneous effects of tree diversity on the species diversity of understory herbs, beetles, and earthworms. The diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles was directly and positively associated with tree diversity, presumably because species of both these taxa specialize on certain species of trees. Tree identity also strongly affected diversity in the understory, especially for herbs, likely as a result of interspecific differences in canopy light transmittance or litter decomposition rates. Our results suggest that changes in forest management will disproportionately affect certain understory taxa. For instance, changes in canopy diversity will affect the diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles more than changes in tree species composition, whereas the converse would be expected for understory herbs and detritivorous beetles. We conclude that the effects of tree diversity on understory taxa can vary from positive to negative and may affect biogeochemical cycling in temperate forests. Thus, maintaining high diversity in temperate forests can promote the diversity of multiple taxa in the understory.

  9. Reading Voices and Hearing Text: Talker-Specific Auditory Imagery in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jessica D.; Nygaard, Lynne C.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine if linguistic representations accessed during reading include auditory imagery for characteristics of a talker's voice. In 3 experiments, participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate, and one spoke at a slow…

  10. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the strength of interspeaker and intraspeaker articulatory-to-acoustic relations of vowel contrast produced by talkers with dysarthria and controls. Methods: Six talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), six talkers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 12 controls repeated a…

  11. Children's Perception of Speech Produced in a Two-Talker Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mallory; Buss, Emily; Jacks, Adam; Taylor, Crystal; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the degree to which children benefit from the acoustic modifications made by talkers when they produce speech in noise. Method: A repeated measures design compared the speech perception performance of children (5-11 years) and adults in a 2-talker masker. Target speech was produced in a 2-talker background or in…

  12. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  13. Speech recognition interference by the temporal and spectral properties of a single competing talker.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Daniel; Xu, Jiaqian

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition during speech-on-speech masking may be impaired due to the interaction between amplitude modulations of the target and competing talker. Young normal-hearing adults were tested in a competing talker paradigm where the target and/or competing talker was processed to primarily preserve amplitude modulation cues. Effects of talker sex and linguistic interference were also examined. Results suggest that performance patterns for natural speech-on-speech conditions are largely consistent with the same masking patterns observed for signals primarily limited to temporal amplitude modulations. However, results also suggest a role for spectral cues in talker segregation and linguistic competition. PMID:27586780

  14. Experience with a talker can transfer across modalities to facilitate lipreading.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Kauyumari; Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

    2013-10-01

    Rosenblum, Miller, and Sanchez (Psychological Science, 18, 392-396, 2007) found that subjects first trained to lip-read a particular talker were then better able to perceive the auditory speech of that same talker, as compared with that of a novel talker. This suggests that the talker experience a perceiver gains in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality to make that speech easier to perceive. An experiment was conducted to examine whether this cross-sensory transfer of talker experience could occur (1) from auditory to lip-read speech, (2) with subjects not screened for adequate lipreading skill, (3) when both a familiar and an unfamiliar talker are presented during lipreading, and (4) for both old (presentation set) and new words. Subjects were first asked to identify a set of words from a talker. They were then asked to perform a lipreading task from two faces, one of which was of the same talker they heard in the first phase of the experiment. Results revealed that subjects who lip-read from the same talker they had heard performed better than those who lip-read a different talker, regardless of whether the words were old or new. These results add further evidence that learning of amodal talker information can facilitate speech perception across modalities and also suggest that this information is not restricted to previously heard words.

  15. Preschoolers' Use of Talker Information in On-Line Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial part of language development is learning how various social and contextual language-external factors constrain an utterance's meaning. This learning process is poorly understood. Five experiments addressed one hundred thirty-one 3- to 5-year-old children's use of one such socially relevant information source: talker characteristics.…

  16. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  17. Bimodal Hearing and Speech Perception with a Competing Talker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Walger, Martin; von Wedel, Hasso; Meister, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bimodal stimulation upon hearing ability for speech recognition in the presence of a single competing talker. Method: Speech recognition was measured in 3 listening conditions: hearing aid (HA) alone, cochlear implant (CI) alone, and both devices together (CI + HA). To examine…

  18. Effects of Talker Variability on Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of talker variability on vowel recognition by cochlear implant (CI) users and by normal-hearing (NH) participants listening to 4-channel acoustic CI simulations. Method: CI users were tested with their clinically assigned speech processors. For NH participants, 3 CI processors were simulated, using different…

  19. Pragmatic Functions of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kaufman, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Toddlers who are "late talkers" demonstrate reduced expressive vocabulary in the absence of physical, social, cognitive, or sensory impairment; they are usually identified at age 2, when they produce fewer than 50 words and do not combine words (Rescorla, 1989). This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of 10 late talking toddlers and 11…

  20. Integration of current identity-based district-varied health insurance schemes in China: implications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Zhao; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-03-01

    With China's great efforts to improve public health insurance, clear progress has been achieved toward the ambitious full health insurance coverage strategy for all. The current health insurance schemes in China fall into three categories: urban employee basic health insurance scheme, urban resident scheme, and new rural cooperative medical system. Despite their phasic success, these substantially identity-based, district-varied health insurance schemes have separate operation mechanisms, various administrative institutions, and consequently poor connections. On the other hand, the establishment and implementation of various health insurance schemes provide the preconditioning of more sophisticated social health insurance schemes, the increase in the income of urban and rural people, and the great importance attached by the government. Moreover, the reform of the "Hukou" (household register) system provides economical, official, and institutional bases. Therefore, the establishment of an urban-rural integrated, citizen-based, and nationwide-universal health insurance scheme by the government is critically important to attain equality and national connection. Accordingly, the differences between urban and rural areas should be minimized. In addition, the current schemes, administrative institutions, and networks should be integrated and interconnected. Moreover, more expenditure on health insurance might be essential for the integration despite the settings of global financial crisis. Regardless of the possible challenges in implementation, the proposed new scheme is promising and may be applied in the near future for the benefit of the Chinese people and global health.

  1. Better-ear glimpsing efficiency with symmetrically-placed interfering talkers.

    PubMed

    Brungart, Douglas S; Iyer, Nandini

    2012-10-01

    In listening tasks where a target speech signal is spatially separated from a masking voice, listeners can often gain a substantial advantage in performance by attending to the ear with the better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, this better-ear strategy becomes much more complicated when a target talker located in front of the listener is masked by interfering talkers positioned at symmetric locations to the left and right of the target. When this happens, there are no long-term SNR advantages at either ear and the only binaural SNR advantages available are the result of complicated better-ear glimpses that vary as a function of frequency and rapidly switch back and forth between the two ears according to the natural fluctuations in the relative levels of the two masking voices. In this study, a signal processing technique was used to take the better-ear glimpses that would ordinarily be randomly distributed across the two ears in a binaural speech signal and move them all into the same ear. This resulted in a monaural signal that contained all the information available to an ideal listener using an optimal binaural glimpsing strategy. Speech intelligibility was measured with these optimized monaural stimuli and compared to performance with unprocessed binaural speech stimuli. Performance was similar in these two conditions, suggesting that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently extract information from better-ear glimpses that fluctuate rapidly across frequency and across the two ears.

  2. On the Nature of Talker Variability Effects on Recall of Spoken Word Lists

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729

  3. Indexical properties influence time-varying amplitude and fundamental frequency contributions of vowels to sentence intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how non-linguistic, indexical information about talker identity interacts with contributions to sentence intelligibility by the time-varying amplitude (temporal envelope) and fundamental frequency (F0). Young normal-hearing adults listened to sentences that preserved the original consonants but replaced the vowels with a single vowel production. This replacement vowel selectively preserved amplitude or F0 cues of the original vowel, but replaced cues to phonetic identity. Original vowel duration was always preserved. Three experiments investigated indexical contributions by replacing vowels with productions from the same or different talker, or by acoustically morphing the original vowel. These stimulus conditions investigated how vowel suprasegmental and indexical properties interact and contribute to intelligibility independently from phonetic information. Results demonstrated that indexical properties influence the relative contribution of suprasegmental properties to sentence intelligibility. F0 variations are particularly important in the presence of conflicting indexical information. Temporal envelope modulations significantly improve sentence intelligibility, but are enhanced when either indexical or F0 cues are available. These findings suggest that F0 and other indexical cues may facilitate perceptually grouping suprasegmental properties of vowels with the remainder of the sentence. Temporal envelope modulations of vowels may contribute to intelligibility once they are successfully integrated with the preserved signal. PMID:26543276

  4. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  5. Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

  6. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  7. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  8. Assertive and Responsive Conversational Skills of Italian-Speaking Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifacio, Serena; Girolametto, Luigi; Bulligan, Manuela; Callegari, Monica; Vignola, Sandra; Zocconi, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the pragmatic abilities of late talkers at 24 months of age indicates that they have difficulties initiating conversational interactions, but possess intact responsiveness skills. This study uses a parent-administered questionnaire for evaluating the conversational skills of late talkers and suggesting pragmatic…

  9. Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

  10. Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Valerie; Markham, Duncan

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility for adult and child talkers, and whether the relative intelligibility of different talkers was dependent on listener characteristics. In experiment 1, word intelligibility was measured for 45 talkers (18 women, 15 men, 6 boys, 6 girls) from a homogeneous accent group. The material consisted of 124 words familiar to 7-year-olds that adequately covered all frequent consonant confusions; stimuli were presented to 135 adult and child listeners in low-level background noise. Seven-to-eight-year-old listeners made significantly more errors than 12-year-olds or adults, but the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was highly consistent across groups. In experiment 2, listener ratings on a number of voice dimensions were obtained for the adults talkers identified in experiment 1 as having the highest and lowest intelligibility. Intelligibility was significantly correlated with subjective dimensions reflecting articulation, voice dynamics, and general quality. Finally, in experiment 3, measures of fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, word duration, consonant-vowel intensity ratio, and vowel space size were obtained for all talkers. Overall, word intelligibility was significantly correlated with the total energy in the 1- to 3-kHz region and word duration; these measures predicted 61% of the variability in intelligibility. The fact that the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was remarkably consistent across listener age groups suggests that the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of a talker's utterance are the primary factor in determining talker intelligibility. Although some acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility were identified, variability in the profiles of the ``best'' talkers suggests that high intelligibility can be achieved through a combination of different acoustic-phonetic characteristics. .

  11. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  12. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  13. The development of phonological skills in late and early talkers

    PubMed Central

    KEHOE, Margaret; CHAPLIN, Elisa; MUDRY, Pauline; FRIEND, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (<< late-talkers >>) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (<< middle group >>) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (<< precocious >> or “early talkers”). The phonological abilities (e.g., phonemic inventory, percentage of correct consonants, and phonological processes) of the three groups were compared. The comparison was based on analyses of spontaneous language samples. Most findings were consistent with previous results found in English-speaking children, indicating that the phonological abilities of late talkers are less well developed than those of children with average-sized vocabularies which in turn are less well-developed than those of children with advanced vocabularies. Nevertheless, several phonological measures were not related to vocabulary size, in particular those concerning syllable-final position. These findings differ from those obtained in English. The article finally discusses the clinical implications of the findings for children with delayed language development. PMID:26924855

  14. The influence of informational masking in reverberant, multi-talker environments.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2015-08-01

    The relevance of informational masking (IM) in real-world listening is not well understood. In literature, IM effects of up to 10 dB in measured speech reception thresholds (SRTs) are reported. However, these experiments typically employed simplified spatial configurations and speech corpora that magnified confusions. In this study, SRTs were measured with normal hearing subjects in a simulated cafeteria environment. The environment was reproduced by a 41-channel 3D-loudspeaker array. The target talker was 2 m in front of the listener and masking talkers were either spread throughout the room or colocated with the target. Three types of maskers were realized: one with the same talker as the target (maximum IM), one with talkers different from the target, and one with unintelligible, noise-vocoded talkers (minimal IM). Overall, SRTs improved for the spatially distributed conditions compared to the colocated conditions. Within the spatially distributed conditions, there was no significant difference between thresholds with the different- and vocoded-talker maskers. Conditions with the same-talker masker were the only conditions with substantially higher thresholds, especially in the colocated conditions. These results suggest that IM related to target-masker confusions, at least for normal-hearing listeners, is of low relevance in real-life listening. PMID:26328677

  15. Effects of Hearing Loss and Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition with Competing Talkers

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Schreitmüller, Stefan; Ortmann, Magdalene; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched for their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT) while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT). The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models, it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC). In a post-hoc analysis, the listeners were further

  16. Subjective evaluation of auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings of a talker in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-04-01

    A high degree of speech intelligibility is very important in educational environments. When designing such spaces, like classrooms, auralizations can be used to subjectively assess the degree of speech intelligibility and clarity. Auralizations are most commonly made by convolving the impulse response (IR) of an omni-directional source with a single channel anechoic speech recording. This paper explores the idea of using multi-channel recordings to create the auralizations, using a female talker in motion. An omni-directional source is split into quadrants and the IR is calculated for each section. These IR's are convolved with the appropriate channel of the anechoic recording and then the four auralizations are mixed to create one final auralization. The auralizations were made using four-channel anechoic recordings of a person walking on a platform while talking. Subjective tests were conducted to determine the ease with which subjects could identify the direction of the movement of the source in rooms with varying amounts of absorption. This method can be used to create more realistic classroom auralizations, as teachers typically move around the room as they teach. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Auditory masking of speech in reverberant multi-talker environments.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tobias; Buchholz, Jörg M; Best, Virginia

    2016-03-01

    Auditory localization research needs to be performed in more realistic testing environments to better capture the real-world abilities of listeners and their hearing devices. However, there are significant challenges involved in controlling the audibility of relevant target signals in realistic environments. To understand the important aspects influencing target detection in more complex environments, a reverberant room with a multi-talker background was simulated and presented to the listener in a loudspeaker-based virtual sound environment. Masked thresholds of a short speech stimulus were measured adaptively for multiple target source locations in this scenario. It was found that both distance and azimuth of the target source have a strong influence on the masked threshold. Subsequently, a functional model was applied to analyze the factors influencing target detectability. The model is comprised of an auditory front-end that generates an internal representation of the stimuli in both ears, followed by a decision device combining d' information across time, frequency and both ears. The model predictions of the masked thresholds were overall in very good agreement with the experimental results. An analysis of the model processes showed that head shadow effects, signal spectrum, and reverberation have a strong impact on target audibility in the given scenario. PMID:27036267

  18. Poor phonetic perceivers are affected by cognitive load when resolving talker variability.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C M

    2015-08-01

    Speech training paradigms aim to maximise learning outcomes by manipulating external factors such as talker variability. However, not all individuals may benefit from such manipulations because subject-external factors interact with subject-internal ones (e.g., aptitude) to determine speech perception and/or learning success. In a previous tone learning study, high-aptitude individuals benefitted from talker variability, whereas low-aptitude individuals were impaired. Because increases in cognitive load have been shown to hinder speech perception in mixed-talker conditions, it has been proposed that resolving talker variability requires cognitive resources. This proposal leads to the hypothesis that low-aptitude individuals do not use their cognitive resources as efficiently as those with high aptitude. Here, high- and low-aptitude subjects identified pitch contours spoken by multiple talkers under high and low cognitive load conditions established by a secondary task. While high-aptitude listeners outperformed low-aptitude listeners across load conditions, only low-aptitude listeners were impaired by increased cognitive load. The findings suggest that low-aptitude listeners either have fewer available cognitive resources or are poorer at allocating attention to the signal. Therefore, cognitive load is an important factor when considering individual differences in speech perception and training paradigms.

  19. Poor phonetic perceivers are affected by cognitive load when resolving talker variability

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Speech training paradigms aim to maximise learning outcomes by manipulating external factors such as talker variability. However, not all individuals may benefit from such manipulations because subject-external factors interact with subject-internal ones (e.g., aptitude) to determine speech perception and/or learning success. In a previous tone learning study, high-aptitude individuals benefitted from talker variability, whereas low-aptitude individuals were impaired. Because increases in cognitive load have been shown to hinder speech perception in mixed-talker conditions, it has been proposed that resolving talker variability requires cognitive resources. This proposal leads to the hypothesis that low-aptitude individuals do not use their cognitive resources as efficiently as those with high aptitude. Here, high- and low-aptitude subjects identified pitch contours spoken by multiple talkers under high and low cognitive load conditions established by a secondary task. While high-aptitude listeners outperformed low-aptitude listeners across load conditions, only low-aptitude listeners were impaired by increased cognitive load. The findings suggest that low-aptitude listeners either have fewer available cognitive resources or are poorer at allocating attention to the signal. Therefore, cognitive load is an important factor when considering individual differences in speech perception and training paradigms. PMID:26328675

  20. Quantifying the intelligibility of speech in noise for non-native talkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Steeneken, Herman J. M.; Houtgast, Tammo

    2002-12-01

    The intelligibility of speech pronounced by non-native talkers is generally lower than speech pronounced by native talkers, especially under adverse conditions, such as high levels of background noise. The effect of foreign accent on speech intelligibility was investigated quantitatively through a series of experiments involving voices of 15 talkers, differing in language background, age of second-language (L2) acquisition and experience with the target language (Dutch). Overall speech intelligibility of L2 talkers in noise is predicted with a reasonable accuracy from accent ratings by native listeners, as well as from the self-ratings for proficiency of L2 talkers. For non-native speech, unlike native speech, the intelligibility of short messages (sentences) cannot be fully predicted by phoneme-based intelligibility tests. Although incorrect recognition of specific phonemes certainly occurs as a result of foreign accent, the effect of reduced phoneme recognition on the intelligibility of sentences may range from severe to virtually absent, depending on (for instance) the speech-to-noise ratio. Objective acoustic-phonetic analyses of accented speech were also carried out, but satisfactory overall predictions of speech intelligibility could not be obtained with relatively simple acoustic-phonetic measures.

  1. Children's Identification of Consonants in a Speech-Shaped Noise or a Two-Talker Masker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate child-adult differences for consonant identification in a noise or a 2-talker masker. Error patterns were compared across age and masker type to test the hypothesis that errors with the noise masker reflect limitations in the peripheral encoding of speech, whereas errors with the 2-talker masker reflect target-masker…

  2. Perceptual-Gestural (Mis)Mapping in Serial Short-Term Memory: The Impact of Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the poorer serial recall of talker-variable lists (e.g., alternating female-male voices) as compared with single-voice lists were examined. We tested the novel hypothesis that this "talker variability effect" arises from the tendency for perceptual organization to partition the list into streams based on voice such that…

  3. Strategies adopted by talkers faced with fluctuating and competing-speech maskers.

    PubMed

    Aubanel, Vincent; Cooke, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Studying how interlocutors exchange information efficiently during conversations in less-than-ideal acoustic conditions promises to both further the understanding of links between perception and production and inform the design of human-computer dialogue systems. The current study explored how interlocutors' speech changes in the presence of fluctuating noise. Pairs of talkers were recorded while solving puzzles cooperatively in quiet and with modulated-noise or competing speech maskers whose silent intervals were manipulated to produce either temporally sparse or dense maskers. Talkers responded to masked conditions by both increasing the amount of speech produced and locally changing their speech activity patterns, resulting in a net reduction in the proportion of speech in temporal overlap with the maskers, with larger relative reductions for sparse maskers. An analysis of talker activity in the vicinity of masker onset and offset events showed a significant reduction in onsets following masker onsets, and a similar increase in onsets following masker offsets. These findings demonstrate that talkers are sensitive to masking noise and respond to its fluctuations by adopting a "wait-and-talk" strategy. PMID:24116425

  4. The Development of Language-Specific and Language-Independent Talker Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Method: Three groups of native English listeners with typical…

  5. Talker Variability and Recognition Memory: Instance-Specific and Voice-Specific Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Winston D.

    2005-01-01

    The author investigated voice context effects in recognition memory for words spoken by multiple talkers by comparing performance when studied words were repeated with same, different, or new voices at test. Hits and false alarms increased when words were tested with studied voices compared with unstudied voices. Discrimination increased only when…

  6. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    PubMed

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language.

  7. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  8. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  9. Tuning in and tuning out: Speech perception in native- and foreign-talker babble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heukelem, Kristin; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2005-09-01

    Studies on speech perception in multitalker babble have revealed asymmetries in the effects of noise on native versus foreign-accented speech intelligibility for native listeners [Rogers et al., Lang Speech 47(2), 139-154 (2004)] and on sentence-in-noise perception by native versus non-native listeners [Mayo et al., J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 40, 686-693 (1997)], suggesting that the linguistic backgrounds of talkers and listeners contribute to the effects of noise on speech perception. However, little attention has been paid to the language of the babble. This study tested whether the language of the noise also has asymmetrical effects on listeners. Replicating previous findings [e.g., Bronkhorst and Plomp, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 92, 3132-3139 (1992)], the results showed poorer English sentence recognition by native English listeners in six-talker babble than in two-talker babble regardless of the language of the babble, demonstrating the effect of increased psychoacoustic/energetic masking. In addition, the results showed that in the two-talker babble condition, native English listeners were more adversely affected by English than Chinese babble. These findings demonstrate informational/cognitive masking on sentence-in-noise recognition in the form of linguistic competition. Whether this competition is at the lexical or sublexical level and whether it is modulated by the phonetic similarity between the target and noise languages remains to be determined.

  10. The Role of Single Talker Acoustic Variation in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galle, Marcus E.; Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the addition of multiple talkers during habituation improves 14-month-olds' performance in the switch task (Rost & McMurray, 2009). While the authors suggest that this boost in performance is due to the increase in acoustic variability (Rost & McMurray, 2010), it is also possible that there is…

  11. He Says Potato, She Says Potahto: Young Infants Track Talker-Specific Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherhead, Drew; White, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of learning a language is determining the mappings between words and referents. An often-overlooked complication is that infants interact with multiple individuals who may not produce words in the same way. In the present study, we explored whether 10- to 12-month-olds can use talker-specific knowledge to infer…

  12. Efficacy of Multiple-Talker Phonetic Identification Training in Postlingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sharon E.; Zhang, Yang; Nelson, Peggy B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study implemented a pretest-intervention-posttest design to examine whether multiple-talker identification training enhanced phonetic perception of the /ba/-/da/ and /wa/-/ja/ contrasts in adult listeners who were deafened postlingually and have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Nine CI recipients completed 8 hours of identification…

  13. The Effect of Talker and Intonation Variability on Speech Perception in Noise in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazan, Valerie; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether children with dyslexia (hereafter referred to as "DYS children") are more affected than children with average reading ability (hereafter referred to as "AR children") by talker and intonation variability when perceiving speech in noise. Method: Thirty-four DYS and 25 AR children were…

  14. Individual Differences in Learning Talker Categories: The Role of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the question of how an auditory category is learned by having school-age listeners learn to categorize speech not in terms of linguistic categories, but instead in terms of talker categories (i.e., who is talking). Findings from visual-category learning indicate that working memory skills affect learning, but the literature is equivocal: sometimes better working memory is advantageous, and sometimes not. The current study examined the role of different components of working memory to test which component skills benefit, and which hinder, learning talker categories. Results revealed that the short-term storage component positively predicted learning, but that the Central Executive and Episodic Buffer negatively predicted learning. As with visual categories, better working memory is not always an advantage. PMID:25721393

  15. Auditory sensory memory and language abilities in former late talkers: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Grossheinrich, Nicola; Kademann, Stefanie; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Juergen; Von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated whether (a) a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory is found in late talking children and (b) whether deficits of sensory memory are linked to persistent difficulties in language acquisition. Former late talkers and children without delayed language development were examined at the age of 4 years and 7 months using mismatch negativity (MMN) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 2000 ms. Additionally, short-term memory, language skills, and nonverbal intelligence were assessed. MMN mean amplitude was reduced for the ISI of 2000 ms in former late talking children both with and without persistent language deficits. In summary, our findings suggest that late talkers are characterized by a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory. However, deficits in auditory sensory memory are not sufficient for persistent language difficulties and may be compensated for by some children.

  16. [INTERACT: a model of evaluation and intervention for children who are "late talkers"].

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Serena; Stefani, Loredana Hvastja; Zocconi, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    According to criteria applied in literature toddlers were identified as late talkers if they had less than 50-word expressive vocabulary and no word combinations at 24 months of age. The intervention programmes that use the parents as the primary agents of intervention and use child-centred techniques maximise the quality of parental communication during the emerging language period of the child. INTERACT is an early highly individualised parent and child-centered clinical intervention based on the social-pragmatic theorical approach. It is developed for 24-30 months old children with emerging language. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the gains of the child's expressive language skills and the use of multiword utterances and the changes of the maternal/parental communicative style. Six male children described as late talkers and their mothers participated for six months to INTERACT program. At initial intervention children's average age was 27 months and the average of number words producted was 26. All the mothers show high levels of directiveness. At the end of intervention the expressive vocabulary of late talkers increase in number of different words reaching an average of 407 words and an average linguistic age of 31 months, the gain is fourteen months in six months. The mothers show significant changes in their communicative style, the directiveness and the asynchronous/devaluing behaviours decrease.

  17. LANGUAGE- AND TALKER-DEPENDENT VARIATION IN GLOBAL FEATURES OF NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEECH.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, Ann R; Ackerman, Lauren; Burchfield, L Ann; Hesterberg, Lisa; Luque, Jenna; Mok, Kelsey

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and present a corpus of scripted and spontaneous speech in both the native and the non-native language of talkers from various language backgrounds. Using corpus recordings from 11 native English and 11 late Mandarin-English bilinguals we compared speech timing across native English, native Mandarin, and Mandarin-accented English. Findings showed similarities across native Mandarin and native English in speaking rate and in reduction of the number of acoustic relative to orthographic syllables. The two languages differed in silence-to-speech ratio and in the number of words between pauses, possibly reflecting phrase-level structural differences between English and Mandarin. Non-native English had a significantly slower speaking rate and lower rate of syllable reduction than both native English and native Mandarin. But, non-native English was similar to native English in terms of silence-to-speech ratio and was similar to native Mandarin in terms of words per pause. Finally, some talker-specificity in terms of (non)optimal speech timing appeared to transfer from native to non-native speech within the Mandarin-English bilinguals. These findings provide an empirical base for testing how language-dependent, structural features combine with general features of non-native speech production and with talker-dependent features in determining foreign-language speech production.

  18. Speaking and Hearing Clearly: Talker and Listener Factors in Speaking Style Changes

    PubMed Central

    Smiljanić, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research concerning the nature of the distinct, listener-oriented speaking style called ‘clear speech’ and its effect on intelligibility for various listener populations. We review major findings that identify talker, listener and signal characteristics that contribute to the characteristically high intelligibility of clear speech. Understanding the interplay of these factors sheds light on the interaction between higher level cognitive and lower-level sensory and perceptual factors that affect language processing. Clear speech research is, thus, relevant for both its theoretical insights and practical applications. Throughout the review, we highlight open questions and promising future directions. PMID:20046964

  19. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    PubMed

    Beckage, Nicole; Smith, Linda; Hills, Thomas

    2011-05-11

    Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers) have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  20. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  1. Perception of Speech Produced by Native and Nonnative Talkers by Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Caili; Galvin, John J.; Chang, Yi-ping; Xu, Anting; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the understanding of English sentences produced by native (English) and nonnative (Spanish) talkers by listeners with normal hearing (NH) and listeners with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence recognition in noise was measured in adult subjects with CIs and subjects with NH, all of whom were…

  2. Talker-Specific Generalization of Pragmatic Inferences based on Under- and Over-Informative Prenominal Adjective Use

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Amanda; Kurumada, Chigusa; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    According to Grice’s (1975) Maxim of Quantity, rational talkers formulate their utterances to be as economical as possible while conveying all necessary information. Naturally produced referential expressions, however, often contain more or less information than what is predicted to be optimal given a rational speaker model. How do listeners cope with these variations in the linguistic input? We argue that listeners navigate the variability in referential resolution by calibrating their expectations for the amount of linguistic signal to be expended for a certain meaning and by doing so in a context- or a talker-specific manner. Focusing on talker-specificity, we present four experiments. We first establish that speakers will generalize information from a single pair of adjectives to unseen adjectives in a speaker-specific manner (Experiment 1). Initially focusing on exposure to underspecified utterances, Experiment 2 examines: (a) the dimension of generalization; (b) effects of the strength of the evidence (implicit or explicit); and (c) individual differences in dimensions of generalization. Experiments 3 and 4 ask parallel questions for exposure to over-specified utterances, where we predict more conservative generalization because, in spontaneous utterances, talkers are more likely to over-modify than under-modify. PMID:26834667

  3. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken

  4. Toddlers' ability to map the meaning of new words in multi-talker environments.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Justine; Newman, Rochelle S

    2014-11-01

    Whether in a noisy daycare center, home, or classroom, many of the environments children are exposed to are, undoubtedly, not acoustically ideal for speech processing. Yet, somehow, these toddlers are still able to acquire vocabularies consisting of hundreds of words. The current study explores the effect of background speech noise on children's early word learning (specifically, their ability to map a label onto an object). Three groups of children aged 32-36 months were taught two new words either in quiet, or in the presence of multi-talker babble at a +5 or 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). They were then tested on their learning of these new word-to-object mappings. Children showed similar accuracy in all three conditions, suggesting that even at a 0 dB SNR, children were successfully able to learn new words.

  5. Identification of American English vowels by native Japanese speakers: Talker-and-token-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takeshi; Frieda, Elaina M.; Wayland, Ratree

    2005-09-01

    Native speakers of Japanese identified American English vowels /i, I, ɛ, æ, squflg, squflg/ produced by four female native speakers of American English in /CVC/ contexts. Native speakers of American English served as the control group, and they outperformed the Japanese subjects in identifying all the English vowels in every /CVC/ context. In another experiment the Japanese subjects equated these English vowels with Japanese vowels. In general, English vowels were equated with phonetically close Japanese vowels, but significant talker effect was observed. The /i/ tokens equated with the Japanese long high front vowel /ii/ were much more correctly identified as /i/ than those equated with the Japanese short high front vowel /i/. These tokens were more often misidentified as /I/. The /squflg/ and /squflg/ tokens were predominantly equated with the Japanese low vowel /a/. The percent-correct identification of /squflg/ and /squflg/ was low in most of the /CVC/ contexts, and these two vowels were often misidentified as each other, and the Japanese subjects' latency before they decided what vowel they had heard was longer when /squflg/ or /squflg/ tokens were presented. The Japanese subjects do not seem to have salient cues to differentiate /squflg/ and /squflg/.

  6. Influence of hearing loss on children’s identification of spondee words in a speech-shaped noise or a two-talker masker

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Duncan, Nicole; Roush, Patricia A.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared spondee identification performance in presence of speech-shaped noise or two competing talkers across children with hearing loss and age-matched children with normal hearing. The results showed a greater masking effect for children with hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing for both masker conditions. However, the magnitude of this group difference was significantly larger for the two-talker compared to the speech-shaped noise masker. These results support the hypothesis that hearing loss influences children’s perceptual processing abilities. PMID:23492919

  7. Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines two mechanisms by which persons' identities change over time. First, on the basis of identity control theory (ICT), I hypothesize that while identities influence the way in which a role is played out, discrepancies between the meanings of the identity standard and the meanings of the role performance will result in change.…

  8. Understanding Civic Identity in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Cabrera, Alberto F.

    2015-01-01

    Past literature has examined ways in which college students adopt civic identities. However, little is known about characteristics of students that vary in their expression of these identities. Drawing on data from American College Testing (ACT), this study employs multinomial logistic regression to understand attributes of students who vary in…

  9. Evaluation of an Audiovisual-FM System: Investigating the Interaction between Illumination Level and a Talker's Skin Color on Speech-Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Laplante-Levesque, Ariane; Labelle, Maude; Doucet, Katrine; Potvin, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    A program designed to evaluate the benefits of an audiovisual-frequency modulated (FM) system led to some questions concerning the effects of illumination level and a talker's skin color on speech-reading performance. To address those issues, the speech of a Caucasian female was videotaped under 2 conditions: a light skin color condition and a…

  10. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  11. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J.; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users. PMID:27363714

  12. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users. PMID:27363714

  13. Bridging Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  14. Brand Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are outlined;…

  15. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  16. Bridging Identities through Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Allison M.; Martiny, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    As indicated by Deaux and Burke (this volume), sociology and psychology have shared a tradition of discourse allowing social psychologists to build upon each other's ideas. A conversation between social identity theory and identity theory was initiated fifteen years ago and addressed the similarities and differences between these theories. This…

  17. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  18. Similarity and familiarity: Second language sentence recognition in first- and second-language multi-talker babblea

    PubMed Central

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech in noisy environments depends not only on the functionality of listeners’ peripheral auditory systems, but also on cognitive factors such as their language learning experience. Previous studies have shown, for example, that normal-hearing listeners attending to a non-native language have more difficulty identifying speech targets in noisy conditions than do native listeners. Furthermore, native listeners have more difficulty understanding speech targets in the presence of speech noise in their native language versus a foreign language. The present study addresses the role of listener language experience with both the target and noise languages by examining second-language sentence recognition in first- and second-language noise. Native English speakers and non-native English speakers whose native language is Mandarin were tested on English sentence recognition in English and Mandarin 2-talker babble. Results show that both listener groups experienced greater difficulty in English versus Mandarin babble, but that native Mandarin listeners experienced a smaller release from masking in Mandarin babble relative to English babble. These results indicate that both the similarity between the target and noise and the language experience of the listeners contribute to the amount of interference listeners experience when listening to speech in the presence of speech noise. PMID:21179561

  19. Bidirectional clear speech perception benefit for native and high-proficiency non-native talkers and listeners: Intelligibility and accentednessa

    PubMed Central

    Smiljanić, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how native language background interacts with speaking style adaptations in determining levels of speech intelligibility. The aim was to explore whether native and high proficiency non-native listeners benefit similarly from native and non-native clear speech adjustments. The sentence-in-noise perception results revealed that fluent non-native listeners gained a large clear speech benefit from native clear speech modifications. Furthermore, proficient non-native talkers in this study implemented conversational-to-clear speaking style modifications in their second language (L2) that resulted in significant intelligibility gain for both native and non-native listeners. The results of the accentedness ratings obtained for native and non-native conversational and clear speech sentences showed that while intelligibility was improved, the presence of foreign accent remained constant in both speaking styles. This suggests that objective intelligibility and subjective accentedness are two independent dimensions of non-native speech. Overall, these results provide strong evidence that greater experience in L2 processing leads to improved intelligibility in both production and perception domains. These results also demonstrated that speaking style adaptations along with less signal distortion can contribute significantly towards successful native and non-native interactions. PMID:22225056

  20. Talkers alter vowel production in response to real-time formant perturbation even when instructed not to compensate.

    PubMed

    Munhall, K G; MacDonald, E N; Byrne, S K; Johnsrude, I

    2009-01-01

    Talkers show sensitivity to a range of perturbations of auditory feedback (e.g., manipulation of vocal amplitude, fundamental frequency and formant frequency). Here, 50 subjects spoke a monosyllable ("head"), and the formants in their speech were shifted in real time using a custom signal processing system that provided feedback over headphones. First and second formants were altered so that the auditory feedback matched subjects' production of "had." Three different instructions were tested: (1) control, in which subjects were naive about the feedback manipulation, (2) ignore headphones, in which subjects were told that their voice might sound different and to ignore what they heard in the headphones, and (3) avoid compensation, in which subjects were informed in detail about the manipulation and were told not to compensate. Despite explicit instruction to ignore the feedback changes, subjects produced a robust compensation in all conditions. There were no differences in the magnitudes of the first or second formant changes between groups. In general, subjects altered their vowel formant values in a direction opposite to the perturbation, as if to cancel its effects. These results suggest that compensation in the face of formant perturbation is relatively automatic, and the response is not easily modified by conscious strategy.

  1. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification.

  2. Projected Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the idea behind Projected Identities, an art activity wherein students fuse art-making processes and digital image manipulations in a series of exploratory artistic self-examinations. At some point in every person's life they've been told something hard to forget. Students might, for example, translate phrases like, "Good…

  3. Musical America: United yet Varied Identities for Classroom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan; Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, today's America is diverse beyond anyone's wildest dreams, and the music that resonates in families and neighborhoods, on concert stages, in schools, dance halls, and clubs, and through the media is as wide a variety as exists anywhere in the world. America's music is decidedly difficult to pin down as a single and united style, as…

  4. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  5. [Rethinking identity].

    PubMed

    Dorais, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Pioneering work conducted over the past decades used to design sex, gender and sexual orientation in order to go beyond the traditional binary model. In general, professionals in the health and social services, however, are a little bit slow to take note of this paradigm shift making more space for human diversity, and much less to the marginalization or pathologizing of differences. In this article, the work of Alfred Kinsey, Sandra Bem and Anne Fausto-Sterling will be especially presented, respectively on sexual orientation, gender and sex. It will be proposed to include their contributions (and also those of their successors) in a model taking into account both the diversity and the fluidity that may be present in identities and self-expressions related to sex, gender and sexual orientation. PMID:26966847

  6. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  7. Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention across Face Regions Varies with Emotional Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; LeBlanc, Katya L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that linguistic processing is primarily a left-hemisphere activity, while emotional prosody processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere. Does attention, directed at different regions of the talker's face, reflect this pattern of lateralization? We investigated visuospatial attention across a talker's face with a…

  8. Listeners use speaker identity to access representations of spatial perspective during online language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about how listeners represent another person's spatial perspective during language processing (e.g., two people looking at a map from different angles). Can listeners use contextual cues such as speaker identity to access a representation of the interlocutor's spatial perspective? In two eye-tracking experiments, participants received auditory instructions to move objects around a screen from two randomly alternating spatial perspectives (45° vs. 315° or 135° vs. 225° rotations from the participant's viewpoint). Instructions were spoken either by one voice, where the speaker's perspective switched at random, or by two voices, where each speaker maintained one perspective. Analysis of participant eye-gaze showed that interpretation of the instructions improved when each viewpoint was associated with a different voice. These findings demonstrate that listeners can learn mappings between individual talkers and viewpoints, and use these mappings to guide online language processing.

  9. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  10. The identity of clones.

    PubMed

    Evers, K

    1999-02-01

    A common concern with respect to cloning is based on the belief that cloning produces identical individuals. This is a fundamental misunderstanding of what type of identity-relation cloning involves. The concept "identity" is ambiguous, and the statement that cloning produces "identical" individuals is not meaningful unless the notion of identity is clarified. This paper distinguishes between numerical and qualitative; relational and intrinsic: logical and empirical identity, and discusses the empirical individuation of clones in terms of genetics, physiology, perception, cognition and personality. I argue that the only relation of identity cloning involves is qualitative, intrinsic and empirical: genetic indiscernibility, unlikely to include identity under other aspects mentioned. A popular argument against cloning claims our "right" to a "unique identity". This objection either implies (absurdly) the right not to be an identical twin, or assumes (incorrectly) that cloning involves identity other than genetic. Either way, the argument is untenable.

  11. Talkin' Musical Identities Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    After reading the book "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), this author states she finds it difficult to separate "identities in music" from "music in identities." In fact, she cannot conceive of music apart from identity. It is Lamb's view that the…

  12. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  13. Alternative Identities in Multicultural Schools in Israel: Emancipatory Identity, Mixed Identity and Transnational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Economic and technological processes of globalization and the increasing migrations of people in the world undermine dominant national identities. One of the main characteristics of our time is the instability of identities and the continuous invention of new/old identities. Traditions and ethnic identities are deconstructed and reconstructed.…

  14. Assemblage: Raising Awareness of Student Identity Formation through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Asking students to physically construct manifestations of their identities is not necessarily a new technique, but the author wanted students to experience the iterative and fluid nature of identity formation with the hopes of beginning a longer discussion of how other individuals, groups, and varying contexts shape identities with and without…

  15. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  16. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  17. On Fay identity

    SciTech Connect

    Michev, Iordan P.

    2006-09-15

    In the first part of this paper we consider the transformation of the cubic identities for general Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) tau functions from [Mishev, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2419-2428 (1999)] to the specific identities for trigonometric KdV tau functions. Afterwards, we consider the Fay identity as a functional equation and provide a wide set of solutions of this equation. The main result of this paper is Theorem 3.4, where we generalize the identities from Mishev. An open problem is the transformation of the cubic identities from Mishev to the specific identities for elliptic KdV tau functions.

  18. Blade pitch varying mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.

    1988-04-19

    A gas turbine engine is described comprising: (a) a stationary member; (b) first and second rotating structures coaxially disposed about the stationary member; (c) an annular gas flowpath coaxial with the first and second rotating structures; (d) first and second rotor blades attached to the first and second rotating structures; (e) forward and aft rows of variable pitch propulsor blades coupled to and disposed radially outwardly of the first and second rotating structures respectively; (f) a first gear coaxially coupled to one of the propulsor blades whereby angular displacement of the first gear about a radius of the rotating structure varies the pitch of the propulsor blade with respect to the rotating structure; (g) a second gear rotatably coupled to the first gear; (h) a third gear rigidly coupled to the second gear; (i) a fourth gear rigidly coupled to the rotating structure and rotatably coupled to the thrid gear, (j) means for eccentrically revolving the second gear and the third gear with respect to the first gear and the fourth gear, respectively, whereby the first gear is angularly displaced with respect to the fourth gear.

  19. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity. 130.17... standards of identity. (a) The Food and Drug Administration recognizes that before petitions to amend food... of food varying from applicable definitions and standards of identity prescribed under section 401...

  20. Identity, causality, and pronoun ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Eyal; Rips, Lance J

    2014-10-01

    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of the he who cleaned the house). Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it is that the event of the first sentence (e.g., the invitation) would cause the event of the second (the house cleaning) for each of the two individuals (the likelihood that if Albert invited Ron to dinner, this would cause Albert to clean the house, versus cause Ron to clean the house). Decisions about the antecedent followed causal likelihood. A mathematical model of causal identity accounted for most of the key aspects of the data from the individual sentence pairs.

  1. Teaching Identity and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner-Halev, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Liberal theorists often link autonomy and identity together, since, these liberals argue, an education that bestows a particular identity on children undermines their autonomy. The charge of schools ought to be to teach children to be open to a variety of identities. Encounters with diversity and cosmopolitanism are good, since they encourage…

  2. Components of Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  3. Language, Power and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  4. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  5. Literacy and Sexual Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun

    2003-01-01

    Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…

  6. Identity security awareness.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Nayna C

    2004-01-01

    Identity theft is an increasing concern when organizations, businesses, and even childbirth educators ask for a client's Social Security number for identification purposes. In this column, the author suggests ways to protect one's identity and, more importantly, decrease the opportunities for identity theft.

  7. Social Identity and Preferences*

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Choi, James J.; Strickland, A. Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Social identities prescribe behaviors for people. We identify the marginal behavioral effect of these norms on discount rates and risk aversion by measuring how laboratory subjects’ choices change when an aspect of social identity is made salient. When we make ethnic identity salient to Asian-American subjects, they make more patient choices. When we make racial identity salient to black subjects, non-immigrant blacks (but not immigrant blacks) make more patient choices. Making gender identity salient has no effect on intertemporal or risk choices. PMID:20871741

  8. Neurodegeneration and Identity.

    PubMed

    Strohminger, Nina; Nichols, Shaun

    2015-09-01

    There is a widespread notion, both within the sciences and among the general public, that mental deterioration can rob individuals of their identity. Yet there have been no systematic investigations of what types of cognitive damage lead people to appear to no longer be themselves. We measured perceived identity change in patients with three kinds of neurodegenerative disease: frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Structural equation models revealed that injury to the moral faculty plays the primary role in identity discontinuity. Other cognitive deficits, including amnesia, have no measurable impact on identity persistence. Accordingly, frontotemporal dementia has the greatest effect on perceived identity, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has the least. We further demonstrated that perceived identity change fully mediates the impact of neurodegenerative disease on relationship deterioration between patient and caregiver. Our results mark a departure from theories that ground personal identity in memory, distinctiveness, dispositional emotion, or global mental function.

  9. Exploring Medical Identity Theft

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification. PMID:20169017

  10. Exploring medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-09-16

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification.

  11. Our unique microbial identity.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-05-14

    A recent article examines the extent of individual variation in microbial identities and how this might determine disease susceptibility, therapeutic responses and recovery from clinical interventions.

  12. Monaural speech intelligibility and detection in maskers with varying amounts of spectro-temporal speech features.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-07-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly affected by the presence of maskers. Depending on the spectro-temporal structure of the masker and its similarity to the target speech, different masking aspects can occur which are typically referred to as energetic, amplitude modulation, and informational masking. In this study speech intelligibility and speech detection was measured in maskers that vary systematically in the time-frequency domain from steady-state noise to a single interfering talker. Male and female target speech was used in combination with maskers based on speech for the same or different gender. Observed data were compared to predictions of the speech intelligibility index, extended speech intelligibility index, multi-resolution speech-based envelope-power-spectrum model, and the short-time objective intelligibility measure. The different models served as analysis tool to help distinguish between the different masking aspects. Comparison shows that overall masking can to a large extent be explained by short-term energetic masking. However, the other masking aspects (amplitude modulation an informational masking) influence speech intelligibility as well. Additionally, it was obvious that all models showed considerable deviations from the data. Therefore, the current study provides a benchmark for further evaluation of speech prediction models. PMID:27475175

  13. Children's Social Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  14. Corporate identity. Brand designs.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2004-02-19

    The past two years have seen a steadily more consistent brand identity for the NHS. Branding will become more important as foundation status and PCT commissioning makes acute hospitals more competitive. This has put pressure on some trusts that have their own strong identities.

  15. Personal Identity in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  16. Academic Identities under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of "academic identities". Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that academic…

  17. Bayesian classification in a time-varying environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of classifying a pattern based on multiple observation made in a time-varying environment is analyzed. The identity of the pattern may itself change. A Bayesian solution is derived, after which the conditions of the physical situation are invoked to produce a cascade classifier model. Experimental results based on remote sensing data demonstrate the effectiveness of the classifier.

  18. Personal identity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others' perspectives, resolve conflicts between self and others, and, in some cases, merge themselves into relationships and groups rather than pursuing their own uniqueness. However, at the same time, as Japanese society changes in various ways, such as the educational and employment systems, a traditional type of identity may gradually become less functional. A new identity configuration, individualistic collectivism, emerges. We also provide future directions for research toward a more global understanding of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults.

  19. Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

  20. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  1. Adolescence: Search for an Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasinath, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    James Marcia (1991, 1994, 1999, 2002) expanded on Erikson's theory of identity formation. Specifically, he focused on two essential processes in achieving a mature identity: exploration and commitment. Erikson's observations about identity were extended by Marcia, who described four identity statuses: identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium…

  2. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  3. Identity verifier performance

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a transcript of a paper given at the Smart Card Applications and Technologies Conference, October 14, 1987. Identity verification techniques are identified and discussed, and statistical performance data is given. 20 figs. (JF)

  4. Autoethnography: Inquiry into Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppes, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides guidelines and suggestions for assessing student development using autoethnography, a qualitative research method. Autoethnography guides students in examining the nexus between personal and professional identities, including skills, challenges, values, histories, and hopes for the future.

  5. Mirror writing and a dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  6. Story telling: crafting identities

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story telling approach is offered as an example to illustrate how identity can be crafted in contextually and culturally sensitive ways. PMID:24009405

  7. Strategic identities in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Talamo, A; Ligorio, B

    2001-02-01

    This paper aims at describing, according to the recent advances in social psychology and Computer Mediated Communication, how identities are perceived and constructed in cyberspace. All interactions analyzed in this study were performed within "Euroland," a collaborative virtual environment. The interacting community was composed of students, teachers, and researchers working on a transnational educational project. Practices and dialogues within Euroland are analyzed using an ethnographic and conversational method. A sample of discourses and actions that occurred during 8 months of time, selected according to the research aims, was analyzed. During online connections, users were personified by an "Avatar." Avatars are able to walk, fly, and look around the virtual world. They are also able to build and manipulate three-dimensional objects, perform virtual actions, and chat with other connected users. Results showed that "Eurolanders" showed and constructed their identities using strategic "positioning" depending on the interactive situation. Identities are thus dynamic and strongly related to the context, created and constantly recreated by the users. It is concluded that specific features offered by the Euroland environment are exploited by the users as resources to play with, while moving from one strategic positioning to another. Cyber identities involve resources given by specific technological tools and by community. The cyber-identity construction process seems to be highly congruent to the advances in the dialogical perspective in psychology, where identities are considered in their conceptualizations as multiple, "multivoiced," "positioned," and context-dependent.

  8. Tools for Understanding Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  9. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  10. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  11. Predator identity influences metacommunity assembly.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nicole K; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Predation is among the most important biotic factors influencing natural communities, yet we have a rather rudimentary understanding of its role in modulating metacommunity assembly. We experimentally examined the effects of two different predators (a generalist and a specialist) on metacommunity assembly, using protist microcosm metacommunities that varied in predator identity, dispersal among local communities and the history of species colonization into local communities. Generalist predation resulted in reduced α diversity and increased β diversity irrespective of dispersal, likely due to predation-induced stochastic extinction of different prey species in different local communities. Dispersal, however, induced source-sink dynamics in the presence of specialist predators, resulting in higher α diversity and marginally lower β diversity. These results demonstrate the distinct effects of different predators on prey metacommunity assembly, emphasizing the need to explore the role of predator diet breadth in structuring metacommunities. PMID:27349796

  12. Narrating Career, Positioning Identity: Career Identity as a Narrative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Kirsi

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to traditional definitions of career identity as an individual construct, this article argues for a discursive approach to career identity as a narrative practice. Career identity is conceptualized as a practice of articulating, performing and negotiating identity positions in narrating career experiences. By using the concept of…

  13. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  14. Identities for generalized hypergeometric coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Generalizations of hypergeometric functions to arbitrarily many symmetric variables are discussed, along with their associated hypergeometric coefficients, and the setting within which these generalizations arose. Identities generalizing the Euler identity for {sub 2}F{sub 1}, the Saalschuetz identity, and two generalizations of the {sub 4}F{sub 3} Bailey identity, among others, are given. 16 refs.

  15. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  16. Women and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ann; And Others

    An interdisciplinary course on women and identity for college-level women's studies instructors is presented. Materials for the course are taken from myth, psychology, sociology, feminism, art, and other disciplines. It is divided into seven units: sexuality, fertility, work and family, fear and envy, women's networks, individuality, and social…

  17. The Visual Identity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  18. Emerging Identity through Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Betty

    Movement is one of the primary ways in which the young child finds out about his world. Experiences in movement help the young child to develop a healthy sense of identity. Through movement, children: (1) learn, as infants, to distinguish themselves from the outside world; (2) find out what they can do and how they can affect their environment;…

  19. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  20. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…

  1. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  2. What about Linguistic Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Micah

    2010-01-01

    The recent influx of Latino immigrants in the Mid-West U.S. has also increased the number of Mexican students in schools. As recent immigrants, one of the challenges Mexican students face besides learning a different language is the construction of new identities in unfamiliar environments. Learning a language involves acquiring another identity…

  3. Constructing Adult Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    1999-01-01

    Stories from a longitudinal study of 39 adults illuminate the complex journey from external to internal self-definition. Explores the dynamics of constructing an internal adult identity from age 22 to 30 and translates into recommendations for effective student affairs practice. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/GCP)

  4. Art, Culture, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1984-01-01

    Educators must realize that identity should not be sought in culture and that people have to be weaned away from their cultures toward what is truly valuable in a transcendental, culture-free way. Instead of feeling narcissistic about culture, people should become involved with art, which also should be culture-free. (RM)

  5. Discourses of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…

  6. Gender, Identity and CMC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Simeon J.

    1997-01-01

    Some research and popularized accounts have claimed computer-mediated communication (CMC) based interactions are free of gender inequality though a growing body of research has documented gender differences in access and practice. This article examines both positions and cultural aspects of gender identities to make clear the centrality of gender…

  7. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  8. Story Telling: Crafting Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story…

  9. Identity Construction, Negotiation, and Resistance: Reconsideration of "Japanese" Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Chie

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores identity construction, mainly focusing on the ethnonational identity of "Japanese," in contrast to that of "non-Japanese" from ethnomethodological and social constructionist perspectives. Within these approaches, identity is not given "a priori" but emerges through sociohistorical contexts and discursive practices at…

  10. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  11. Does Everyone Have a Musical Identity?: Reflections on "Musical Identities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracyk, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    The book, "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) consists of 11 essays on the psychology of music. The editors divided the essays into two groups: those on developing musical identities ("identities in music" involving recognizable social and cultural…

  12. Time-varying cosmological term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  13. Linearized Bekenstein varying α models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2004-10-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying α models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and, in particular, clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that “the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo.”

  14. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    PubMed Central

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body. PMID:21694978

  15. John locke on personal identity.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  16. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  17. Examining Emotions in Identity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study I develop theoretically the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals' emotional reactions to identity nonverification (in a positive and a negative direction) and identity verification, which occurs once versus repeatedly, and which is perpetrated by a familiar other compared with an unfamiliar other. Predictions…

  18. Pilipino American Identity Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the identity development of F/Pilipino Americans. Because of a distinct history and culture that differentiates them from other Asian groups, F/Pilipino Americans may experience a different ethnic identity development than other Asian Americans. A nonlinear 6-stage ethnic identity development model is proposed to promote…

  19. Identity Development and Multicultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Patrick H.; Lidderdale, Melissa A.; Thiagarajan, Monica; Null, Ursla

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of identity development, measured by the Self-identity Inventory (SII), and universal-diverse orientation (UDO) to multicultural counseling competence. After controlling for personal identity variables, multicultural coursework and training, and social desirability, multiple regression analyses indicated…

  20. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  1. Identity and Fear of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation between ego identity and fear of success using the Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale (EIS), the Marcia interview for identity status, the Cohen People Knowing Questionnaire (PKO) to measure fear of success, and an occupational behavior and attitude questionnaire. EIS and PKO scores correlated significantly with each other and…

  2. Citizenship, Diversity and National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the issues of citizenship, diversity and national identity in the context of the introduction of citizenship education in the UK. It considers the historical context of national identity in the UK and notes that the "British national identity has historically implied diversity". It also analyses the views of British national…

  3. Identity theft and your practice.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft.

  4. Assessment of preference for varied versus constant reinforcers.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, L G; Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W; Hagopian, L P; Kogan, J S

    1997-01-01

    One method that has been demonstrated to improve the effectiveness of reinforcement is stimulus (reinforcer) variation (Egel, 1980). Egel found that bar pressing increased and responding occurred more rapidly during varied reinforcement than during constant reinforcement when identical stimuli were used across phases for 10 individuals with autism. The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the preferences of 7 individuals for varied presentation of slightly lower quality stimuli relative to constant access to the highest quality stimulus. Varied presentation was preferred over constant reinforcer presentation with 4 participants, and the opposite was true for 2 participants. One participant did not demonstrate a preference. These results suggest that stimulus variation may allow less preferred reinforcers to compete effectively with a more highly preferred reinforcer for some individuals. PMID:9316258

  5. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed.

  6. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  7. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continue to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests.

  8. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-07-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests.

  9. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  10. Comparing psychological and sociological approaches to identity: identity status, identity capital, and the individualization process.

    PubMed

    Côtè, James E; Schwartz, Seth J

    2002-12-01

    Psychologists have been studying identity processes at the intrapsychic level that resemble what sociologists have noted at the macro-societal level. Specifically, using the identity capital model introduced in previous issues of this journal (Côté, Journal of Adolescence, 19, 419-430; 20, 421-437), we explore a link between the psychologically oriented identity status paradigm, and the sociologically oriented individualization theory. The primary link between these two disciplinary approaches appears to be that the individualization process can be operationalized in terms of agency in identity formation. The relationship between agency and identity formation has been recognized by identity status researchers for some time, but primarily in terminology referring to the intrapsychic level; hence, in some respects, identity status researchers anticipated individualization theory. This link was empirically investigated in three studies of ethnically diverse samples. It was concluded, with a high degree of replication, that the identity statuses representing identity confusion (Diffusion) and identity synthesis (Achievement) appear to represent forms of default and developmental individualization, respectively. This comparison of similar elements between psychological and sociological perspectives may yield a richer understanding of identity formation processes, and help to pave the way for future interdisciplinary research..

  11. Measuring ethnic identity in the Ethnic Identity Scale and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the newly developed ethnic identity measures of the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) from psychometric and theoretical perspectives. Survey data from 289 counseling students in California were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses supported three correlated factors of the EIS (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and two correlated factors of the MEIM-R (exploration, commitment) for both European American and minority students. Consistent with the theories of Erikson's and Marcia's identity development, the EIS and the MEIM-R nicely depicted (a) Marcia's 4 (2 × 2) identity statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement and (b) the hierarchy of identity statuses in relation to subjective well-being as an indicator of adjustment, especially for minority students. Additionally, European American and minority students revealed differences as to the salience and importance of ethnic identity. Recommendations for using the EIS and the MEIM-R are provided.

  12. IdentityMap Visualization of the Super Identity Model

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-15

    The Super Identity Model is a collaboration with six United Kingdom universities to develop use cases used to piece together a person's identity across biological, cyber, psychological, and biographical domains. PNNL visualized the model in a web-based application called IdentityMap. This is the first step in a promising new field of research. Interested future collaborators are welcome to find out more by emailing superid@pnnl.gov.

  13. Nostalgia and lost identity.

    PubMed

    Pourtova, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Nostalgia for the Soviet Union is a major social phenomenon in Russia today due to the irrevocable losses of the recent past in which Soviet citizens involuntarily became immigrants in their own country. With reference to discussions of nostalgia in philosophical and psychoanalytic literature, I suggest that nostalgia may represent either a defensive regression to the past or a progressive striving for wholeness through re-connecting with what has been lost in the service of a greater integration. I compare this with the processes of adaptation seen in immigrants and provide a clinical illustration of a young man coming to terms with loss and change in the post-Soviet era. When nostalgia is recognized as a legitimate emotional experience it may facilitate mourning and enable the integration of the past with the present and the development of a new identity.

  14. Enumeration, identity, and health.

    PubMed

    Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Benton, Adia

    2012-01-01

    Although the production of national spaces, citizens, and populations through enumerative practices has been well explored in a variety of disciplines, anthropological methods and analysis can help to illuminate the everyday practices of enumeration, their unexpected consequences, and the co-construction of identities through these processes by both the "counted" and the "counters." The authors in this special issue illustrate how enumeration inflects lived experiences, produces subjectivities, and reconfigures governance. Focusing on the spatial, temporal, ideological, and affective dimensions of the techniques of enumeration, the authors also provide insights into the multiple forms of biopolitical expertise and knowledge that accumulate legitimacy through numerical discourse. They also highlight the ways in which governing structures, institutional and cultural norms, market logics, and rational-technical interventions influence the relationship among numerical categories, subjectivity, and everyday experience. PMID:22746679

  15. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  16. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  17. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  18. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  19. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  20. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  1. Science Identity's Influence on Community College Students' Engagement, Persistence, and Performance in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccitelli, Melinda

    In the United States (U.S.), student engagement, persistence, and academic performance levels in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs have been unsatisfactory over the last decade. Low student engagement, persistence, and academic performance in STEM disciplines have been identified as major obstacles to U.S. economic goals and U.S. science education objectives. The central and salient science identity a college student claims can influence his engagement, persistence, and academic achievement in college science. While science identity studies have been conducted on four-year college populations there is a gap in the literature concerning community college students' science identity and science performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between community college students claimed science identities and engagement, persistence, and academic performance. A census sample of 264 community college students enrolled in biology during the summer of 2015 was used to study this relationship. Science identity and engagement levels were calculated using the Science Identity Centrality Scale and the Biology Motivation Questionnaire II, respectively. Persistence and final grade data were collected from institutional and instructor records. Engagement significantly correlated to, r =.534, p = .01, and varied by science identity, p < .001. Percent final grade also varied by science identity (p < .005), but this relationship was weaker (r = .208, p = .01). Results for science identity and engagement and final grade were consistent with the identity literature. Persistence did not vary by science identity in this student sample (chi2 =2.815, p = .421). This result was inconsistent with the literature on science identity and persistence. Quantitative results from this study present a mixed picture of science identity status at the community college level. It is suggested, based on the findings

  2. Change in ethnic identity across the college transition.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kim M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic search, independent of residential status. Moreover, the decline in ethnic search was significantly greater at 2- than 4-year colleges, and this difference was mediated by higher rates of participation in extracurricular activities at 4-year colleges. Ethnic identity did not vary by college ethnic composition. There were no ethnic or generation differences in ethnic identity change; however, women were more likely to include an American term in their ethnic label than were men, over time. Averaging across time, students at 4-year colleges also had a greater preference for the American term in their ethnic labels. Findings illuminate the importance of context in shaping ethnic identity.

  3. Canadian Evacuation and Nisei Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Japanese Canadians were interviewed to determine the effect of World War II evacuation on their ethnic identity. Older respondents deemphasized issues related to evacuation when discussing their ethnic identity. Younger Japanese Canadians are aware of this "cloud" as part of their ethnic heritage but are unaware of its exact origin. (MK)

  4. Finding Identity: Theory and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Mary; Hall, Kira

    2008-01-01

    This commentary responds to the papers in the special issue "Accomplishing identity in bilingual interaction" and particularly to the use of Bucholtz and Hall's (2004a, 2004b, 2005) framework for the linguistic analysis of identities in interaction. The commentary focuses on the relationship between theory and empirical work, with attention to the…

  5. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H[subscript 2]O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold,…

  6. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  7. Black Youth, Identity, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines stage models of racial identity that researchers and educators use to explain the subjective processes that influence how black youth navigate school. Despite the explicit challenge that most models of racial identity have posed to racist discourses in the research literature, the underlying ethics of their developmental…

  8. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  9. Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Danrun

    2005-01-01

    General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…

  10. Identity Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darragh, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on identity within mathematics education published in journals over the past two decades. It analyses the theoretical underpinnings, research methods and definitions of identity, providing a critique rather than a summary of the literature. A total of 188 articles from 85 different journals are reviewed in the…

  11. The Joint Accomplishment of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Gresalfi, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Identity has become a central concept in the analysis of learning from social perspectives. In this article, we draw on a situative perspective to conceptualize identity as a "joint accomplishment" between individuals and their interactions with norms, practices, cultural tools, relationships, and institutional and cultural contexts.…

  12. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader.

  13. The Challenge of Hyphenated Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Hyphenated identity is a term that references the multiple socially bound features that individuals use to think about themselves. This article examines cultural and linguistic considerations in the understanding of hyphenated identity and discusses the merit of the concept for clinical use in speech-language pathology. The sources used consist of…

  14. Palestinian Children Crafting National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the formulation of national identity in Palestinian children by exploring their understanding of its paradoxes. Twelve Palestinian children were interviewed from cities, villages and refugee camps in the West Bank. The children express the multiple dimensions of national identity in terms of "self" and "other"; however these…

  15. National Identity in Korean Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyojeong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of national identity has evolved during the last half century within the Korean social studies curriculum. There have been seven curricular revisions since the first national curriculum was released in 1955. Each time the concept of national identity was changed with the biggest changes to this concept within the last two iterations of…

  16. Naxi Intellectuals and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibo, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of Naxi intellectuals in the ethnic identity resurgence of the Naxi since the 1980s in China. The article illustrates 3 aspects of Naxi intellectuals' approach to the identity construction of the Naxi: researching the Naxi, engaging in cultural activities and exhibitions, and teaching the Naxi culture to the younger…

  17. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity.

  18. National Development Generates National Identities.

    PubMed

    Golob, Tea; Makarovič, Matej; Suklan, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  19. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  20. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Methods Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Results Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. Conclusions The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience. PMID:22514657

  1. Brain Activation of Identity Switching in Multiple Identity Tracking Task.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Chuang; Hu, Siyuan; Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Talhelm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    When different objects switch identities in the multiple identity tracking (MIT) task, viewers need to rebind objects' identity and location, which requires attention. This rebinding helps people identify the regions targets are in (where they need to focus their attention) and inhibit unimportant regions (where distractors are). This study investigated the processing of attentional tracking after identity switching in an adapted MIT task. This experiment used three identity-switching conditions: a target-switching condition (where the target objects switched identities), a distractor-switching condition (where the distractor objects switched identities), and a no-switching condition. Compared to the distractor-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the frontal eye fields (FEF), intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and visual cortex. Compared to the no-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the FEF, inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis) (IFG-Orb), IPS, visual cortex, middle temporal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, the distractor-switching condition showed greater activation in the IFG-Orb compared to the no-switching condition. These results suggest that, in the target-switching condition, the FEF and IPS (the dorsal attention network) might be involved in goal-driven attention to targets during attentional tracking. In addition, in the distractor-switching condition, the activation of the IFG-Orb may indicate salient change that pulls attention away automatically.

  2. Māori identity signatures: A latent profile analysis of the types of Māori identity.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lara M; Houkamau, Carla; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. However, the term 'Māori' can refer to a wide range of people of varying ethnic compositions and cultural identity. We present a statistical model identifying 6 distinct types, or 'Māori Identity Signatures,' and estimate their proportion in the Māori population. The model is tested using a Latent Profile Analysis of a national probability sample of 686 Māori drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We identify 6 distinct signatures: Traditional Essentialists (22.6%), Traditional Inclusives (16%), High Moderates (31.7%), Low Moderates (18.7%), Spiritually Orientated (4.1%), and Disassociated (6.9%). These distinct Identity Signatures predicted variation in deprivation, age, mixed-ethnic affiliation, and religion. This research presents the first formal statistical model assessing how people's identity as Māori is psychologically structured, documents the relative proportion of these different patterns of structures, and shows that these patterns reliably predict differences in core demographics. We identify a range of patterns of Māori identity far more diverse than has been previously proposed based on qualitative data, and also show that the majority of Māori fit a moderate or traditional identity pattern. The application of our model for studying Māori health and identity development is discussed.

  3. Coming to an Asexual Identity: Negotiating Identity, Negotiating Desire

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality is generally considered an important aspect of self-hood. Therefore, individuals who do not experience sexual attraction, and embrace an asexual identity are in a unique position to inform the social construction of sexuality. This study explores the experiences of asexual individuals utilizing open ended Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual people. In this paper I describe several distinct aspects of asexual identities: the meanings of sexual, and therefore, asexual behaviors, essentialist characterizations of asexuality, and lastly, interest in romance as a distinct dimension of sexuality. These findings have implications not only for asexual identities, but also for the connections of asexuality with other marginalized sexualities. PMID:20593009

  4. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  5. African American Racial Identity across the Lifespan: Identity Status, Identity Content, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analytic methods were used to create 4 theorized ethnic identity statuses (achieved, foreclosed, moratorium, and diffused) among 940 African American adolescents (13-17 years old), college students (18-23 years old), and adults (27-78 years old). Evidence for the existence of 4 identity statuses was found across the 3 age groups. The…

  6. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  7. An Exploration of the Development of Academic Identity in a School of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth; Roberts, Amanda; Rees, Mary; Read, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the complex processes involved in the self-construction of academic identity in a UK School of Education. Building on seminal literature in this field and drawing on the research of four academics, it begins by discussing teacher educators' varying perceptions of the need to re-configure their identity to meet the…

  8. Identity-Trajectories: Doctoral Journeys from Past to Present to Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Despite much research into doctoral education over the past two decades, theorising the field remains challenging. Recently, identity has been taken up as a conceptualising frame. Views of identity vary but often privilege the reproductive features of society, downplaying how individuals can be intentional in pursuing their desires--with the…

  9. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  10. Gender identity in XY intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Vivian; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2004-07-01

    The following syndromes of XY intersexuality are reviewed: 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency, and complete and partial androgen insensitivity with attention focused on issues of gender identity. Each syndrome, with its unique presentation, provides an opportunity to explore the relative effects of nature (androgens) versus nurture (sex of rearing) in gender identity development. The phenomenon of gender role reversal in these conditions is described and theories on the determinants of gender identity formation are proposed. Issues of importance to psychiatrists in treating patients who have these conditions also are discussed. PMID:15183376

  11. Looking for Daisy: Constructing Teacher Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on teacher identities is both important and increasing. In this forum contribution I re-interpret assertions about an African American science teacher's identities in terms of Jonathon Turner's ("2002") constructs of role identity and sub-identity. I contest the notion of renegotiation of identities, suggesting that particular role…

  12. Chicana Identity Construction: Pushing the Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Helen; De Los Santos, Esmeralda

    2005-01-01

    Identity concepts that Chicana feminists have described as central to their developmental experience are not reflected in the traditional views of identity, feminist accounts of women's identity, or ethnic identity theory. Chicana feminist Gloria Anzaldua initially postulated that in the straddling of two cultures, a hybrid or mestiza identity is…

  13. How Places Shape Identity: The Origins of Distinctive LBQ Identities in Four Small U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Brown-Saracino, Japonica

    2015-07-01

    Tools from the study of neighborhood effects, place distinction, and regional identity are employed in an ethnography of four small cities with growing populations of lesbian, bisexual, and queer-identified (LBQ) women to explain why orientations to sexual identity are relatively constant within each site, despite informants' within-city demographic heterogeneity, but vary substantially across the sites, despite common place-based attributes. The author introduces the concept of "sexual identity cultures"--and reveals the defining role of cities in shaping their contours. She finds that LBQ numbers and acceptance, place narratives, and newcomers' encounters with local social attributes serve as touchstones. The article looks beyond major categorical differences (e.g., urban/rural) to understand how and why identities evolve and vary and to reveal the fundamental interplay of demographic, cultural, and other city features previously thought isolatable. The findings challenge notions of identity as fixed and emphasize the degree to which self-understanding and group understanding remain collective accomplishments. PMID:26430710

  14. How Places Shape Identity: The Origins of Distinctive LBQ Identities in Four Small U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Brown-Saracino, Japonica

    2015-07-01

    Tools from the study of neighborhood effects, place distinction, and regional identity are employed in an ethnography of four small cities with growing populations of lesbian, bisexual, and queer-identified (LBQ) women to explain why orientations to sexual identity are relatively constant within each site, despite informants' within-city demographic heterogeneity, but vary substantially across the sites, despite common place-based attributes. The author introduces the concept of "sexual identity cultures"--and reveals the defining role of cities in shaping their contours. She finds that LBQ numbers and acceptance, place narratives, and newcomers' encounters with local social attributes serve as touchstones. The article looks beyond major categorical differences (e.g., urban/rural) to understand how and why identities evolve and vary and to reveal the fundamental interplay of demographic, cultural, and other city features previously thought isolatable. The findings challenge notions of identity as fixed and emphasize the degree to which self-understanding and group understanding remain collective accomplishments.

  15. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  16. Identity Politics and Critical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Hank

    1989-01-01

    This essay investigates what identity politics may have to contribute to the reformation of Marxist theories of education through considering how it would theorize the practice of explicitly critical pedagogy. (IAH)

  17. Science Identity in Informal Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, Jennifer A.

    The national drive to increase the number of students pursuing Science Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) careers has brought science identity into focus for educators, with the need to determine what encourages students to pursue and persist in STEM careers. Science identity, the degree to which students think someone like them could be a scientist is a potential indicator of students pursuing and persisting in STEM related fields. Science identity, as defined by Carlone and Johnson (2007) consists of three constructs: competence, performance, and recognition. Students need to feel like they are good at science, can perform it well, and that others recognize them for these achievements in order to develop a science identity. These constructs can be bolstered by student visitation to informal education centers. Informal education centers, such as outdoor science schools, museums, and various learning centers can have a positive impact on how students view themselves as scientists by exposing them to novel and unique learning opportunities unavailable in their school. Specifically, the University of Idaho's McCall Outdoor Science School (MOSS) focuses on providing K-12 students with the opportunity to learn about science with a place-based, hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum that hopes to foster science identity development. To understand the constructs that lead to science identity formation and the impact the MOSS program has on science identity development, several questions were explored examining how students define the constructs and if the MOSS program impacted how they rate themselves within each construct. A mixed-method research approach was used consisting of focus group interviews with students and pre, post, one-month posttests for visiting students to look at change in science identity over time. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the instrument created is a good fit for examining science identity and the associated

  18. Effect of varying light intensity on blood physiological reactions of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) from 22 to 56 d of age at 50% RH on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes of heavy broilers reared under environmentally controlled conditions. Four identical trials were conducted wi...

  19. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  20. Efficient Encoding and Rendering of Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Diann; Shih, Ming-Yun; Shen, Han-Wei

    1998-01-01

    Visualization of time-varying volumetric data sets, which may be obtained from numerical simulations or sensing instruments, provides scientists insights into the detailed dynamics of the phenomenon under study. This paper describes a coherent solution based on quantization, coupled with octree and difference encoding for visualizing time-varying volumetric data. Quantization is used to attain voxel-level compression and may have a significant influence on the performance of the subsequent encoding and visualization steps. Octree encoding is used for spatial domain compression, and difference encoding for temporal domain compression. In essence, neighboring voxels may be fused into macro voxels if they have similar values, and subtrees at consecutive time steps may be merged if they are identical. The software rendering process is tailored according to the tree structures and the volume visualization process. With the tree representation, selective rendering may be performed very efficiently. Additionally, the I/O costs are reduced. With these combined savings, a higher level of user interactivity is achieved. We have studied a variety of time-varying volume datasets, performed encoding based on data statistics, and optimized the rendering calculations wherever possible. Preliminary tests on workstations have shown in many cases tremendous reduction by as high as 90% in both storage space and inter-frame delay.

  1. Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

  2. Beyond pain and protection: politics of identity and iban girls in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-eun

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the complexities in the exploration of iban girls' identities and the various ways how girls appropriate varied sources such as popular culture to examine the heterogeneousness of identity explorations and rethink the politics of identities. Against the tendency in current discourse on homosexual youth in Korea, protection discourse and pain discourse, the notion of identity itself will be critically examined and the girls' agency in destabilizing heteronormativity will be discussed. This study also deals with the appropriation of popular culture by the girls, suggesting that cultural critiques should reveal complex dynamics in concrete experiences. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_04. PMID:17210558

  3. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently.

  4. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  5. Social Trust of Virtual Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    Most other chapters of this book discuss computational models of trust in broader terms, giving definitions of trust, explaining how trust should evolve over time, surveying the different facets of trust .On the other hand, this chapter has a clear focus on the important element of identity in computational trust mechanisms. Trust and reputation are easier to form in face-to-face situations than in situations involving the use of computers and networks because the identity of the trustee is more difficult to verify. In this chapter, the different means to recognise virtual identities are surveyed. Next, their integration into computational trust engines is discussed, especially according to four main requirements: Adaptability, Security, Usability and Privacy (ASUP).

  6. "Doing Identity" in the Botswana Classroom: Negotiating Gendered Institutional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such…

  7. Blended Identities: Identity Work, Equity and Marginalization in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikoop, Will

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical study of the self-presentation strategies employed by higher education students online; it examines student identity work via profile information and avatars in a blended learning environment delivered through social networking sites and virtual worlds. It argues that students are faced with difficult choices when…

  8. Split Identity: Intransitive Judgments of the Identity of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rips, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity is a transitive relation, according to all standard accounts. Necessarily, if "x = y" and "y = z," then "x = z." However, people sometimes say that two objects, "x" and "z," are the same as a third, "y," even when "x" and "z" have different properties (thus, "x = y" and "y = z," but "x is not equal to z"). In the present experiments,…

  9. Identity in Flux: Negotiating Identity While Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jennifer T.; Natrajan-Tyagi, Rajeswari; Platt, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad is one aspect of global movement that connects individuals of diverse backgrounds. Individuals studying abroad are proffered to negotiate self-identity when they confront novelty and new contexts. This study chose to use the qualitative method of phenomenological interviews to examine how individuals experience themselves and others…

  10. Drawing Identity: Beginning Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltman, Susan; Glass, Christine; Dinham, Judith; Chalk, Beryl; Nguyen, Bich

    2015-01-01

    Developing a professional teacher identity can be complex as pre-service teachers engage with a process informed by their previous experiences of teachers and teaching, by learning in their pre-service course, by field placements, and by societal expectations. Using drawing as the method for gathering data, pre-service teachers in an Australian…

  11. Integrating Identities: Ethnic and Academic Identities among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,…

  12. Status of personnel identity verifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported.

  13. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  14. An Existentialist Account of Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilsker, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Gives account of Marcia's identity formation model in language of existentialist philosophy. Examines parallels between ego-identity and existentialist approaches. Describes identity in terms of existentialist concepts of Heidegger and Sartre. Argues that existentialist account of identity formation has benefits of clarification of difficult…

  15. The Moral Self: Applying Identity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Carter, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies identity theory to understand the moral self. In identity theory, individuals act on the basis of their identity meanings, and they regulate the meanings of their behavior so that those meanings are consistent with their identity meanings. An inconsistency produces negative emotions and motivates individuals to behave…

  16. Teacher Identity Work in Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumayer-Depiper, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a teacher is not developing an identity, but is developing identity as a continuous process of constructing and deconstructing understandings within the complexities of social practice, beliefs, experiences, and social norms. I take up this stance on identity as articulated in Judith Butler's (1999) work with gender identity and…

  17. A Dialogical Approach to Conceptualizing Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Meijer, Paulien C.

    2011-01-01

    In recent attempts to address the notion of teacher identity, scholars have stressed how identity is dynamically evolving, intrinsically related to others, and consists of multiple identities. Though these postmodern characterizations represent radically new perceptions of identity, they are not extensively discussed in relation to previous…

  18. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  19. Gender Identity Disorder in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Dionne; Flauto, Phil

    Identity formation involves the development of self esteem, social skills, and a sense of self. Many gay and lesbian adults have noted that they were aware of their attraction to members of the same sex as early as five- and six-years-old. Reactions they received from parents and others often added to their stress. Following a description of the…

  20. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  1. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate…

  2. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    PubMed

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  3. Entanglement conditions and polynomial identities

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukin, E.

    2011-11-15

    We develop a rather general approach to entanglement characterization based on convexity properties and polynomial identities. This approach is applied to obtain simple and efficient entanglement conditions that work equally well in both discrete as well as continuous-variable environments. Examples of violations of our conditions are presented.

  4. Identity, Culture and Cosmopolitan Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the policy notion of multiculturalism, and suggests that it is no longer adequate for understanding contemporary forms of interculturality that span across the globe, and are deeply affected by the processes of cultural globalization. Cultural identities can no longer be assumed as static and nation-bound, and are created…

  5. Feminist Identity among Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.; Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    This study explores developing conceptions of feminism among Latina adolescents, their prevalence of feminist endorsement, and whether home environment and well-being are related to feminist identity. One hundred and forty Latina girls (Grades 9 to 12, M age = 15) wrote personal narratives of their understanding of feminism and whether they…

  6. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  7. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.…

  8. Understanding Academic Identity through Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…

  9. [Identity and narration: autobiographical quests].

    PubMed

    Arfuch, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach. PMID:24251298

  10. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  11. All binomial identities are verifiable

    PubMed Central

    Zeilberger, Doron

    1981-01-01

    Sister Celine Fasenmyer's technique for obtaining pure recurrence relations for hypergeometric polynomials is formalized and used to show that every identity involving sums of products of binomial coefficients can be verified by checking a finite number of its special cases. PMID:16593045

  12. Developing Students' Professional Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Antonczak, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the myth of the "Digital Native" and the ubiquity of Facebook use, we have found that students' digital identities are predominantly social with their online activity beyond Facebook limited to being social media consumers rather than producers. Within a global economy students need to learn new digital literacy skills to…

  13. Cultural Identity in Tibetan Diasporas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard; Dorjee, Tenzin

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan civilisation is over two millenniums old and, today, its struggles in diaspora open up a new chapter in Tibetan history. Diasporic Tibetans (e.g. in India and the USA) have made tremendous efforts over the last few decades to maintain their way of life. We focus on cultural identity in the Tibetan diasporas, with special attention focused…

  14. Identity from classical invariant theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A simple derivation is given of a well-known relation involving the so-called Cayley Operator of classical invariant theory. The proof is induction-free and independent of Capelli's identity; it makes use only of a known-theorem in the theory of determinants and some elementary combinatorics.

  15. Identities for the Fibonacci Powers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alex; Chen, Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the generating functions, for any positive integers "n" and "k", identities are established and the explicit formula for a[subscript i](k) in terms of Fibonomial coefficients are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences including Lucas and Pell sequences.

  16. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  17. Identity Representations in Visual Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayik, Rawia

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to address minority issues with Israeli Arab English-as-a-foreign-language ninth-grade students, I as a teacher researcher introduced picture books on the issue and invited students to respond in different modes, one of which was artistic. In one of the lessons, students created collages to represent their identities. In this…

  18. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…

  19. [Identity and narration: autobiographical quests].

    PubMed

    Arfuch, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach.

  20. Student Perspectives on Multiracial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alissa R.

    2008-01-01

    When the U.S. 2000 Census allowed individuals to identify themselves in two or more racial categories, approximately 6.8 million people identified with more than one race. Interest in racial identity development among college students had just broken the surface in the 1990s, and following the 2000 census, even more attention was paid to the…

  1. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  2. 6 Keys to Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Idan

    2011-01-01

    An Identity and Access Management (IAM) project on campus can feel like a Sisyphean task: Just when access rights have finally been sorted out, the semester ends--and users change roles, leave campus, or require new processes. IT departments face a constantly changing technical landscape: (1) integrating new applications and retiring old ones; (2)…

  3. The inheritance of centromere identity.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Risa; Kitagawa, Katsumi

    2016-07-01

    CENP-A (Centromere protein A) is a histone H3 variant that epigenetically determines the centromere position, but the mechanism of its centromere inheritance is obscure. We propose that CENP-A ubiquitylation, which is inherited through dimerization between rounds of cell division, is a candidate for the epigenetic mark of centromere identity. PMID:27652331

  4. Personal Identity: Moving beyond Essence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Education's ancient and profoundly important pursuit to "know thyself", is often realised through engaging with the question "who am I?" In order to the identify "who" in this search, it is argued in this paper that personal identity should be understood to be embedded in the purposes one has for one's life through "how" one relates, and is…

  5. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  6. Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Hispanic Journalists tracks the presence of Latinos in the news. It reports that news stories in which Latinos are the subject most often concern immigration, poverty and crime. And Hollywood does no better in reflecting the broad reality of Latino life. Latino characters are often portrayed as poor and uneducated. In…

  7. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms.

  8. Variational identities and Hamiltonian structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-03-08

    This report is concerned with Hamiltonian structures of classical and super soliton hierarchies. In the classical case, basic tools are variational identities associated with continuous and discrete matrix spectral problems, targeted to soliton equations derived from zero curvature equations over general Lie algebras, both semisimple and non-semisimple. In the super case, a supertrace identity is presented for constructing Hamiltonian structures of super soliton equations associated with Lie superalgebras. We illustrate the general theories by the KdV hierarchy, the Volterra lattice hierarchy, the super AKNS hierarchy, and two hierarchies of dark KdV equations and dark Volterra lattices. The resulting Hamiltonian structures show the commutativity of each hierarchy discussed and thus the existence of infinitely many commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  9. [Voice and identity in transsexuality].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alvarez, J C

    2011-08-01

    For the self-acceptance and social approval of transsexuals in their new identity, the voice plays a very important role. The responsibility of the phoniatrician and voice therapist is to identify in advance what type of voice change options are possible. These can either be achieved by more conservative means or through operative procedures. Whether to undergo speech therapy or perform a laryngeal surgical intervention should be discussed with the patient and determined on an individual basis.

  10. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  11. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  12. Vasospastic Angina in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Takayuki; Otsui, Kazunori; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Iwata, Sachiyo; Takei, Asumi; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Vasospastic angina Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Medical treatment Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: The clinical conditions of various diseases, including coronary artery disease, are determined by genetics and the environment. Previous investigations noted the significance of genetic mutations and polymorphisms in cases of coronary spasm. Case Report: We report on monozygotic identical twins who almost simultaneously presented with vasospastic angina. The 58-year-old younger twin was admitted to our hospital because of persistent chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed an inverted T wave in the left precordial leads. Coronary angiographies revealed a short left main trunk (LMT) and 50% stenosis at the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Infusion of acetylcholine to his left coronary artery caused marked vasoconstriction associated with a sensation of chest oppression. Nitroglycerine completely reversed this response. Based on these findings, we diagnosed Twin A with vasospastic angina. At nearly the same time, his identical twin brother was diagnosed with vasospastic angina at another hospital. Comparison of both coronary angiograms indicated similar structure of coronary vessels, including short LMT and mild stenosis at the proximal portion of LAD. Conclusions: These 2 cases highlight the importance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of vasospastic angina. It may be important for individuals to receive medical attention if their identical twin presents with vasospastic angina. PMID:26347942

  13. Microwave fidelity studies by varying antenna coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köber, B.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Gorin, T.; Savin, D. V.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-09-01

    The fidelity decay in a microwave billiard is considered, where the coupling to an attached antenna is varied. The resulting quantity, coupling fidelity, is experimentally studied for three different terminators of the varied antenna: a hard-wall reflection, an open wall reflection, and a 50Ω load, corresponding to a totally open channel. The model description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian with a complex coupling constant is given. Quantitative agreement is found with the theory obtained from a modified VWZ approach [J. J. M. Verbaarschot , Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1985)10.1016/0370-1573(85)90070-5].

  14. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Barger, V; Huber, Patrick; Marfatia, Danny

    2005-11-18

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.

  15. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  16. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  17. Variations in Sexual Identity Milestones among Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities.

  18. Recognition criteria vary with fluctuating uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Joshua A; Cavanagh, Patrick; Gorea, Andrei

    2012-08-06

    In distinct experiments we examined memories for orientation and size. After viewing a randomly oriented Gabor patch (or a plain white disk of random size), observers were given unlimited time to reproduce as faithfully as possible the orientation (or size) of that standard stimulus with an adjustable Gabor patch (or disk). Then, with this match stimulus still in view, a recognition probe was presented. On half the trials, this probe was identical to the standard. We expected observers to classify the probe (a same/different task) on the basis of its difference from the match, which should have served as an explicit memory of the standard. Observers did better than that. Larger differences were classified as "same" when probe and standard were indeed identical. In some cases, recognition performance exceeded that of a simulated observer subject to the same matching errors, but forced to adopt the single most advantageous criterion difference between the probe and match. Recognition must have used information that was not or could not be exploited in the reproduction phase. One possible source for that information is observers' confidence in their reproduction (e.g., in their memory of the standard). Simulations confirm the enhancement of recognition performance when decision criteria are adjusted trial-by-trial, on the basis of the observer's estimated reproduction error.

  19. Connection between the rapidly varying and smooth components in the light curves of Seyfert galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Gagen-Torn, V.A.

    1987-11-01

    It is shown that for some Seyfert galaxies whose light curves contain a fast (burst) component and a smooth component (components I and II) the amplitude of the flux variation of component I is proportional to the flux of component II. Since components I and II are also identical in their color characteristics, it is very probable that the variability is due to a single smoothly varying and fluctuating source.

  20. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  1. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  2. Is speech alignment to talkers or tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel M.; Sanchez, Kauyumari; Rosenblum, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    Speech alignment, the tendency of individuals to subtly imitate each other’s speaking style, is often assessed by comparing a subject’s baseline and shadowed utterances to a model’s utterances often through perceptual ratings. These types of comparisons provide information about the occurrence of a change in subject’s speech, but do not indicate that this change is towards the specific shadowed model. Three studies investigated whether alignment is specific to a shadowed model. Experiment 1 involved the classic baseline to shadowed comparison to confirm that subjects did, in fact, sound more like their model when they shadowed, relative to any pre-existing similarities between a subject and model. Experiment 2 tested whether subjects’ utterances sounded more similar to the model they had shadowed or to another unshadowed model. Experiment 3 examined whether subjects’ utterances sounded more similar to the model they had shadowed or to another subject who shadowed a different model. Results of all experiments revealed that subjects sounded more similar to the model they had shadowed. This suggests that shadowing-based speech alignment is not just a change; it is a change in the direction of the shadowed model, specifically. PMID:23907619

  3. Interactions between facial emotion and identity in face processing: evidence based on redundancy gains.

    PubMed

    Yankouskaya, Alla; Booth, David A; Humphreys, Glyn

    2012-11-01

    Interactions between the processing of emotion expression and form-based information from faces (facial identity) were investigated using the redundant-target paradigm, in which we specifically tested whether identity and emotional expression are integrated in a superadditive manner (Miller, Cognitive Psychology 14:247-279, 1982). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed emotion and face identity judgments on faces with sad or angry emotional expressions. Responses to redundant targets were faster than responses to either single target when a universal emotion was conveyed, and performance violated the predictions from a model assuming independent processing of emotion and face identity. Experiment 4 showed that these effects were not modulated by varying interstimulus and nontarget contingencies, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that the redundancy gains were eliminated when faces were inverted. Taken together, these results suggest that the identification of emotion and facial identity interact in face processing. PMID:22814949

  4. Components in time-varying graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  5. Components in time-varying graphs.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis. PMID:22757508

  6. Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

  7. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  8. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed. PMID:23606785

  9. Positional Identity and Science Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Felicia M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the positional identity of three African American secondary science teachers. Positional identity was operationally defined in terms of race, ethnicity, economic status, gender, religion, and age. Positional identity was posited to inform why diverse teachers with differing knowledge and experiences in…

  10. American Indians' Construction of Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatzmaier, Luann; Myers, Monique; Bordogna, Melissa A.

    This paper examines how American Indians construct and describe their own cultural identities. In particular, it focuses on cultural group identity from the perspective of three American Indians living in an urban setting, and on the ways that cultural identity can be communicated and enacted. Two American Indian women and one American Indian man,…

  11. Retirees' Social Identity and Satisfaction with Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of retirees' social identity and its impact on satisfaction with retirement. From social identity theory formulations, we assumed that (1) retiree-identity was comprised of three distinct components (cognitive, evaluative, and affective), and (2) only the affective component would play a role…

  12. A multidimensional approach to homosexual identity.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J L; Newcomb, M D

    2001-01-01

    The existing developmental stage models of homosexual identity do not consider the diversity of human sexual experience. The stage models stem from an essentialist perspective, in which the process of homosexual identity formation is largely a matter of becoming aware of one's underlying, or real, sexual orientation. Once homosexual orientation is identified, the only legitimate outcome is to develop homosexual identity and eventually incorporate that identity as one aspect of the total self. In this paper, we are concerned with those people for whom the stage models are inadequate in describing their experience of sexual identity development. The social constructionist perspective holds that the process of identity formation is a continual, two-way interactive process between the individual and the social environment, and that the meanings the individual gives to these factors influence the development of self-constructs and identity. Sexual identity develops within this contextual framework and, because it is influenced by continual interaction, is fluid over time and experience, throughout one's life. Our model does not rely on the existing developmental models of homosexual identity; rather, our model looks at desire, behavior, and identity as three separate constructs related to sexual identity. We posit that from the social constructionist viewpoint, there is in fact no true endpoint to sexual identity development. PMID:12013570

  13. Identities, Social Representations and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Facal, Ramon; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of "identities" in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to particular…

  14. Career Identity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for…

  15. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  16. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  17. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of each filling of each lot shall be tested for identity after all labeling operations shall have been...

  18. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs FOOD... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of each filling of each lot shall be tested for identity after all labeling operations shall have been...

  19. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of each filling of each lot shall be tested for identity after all labeling operations shall have been...

  20. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  1. American Identity in the USA: Youth Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Parissa

    2011-01-01

    National identity, how one sees oneself as a member of a given nation, is an important form of social identity. Feelings toward one's country are a matter of both individual and collective concern. In an increasingly diverse world, the issue of identifying with a nation is complex and consequential for individual identity formation as well as…

  2. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only...

  3. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and... COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity....

  4. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  5. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of each filling of each lot shall be tested for identity after all labeling operations shall have been...

  6. Identity Construction in Powerful Institutions: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Susan U.

    2010-01-01

    The articles in this issue focus on the collaborative and negotiated construction of identities in interaction. Most of the articles are concerned with the constitution of identities through time in powerful educational and legal institutional contexts. Here the emphasis is on the emergence of new identities being learned by some participants…

  7. Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maurella Louise

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct exploratory qualitative research to investigate how PSTs and practicing teachers experience cultural and racial identity development or changes in identity. Rather than examine the "what" or contributors to identity development, I will explore the "how" or processes of identity…

  8. Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.

  9. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  10. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge); "Ensino de linguas estrangeiras e…

  11. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  12. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  13. Synchronization of two identical and non-identical Rulkov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huijing; Cao, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of two chaotic Rulkov map-based neurons is taken into account. Firstly, based on the master stability function (MSF) analysis, the complete synchronization of two electrical coupled chaotic Rulkov neurons is investigated in detail. The two-dimensional parameter-space plot that displays directly the values of the MSF in different colors is numerically obtained. The numerical values of the MSF show that the two electrical coupled Rulkov neurons are likely to achieve the complete synchronization when each single neuron is in a silent state or a period-1 bursting state, while are unable to reach the complete synchronous state when each single neuron is in a chaotic bursting state or a spiking state. Secondly, Pearson's correlation coefficient is employed to measure the synchronization degree, which demonstrates the nonexistence of the complete synchronization for non-identical electrical coupled Rulkov neurons. Importantly, the complete synchronization can not be reached with the increase of the electrical coupling strength, which is different from the continuous-time neuronal models. Finally, based on the active control method, a synchronization scheme is presented to study the complete synchronization for two Rulkov neurons no matter whether they are identical or not. The scheme is also applied to investigate the anticipated synchronization and the lag synchronization for any two Rulkov neurons. Numerical simulations verify the correctness of our analytical results and the effectiveness of our methods.

  14. [Dyssocial identity disorder (double identity) in psychopathology and poetry].

    PubMed

    Tölle, R

    1996-01-01

    Identity dissociation signifies: there seem to exist two identities in one personality that take turns-apparently without knowing about each other. Descriptions of this rare state are often spectacular. As scientifically proven they depend on culturally specific conditions and iatrogeneous influences. The disorder is to be analysed in this article for the case of both psychiatry and every-day-life-experiences in a matter-of-fact way. The first description of the phenomenon is not found in psychiatric literature but in poetry. The novellas of E.T.A. Hoffmann contain at least eight descriptions of 'double life'. The 'Fräulein von Scuderi' (1820) seems to be the most interesting of these and is therefore focused on in this article. E.T.A. Hoffmann himself was at the same time well respected jurist and significant artist of great versatility: poet as well as musician, composer, painter. Hoffmann's artistic and his civic life stood in sharp contrast, which gives reason to use of the term 'double life'.

  15. "Not-so-identical" twins with trisomy 21 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Batlivala, Sarosh P; Courtney, Kendra S; Ebeid, Makram R; Parnell, Aimee S

    2016-06-01

    While trisomy 21 is a common genetic disorder in singletons, the incidence among identical twins is very rare, occurring in approximately 1-2 per 1000 twin gestations. Trisomy 21 is associated with high incidence of congenital heart defects, and commonly occurs with ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Physiologic burden of VSDs depends on prevalence of anatomic and other circulatory factors. A case of identical twins with trisomy 21 and large VSDs is described in the present report. Though genetically identical, phenotypes varied significantly. One twin was managed medically, while the other developed more significant heart failure, requiring operative repair. PMID:27372623

  16. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  17. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes. PMID:15841859

  18. Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.

    This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.

  19. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  20. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  1. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  2. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  3. Corporate visual identity: a case in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Alkibay, Sanem; Ozdogan, F Bahar; Ermec, Aysegul

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to present a perspective to better understand corporate identity through examining the perceptions of Turkish patients and develop a corporate visual identity scale. While there is no study related to corporate identity research on hospitals in Turkey as a developing country, understanding consumer's perceptions about corporate identity efforts of hospitals could provide different perspectives for recruiters. When the hospitals are considered in two different groups as university and state hospitals, the priority of the characteristics of corporate visual identity may change, whereas the top five characteristics remain the same for all the hospitals.

  4. Cultural Mistrust, Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among Ethnically Diverse Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…

  5. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  6. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  7. Bridging Identities and Disciplines: Advances and Challenges in Understanding Multiple Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters in this volume address the need for a better understanding of the development of intersecting identities over age and context. The chapters provide valuable insights into the development of identities, particularly group identities. They highlight common processes across identities, such as the role of contrast and comparison and the…

  8. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

  9. Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

    2000-03-01

    A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone. PMID:10972320

  10. Synchronization in time-varying networks.

    PubMed

    Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jüergen

    2014-08-01

    We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013)]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability. PMID:25215786

  11. New graduate identity: discursive mismatch.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Helen

    2005-09-01

    For many new graduates the transition from nursing student to a professional in practice is marked by conflict and tension. Given that conflict may ensue from differing discursive constructions of new graduates, this article reports a review of discursive construction between new graduates from two institutions with vested interests in nursing graduates--comparing health service organisations and educational institutions in Victoria. Four discourses, common to both sets of texts and constitutive of new graduate identity were identified: these were the discourse of nursing practice; the discourse of the good nurse; the discourse of knowing and thinking; and the discourse of statute and regulation. A discourse peculiar to health service organisations only was identified as an organisational and bureaucratic discourse. This review reports the new graduate, as constructed in education texts, as a rational, independent, critically thinking and knowing care giver. In contrast, in health service organisation texts, the new graduate is constructed as a functional, efficient, organisational operative, providing a nursing service. New graduates are concluded to experience multiple discursive dissonances in their first employment which stem from differing constructions of new graduate identity within institutional discourses. If tensions experienced in the transition as discursively generated are understood, previously unthought of ways preparing and introducing nurses to the work place may ensue.

  12. Catholic identity: realized in conversation.

    PubMed

    Neale, A

    1997-01-01

    Catholic literature leaders must constantly engage the Catholic tradition, because it provides the framework for everything we do. The way they can do this is through conversation--discussion about the profound values and philosophical and theological assumptions that are at the heart of our ministry. Yet many healthcare boards and senior managers do not engage in such conversations. This is a serious omission, with potentially serious consequences. Too often mission and pastoral care values are regarded as separate from the business aspects of a healthcare organization. If we are to understand and integrate our mission into our healthcare work, this must change. The entire organization must make a commitment to foster an understanding of Catholic identity through conversation. As important as the dialogue is, some Catholic healthcare leaders let obstacles prevent them from delving into Catholic identity. They may not understand it, or they may be deterred by our cultural tendency to regard religion as personal, not part of the business realm. Some may be embarrassed, uncomfortable with abstraction, or reluctant to spend the time required. To encourage the conversation among Catholic healthcare leaders, we may take a lesson from our counterparts in Catholic education, who struggle with the same questions. A model Catholic university, where Catholic values are incorporated at all levels, may be a model for Catholic healthcare.

  13. Men, masculine identities and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Alan; Coe, Christine

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, fathers' experiences during childbirth have attracted much research and policy interest. However, little of this work has been grounded in the first-hand accounts of men and there is a lack of theory-based research to help understand men's thoughts and practices around childbirth. This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken with first-time fathers and healthcare professionals. It draws on Connell's (1995) conceptualisation of hegemonic masculinity to explore how men construct masculine identities within the context of pregnancy and childbirth and also how healthcare professionals construct masculinity. The paper demonstrates the ways in which men can find themselves marginalised within the context of pregnancy and childbirth, but are still able to draw on identifiable markers of masculine practice which enable them to enact a masculine form congruent with dominant masculinity. It also illustrates how healthcare professionals' constructions of masculinity enable them to predict how men will behave and allow them to position men in ways that involve minimum disruption to their own practice. The paper also highlights how men's marginal status is embedded in the dynamics of the social structure, which produce and reproduce dominant masculine identities within the context of childbirth.

  14. The relationships among caregiver and adolescent identity status, identity distress and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Rachel E; Berman, Steven L

    2012-10-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent children (21.7%) met DSM-IV criteria for Identity Problem. Caregiver identity commitment, significantly predicted adolescent identity distress over and above the adolescents' identity variables, while caregiver identity exploration significantly predicted adolescent psychological symptom severity. These findings and implications are discussed in further detail.

  15. Identities, social representations and critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Facal, Ramón; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2009-09-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of identities in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to particular countries (Slovenia versus France for bears, France and Italy for wolves), in other words, as having national identities; on the other hand representations of their own identities as belonging to the field of agricultural practitioners, and so sharing this socio-professional identity with shepherds and breeders, as opposed to ecologists. We discuss how these representations of identities influenced students' reasoning and argumentation, blocking in some cases the evaluation of evidence. Implications for developing critical thinking and for dealing with SSI in the classrooms are outlined.

  16. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity. 130.17 Section 130.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity. 130.17 Section 130.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity. 130.17 Section 130.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of eliciting dialogue-based, laboratory-quality speech recordings was developed (the Diapix task). Dialogues between two native speakers of English, between two non-native speakers of English (with either shared or different L1s), and between one native and one non-native speaker of English are included and analyzed in terms of general measures of communicative efficiency. The overall finding was that pairs of native talkers were most efficient, followed by mixed native/non-native pairs and non-native pairs with shared L1. Non-native pairs with different L1s were least efficient. These results support the hypothesis that successful speech communication depends both on the alignment of talkers to the target language and on the alignment of talkers to one another in terms of native language background. PMID:21313992

  20. Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-09-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking.

  1. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  2. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  3. Best packing of identical helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Youngsik; Hong, Kyungpyo; Kim, Hyoungjun; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we prove the unique existence of a ropelength-minimizing conformation of the θ-spun double helix in a mathematically rigorous way, and find the minimal ropelength {{{Rop}}}* (θ )=-\\tfrac{8π }{t} where t is the unique solution in [-θ ,0] of the equation 2-2\\cos (t+θ )={t}2. Using this result, the pitch angles of the standard, triple and quadruple helices are around 39.3771^\\circ , 42.8354^\\circ and 43.8351^\\circ , respectively, which are almost identical with the approximated pitch angles of the zero-twist structures previously known by Olsen and Bohr. We also find the ropelength of the standard N-helix.

  4. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  5. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  6. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  7. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  8. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  9. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  10. Social identity framing: Leader communication for social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyranian, Viviane

    Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF

  11. Intermediate quantum statistics for identical objects

    SciTech Connect

    Kuryshkin, V.V.

    1988-11-01

    Methods to construct various algebras of creation and annihilation operators of physical objects in complex quantum state spaces with a nonnegative metric are proposed. All allowed algebras for the cases of identical nonrelativistic systems in the second quantization of the Schrodinger equation, of identical quanta of relativistic tensor fields, and of identical quanta of relativistic spinor fields are constructed. A comparison of the obtained algebras with the well-known algebras of this type (Fermi, Bose, para-Fermi, and superalgebras) is given.

  12. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  13. “Am I my genes?”: Questions of identity among individuals confronting genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore many questions raised by genetics concerning personal identities that have not been fully investigated. Methods We interviewed in depth, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington disease, breast cancer, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Results These individuals struggled with several difficult issues of identity. They drew on a range of genotypes and phenotypes (e.g., family history alone; mutations, but no symptoms; or symptoms). They often felt that their predicament did not fit preexisting categories well (e.g., “sick,” “healthy,” “disabled,” “predisposed”), due in part to uncertainties involved (e.g., unclear prognoses, since mutations may not produce symptoms). Hence, individuals varied in how much genetics affected their identity, in what ways, and how negatively. Factors emerged related to disease, family history, and other sources of identity. These identities may, in turn, shape disclosure, coping, and other health decisions. Conclusions Individuals struggle to construct a genetic identity. They view genetic information in highly subjective ways, varying widely in what aspects of genetic information they focus on and how. These data have important implications for education of providers (to assist patients with these issues), patients, and family members; and for research, to understand these issues more fully. PMID:20010365

  14. When moral identity symbolization motivates prosocial behavior: the role of recognition and moral identity internalization.

    PubMed

    Winterich, Karen Page; Aquino, Karl; Mittal, Vikas; Swartz, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article examines the role of moral identity symbolization in motivating prosocial behaviors. We propose a 3-way interaction of moral identity symbolization, internalization, and recognition to predict prosocial behavior. When moral identity internalization is low, we hypothesize that high moral identity symbolization motivates recognized prosocial behavior due to the opportunity to present one's moral characteristics to others. In contrast, when moral identity internalization is high, prosocial behavior is motivated irrespective of the level of symbolization and recognition. Two studies provide support for this pattern examining volunteering of time. Our results provide a framework for predicting prosocial behavior by combining the 2 dimensions of moral identity with the situational factor of recognition.

  15. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Costa, Adriana Gomes da; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The presence of supernumerary teeth (ST) is a dental developmental anomaly of patterning and morphogenesis. Its variability of morphology, location and developmental timing can shed light on its etiology. In this work we report ST patterns. Orthopantomograms of 1,166 pediatric subjects were examined and the morphology, location and timing of the formation of ST were determined. The frequency of supernumerary teeth in the studied population was 2.3% (n = 27). Twenty-five subjects presented one ST. Maxilla midline was the most commonly affected region (nine cases). We noted high incidence of conical morphology in the midline region. Only teeth with tuberculate morphology presented delayed formation. ST in the midline region occurred more often in males whereas ST in the incisor region were more common in females. In conclusion, ST patterns vary depending on gender. PMID:21359454

  16. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  17. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  18. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  19. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault

    In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently `observed' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  20. General Differential Contact Identities for Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Jonathan; Pincus, P. A.; Jho, YongSeok

    2015-10-01

    We discuss general Maxwell identities relating a macromolecule's charge, the forces acting at its surface, and the osmotic pressure of the solution in which it sits. The identities are closely related to the contact value relations that hold for certain special geometries, but are more general. In particular, the Maxwell identities can be applied to any macromolecule geometry, and they hold both within and outside of mean-field theory. Examples illustrate that combining the identities with approximate treatments of screening can often return simple, accurate osmotic pressure estimates.

  1. An existentialist account of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Bilsker, D

    1992-06-01

    An account of James Marcia's identity formation model is given in the language of existentialist philosophy. Parallels between ego-identity and existentialist approaches are examined and identity is described in terms of existentialist concepts formulated by Martin Heidegger (Being and Time) and Jean-Paul Sartre (Being and Nothingness). While identity formation has previously been formulated in terms of ego-analytic theory, this paper argues and seeks to demonstrate that significant benefits accrue from an existentialist account. These benefits include clarification of difficult theoretical issues, delineation of specific research directions and enrichment of clinical understanding.

  2. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  3. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. General Differential Contact Identities for Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Landy, Jonathan; Pincus, P A; Jho, YongSeok

    2015-10-16

    We discuss general Maxwell identities relating a macromolecule's charge, the forces acting at its surface, and the osmotic pressure of the solution in which it sits. The identities are closely related to the contact value relations that hold for certain special geometries, but are more general. In particular, the Maxwell identities can be applied to any macromolecule geometry, and they hold both within and outside of mean-field theory. Examples illustrate that combining the identities with approximate treatments of screening can often return simple, accurate osmotic pressure estimates.

  5. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  6. Identity and Introject in dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Alpher, V S

    1996-12-01

    The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) shows promise for systematically examining identity issues in clinical populations. In this study, identity is assessed with the SASB in a sample of women with dissociative disorder (n = 25) and a nonpatient clinical contrast group (n = 25). The SASB Introject--a multivariate measure of identity--effectively differentiated the 2 samples. Despite greater self-directed hostility than the clinical contrast group, dissociative disorder patients showed lower levels of intrapsychic conflict. Implications for further research on identity and psychopathology are discussed.

  7. The varying effects of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Catling, Jonathan C; Johnston, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of theories that suggest that age of acquisition (AoA) effects are not uniform across different tasks. Catling and Johnston (2006a) found greater AoA effects within an object-naming task than in a semantic classification task. They explained these findings by suggesting that AoA effects might accumulate according to how many levels of representation a task necessitates access to. Brysbaert and Ghyselinck (2006) explain the difference in AoA effects by proposing two distinct types of AoA (frequency dependent and frequency independent), the first accounted for by a connectionist-type mechanism and the latter situated at the interface between semantics and word production. Moreover, Moore, Smith-Spark, and Valentine (2004) and Holmes and Ellis (2006) have suggested that there are two loci of AoA effects: at the phonological level and somewhere within the perceptual level of representation. Again, this could account for the varying degrees of AoA effects. This study sets about testing these ideas by assessing the effect size of AoA across a series of different tasks that necessitate access to various levels of representation. Experiments 1-4 demonstrate significant effects of AoA in a novel picture-picture verification task, an object classification task, a picture verification task, and an object-naming task. Experiment 5 showed no effects of initial phoneme on the naming of the critical objects used within Experiments 1-4. The implication of the varying AoA effect sizes found within Experiments 1-4 in relation to explanations of AoA are discussed.

  8. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  9. Children's Reasoning about Disclosing Adult Transgressions: Effects of Maltreatment, Child Age, and Adult Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the…

  10. Monoracial and Biracial Children: Effects of Racial Identity Saliency on Social Learning and Social Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N = 246, 3-8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel…

  11. Identity Negotiation: An Intergenerational Examination of Lesbian and Gay Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of lesbian and gay band directors at varying stages of career development to discern how they have negotiated identity within their personal and professional lives. Ten band directors (8 males and 2 females) residing in Texas (n = 8), Florida (n = 1), and Illinois (n = 1)…

  12. Differentiation in Self-Perceived Adulthood: Extending the Confluence Model of Subjective Age Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Berg, Justin Allen; Sirotzki, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This study examines and extends the confluence model of age identity by testing whether young people's self-perceptions as adults are linked to role transitions, self-assessed personal qualities, and social location. We propose that young people's sense of adulthood and the factors associated with it vary based on socially structured experience…

  13. On Being Indigenous: An Essay on the Hermeneutics of "Cultural Identity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The range of cultural resources distributed along developmental pathways open to young persons as they frame the outlines of their own identities is not fixed, but inevitably varies across historical moments. The young lives most touched by such transitional circumstances arguably belong to those that find themselves growing up in times of…

  14. The Effect of Profile Elevation on the Relationship between Interest Differentiation and Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the varying relationships between vocational identity and differentiation of vocational interests while taking into account levels of profile elevation as the moderator. The participants were 130 high school students who attended a vocational guidance programme at a youth counselling centre in Korea. The relationship between…

  15. Re-Membering Culture: Bearing Witness to the Spirit of Identity in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the complexities and possibilities of identity (leaning on DuBois' notion of double consciousness) when located not in the white racial landscape of the US but in the varied racial, cultural and (inter)national contexts explicated by the scholars gathered in this issue of "REE". One way to read this response might be as a…

  16. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  17. Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes.

  18. Preservice elementary teachers' actual and designated identities as teachers of science and teachers of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canipe, Martha Murray

    stories and enactments in order to determine which storytellers were significant narrators for the preservice teachers' identities. The findings from this study show that significant narrators vary among the preservice teachers and include artifacts such as curriculum materials and instructional models in addition to people who are expected to be significant narrators. Furthermore, differences between preservice teachers' actual and designated identities influence opportunities to learn about what it means to be a teacher of science and students. This took different forms with each preservice teacher. In one case the preservice teacher worked to enact aspects of her designated identity and reflected about how she was not quite able to be the teacher of science she wanted to be as a novice teacher. Another case showed how the gap between actual and designated identities could limit opportunities to learn when the preservice teacher's strong actual identity as a novice led her to consider certain aspects of her designated identity as things which could not even be tried at this point. Finally, in the third case the preservice teacher's strong actual identity limited opportunities to develop a designated identity because she did not see herself as being a different kind of teacher of science in the future than she was right now as a student teacher. These findings suggest that supporting preservice elementary teacher identity development as teachers of science is an important part of preparing them to teach science in ways that engage students in scientific practices. Additionally, it is essential to examine identity stories and enactments in concert with each other in order to gain deeper understandings of how identities are developed and put into practice in classrooms.

  19. Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S

    2014-04-01

    Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males.

  20. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar. PMID:22558204

  1. Changing institutional identities of the student nurse.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Damien; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-10-01

    This paper emphasises the tensions between the ideal of the compliant within care settings and the ideal of the critical thinker within the university setting with reference to student nurse education and identity. Identity is an important part of who we are as people. While modernisation and increased professionalisation of nursing have impacted on staff and patients mostly in a positive way, changes in the management of nursing education in the past 20 years have also heralded a remarkable change in the student identity. Historically informed by association with a particular hospital or health service provider, student nurse identity was shaped by institutional rituals and routine, physically embodied in objects such as uniforms and hospital medals and informed by claims to honesty, virtue and personal integrity (Bradby, 1990). Once part of the structure and fabric of hospital life, nursing students functioned as part of the health care service. As such, their identity was synonymous with that of practicing nurses, whose learning needs were secondary to that of the organisational needs. While this social milieu provided the platform for the formation of institutional pride, belonging and identity, such forms of identity can result in institutional compliance; with the associated risk of ritualistic practice, poor levels of transparent accountability and barriers to whistle blowing should substandard practice arise. Increased student freedom and an emphasis on teaching and learning within the university setting may have benefitted students, patients and the profession, however, the potential impact on student identity is less certain. There is evidence to suggest that students are ill-equipped for their professional identity once qualified and thus require more support for this within universities. This paper explores the tensions between traditional hospital identity and contemporary university identity with reference to student nurse education. The ideal of the

  2. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  3. Changing institutional identities of the student nurse.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Damien; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-10-01

    This paper emphasises the tensions between the ideal of the compliant within care settings and the ideal of the critical thinker within the university setting with reference to student nurse education and identity. Identity is an important part of who we are as people. While modernisation and increased professionalisation of nursing have impacted on staff and patients mostly in a positive way, changes in the management of nursing education in the past 20 years have also heralded a remarkable change in the student identity. Historically informed by association with a particular hospital or health service provider, student nurse identity was shaped by institutional rituals and routine, physically embodied in objects such as uniforms and hospital medals and informed by claims to honesty, virtue and personal integrity (Bradby, 1990). Once part of the structure and fabric of hospital life, nursing students functioned as part of the health care service. As such, their identity was synonymous with that of practicing nurses, whose learning needs were secondary to that of the organisational needs. While this social milieu provided the platform for the formation of institutional pride, belonging and identity, such forms of identity can result in institutional compliance; with the associated risk of ritualistic practice, poor levels of transparent accountability and barriers to whistle blowing should substandard practice arise. Increased student freedom and an emphasis on teaching and learning within the university setting may have benefitted students, patients and the profession, however, the potential impact on student identity is less certain. There is evidence to suggest that students are ill-equipped for their professional identity once qualified and thus require more support for this within universities. This paper explores the tensions between traditional hospital identity and contemporary university identity with reference to student nurse education. The ideal of the

  4. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  5. Identity: empirical contribution. Changes in the identity integration of adolescents in treatment for personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    A renewed interest in identity as one of the core markers of personality disorders has been introduced by the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale. However, little is known about the utility of the construct of identity in children and adolescents. This study aimed to broaden the knowledge of identity integration as a core component of personality functioning in adolescents. The authors investigated levels of identity integration, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), in adolescents in both normal (n = 406) and clinical populations (n = 285). Furthermore, changes in levels of identity integration during treatment were investigated in a clinical subsample (n = 76). Levels of identity integration were not associated with age. They were, however, associated with the absence or presence of personality pathology. Most adolescents receiving inpatient psychotherapy gradually changed toward more healthy levels of identity integration; a significant number, however, remained at maladaptive levels of identity functioning after intensive psychotherapy.

  6. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  7. Ethnic Identity as a Moderator against Discrimination for Transracially and Transnationally Adopted Korean American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joyce P.; Lee, Richard M.; Hu, Alison W.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing practice of international adoption over the past 60 years, the racial and ethnic experiences of adopted youth are not well known. This study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity in the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and adjustment among transracially, transnationally adopted Korean American adolescents (N = 136). Building on self-categorization theory and past empirical research on Asian Americans, it was hypothesized that ethnic identity would exacerbate negative outcomes associated with discrimination. The moderating role of ethnic identity was found to vary by specific ethnic identity dimensions. For individuals with more pride in their ethnic group (affective dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with externalizing problems. For individuals with greater engagement with their ethnic group (behavioral dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with substance use. By contrast, clarity regarding the meaning and importance of one’s ethnic group (cognitive dimension of ethnic identity) did not moderate the relationship between discrimination and negative outcomes. PMID:26273427

  8. Children's identity matching and oddity: assessing control by specific and general sample-comparison relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Stromer, J B

    1989-01-01

    After children in Experiments 1 and 2 learned identity matching or oddity, control by sample-comparison relations was assessed. Tests for generalized control displayed novel samples and two comparison stimuli, one identical to the sample. Specific relations were tested with identical or nonidentical sample-comparison stimuli from one set of stimuli and substitute comparisons from either the other training set or from a novel set. When tests displayed identical stimuli, patterns of comparison selection suggested control by generalized identity and oddity. However, selection patterns varied when stimuli were nonidentical and familiar or novel substitute comparisons were used. Therefore, control by specific relations is not a precondition for generalized identity and oddity. One set of training stimuli was used in Experiment 3, and generalized performances occurred again. Moreover, control by specific relations was shown by the oddity subjects and 2 of 6 identity subjects. Generalized and specific control may therefore exist simultaneously. In Experiment 4, selections were irregular on tests displaying substitute comparisons and samples and familiar comparison stimuli; this finding supported the relational account of specific sample-comparison control found in Experiment 3. PMID:2921587

  9. TDR Using Autocorrelation and Varying-Duration Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Mullinex, Pam; Huang, PoTien; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Zavala, Carlos; Lane, John

    2008-01-01

    In an alternative to a prior technique of time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) in which very short excitation pulses are used, the pulses have very short rise and fall times and the pulse duration is varied continuously between a minimum and a maximum value. In both the present and prior techniques, the basic idea is to (1) measure the times between the generation of excitation pulses and the reception of reflections of the pulses as indications of the locations of one or more defects along a cable and (2) measure the amplitudes of the reflections as indication of the magnitudes of the defects. In general, an excitation pulse has a duration T. Each leading and trailing edge of an excitation pulse generates a reflection from a defect, so that a unique pair of reflections is associated with each defect. In the present alternative technique, the processing of the measured reflection signal includes computation of the autocorrelation function R(tau) identical with fx(t)x(t-tau)dt where t is time, x(t) is the measured reflection signal at time t, and taus is the correlation interval. The integration is performed over a measurement time interval short enough to enable identification and location of a defect within the corresponding spatial interval along the cable. Typically, where there is a defect, R(tau) exhibits a negative peak having maximum magnitude for tau in the vicinity of T. This peak can be used as a means of identifying a leading-edge/trailing-edge reflection pair. For a given spatial interval, measurements are made and R(tau) computed, as described above, for pulse durations T ranging from the minimum to the maximum value. The advantage of doing this is that the effective signal-to-noise ratio may be significantly increased over that attainable by use of a fixed pulse duration T.

  10. The Effects of Varying Cosmological Parameters on Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Zukin, Phillip; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars E.; Frebel, Anna

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, ns ; matter density, Ω M ; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ8, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the "same" subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V max, which remain greater for higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  11. The effects of varying cosmological parameters on halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Frebel, Anna; Zukin, Phillip; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, n{sub s} ; matter density, Ω {sub M}; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ{sub 8}, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the 'same' subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V {sub max}, which remain greater for higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  12. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter. PMID:27695207

  13. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter.

  14. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  15. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  16. Device for varying engine valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, K.

    1988-07-05

    A device is described for angularly displacing a camshaft relative to the crankshaft of an IC engine to vary the engine valve timing, comprising; a hub member; means to attach the hub member to the engine crankshaft; a drive member rotatably mounted on the hub member, and means connecting the drive member in driving relationship with the engine crankshaft; an advancing member; a first means interconnecting the advancing member with the hub member affecting limited axial movement of the advancing member relative to the hub member; a second means interconnecting the advancing member with the drive member which upon axial movement of the advancing member causes limited rotation of the drive member relative to the hub member; an annular means mounted on the hub member, the advancing member mounted on the annular means; coacting meshing means formed in part on the annular means for moving the advancing member axially relative to the hub upon limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub; and a non-rotational retarder means which when actuated applies a retarding torque to the annular means causing limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub and thus cause the advancing member to move axially of the hub whereby the drive member is moved a limited angular distance relative to the hub member.

  17. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  18. Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

    1988-10-01

    A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

  19. Time-Varying Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Shin, Dae C.; Orme, Melissa; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, Cerebral Flow Autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 Vasomotor Reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, MCI, Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e. changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from 10 healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields “time-averaged models” of physiological and clinical utility. PMID:24184697

  20. Time-varying modeling of cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Shin, Dae C; Orme, Melissa; Rong Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e., changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine, and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from ten healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields "time-averaged models" of physiological and clinical utility.

  1. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  2. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  3. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  4. Reconsidering Graduate Employability: The "Graduate Identity" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Len

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates a cogent alternative to the skills agenda as an approach to graduate employability--the graduate identity approach. Using a conceptual and theoretical examination of the key notion of performance, presents the twin concepts of practices and identity as significant for understanding human behavior. Offers suggestions for curriculum…

  5. Semiotics of Identity: Politics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    In this text I concentrate on semiotic aspects of the theory of political identity in the work of Ernesto Laclau, and especially on the connection between metaphors, metonymies, catachreses and synecdoches. Those tropes are of ontological status, and therefore they are of key importance in understanding the discursive "production" of identity in…

  6. Family Influences on College Students' Occupational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrios-Allison, Ana C.

    2005-01-01

    The occupational identity statuses of 232 college students were analyzed by examining their family emotional environment and the identity control processes that drive career decision making. Results of multivariate analysis showed that each family differentiation construct, family tolerance for connectedness, and separateness explained significant…

  7. Predictive Validity of the Vocational Identity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    To establish that measures of vocational identity are sensitive to variations in development, researchers need to demonstrate that different patterns of scores on these measures predict subsequent coping with later tasks of vocational development. This study investigated the ability of the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS) to predict coping with a…

  8. Interculturalism and the Pendulum of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svirsky, Marcelo; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critical appraisal of the role played by cultural identity in intercultural bilingual Arabic-Hebrew schools in Israel. While engineered as oases of interculturalism amidst a life of ethnic segregation, such schools ultimately confront serious difficulties in escaping the constraints of identity politics and representation.…

  9. Migration, Culture and Identity in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Ricardo; Trindade, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Culture and identity are dynamic realities. Therefore, the essentialist view of culture and identity does not explain the process of integration of minorities in a context of acculturation, and leads to policies of "ghettoisation". This text focuses on what we describe as "cultural transfusion". By means of this process, we analyse two tendencies…

  10. Intercultural Allusion in Transcultural Identity Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Jonathan P. A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the use of intercultural allusion in narratives of transcultural identity. Identity is taken to be narrative in performance, one element of which, intercultural allusion, serves pragmatically to broker the transcultured subject's insertion into the host culture. The paper then shows how…

  11. I Alumnus: Understanding Early Alumni Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pung, Barnaby

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation sought to provide a better understanding of early alumnus identity at a public Midwestern university. Unlike a majority of alumni studies, this study used a qualitative case study methodology to examine alumni identity among participants through the use of personal interviews. Participants were 10-11 years post graduation from…

  12. Conceptualizing Native Identity with a Multidimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, John; Bennett, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on a Native Identity Scale (NIS) adapted from an African American identity scale (Sellers et al., 1997). American Indian (AIs) and First Nations Canadian participants (N = 199) completed the NIS at powwows in the Upper Midwest. The majority of respondents were Ojibwe, but other tribal groups were represented. A principal…

  13. Speaking of Gender Identity: Theoretical Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Susan A.

    Various definitions of gender identity have ranged from recognition of one's biological sex to an individual's sense of masculinity or femininity. For the purpose of this paper, which examines some of the theoretical approaches to the subject, gender identity will be defined as "the degree to which individuals are 'aware' of and accept their…

  14. Exploring Relationships between Teacher Identities and Disciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Julie; Grootenboer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between discipline specialization, teacher identity, and pedagogy can be seen as the crux of practice in the music classroom--impacting on all the actions of the teacher, both within and outside the classroom. Crucially, the impact of music teacher identity on the nature of music teaching and learning is one that has the…

  15. Displayed Objects, Indigenous Identities, and Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofanenko, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I describe how one group of student examines indigenous identity formation as dynamic and open to reinterpretation. Drawing on field observations and interviews with students in a 16-month ethnographic study, I examine how one group of students worked toward understanding how indigenous identity was determined by curatorial…

  16. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of...

  17. Moral identity and emotion in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

  18. Asexuality and autochorissexualism (identity-less sexuality).

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2012-12-01

    I present evidence that target-oriented paraphilias may occur in some who report no sexual attraction for others or those who identify as asexual. One target-oriented paraphilia in some asexual people is a disconnection between their identity and a sexual target/object. I name this phenomenon autochorissexualism or "identity-less" sexuality.

  19. Interculturalities: Reframing Identities in Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair-Venugopal, Shanta

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to reframe identities as "interculturalities" in the multimodal ways in which language is used for identity construction, specifically as responses to questionnaires, articulations within limited narratives, on-line interactions and in community ways of speaking a localised variety of English. Relying on a framework of analysis…

  20. Citizenship Education and National Identity: Teaching Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with issues of national identity in a multicultural society (Sweden) and the role of citizenship education in creating a national identity. After having witnessed the terrorist attack and the traumas from Oslo and Utøya (22 July 2011), and the suicide bombing in Stockholm on 11 December 2010, certain words, such as…

  1. Implicit and Explicit Exercise and Sedentary Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…

  2. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  3. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  4. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  5. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  6. Identity Development in Adolescents Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Harper, Gary W.; Robinson, W. LaVome

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to qualitatively explore how identity formation may be affected by the presence of HIV disease. Eight HIV-infected adolescents (three males, five females), aged 17-21, participated in a semi-structured interview that combined measures of identity development with open-ended, qualitative questions aimed at eliciting…

  7. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  8. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  9. A New Transcendence Model of Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Christopher L. Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean for college men to be authentic? How can we support their efforts to transcend their own immediate needs? And what roles do trusted others play in one's construction of identity? This article describes a preliminary new theoretical model--a Transcendence Model of Identity Construction--based on original research studying…

  10. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  11. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  12. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  13. Mental Health Counseling: Toward Resolving Identity Confusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2002-01-01

    The development of a professional identity is an important aspect of the training and ongoing sense of belongingness of mental health counselors. This article examines two themes related to identity confusion: establishing and producing a systematic body of theory for the profession and distinguishing the profession from other service providers.…

  14. Development of Deaf Identity: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlroy, Guy; Storbeck, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores the identity development of 9 deaf participants through the narratives of their educational experiences in either mainstream or special schools for the Deaf. This exploration goes beyond a binary conceptualization of deaf identity that allows for only the medical and social models and proposes a bicultural…

  15. The crisis of 'identity' in high modernity.

    PubMed

    Bendle, Mervyn F

    2002-03-01

    The concept of 'identity' is central to much contemporary sociology, reflecting a crisis that manifests itself in two ways. Firstly, there is a view that identity is both vital and problematic in this period of high modernity. Secondly, while this awareness is reflected in sociology, its accounts of identity are inconsistent, under-theorized and incapable of bearing the analytical load required. As a result, there is an inherent contradiction between a valuing of identity as so fundamental as to be crucial to personal well-being, and a theorization of 'identity' that sees it as something constructed, fluid, multiple, impermanent and fragmentary. The contemporary crisis of identity thus expresses itself as both a crisis of society, and a crisis of theory. This paper explores the diverse ways in which 'identity' is deployed before turning to case-studies of its use by Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells. This strategy demonstrates the widespread and diverse concern with identity before exploring how problematic it has become, even in the work of two of the world's leading sociologists.

  16. Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

  17. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical identity. 720.85 Section 720... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.85 Chemical identity. (a... submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for the chemical...

  18. High School Teachers' Identities: Constructing Civic Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Balkute, Asta; Vaughn, Erin; White, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that teachers play a role in the type of citizenship education implemented in schools. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how two high school teachers understood and enacted their civic identities as a dimension of their teacher identities. Findings suggest that factors contributing to an individual's civic…

  19. Profiling Teachers' Sense of Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that professional identity should not be viewed as a composed variable with a uniform structure. Based on the literature and previous research, we view teachers' job satisfaction, self-efficacy, occupational commitment and change in the level of motivation as indicators of teachers' professional identity. Using two-step cluster…

  20. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  1. Improving Measurement of Workplace Sexual Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…

  2. Shifting Selves: Constructing and Negotiating Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to explore how academics construct and negotiate their identities within the world of the academe. Identity construction involves different forms of community participation and identification. Utilising the research methodology of narrative inquiry, this article explores how academics came to see themselves across those…

  3. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  4. Measuring Identity Processes in Family Relational Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley-Walker, Kellie; Crowe, Trevor Patrick; Caputi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a procedure for measuring personal identity that uses self-characterisations to elicit and integrate ideographic data for fixed construct repertory grid nomothetic applications. There is a focus on how family members view their personal identities when they are recovering from the impacts of having a "loved one" with a mental…

  5. Place-Identity in Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proshansky, Harold M.

    The concept of place identity is a theoretical necessity for understanding the impact of the urban environment on the individual. Place identity refers to clusters of perceptions in the form of images, memories, facts, ideas, beliefs, values, and behavior tendencies relevant to the individual's existence in the physical world. These clusters are…

  6. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  7. Constructing a Lemko Identity: Tactics of Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lemko identity in Poland is contested in a number of contexts, including social, linguistic and political domains, among others. The members of this minority have to learn to negotiate multiple identities, not only from an in-group perspective but also in interactions with the majority community in Poland. This paper examines how the Lemkos…

  8. Identity as a Source of Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…

  9. Identity Development and Mentoring in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leigh A.; Burns, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Leigh Hall and Leslie Burns use theories of identity to understand mentoring relationships between faculty members and doctoral students who are being prepared as educational researchers. They suggest that becoming a professional researcher requires students to negotiate new identities and reconceptualize themselves both as people…

  10. Stress vs. Identity Among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon Renard

    A recurrent theme in the literature on black identity is self-hate. Black people are portrayed as suffering from one of the following four conditions; (1) low self-esteem; (2) impaired identity formation; (3) pathological environmental adaptation; and/or (4) low intellectual functioning. However, research is emerging which questions many of these…

  11. Pell Identities via a Quadratic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we derive a number of identities involving both Pell numbers and binomial coefficients. We also consider briefly the potential for obtaining Pell identities involving trinomial coefficients and beyond. A key point is the simplicity of the derivations, and indeed this work can lead on to a number of interesting explorations for…

  12. Identity theft prevention in the healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    How a healthcare security department has undertaken a program to prevent employees, patients, and visitors from becoming victims of Identity Theft as well as providing help for victims of this crime in mitigating their losses. An Identity Theft affidavit for ID theft victims is illustrated.

  13. Political Socialization, Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…

  14. Music and Identity Formation in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabback, William M.

    2010-01-01

    For many individuals, engagement with the arts and music in later life plays a significant role in identity formation. Research indicates that music engagement facilitates successful aging. While participants may or may not establish identities as musicians, musical activities provide interactions and opportunities that facilitate their…

  15. Patriotic Acts: Five Activities for Identity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soetoro-Ng, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Building a personal identity is a lifelong, thoughtful process that takes into account not only one's race and ethnicity, but also life experiences, relationships, and communities. The process of exploring and evolving one's identity deserves a place in the classroom. Educators can play a key role in supporting their students' in this process by…

  16. Elderly Identity in Conversation: Producing Frailty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates conversation between elderly individuals and college students as the arena for assembling, displaying, and negotiating an elderly identity of frailty. Finds that frailty is one frame through which the experience and identities of aging persons may be defined. Finds that interpersonal strategies may ameliorate or aggravate the tension…

  17. Dual Identity as a Two-Edged Sword: Identity Threat and Minority School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gulseli; Phalet, Karen; Brown, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Some members of ethnic minority groups respond to identity threat in ways that are detrimental to their school career, while others persist despite an unwelcoming school environment. It was hypothesized that ethnic and national identities, as combined in "separated," "assimilated," or "dual identity" strategies, moderate consequences of identity…

  18. The Identity Game: Constructing and Enabling Multicultural Identities in a Finland-Swedish School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Liselott; Hummelstedt-Djedou, Ida

    2014-01-01

    This study, building on previous studies stressing the bond between positive sense of ethnic identity and school belonging, puts at its center the very process of ethnic identity construction. Thus, identity is viewed as co-constructed, within a social-constructionist perspective on learning. The study is two-folded. It starts out by describing…

  19. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  20. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-01-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…