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Sample records for vehicle exhaust gases

  1. Removal of main exhaust gases of vehicles by a double dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, M.; Alva, E.; Valdivia, R.; Pacheco, J.; Rivera, C.; Santana, A.; Huertas, J.; Lefort, B.; Estrada, N.

    2012-06-01

    Because the health effects and their contribution to climate change, the emissions of toxic gases are becoming more controlled. In order to improve the diminution of toxic gases to the atmosphere, several techniques have been developed; here it will be focus only to automotive emissions. This work deals about the treatment of toxic gases emitted from vehicles by a non-thermal plasma. Several tests were done in a 4-cylinder 2002/Z16SE motor to characterize the vehicle emissions. With these results gas mixture simulating the exhaust gases vehicles, was used in experiments at different conditions employing a double dielectric barrier reactor for their treatment. The removal efficiencies superior to 90% show the competence of the non-thermal plasma reactor to treat these gases. Experimental results are explained with the aid of a simple chemical model that suggests a possible mechanism of degradation of toxic gases. The plasma reactor employed could works at 12V supplied without difficulty by a vehicle battery.

  2. Influence of Ambient Temperature on the CO2 Emitted With Exhaust Gases of Gasoline Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainikov, D.; Chikishev, E.; Anisimov, I.; Gavaev, A.

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the regulation of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gases of gasoline vehicles. Based on comparing the world practices of restrictive measures on greenhouse gas emissions with Russian legislation, we conclude that there is a need to adjust the limits of CO2 emission taking into account the negative impact of ambient temperature on CO2 emission. The climatic conditions of many countries stipulate the use of vehicles in temperatures below zero. At the same time, the existing regulations fully take into account the temperature features of the various countries, which casts doubt on the existence of uniform emission standards for all countries. Here, we conduct an experiment on one of the most popular cars in Russia: the Mitsubishi Lancer 9. We establish that lower temperatures are correlated with larger concentrations of CO2 in the exhaust gases. We draw a conclusion about the need to account for the actual operating conditions when establishing limit values on CO2 emissions of vehicles.

  3. Nondispersive infrared monitoring of NO emissions in exhaust gases of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A. J.; Meneses, J.; Briz, S.; López, F.

    1999-07-01

    Road traffic is one of the most important contributors to air pollution, being that a small fraction of the running vehicles is responsible for more than a half of the emissions. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars appears to be an efficient way to identify these gross polluters. In this sense, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) systems have been developed to monitor the gas emissions of individual vehicles. However, these systems do not include NOx detection because of the strong interference of NO and NO2 absorption bands with the water band. This work is focused on the roadside monitoring of NO emissions by NDIR techniques. A theoretical study of the interference between NO and H2O absorption bands in the 1800-1950 cm-1 spectral region has been performed. Two absorption lines, centered at 1876 and 1900 cm-1 have been selected due to the very low water interference. The development of a new application based on the buildup of a high order interference filter, the solid state Fabry-Pérot filter, is presented. Design of the filter system has been done, optimizing the transmittance at these two absorption lines. Finally, the ability of such a filter to discriminate NO absorption has been tested by using experimental absorption spectra measured by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer working in the active mode. The buildup of such a filter would permit us to increase the capabilities of on road exhaust monitoring systems using the NDIR technique, extending the range of analyzed gases to the nitrogen oxides.

  4. Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Cheng, Ping; Spanel, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not detected. These media have been analysed using the full scope of SIFT-MS, i.e., with the three available precursor ions H3O+, NO+ and O2+. The combination of the H3O+ and NO+ analyses is seen to be essential to distinguish between different product ions at the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) especially in identifying aldehydes in the exhaust gases. The O2+ precursor ions are used to detect and quantify the large amount of nitric oxide present in the exhaust gases from both engine types. The petrol and diesel vapours consist almost exclusively of aliphatic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (and dienes) and aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these compounds appear in the exhaust gases together with several aldehydes, viz. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, pentenal (acrolein), butenal, and also methanol and ethanol. Acetone, nitric oxide and ammonia are also present, acetone and nitric oxide being much more abundant in the diesel exhaust gas than in the petrol exhaust gas. These data were obtained from samples collected into pre-evacuated stainless steel vessels. Trapping of the volatile compounds from the gas samples is not required and analysis was completed a few minutes later. All the above compounds are detected simultaneously, which demonstrates the value of SIFT-MS in this area of research.

  5. Effect of varying the combustion parameters on the emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases from propane-fueled vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberge, B

    2000-05-01

    Propane-fueled forklifts are one source of carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of workplace air. The previous study carried out by the Quebec Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute dealt with worker exposure to CO during forklift use in buildings. It recommends that exhaust gas emissions be kept below a 1 percent concentration. However, this control has not produced a significant reduction in worker exposure to CO, when factors (ventilation, type of work tasks, and management of vehicle fleet) specific to companies are taken into account. Consequently, a reduction in CO emissions below the threshold of 0.3 percent should be considered. The experience acquired with propane-fueled ice resurfacers can be used to determine the effect of combustion parameters on exhaust gas emissions. It is known that a reduction in CO emissions from ice resurfacers resulted in the appearance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and eventually in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) poisoning. Few publications present NOx results in relation to the CO measured in the exhaust gases of propane-fueled vehicles. The objective of this study is to define the level to which CO emissions can be reduced without increasing NOx concentrations. This real-situation study quantified the CO, NO, and NOx in the exhaust gases of a fleet of propane-fueled forklifts in relation to the mixture ratio. The results show the impact of the motor speed and mixture ratio on the CO, NO, and NO2 concentrations. They confirm an increase in NOx concentrations when CO concentrations are reduced. They also show that proper maintenance of forklifts combined with optimal adjustments can reduce CO and NOx emissions. The study proposes a compromise between CO and NOx emissions by taking into account worker health and safety as well as vehicle performance. Monitoring must be done to control air quality in work areas and worker exposure to CO and NO2. A forklift preventive maintenance program and general building ventilation are the favored

  6. Fitter apparatus for purifying exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Oyobe, K.; Fukutani, M.; Ito, K.; Matsui, K.; Miwa, N.; Nomura, E.

    1985-05-28

    Filter apparatus having a honeycomb structure and a heater for purifying exhaust gases consists of cells or passages defined by porous partition walls. Alternate passages are provided respectively with upstream plugs and downstream plugs. Particulates in exhaust gases are trapped in the honeycomb structure and ignited by the heater. The upstream plugs define spaces upstream thereof in which particulates are trapped in addition to those trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. The heat of burning of the particulates trapped in the spaces facilitates the burning of the particulates trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. Therefore, the exhaust gas particualtes trapped and collected in the downstream portion of the structure can also be easily burned to regenerate the structure over its entire length.

  7. Effluent sampling of Scout D and Delta launch vehicle exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulten, W. C.; Storey, R. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Woods, D. C.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.

  8. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  9. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  10. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  11. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  12. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside...

  13. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  14. Non-thermal plasma for exhaust gases treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva R., Elvia; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Gómez B., Fernando; Pacheco P., Joel; Colín C., Arturo; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Valdivia B., Ricardo; Santana D., Alfredo; Huertas C., José; Frías P., Hilda

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a study on a non-thermal plasma device to treat exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. Several tests using a plasma device to treat exhaust gases are conducted on a Honda GX200-196 cm3 engine at different rotational speeds. A plasma reactor could be efficient in degrading nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Monoxide and carbon dioxide treatment is minimal. However, achieving 1%-3% degradation may be interesting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  15. Evolution of vehicle exhaust particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Canagaratna, Manjula R; Onasch, Timothy B; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Cross, Eben S; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Kolb, Charles E; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements are used to characterize the evolution of exhaust particulate matter (PM) properties near and downwind of vehicle sources. The AMS provides time-resolved chemically speciated mass loadings and mass-weighted size distributions of nonrefractory PM smaller than 1 microm (NRPM1). Source measurements of aircraft PM show that black carbon particles inhibit nucleation by serving as condensation sinks for the volatile and semi-volatile exhaust gases. Real-world source measurements of ground vehicle PM are obtained by deploying an AMS aboard a mobile laboratory. Characteristic features of the exhaust PM chemical composition and size distribution are discussed. PM mass and number concentrations are used with above-background gas-phase carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to calculate on-road emission factors for individual vehicles. Highly variable ratios between particle number and mass concentrations are observed for individual vehicles. NRPM1 mass emission factors measured for on-road diesel vehicles are approximately 50% lower than those from dynamometer studies. Factor analysis of AMS data (FA-AMS) is applied for the first time to map variations in exhaust PM mass downwind of a highway. In this study, above-background vehicle PM concentrations are highest close to the highway and decrease by a factor of 2 by 200 m away from the highway. Comparison with the gas-phase CO2 concentrations indicates that these vehicle PM mass gradients are largely driven by dilution. Secondary aerosol species do not show a similar gradient in absolute mass concentrations; thus, their relative contribution to total ambient PM mass concentrations increases as a function of distance from the highway. FA-AMS of single particle and ensemble data at an urban receptor site shows that condensation of these secondary aerosol species onto vehicle exhaust particles results in spatial and temporal evolution of the size and composition of vehicle exhaust PM on

  16. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, cooling of the exhaust gases in the duct connecting the vehicle tailpipe to the CVS shall be... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for.... Hearing the dilution air is also allowed, provided: (i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature...

  17. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  18. Catalyst for purifying diesel engine exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Ueda, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Ono, T.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a catalyst for purifying a diesel engine exhaust gas. The catalyst comprises a refractory three-dimensional structure having a gas filter function, a porous inorganic carrier supported on it, and (a) vanadium oxide and (b) at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, rhodium and palladium supported on the carrier. The amount of component (a) is in the range of 0.2 to 40.0 g as V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ per liter of the structure and the amount of component (b) is in the range of 0.1 to 4.0 g as metal liter of the structure, wherein the mole ratio of component (a) to component (b) deposited as 1-90:1.

  19. Cleaning of exhaust gases in the mold core industry

    SciTech Connect

    Balabanov, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    Methods for detoxifying the exhaust gases in the core-making sections of the casting industry were studied. The gases generated when making cores from sand-resin mixtures based on oil-free binders and synthetic resins were evaluated. Tests were conducted on activated carbon AR-3, catalysts containing precious and nonprecious metals, and on solutions of sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorate. The absorption, adsorption, and catalytic methods of cleaning the gas discharges from toxic substances were comparatively assessed. Results show that sorption methods were unsuitable while catalytic methods achieved near-total detoxification.

  20. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  1. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  2. Spectral measurements of exhaust gases using a Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schruefer, Elmar; Lindermeir, Erwin; Palme, Frank; Wuelbern, K.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years environmental issues have become increasingly important. Especially the impact of gaseous emissions on the atmosphere is of great interest. As a consequence a group of several coworkers was established at the Institute for Electrical Measurement of the Technical University of Munich, Germany) with the task to develop and investigate spectroscopic methods and instruments for the analysis of the chemical compsition of exhaust gases. This article describes the advantages of the application of Fourier transform spectroscopy against conventional gas analysis devices. Moreover results of measurements of the exhaust of a smokestack of a coal fired power plant and of an aircraft engine are presented. The last section deals with the development of a Fourier transform spectrometer which is not equipped with any moving parts. This design was made especially for applications in harsh environments.

  3. Catalyst for treatment of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.; Brunelle, J.P.; Prigent, M.

    1984-01-17

    The exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are catalytically oxidized/reduced, to remove CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NO /SUB x/ therefrom, utilizing an improved stable and long-lived catalyst which comprises (1) a support substrate, e.g., a monolithic or particulate support, and (2) an active phase deposited thereon, said active phase (2) comprising (i) cerium, (ii) iron, (iii) at least one of the metals gallium and/or yttrium, (iv) at least one of the metals platinum and/or palladium, and (v) at least one of the metals iridium and/or rhodium.

  4. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R.; Anderson, M.T.

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  5. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. Lidar measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Curtis, David; Farley, Robert; Soletsky, Philip; Davidson, Gilbert; Gelbwachs, Jerry A.

    1997-10-01

    The Mobile Lidar Trailer (MLT) was developed and operated to characterize launch vehicle exhaust plume and its effects on the environment. Two recent applications of this facility are discussed in this paper. In the first application, the MLT was used to characterize plumes in the stratosphere up to 45 km in support of the Air Force Space and Missile Center's Rocket Impact on Stratospheric Ozone program. Solid rocket motors used by Titan IV and other heavy launch vehicles release large quantities of gaseous hydrochloric acid in the exhaust and cause concerns about a possible depletion of the ozone layer. The MLT was deployed to Cape Canaveral Air Station since October 1995 to monitor ozone and to investigate plume dynamics and properties. Six campaigns have been conducted and more are planned to provide unique data with the objective of addressing the environmental issues. The plume was observed to disperse rapidly into horizontally extended yet surprisingly thin layer with thickness recorded in over 700 lidar profiles to be less than 250 meters. MLT operates with the laser wavelengths of 532, 355 and 308 nm and a scanning receiving telescope. Data on particle backscattering at the three wavelengths suggest a consistent growth of particle size in the 2-3 hour observation sessions following the launch. In the second type of application, the MLT was used as a remote sensor of nitrogen dioxide, a caustic gaseous by-product of common liquid propellant oxidizer. Two campaigns were conducted at the Sol Se Mete Canyon test site in New Mexico in December 1996 an January 1997 to study the dispersion of nitrogen dioxide and rocket plume.

  7. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively. PMID:26489301

  8. [Emission Factors of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-07-01

    Based on the investigation of basic data such as vehicle type composition, driving conditions, ambient temperature and oil quality, etc., emission factors of vehicle exhaust pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter(PM) were calculated using COPERT IV model. Emission factors of typical gasoline passenger cars and diesel trucks were measured using on-board measurement system on actual road. The measured and modeled emission factors were compared and the results showed that: the measured emission factors of CO, NOx and HC were 0. 96, 0. 64 and 4. 89 times of the modeled data for passenger cars conforming to the national IV emission standard. For the light, medium and heavy diesel trucks conforming to the national III emission standard, the measured data of CO emission factors were 1.61, 1. 07 and 1.76 times of the modeled data, respectively, the measured data of NOx emission factors were 1. 04, 1. 21 and 1. 18 times of the modeled data, and the measured data of HC emission factors were 3. 75, 1. 84 and 1. 47 times of the modeled data, while the model data of PM emission factors were 1. 31, 3. 42 and 6. 42 times of the measured data, respectively.

  9. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  10. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  11. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  12. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  13. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  14. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  15. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  16. Do Shuttle exhaust gases damage the ozone layer? - The environmental burden imposed by space travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Robert R.; Wagner, Klaus R.

    1990-12-01

    The types of solid fuel used in Space Shuttles and the specific damaging effects on the ozone layer caused by their exhaust gases are addressed. A historical overview is given of research on these effects. Special attention is given to the damaging effects of exhaust from the U.S. Space Shuttle.

  17. Modeling smog chamber measurements of vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.Y.; Nance, B.I.; Kelly, N.A.

    1997-12-31

    Vehicle exhaust VOC reactivities, measured at GM`s smog chamber facility, have been modeled using the SAPRC93 photochemical mechanism. The vehicle exhaust mixtures were generated by a single vehicle run over a portion of the Federal Test Procedure using three Auto/Oil reformulated test gasolines. For each run, up to 156 individual VOC species were identified. Initial HONO concentrations are needed to simulate reactivity measurement runs. (HONO is expected to be generated in a Tedlar bag holding the exhaust sample prior to its transfer to the smog chambers.) Measured and simulated relative incremental reactivities for the three exhaust mixtures are highly consistent. However, measured relative incremental reactivities are more sensitive to fuel effects than simulated ones. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR)-based relative incremental reactivities, derived from individual species concentrations and MIR factors, are very close to simulated ones. A number of sensitivity simulation runs have been carried out to investigate the impact of HONO and other variables. Results show that relative reactivities of actual vehicle exhaust emissions can be measured by chamber runs in spite of the HONO effect.

  18. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic.

  19. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work. PMID:18941573

  20. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  1. The hydrocarbon composition of exhaust emitted from gasoline fuelled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. F.; Quigley, S. M.

    The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) compositions of the exhausts from 67 vehicles in 'on the road' condition and driven through an urban driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer, have been determined. The major components were ethylene (11.2% w/w of NMHC), toluene (10.2%), acetylene (8.7%), m, p-Xylenes(6.5%), benzene (5.0%), propylene (5.0%) and i-pentane(4.8%). These compounds have also been reported as significant components in the exhausts from two similar populations of American vehicles. The NMHC compositions were found to be insensitive to the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons from the vehicles, except for the combustion-derived olefins, ethylene and propylene, which were affected by engine modifications introduced to satisfy emission control requirements. A close relationship was found between petrol composition and exhaust composition but this did not correspond simply to emissions of unburnt petrol. The aromatics are enriched relative to the alkanes in exhaust when compared with their proportions in the petrol.

  2. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  3. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  4. Wind tunnel tests of an 0.019-scale space shuttle integrated vehicle -2A configuration (model 14-OTS) in the NASA Ames 8 by 7 foot unitary wind tunnel (IA12C), volume 1. [torque and exhaust gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effects of cold jet gas plumes on (1) the integrated vehicle longitudinal and lateral-directional force data, (2) exposed wing hinge moment, (3) wing pressure distributions, (4) orbiter MPS external pressure distributions, and (5) model base pressure. The similarity between solid and gaseous plumes was investigated, and fluorescent oil flow visualization studies were conducted.

  5. Intake fraction of nonreactive motor vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiwen; Li, Yuguo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2010-05-01

    The intake fraction ( iF) of nonreactive constituents of exhaust from mobile vehicles in the urban area of Hong Kong is investigated using available monitoring data for carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of opportunity. Correcting for regional transport of carbon monoxide into Hong Kong, the annual-average iF for nonreactive motor vehicle emissions within the city is estimated to be around 270 per million. This estimated iF is much higher than values previously reported for vehicle emissions in US urban areas, Helsinki and Beijing, and somewhat lower than those reported for a densely populated street canyon in downtown Manhattan, New York City, or for emissions into indoor environments. The reported differences in intake fractions in various cities mainly result from the differences in local population densities. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the influence of upwind transport of pollutants when using ambient data to estimate iF for an urban area. For vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong, it is found that the in/near vehicle microenvironment contributes similarly to the indoor home environment when accounting for the overall iF for children and adults.

  6. Positive Streamers and Glows in Air and Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of the effects of sub-microsecond voltage pulses on the plasma chemistry of real flue gases in a test cell. Chemical analysis shows that, for real flue gases, the pulsed system can remove up to 90 % of NO, and 30 % of SO_2, if a residence time of ~ 30s is used. We also find that (i) water vapour is essential to the removal of SO_2, but not for the removal of NO or NO_2; and (ii) that small quantities of N_2O are produced. The removal of SO2 is primarily due to reactions with OH radicals from water vapour, producing sulphuric acid, whereas nitrogen oxides are reduced by N atoms. When a positive voltage is abruptly applied to a point in air at atmospheric pressure, positive streamers are produced. A theory is presented for the development of the first such streamer by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions, including the effects of ionisation, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and photoionisation, simultaneously with Poisson's equation. With an applied voltage of 20 kV across a 50 mm gap, the streamer does not reach the cathode. When the voltage is sustained in the presence of free electrons, the electric field at the anode starts to recover until positive glow pulses develop at the anode. The presence of the positive glow corona precludes any further streamer formation; this limits the number of chemical reactions stimulated by the discharge because the positive glow is confined close to the anode. Thus, a limit is set for the voltage pulse width. A theory is also presented for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air; results are obtained by solving the continuity equations, described above, in concentric sphere geometry. A series of ``saw--toothed'' current pulses of period ~ 1 μs are predicted with a dc current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete 30 ns wide pulses of light. It is found that if, in the presence

  7. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  8. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  9. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  10. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  11. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  12. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  13. Method of and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gases formed by combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Voeste, T.

    1981-01-27

    A process is described for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gas formed by combustion particularly exhaust gas from an electricity generating power plant. The exhaust gas flows through a reaction zone which operates like a spray dryer. A purifying liquor consisting of an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is sprayed into the reaction zone, in which the heat content of the exhaust gases causes virtually all of the water content of the purifying liquor to be evaporated. The exhaust gas is subsequently passed through a filter. Anhydrous solids are withdrawn from the reaction zone and the filter and contain at least 75% of sodium sulfite, sodium sulfate and sodium chloride and are processed to form sodium carbonate. To that end the solids are dissolved and sulfite is oxidized to form sulfate so that a solution that contains sodium sulfate and sodium chloride is formed. The sulfate is separated from that solution and the remaining solution is used in the recovery of sodium carbonate by the solvay process.

  14. The effects of the exhaust plume on the lightning triggering conditions for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Frederick J.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1991-01-01

    Apollo 12 and Atlas Centaur 67 are two launch vehicles that have experienced triggered lightning strikes. Serious consequences resulted from the events; in the case of Atlas Centaur 67, the vehicle and the payload were lost. These events indicate that it is necessary to develop launch rules which would prevent such occurrences. In order to develop valid lightning related rules, it is necessary to understand the effects of the plume. Some have assumed that the plume can be treated as a perfect conductor, and have computed electric field enhancement factors on that basis. The authors have looked at the plume, and believe that these models are not correct, because they ignore the fluid motion of the conducting plates. The authors developed a model which includes this flow character. In this model, the external field is excluded from the plume as it would be for any good conductor, but, in addition, the charge must distribute so that the charge density is zero at some location in the exhaust. When this condition is included in the calculation of triggering enhancement factors, they can be two to three times larger than calculated by other methods which include a conductive plume but don't include the correct boundary conditions. Here, the authors review the relevant features of rocket exhausts for the triggered lightning problem, present an approach for including flowing conductive gases, and present preliminary calculations to demonstrate the effect that the plume has on enhancement factors.

  15. Research on the 2nd generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL in aspects of emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struś, M. S.; Poprawski, W.; Rewolte, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results of research of Diesel engines emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases fuelled with a second generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL, which is a blend of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters obtained from waste resources such waste vegetable and animal fats, bioethanol and standard Diesel fuel. Presented results are very promising, showing that the emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases are significantly reduced when fuelling with BIOXDIESEL fuel in comparison with standard Diesel fuel.

  16. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Goulette, D.; Hoard, J.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  17. Impact of the injection dose of exhaust gases, on work parameters of combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    This article is another one from the series in which were presented research results indicated the possible areas of application of the pneumatic injection using hot combustion gases proposed by Professor Jarnuszkiewicz. This publication present the results of the control system of exhaust gas recirculation. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of exhaust gas recirculation to the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine on the basis of laboratory measurements. All measurements were performed at a constant engine speed. These conditions correspond to the operation of the motor operating an electrical generator. The study was conducted on the four-stroke two-cylinder engine with spark ignition. The study were specifically tested on the air injection system and therefore the selection of the rotational speed was not bound, as in conventional versions of operating parameters of the electrical machine. During the measurement there were applied criterion which used power control corresponding to the requirements of load power, at minimal values of engine speed. Recirculation value determined by the following recurrent position control valve of the injection doses inflator gas for pneumatic injection system. They were studied and recorded, the impact of dose of gases recirculation to the operating and ecological engine parameters such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, efficiency, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

  18. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  19. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  20. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  1. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94 Section 86.209-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust...

  2. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

  3. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

  4. Effects of bioreactive acrolein from automotive exhaust gases on human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jaganjac, Morana; Prah, Iva Ozana; Cipak, Ana; Cindric, Marina; Mrakovcic, Lidija; Tatzber, Franz; Ilincic, Petar; Rukavina, Vinko; Spehar, Branka; Vukovic, Jelena Parlov; Telen, Sanda; Uchida, Koji; Lulic, Zoran; Zarkovic, Neven

    2012-11-01

    Acrolein is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde and widespread environmental pollutant produced during lipid peroxidation and also by burning of tobacco or liquid fuels. Inhalation or dermal exposure to acrolein could be toxic to organisms. This very reactive aldehyde has a strong affinity for binding to proteins thus forming pathogenic protein-adducts. In the present study we have analyzed formation of bioreactive acrolein-protein adducts in bovine serum albumin solution exposed to exhaust gases of mineral diesel fuel and of mineral diesel fuel supplemented with different amounts of a novel diesel fuel additive denoted Ecodiesel (produced by a genuine procedure of recycling of plant oils used for food preparation). The effects of acrolein-protein adducts were tested on human microvascular endothelial cells and on human osteosarcoma cells that are sensitive to bioactivities of lipid peroxidation products. The results have shown a reduction of the bioreactive acrolein in exhaust gases when mineral diesel was supplemented with 5-20% Ecodiesel. Moreover, acrolein-protein adducts obtained from mineral diesel supplemented with Ecodiesel were less toxic than those obtained from mineral diesel alone. Thus, we assume that supplementing mineral diesel fuel with Ecodiesel would be of benefit for the use of renewable energy, for environment and for human health due to reduced environmental pollution with bioreactive acrolein.

  5. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  6. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC.

  7. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  8. Manganese accumulation in soil and plants along Utah roadways: A possible indication of motor vehicle exhaust pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.M.; Smith, B.N.; McKinnon, C.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An organic manganese compound is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive in the U.S. and Canada. Combustion exhaust gases contain manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are known to cause various deleterious health effects in experimental animals and humans. A field survey of roadside soil and plants in central Utah revealed that soil manganese concentrations in high traffic areas were up to 100-fold higher than historic lead levels. Soil manganese concentrations were highly correlated with distance from the roadway. In addition, roadside aquatic plants were higher in leaf tissue manganese than herbs or grasses. Submerged and emergent aquatic plants were sensitive bioindicators of manganese contamination. Manganese concentrations in soil and in some plant species along impacted roadsides often exceeded levels known to cause toxicity. We conclude that roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by manganese oxides from Mn-containing motor vehicle exhaust.

  9. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  10. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  11. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  12. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  13. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  14. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  15. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  16. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  17. Exhaust Emission Rates for Heavy-Duty Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation of the exhaust and crankcase emission rates for HC, CO, NOx, and PM emissions from medium and heavy-duty diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. Including updates for emission rates for 2007 and later model year diesel vehicles

  18. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  19. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  20. 40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline... Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty... sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The provisions of § 86.109-90 apply to this subpart....

  1. Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested.

  2. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  3. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  4. 40 CFR 600.108-08 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.108-08 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all fuel economy...

  5. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  6. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively. PMID:27078943

  7. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NO(x)), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds. PMID:26889565

  8. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NO(x)), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds.

  9. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  10. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  11. Motor vehicle exhaust emissions and control in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Laurikko, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the status and trends of atmospheric pollution in Finland caused by motor vehicles and evaluates the effect of the current regulatory policy. Details of new emission regulations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles are given. Research activities and items of particular concern like the effect of low ambient temperature on emissions are also discussed.

  12. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  13. [Experimental study on ultrafine particle characteristics exhausted from various fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-song; Chan, T L; Ning, Zhi; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zhen

    2006-12-01

    The fine particle size distribution characteristics obtained from a diesel taxi, a diesel light bus, a gasoline private car and a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuelled taxi were carried out on a chassis dynamometer system. The measurements were performed at different driving modes, i.e. , with low and high idling and from 10 kmxh(-1) to 70 kmxh(-1), 4 cruise operations using the instrument SMPS for collecting particles of 0.015-0.7microm diameter in range. It was found that different fuelled vehicles and different driving modes characterize considerable differences in size number and mass concentration distributions. Diesel vehicles contribute much more nuclei and accumulation mode particles of 30 - 150 nm, while LPG and gasoline fuelled vehicles exhaust much more nuclei mode particles of 15-30 nm. Overall, diesel-fuelled vehicles exhaust much more particles number and mass than gasoline and LPG fuelled vehicles; In the present study, diesel vehicles exhaust the ranges of total SMPS particle number, mass concentration with (0.3-3.6) x 10(8) number x cm(-3), 0.03 - 0.6 microg cm(- 3) respectively, and gasoline and LPG fuelled vehicles exhaust 2.3 x 10(4) - 1.2 x 10(7) number x cm(-3), 8 x 10(-5)-0.1 microgxcm(-3); 8.2 x 10(3)8.8 x 10(6) number x cm(-3), 1.7 x 10(-5) -0.09 microg x cm(-3), respectively; For all types of vehicles, the particle number and mass concentrations are small at low-idle and low-speed-driving modes, and are large at high-idle and high-speed-driving modes. They generally increase with the vehicle speed increasing from 10 to 70 kmx h(-1).

  14. Dilution rates for tailpipe emissions: effects of vehicle shape, tailpipe position, and exhaust velocity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor W C; Hildemann, Lynn M; Chang, Cheng-hisn

    2009-06-01

    The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and a heavy-duty tractor head. A three dimensional array of 60 sensors provided simultaneous measurements of dilution ratios for the emissions in the near- and far-wake regions downstream of the vehicle. The processes underlying the observations were investigated via nondimensionalization. Many of the trends seen substantially downstream can be well generalized using a simple nondimensionalization technique; however, this is not true in the near-wake region (within a downstream distance equivalent to a few vehicle heights). In the near-wake region, using the vehicle width and length to normalize for the vehicle shape is not enough to fully account for the variations seen. Including the exhaust flow rate in the nondimensionalization process is effective further downwind but does not adequately capture the complexity in the near-wake region. Tailpipe orientation and location are also shown to be influential factors affecting the near-wake dilution characteristics.

  15. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  16. Assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases using computer simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarshinov, Michael G.; Vaismana, Yakov I.

    2016-10-01

    The following methods were used in order to identify the pollution fields of urban air caused by the motor transport exhaust gases: the mathematical model, which enables to consider the influence of the main factors that determine pollution fields formation in the complex spatial domain; the authoring software designed for computational modeling of the gas flow, generated by numerous mobile point sources; the results of computing experiments on pollutant spread analysis and evolution of their concentration fields. The computational model of exhaust gas distribution and dispersion in a spatial domain, which includes urban buildings, structures and main traffic arteries, takes into account a stochastic character of cars apparition on the borders of the examined territory and uses a Poisson process. The model also considers the traffic lights switching and permits to define the fields of velocity, pressure and temperature of the discharge gases in urban air. The verification of mathematical model and software used confirmed their satisfactory fit to the in-situ measurements data and the possibility to use the obtained computing results for assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases.

  17. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  18. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  19. Infant leukemia and paternal exposure to motor vehicle exhaust fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Vianna, N.J.; Kovasznay, B.; Polan, A.; Ju, C.

    1984-09-01

    The children of fathers who work in gas stations, automobile or truck repair, and aircraft maintenance appear to be at increased risk for acute leukemia during their first year of life. The odds ratio was found to be about 2.5 overall, but risk appears to be greater for female offspring. A decline in sex ratio was observed for the three decades of the study, with the lowest ratio observed from 1969 through 1978. These preliminary findings suggest that exposure to one or more of the components of exhaust fumes might be of etiologic importance for this malignancy. The limitations of this investigation are discussed.

  20. Exhaust temperature profiles for application of passive diesel particulate filters to solid waste collection vehicles in California.

    PubMed

    Reul-Chen, Crystal K; Ross, Charles; Steele, Nancy L C; Winer, Arthur M

    2005-02-01

    To reduce public exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM), the California Air Resources Board has begun adoption of a series of rules to reduce these emissions from in-use heavy-duty vehicles. Passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) after-treatment technologies are a cost-effective method to reduce DPM emissions and have been used on a variety of vehicles worldwide. Two passive DPFs were interim-verified in California and approved federally for use in most 1994--2002 engine families for vehicles meeting min engine exhaust temperature requirements for successful filter regeneration. Some vehicles, however, may not be suited to passive DPFs because of lower engine exhaust temperatures. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of two types of passive DPFs to solid waste collection vehicles, the group of vehicles for which California recently mandated in-use DPM reductions. We selected 60 collection vehicles to represent the four main types of collection vehicle duty cycles--rolloffs, and front-end, rear, and side loaders--and collected second-by-second engine exhaust temperature readings for one week from each vehicle. As a group, the collection vehicles exhibited low engine exhaust temperatures, making the application of passive DPFs to these vehicles difficult. Only 35% of tested vehicles met the temperature requirements for one passive DPF, whereas 60% met the temperature requirements for the other. Engine exhaust temperatures varied by vehicle type. Side and front-end loaders met the engine exhaust temperature requirements in the greatest number of cases with approximately 50-90% achieving the required regeneration temperatures. Only 8-25% of the rear loader and roll-off collection vehicles met the engine exhaust temperature requirements. Solid waste collection vehicles represent a diverse fleet with a variety of duty cycles. Low engine exhaust temperatures will need to be addressed for successful use of passive DPFs in this application.

  1. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  2. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.210-08 Section 86.210-08 Protection... Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...

  3. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon... to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions values for the purpose of determining optional... each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the...

  4. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  5. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Total Organic Gas Speciation Profiles from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Sonntag, Darrell; Cook, Richard; Yanca, Catherine; Schenk, Charles; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-06-21

    Total organic gases (TOG) emissions from motor vehicles include air toxic compounds and contribute to formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). These emissions are known to be affected by temperature; however previous studies have typically focused only on the temperature dependence of total emission factors and select toxic compounds. This study builds on the previous research by performing an evaluation of a comprehensive set of gas-phase organic compounds present in gasoline motor vehicle exhaust. A fleet of five vehicles using port fuel injection engine technology and running on E10 fuel was tested. Overall, three temperatures (0, 20, and 75 °F; or -18, -7, and 24 °C), two driving conditions (urban-FTP75 and aggressive driving-US06) and 161 compounds were evaluated; the emissions distributions were used to construct speciation profiles for each driving cycle and temperature. Overall, the speciation results indicated a significant increase in alkane and methane content, and decrease in alcohol, aldehyde and ketone content with decreasing temperature. These were verified using a statistical significance test. The fraction and composition of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) were significantly affected by temperature for both driving cycles. The ozone forming potentials of these profiles were evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale. Aromatic content was predicted to be a major driver behind the ozone forming potentials. Additionally, the decreasing ozone potential could be attributed to increased methane fractions with increasing temperature. PMID:27203618

  7. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Total Organic Gas Speciation Profiles from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Sonntag, Darrell; Cook, Richard; Yanca, Catherine; Schenk, Charles; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-06-21

    Total organic gases (TOG) emissions from motor vehicles include air toxic compounds and contribute to formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). These emissions are known to be affected by temperature; however previous studies have typically focused only on the temperature dependence of total emission factors and select toxic compounds. This study builds on the previous research by performing an evaluation of a comprehensive set of gas-phase organic compounds present in gasoline motor vehicle exhaust. A fleet of five vehicles using port fuel injection engine technology and running on E10 fuel was tested. Overall, three temperatures (0, 20, and 75 °F; or -18, -7, and 24 °C), two driving conditions (urban-FTP75 and aggressive driving-US06) and 161 compounds were evaluated; the emissions distributions were used to construct speciation profiles for each driving cycle and temperature. Overall, the speciation results indicated a significant increase in alkane and methane content, and decrease in alcohol, aldehyde and ketone content with decreasing temperature. These were verified using a statistical significance test. The fraction and composition of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) were significantly affected by temperature for both driving cycles. The ozone forming potentials of these profiles were evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale. Aromatic content was predicted to be a major driver behind the ozone forming potentials. Additionally, the decreasing ozone potential could be attributed to increased methane fractions with increasing temperature.

  8. The effect of gasoline RVP on exhaust emissions from current European vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.J.; Beckwith, P.; Goodfellow, C.L.; Skaardalsmo, K.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of gasoline RVP on regulated exhaust emissions has been investigated in a fleet consisting of five current European vehicles. The effects of MTBE with changing RVP and E70 were also studied. All vehicles were equipped with the standard OEM small carbon canisters and three-way catalytic converters and the regulated emissions measured over the new European test cycle. A rigorous refueling protocol was employed to ensure that the carbon canisters were loaded in a repeatable way before the emission tests. The results show that a reduction in RVP gave benefits in CO and NOx, but no effect on exhaust THC emissions. The benefits for CO and NOx were greater in non-oxygenated fuels. Of the five test vehicles, three showed CO emission benefits due to RVP reduction, while CO from the other two was insensitive to RVP changes. Four vehicles also showed NOx emission benefits due to RVP reduction while the NOx emissions from the other vehicle were insensitive to RVP changes. The benefits of reducing RVP were observed for the fleet over all three phases of the cycle, however, the largest percentage of changes were seen after the vehicles had warmed up. Although no significant overall effect of RVP on exhaust THC emissions was apparent, reductions in THC over the ECE 3+4 and EUDC phases were observed. At high RVP MTBE addition gave reductions in CO and NOx emissions, but at low RVP no emission reductions were observed. A reduction in E70 only influenced exhaust THC emissions, resulting in a small increase.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Exhaust Thermoelectric System and Application for Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, W. S.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this case study, an energy harvesting system using a thermoelectric power generator (TEG) has been constructed. Experimental investigation of the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric modules (TMs) in this system has been undertaken to assess the feasibility for automotive applications. Two test benches have been developed to analyze the TM performance and the TEG system characteristics, especially the temperature difference, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power output of the TM and TEG system. As the performance of a TM is most influenced by the applied pressure and the temperature difference, a thermostatic heater, thermostatic water tank, and clamping devices are used in our experimental apparatus, increasing the output power of the TEG system. Based on the test bench, a new system called the "four-TEGs" system was designed and assembled into a prototype vehicle called "Warrior," and the characteristics of the system such as the maximum power output have been studied in road tests. The results show great potential for application of this technology in future vehicles.

  10. Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

  11. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-01

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

  12. Hydrogen chloride measurements in launch-vehicle exhaust clouds

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, T.; Kennedy, R.; Garvis, D.; Smith, M.D.

    1987-05-01

    An Air Force-sponsored effort to develop a versatile field sensor for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapors from rocket launches is described. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing an infrared HCl detector with ppB range sensitivities to be used for monitoring HCl during space vehicle launches at Vandenberg AFB. HCl deposition on the community neighboring Vandenberg AFB can involve costly litigation. Monitoring is necessary to determine the amount of HCl and if it presents hazardous situations or detrimental effects. The sensor developed by LLNL is an ''in situ'' sampler, which can constantly monitor a rapidly changing concentration of HCl in air (response time is one second). It is a four-band differential absorption instrument, allowing for corrections due to system electronic and optical variations, as well as for variations in the background concentrations of methane and water vapor that also absorb at HCl wavelengths. There is also the possibility of measuring HCl droplets with this type of sensor. The detector's variable pathlength-absorption region allows for HCl detection down to 200 ppB. The instrument is remotely operable, a necessity given the rugged Vandenberg terrain and limitations placed on personnel access to the launch area. The data from the battery-powered sensor are transmitted via radio link to a central base station where they are displayed and recorded using an IBM PC. 9 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), particulate matter (PM), and high altitude conditions. Diesel light-duty vehicles that meet the PM standard in... and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86.1708-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), particulate matter (PM), and high altitude conditions. Diesel light-duty vehicles that meet the PM standard in... and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86.1708-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999...

  15. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration. PMID:25518646

  16. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  17. Lidar for remote measurement of ozone in the exhaust plumes of launch vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gelbwachs, J A

    1996-05-20

    Large quantities of chlorine and alumina particles are injected directly into the stratosphere by the current fleet of launch vehicles. Environmental concerns have been raised over the impact of the rocket exhaust on the ozone layer. Recently differential absorption lidar (DIAL) was selected for remote sensing of ozone density within the plumes of Titan IV launch vehicles. The application of DIAL to this very challenging problem is described, and an implementation of UV-ozone DIAL is discussed that holds promise for this application.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710... the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles...

  19. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  20. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  1. Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2012-12-01

    The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  3. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 μg/m3, and 0.06-19.13 μg/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies.

  4. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  5. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  6. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  7. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  8. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined...

  9. A flow calorimeter for determining combustion efficiency from residual enthalpy of exhaust gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert; Hibbard, Robert R

    1954-01-01

    A flow calorimeter for determining the combustion efficiency of turbojet and ram-jet combustors from measurement of the residual enthalpy of combustion of the exhaust gas is described. Briefly, the calorimeter catalytically oxidizes the combustible constituents of exhaust-gas samples, and the resultant temperature rise is measured. This temperature rise is related to the residual enthalpy of combustion of the sample by previous calibration of the calorimeter. Combustion efficiency can be calculated from a knowledge of the residual enthalpy of the exhaust gas and the combustor input enthalpy. An accuracy of +-0.2 Btu per cubic foot was obtained with prepared fuel-air mixtures, and the combustion efficiencies of single turbojet combustors measured by both the flow-calorimeter and heat-balance methods compared within 3 percentage units. Flow calorimetry appears to be a suitable method for determining combustion efficiencies at high combustor temperatures where ordinary thermocouples cannot be used. The method is fundamentally more accurate than heat-balance methods at high combustion efficiencies and can be used to verify near-100-percent efficiency data.

  10. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2011-09-01

    We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission

  11. Exhausted Plume Flow Field Prediction Near the Afterbody of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles in High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Lynn Chen; Mach, Kervyn D.; Deng, Zheng-Tao; Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer code to solve the Burnett equations has been developed which computes the flow interaction between an exhausted plume and hypersonic external flow near the afterbody of a flight vehicle. This Burnett-2D code extends the capability of Navier-Stokes solver (RPLUS2D code) to include high-order Burnett source terms and slip-wall conditions for velocity and temperature. Higher-order Burnett viscous stress and heat flux terms are discretized using central-differencing and treated as source terms. Blocking logic is adopted in order to overcome the difficulty of grid generation. The computation of exhaust plume flow field is divided into two steps. In the first step, the thruster nozzle exit conditions are computed which generates inflow conditions in the base area near the afterbody. Results demonstrated that at high altitudes, the computations of nozzle exit conditions must include the effects of base flow since significant expansion exists in the base region. In the second step, Burnett equations were solved for exhaust plume flow field near the afterbody. The free stream conditions are set at an altitude equal to 80km and the Mach number is equal to 5.0. The preliminary results show that the plume expansion, as altitude increases, will eventually cause upstream flow separation.

  12. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  13. Effects of platinum from vehicle exhaust catalyst on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils.

    PubMed

    Kalbitz, Karsten; Schwesig, David; Wang, Wenxia

    2008-11-01

    There is strong evidence of continuously increasing contamination of soils with platinum group elements (PGE), in particular with platinum (Pt) from vehicle exhaust catalysts in roadside soils. However, knowledge about the effects of Pt contamination on soil processes is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the contamination of soils with Pt at realistic environmental levels leads to observable adverse effects on selected indicator parameters of the carbon and nitrogen turnover in soils. Incubation experiments with artificially contaminated soils and solutions containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) were carried out by the use of milled material from a Pt-containing vehicle exhaust catalyst. Interaction of the catalyst material with the soil resulted in a mobilization of Pt into the dissolved phase reaching up to 0.1% of the added Pt. The amount of Pt mobilization seemed to be mainly driven by the pH of the soil. Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen did not reveal any significant adverse effect of the Pt addition as compared to the control samples. Future studies dealing with Pt effects on soil processes should focus on environmental conditions favoring Pt mobilization, e.g. such as very low pH values or large concentrations of DOM.

  14. [Source profile and chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds from vehicle exhaust].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yue-Zhen; Wang, Hong-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Su, Lei-Yan; Zhou, Min; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ran; Li, Li; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Hai-Ying

    2012-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline taxis (LDGT) and passenger cars (LDGV), heavy-duty diesel buses (HDDB) and trucks (HDDT), gasoline motorcycles (MC) and LPG scooters (LPGS), were selected for tailpipe volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samplings by using transient dynamometer and on road test combined with SUMMA canisters technology. The samples were tested by GC-MS to analyze the concentration and species composition of VOCs. The results indicate that light-duty gasoline automobiles have higher fractions of aromatic hydrocarbons, which account for 43.38%-44.45% of the total VOCs, the main aromatic hydrocarbons are toluene and xylenes. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have higher fractions of alkanes, which constitute 46.86%-48.57% of the total VOCs, the main alkanes are propane, n-dodecane and n-undecane. In addition, oxy-organics account for 13.28%-15.01% of the VOCs, the main oxy-organics is acetone. The major compound from MC and LPGS exhaust is acetylene, it accounts for 39.75% and 76.67% of the total VOCs, respectively. VOCs exhaust from gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles has a significantly higher chemical reactivity than those from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which contribute 55% and 44% to the atmospheric chemical reactivity in Shanghai. The gasoline motorcycles and light-duty gasoline automobiles are the key pollution sources affecting city and region ambient oxidation, and the key active species of toluene, xylenes, propylene, and styrene make the greatest contribution. PMID:22720548

  15. Measurements of toxic exhaust emissions from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner-Selph, M.A.

    1989-11-01

    Exhaust emission rates of selected toxic substances were determined for two gasoline-powered passenger cars. These substances, which have appeared on California Air Resources Board Toxic Air Contaminant list or have been candidates for the lists, include volatile and semi-volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, phenols, nitrobenzene, dialkylnitrosamines, and a number of other unregulated emissions. Regulated gaseous emissions and fuel economy were also measured. A literature search was performed to determine if any of these compounds had previously been measured in the exhaust of gasoline-powered vehicles and if appropriate analytical procedures were available. When unavailable, procedures were developed for sampling and analyzing the unregulated toxic emissions compounds. The two vehicles were then tested to determine the emission rates of the targeted compounds. In the tests, a 1987 Ford Taurus equipped with a 3-way plus oxidation catalyst and a 1986 Toyota Camry equipped with a 3-way catalyst only were operated over the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. The test fuel was a regular unleaded gasoline without ethanol or methanol, and was obtained from California.

  16. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhausts when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhausts, is still poorly understood. Here we directly co-introduced gasoline vehicles exhausts (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, into a smog chamber to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. In the presence of high concentration of SO2, new particle formation was enhanced while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2. The homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. This increase could largely be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation, which was evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in-situ particle acidity calculated by AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) molar ratios for the GVE/SO2 mixture, with a much lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than that of -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be the major reason for the lower oxidation degree of SOA.

  17. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhaust, remains uncertain. Gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, are directly co-introduced into a smog chamber, in this study, to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. New particle formation was enhanced, while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2 in the presence of high concentration of SO2. Homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. The increase could principally be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation as evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in situ particle acidity calculated by the AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) (0.44 ± 0.02) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) (1.40 ± 0.03) molar ratios for the GVE / SO2 mixture, with a significantly lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be a significant explanation for the lower SOA oxidation degree.

  18. Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with

  19. Space shuttle SRM plume expansion sensitivity analysis. [flow characteristics of exhaust gases from solid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The exhaust plumes of the space shuttle solid rocket motors can have a significant effect on the base pressure and base drag of the shuttle vehicle. A parametric analysis was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle of analytical solid rocket motor flow fields to various analytical input parameters and operating conditions. The results of the analysis are presented and conclusions reached regarding the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to each parameter investigated. Operating conditions parametrically varied were chamber pressure, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle throat radius of curvature ratio and propellant particle loading. Empirical particle parameters investigated were mean size, local drag coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient. Sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to gas thermochemistry model and local drag coefficient model assumptions were determined.

  20. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  1. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  2. Exhaust Emissions Measured Under Real Traffic Conditions from Vehicles Fitted with Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Lijewski, Piotr; Fuć, Paweł

    2011-06-01

    The tests performed under real traffic conditions provide invaluable information on the relations between the engine parameters, vehicle parameters and traffic conditions (traffic congestion) on one side and the exhaust emissions on the other. The paper presents the result of road tests obtained in an urban and extra-urban cycles for vehicles fitted with different engines, spark ignition engine and compression ignition engine. For the tests a portable emission analyzer SEMTECH DS. by SENSORS was used. This analyzer provides online measurement of the concentrations of exhaust emission components on a vehicle in motion under real traffic conditions. The tests were performed in city traffic. A comparative analysis has been presented of the obtained results for vehicles with individual powertrains.

  3. Heavy metals from non-exhaust vehicle emissions in urban and motorway road dusts.

    PubMed

    Adamiec, Ewa; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Wieszała, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The main sources of non-exhaust vehicular emissions that contribute to road dust are tire, brake and clutch wear, road surface wear, and other vehicle and road component degradation. This study is an attempt to identify and investigate heavy metals in urban and motorway road dusts as well as in dust from brake linings and tires. Road dust was collected from sections of the A-4 motorway in Poland, which is part of European route E40, and from urban roads in Katowice, Poland. Dust from a relatively unpolluted mountain road was collected and examined as a control sample. Selected metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, Sr, Ba, Ti, and Pd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy on a range of size-fractionated road dust and brake lining dust (<20, 20-56, 56-90, 90-250, and >250 μm). The compositions of brake lining and tire dust were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To estimate the degree of potential environmental risk of non-exhaust emissions, comparison with the geochemical background and the calculations of geo-accumulation indices were performed. The finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, especially with Ti, Cu, and Cr, which are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear. Urban dust was, however, more contaminated than motorway dust. It was therefore concluded that brake lining and tire wear strongly contributed to the contamination of road dust. PMID:27226173

  4. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6 × 10(3), 374, 1.2 × 10(3), and 5.6 × 10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7 × 10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

  5. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. ); Zammit, M.G. ); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. ); Bruetsch, R.I. )

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  6. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.; Zammit, M.G.; Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S.; Bruetsch, R.I.

    1992-11-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  7. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  8. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107...

  9. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107...

  13. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  14. Real-time measurement of nitrogen dioxide in vehicle exhaust gas by mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Sumizawa, H.; Yamada, H.; Tonokura, K.

    2011-12-01

    The application of pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was demonstrated for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in automotive exhaust gas. The transition of the ν 3 vibrational band assigned to the antisymmetric stretching mode of NO2 was probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed, mid-infrared, distributed feedback, quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 6.13 μm. The measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas from two diesel vehicles equipped with different aftertreatment devices was demonstrated using a CRDS-based NO2 sensor, which employs a HEPA filter and a membrane gas dryer to remove interference from water as well as particulates in the exhaust gas. Stable and sensitive measurement of NO2 in the exhaust gas was achieved for more than 30 minutes with a time resolution of 1 s.

  15. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  16. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  17. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  18. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume.

  19. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume. PMID:26592000

  20. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  1. Ions in motor vehicle exhaust and their dispersion near busy roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, E. R.; Ling, X.; Morawska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements in the exhaust plume of a petrol-driven motor car showed that molecular cluster ions of both signs were present in approximately equal amounts. The emission rate increased sharply with engine speed while the charge symmetry remained unchanged. Measurements at the kerbside of nine motorways and five city roads showed that the mean total cluster ion concentration near city roads (603 cm -3) was about one-half of that near motorways (1211 cm -3) and about twice as high as that in the urban background (269 cm -3). Both positive and negative ion concentrations near a motorway showed a significant linear increase with traffic density ( R2 = 0.3 at p < 0.05) and correlated well with each other in real time ( R2 = 0.87 at p < 0.01). Heavy duty diesel vehicles comprised the main source of ions near busy roads. Measurements were conducted as a function of downwind distance from two motorways carrying around 120-150 vehicles per minute. Total traffic-related cluster ion concentrations decreased rapidly with distance, falling by one-half from the closest approach of 2 m to 5 m of the kerb. Measured concentrations decreased to background at about 15 m from the kerb when the wind speed was 1.3 m s -1, this distance being greater at higher wind speed. The number and net charge concentrations of aerosol particles were also measured. Unlike particles that were carried downwind to distances of a few hundred metres, cluster ions emitted by motor vehicles were not present at more than a few tens of metres from the road.

  2. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 μg km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 μg km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 μg km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  3. Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

  4. An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Emma J; Pearson, Peter J G

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, all new gasoline-engine automobiles in the United Kingdom have been supplied with three-way vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs) containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium, to comply with European Commission Stage I limits on emissions of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. We conducted a physical and economic evaluation of the environmental and health benefits from a reduction in emissions through this mandated environmental technology against the costs, with reference to urban areas in Great Britain. We made both an ex post assessment--based on available data to 1998--and an ex ante assessment--projected to 2005, the year when full penetration of VECs into the fleet is expected. Substantial health benefits in excess of the costs of VECs were indicated: By 1998 the estimated net societal health benefits were approximately 500 million British pounds, and by 2005 they were estimated to rise to as much as 2 billion British pounds. We also found through environmental surveys that although lead in road dust has fallen by 50% in urban areas, platinum accumulations near roads have risen significantly, up to 90-fold higher than natural background levels. This rapid accumulation of platinum suggests further monitoring is warranted, although as yet there is no evidence of adverse health effects. PMID:14754566

  5. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  6. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  7. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  8. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local

  9. Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

    2008-02-01

    A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides.

  10. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  11. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Seigneur, Christian; Charron, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; Polo, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were diluted with filtered air and sampling was performed on filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) and (2) a Dekati Fine Particle Sampler (FPS) in which emissions were diluted with purified air and sampled with on-line instruments (PTR-ToF-MS, HR-ToF-AMS, MAAP, CPC). Significant differences in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) measured by the instruments are observed. The differences can be explained by sampling artefacts, differences between (1) the time elapsed during sampling (in the case of filter and PUF sampling) and (2) the time elapsed from emission to measurement (in the case of on-line instruments), which vary from a few seconds to 15 min, and by the different dilution factors. To relate elapsed times and measured concentrations of OC, the condensation of SVOC between the gas and particle phases is simulated with a dynamic aerosol model. The simulation results allow us to understand the relation between elapsed times and concentrations in the gas and particle phases. They indicate that the characteristic times to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases may be as long as 8 min. Therefore, if the elapsed time is less than this characteristic time to reach equilibrium, gas-phase SVOC are not at equilibrium with the particle phase and a larger fraction of emitted SVOC will be in the gas phase than estimated by equilibrium theory, leading to an underestimation of emitted OC if only the particle phase is considered or if the gas-phase SVOC are estimated

  12. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. I. The influence on DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in the liver of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Stanosek, J; Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Ludyga, K; Pietras, A; Kula, B

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the behaviour of DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in whole homogenate as well as the nuclear, mitochondrial and postmitochondrial liver fractions in guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia. A decrease of RNA level was found in the liver of animals exposed to combustion exhaust gases together with a decrease of soluble proteins in all the studied fractions. On the other hand, in the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products of combustion gases by ammonia, the studied components were increased. This increase may be the result of the simultaneous action of industrial noise.

  13. Heterogeneous oxidation of SO{sub 2} in the radiation chemical purification of exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants from oxides of nitrogen and sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimova, T.S.; Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Tokmacheva, I.P.

    1992-09-01

    Questions associated with numerical modeling of the heterogeneous oxidation of SO{sub 2} in exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants, induced by irradiation of the gas with a flux of fast electrons, are discussed. In constructing a mathematical model of the process it is considered that a phase equilibrium exists between the gas and the aerosol drops formed in the gas under the radiation influence, and the rate of the process is determined by the rate of liquid-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} by nitrogen dioxide in dissolved form. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

    1999-06-01

    While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity.

  15. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  16. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ultra-Low Super Ultra-Low and Partial Zero Emission Vehicle Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Zhao, Y.; Lambe, A. T.; Saleh, R.; Saliba, G.; Maldonado, H.; Sardar, S.; Frodin, B.; Drozd, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Kroll, J. H.; Cross, E. S.; Franklin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is the dominant component of organic aerosol in many urban areas during the summertime. On-road light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) have been indicated as a major source of SOA precursors. Emissions of the SOA-forming non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) from on-road LDGV have been substantially reduced along with more stringent emission standards, leading to reduced potential for SOA formation. However, recent smog chamber measurements reported that the reductions in SOA formation were less than those in NMHC emissions, indicating that newer, low emitting vehicles may emit a more efficient of SOA precursors. Vehicles that meet the ultra-low, super ultra-low and partial zero emission standards have substantially lower NMHC emissions than vehicles tested in past studies. To better understand the effects of more stringent emission controls on the SOA formation, we conducted experiments 13 vehicles recruited from the Southern California vehicle fleet (five ultra-low emission vehicles, four super ultra-low emission vehicles and four partial zero emission vehicles) at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. In addition, we investigated several vehicles compliant with older emission standards have also been investigated here to bridge the previous studies. Dilute vehicle exhaust were photo-oxidized in a smog chamber with the VOC-to-NOx ratio adjusted to simulate the photochemistry in urban air. Application of literature data from single-ring aromatic compounds cannot explain the observed SOA during chamber experiments. The average ratios between estimated and measured SOA for vehicles under different emission standards ranged from 0.04 to 0.71. Comprehensive measurements of SOA precursor emissions were made, including NMHCs, intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds. This study presents results of SOA production from these low emitting vehicles and compares the results with recently published data. This

  17. Size-Resolved Ultrafine Particle Deposition and Brownian Coagulation from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust in an Environmental Test Chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-10-20

    Size-resolved deposition rates and Brownian coagulation of particles between 20 and 900 nm (mobility diameter) were estimated in a well-mixed environmental chamber from a gasoline vehicle exhaust with a total peak particle concentration of 10(5)-10(6) particles/cm(3) at 12.24-25.22 °C. A deposition theory with modified friction velocity and coagulation model was also employed to predict particle concentration decay. Initially during particle decay, approximately 85% or more of the particles had diameters of <100 nm. Particle deposition rates with standard deviations were highly dependent on particle size ranges, and varied from 0.012 ± 0.003 to 0.48 ± 0.02 h(-1). In the experiment, the friction velocity obtained was in the range 1.5-2.5 cm/s. The most explainable fractal dimension and Hamaker constant in coagulation model were 2.5-3 and 20 kT, respectively, and the contribution from coagulation dominated the total particle decay during the first 1 h of decay. It is considered that the modified friction velocity and best fitted fractal dimension and Hamaker constants could be further used to analyze gasoline vehicle exhaust particle dynamics and assess human exposure to vehicle particle pollutants in urban areas, tunnels, and underground parking lots.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-04-01

    In China, fast increase in passenger vehicles has procured the growing concern about vehicle exhausts as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in megacities hard-hit by haze. However, there are still no chamber simulation studies in China on SOA formation from vehicle exhausts. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with the relative humidity around 50%. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary OA (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at the quite similar OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric condition might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yield data in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model and quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation form three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-Euro 4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90% of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C/ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a

  19. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator is described for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gases produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gases pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure. 8 figs.

  20. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the

  1. Concentration measurement in a road tunnel as a method to assess "real-world" vehicles exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, G.; Berico, M.; Monforti, F.; Vitali, L.; Zambonelli, S.; Chiavarini, S.; Georgiadis, T.; Nardino, M.

    An experiment aimed at comparing particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations produced in a road tunnel by buses is described. The experiment took place in 2001 in Bologna when a couple of buses belonging to the public transport fleet where driven backwards and forwards in a road tunnel closed to all other vehicles. Buses run in the tunnel for 8 h a day for 4 experiment days, each day using a different fuel: biodiesel, diesel-water emulsion, diesel-water emulsion with low sulphur content and commercial diesel. Average daily concentrations of PM of different sizes and of 12 PHAs were measured and comparison between different fuels was attempted in order to assess "real-world" exhaust emissions of different fuels. Due to heterogeneity of experimental conditions in different days and the relatively large measurement uncertainties, the effort was only partially successful, and it was not possible to state any firm conclusion on fuels reliability even if some indications in agreement with literature were found. Nevertheless, the experiment and the data analysis method developed could be of interest as a methodological approach for future experiments aimed at evaluating "real-world" exhaust emissions of single vehicles.

  2. Modal Analysis and Study of the Vibration Characteristics of the Thermoelectric Modules of Vehicle Exhaust Power-Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Yu, Rui; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

    2014-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials and modules are important components of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems. The road and the engine, the main sources of vibration of TE modules, have substantial effects on the vibration characteristics of TE modules. In this work, modal analysis and the vibration characteristics of TE modules were investigated in detail. On the basis of the TE modules and their service environment, simulations for modal analysis were performed by use of the finite-element method, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the TE modules were obtained. The numerical results were used to compare the natural frequencies of TE modules under different contact stiffness with the range of excitation frequencies of road and engine, in an attempt to prevent severe resonance. The effects on the vibration characteristics of geometric dimensions, service temperature, and thermal stress of the TE modules are also discussed in detail. The results reveal the vibration characteristics of the TE modules and provide theoretical guidance for structure optimization in the design of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems.

  3. Sorptive behavior of nitro-PAHs in street runoff and their potential as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Yamada, Junya; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2008-02-15

    This is the first report to reveal the particle-water distribution of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and to discuss their potential risks and utility as indicators of diesel vehicle exhaust particles (DEP). Time-series samples of runoff were collected from a highway, and NPAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study their dynamic behavior. The concentrations of total NPAHs ranged from 11 to 73 ng/L in particulate phase (>0.7 mcirom) and from 2.3 to 4.9 ng/L in dissolved phase (<0.7 microm). Like their PAH analogs, most (81-97%) NPAHs were associated with particulate matter. The organic carbon-normalized in situ partition coefficients (Koc') of NPAHs observed in runoff events (10(5.8-6.3) for 2-nitrofluoranthene and 10(5.8-6.2) for 1-nitropyrene [1-NP]) were more than 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their Kow, indicating great affinity for particulate matter such as soot. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs adjusted by potency equivalency factors and induction equivalency factors showed that the potential risks of NPAHs were smaller than those of PAHs by a factor of more than a hundred for the particulate phase and morethan fourforthe dissolved phase. Comparison of concentrations and compositions of NPAHs and PAHs among runoff, DEP, gasoline vehicle exhaust particles, boiler exhaust particles, and aerosols suggested that the ratio of 1-NP to total PAHs (1-NP/PAH) is a useful indicator of DEP for source apportionment of PAHs among traffic-related sources. Source-apportionment of PAHs in the runoff by 1-NP/PAH and methylphenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios suggested that most PAHs in the runoff except the second flush peak were derived from DEP but that other pyrogenic sources contributed to the particles at the second flush and thus to the overall runoff particles. PMID:18351085

  4. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  5. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  6. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Filter acceptance criteria. Valid diesel particulate net filter weights shall be accepted according to... measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of either diesel light-duty.... (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter (including back-up filter) can be...

  7. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 355 °F). This will be determined by a temperature sensor located on a section of the probe wall outside of the dilution tunnel. The temperature sensor shall be insulated from any heating elements on the probe. The sensor shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F (1.1 °C). (14) The dilute exhaust...

  8. Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2014-11-01

    A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

  9. On-line measurements of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel vehicle exhaust by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fujitani, Yuji; Sekimoto, Kanako; Sato, Kei; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Shigeo; Kumazawa, Yasuko; Shimono, Akio; Hikida, Toshihide

    2013-07-01

    Nitro-organic compounds, some of which cause adverse health effects in humans, are emitted in diesel engine exhaust. Speciation and quantification of these nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust particles have been extensively conducted; however, investigations into the emissions of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust have not. In the present study, the properties of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust were investigated through time-resolved measurement with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer. Three diesel trucks were tested, each with a different type of exhaust-gas treatment system (i.e., aftertreatment). Among the nitro-organic compounds detected, the emission of nitromethane was commonly observed and found to be related to the emissions of carbon monoxide, benzene, and acetone. The emission of other nitro-organic compounds, such as nitrophenol, depended on the vehicle, possibly due to the type of aftertreatment installed.

  10. Measurement of aromatic compounds in automobile exhaust gases with membrane inlet mass spectrometry equipped with an on-line-probe and an automatic Tenax-Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Matz, G.; Walte, A.; Muenchmeyer, W.; Rikeit, H.E.

    1996-09-01

    A novel membrane inlet mass spectrometer is used to monitor organic compounds in combustion emissions. Different gas probes, which can be changed in minutes, have been developed for use in combination with the mobile mass spectrometer. With the On-Line-Probe, volatile organic compounds (BTXE) can be measured down to the ppm range with a cycle rate of one analysis per second. Time resolved measurements of aromatic compounds together with other exhaust gases can be done. By sampling with a polymer adsorbent, analysis with thermal desorption and GC/MS down to the ppb concentration range can be achieved. A six-fold Tenax-Sampler, connected to the mobile GC/MS system, is capable of taking and transferring the samples automatically. Because sampling with this device is independent from the analysis, measurements of narrow time windows in a dynamical process can be done easily. The whole analytical equipment was evaluated on-site through measurements on an engine test stand, a dynamometer and on the road during real traffic. It is shown, that time resolved quantitative measurements give information on the influence of special driving conditions (warm up, congestion) on the amount of aromatic compounds emitted by automobile exhausts.

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Hu, Q.; Ding, X.; Zhang, Y.; He, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Yu, J.

    2015-08-01

    In China, a rapid increase in passenger vehicles has led to the growing concern of vehicle exhaust as an important source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities hard hit by haze. In this study, the SOA formation of emissions from two idling light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) (Euro 1 and Euro 4) operated in China was investigated in a 30 m3 smog chamber. Five photo-oxidation experiments were carried out at 25 °C with relative humidity at around 50 %. After aging at an OH exposure of 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 12-259 times as high as primary organic aerosol (POA). The SOA production factors (PF) were 0.001-0.044 g kg-1 fuel, comparable with those from the previous studies at comparable OH exposure. This quite lower OH exposure than that in typical atmospheric conditions might however lead to the underestimation of the SOA formation potential from LDGVs. Effective SOA yields in this study were well fit by a one-product gas-particle partitioning model but quite lower than those of a previous study investigating SOA formation from three idling passenger vehicles (Euro 2-4). Traditional single-ring aromatic precursors and naphthalene could explain 51-90 % of the formed SOA. Unspeciated species such as branched and cyclic alkanes might be the possible precursors for the unexplained SOA. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical composition of SOA. The relationship between f43 (ratio of m/z 43, mostly C2H3O+, to the total signal in mass spectrum) and f44 (mostly CO2+) of the gasoline vehicle exhaust SOA is similar to the ambient semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). We plot the O : C and H : C molar ratios of SOA in a Van Krevelen diagram. The slopes of ΔH : C / ΔO : C ranged from -0.59 to -0.36, suggesting that the oxidation chemistry in these experiments was a combination of carboxylic acid and alcohol/peroxide formation.

  12. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  14. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices including diesel particulate filters (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep+idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photo-oxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary and secondary fine particulate matter from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after three hours of oxidation at typical urban VOC : NOx ratios (3:1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the non-methane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas

  15. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle

  16. Conversion of the exhaust emission results obtained from combustion engines of heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, J.; Pielecha, J.

    2016-09-01

    The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road travelled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work into a value of road emissions. The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.

  17. Primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation from the exhaust of a flex-fuel (ethanol) vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Platt, S. M.; Hellebust, S.; Pieber, S. M.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Marchand, N.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Astorga, C.

    2015-09-01

    Incentives to use biofuels may result in increasing vehicular emissions of compounds detrimental to air quality. Therefore, regulated and unregulated emissions from a Euro 5a flex-fuel vehicle, tested using E85 and E75 blends (gasoline containing 85% and 75% of ethanol (vol/vol), respectively), were investigated at 22 and -7 °C over the New European Driving Cycle, at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy. Vehicle exhaust was comprehensively analyzed at the tailpipe and in a dilution tunnel. A fraction of the exhaust was injected into a mobile smog chamber to study the photochemical aging of the mixture. We found that emissions from a flex-fuel vehicle, fueled by E85 and E75, led to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, despite the low aromatic content of these fuel blends. Emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, as well as emissions of black carbon (BC) and primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA formation were higher at -7 °C. The flex-fuel unregulated emissions, mainly composed of ethanol and acetaldehyde, resulted in very high ozone formation potential and SOA, especially at low temperature (860 mg O3 km-1 and up to 38 mg C kg-1). After an OH exposure of 10 × 106 cm-3 h, SOA mass was, on average, 3 times larger than total primary particle mass emissions (BC + POA) with a high O:C ratio (up to 0.7 and 0.5 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) typical of highly oxidized mixtures. Furthermore, high resolution organic mass spectra showed high 44/43 ratios (ratio of the ions m/z 44 and m/z 43) characteristic of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol. We also hypothesize that SOA formation from vehicular emissions could be due to oxidation products of ethanol and acetaldehyde, both short-chain oxygenated VOCs, e.g. methylglyoxal and acetic acid, and not only from aromatic compounds.

  18. Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

  19. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  20. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  1. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. (a) Fleet average NMOG standards and compliance. (1) Each manufacturer...

  3. A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period.

  4. Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2013-10-01

    The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 μg m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution

  5. Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001–06: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease

  6. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health.

  7. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; de Assunção, João V.; Pesquero, Célia R.

    Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

  8. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Thermal Spray: Application to Vehicle Exhaust Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, Jon P.; Zuo, Lei; Hwang, David; Fu, Gaosheng; Tewolde, Mahder; Chen, Yikai; Sampath, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Thermoelectric devices produce electricity directly from heat; they are small, have no moving parts, and are quiet. Commercially available thermoelectric devices, however, are expensive and labor intensive to produce, and come in very limited form factors. This article presents initial results for the use of thermal spray to directly fabricate thermoelectric devices. The target application is automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume heat sources. In this work, FeSi2 and Mg2Si metal silicides were sprayed. Characterization of the Mg2Si deposits indicates that both the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient are roughly one half the values of bulk Mg2Si. The electrical conductivity, however, is several orders of magnitude lower than bulk measurements in the literature, with likely reasons including impurities in the starting powder, oxidation during spraying, and using an undoped material. Fe x Co4- x Sb12 skutterudite material has also been sprayed; however, not enough powder was available to fabricate samples large enough for characterization. The steps required to fabricate a thermoelectric device are presented, including the formation of the bottom and top metallic layers and the thermoelectric legs using thermal spray and laser micromachining. A technique for bridging the air gap between adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer based on a sacrificial filler material has also been demonstrated.

  9. Evaluation of the particle measurement programme (PMP) protocol to remove the vehicles' exhaust aerosol volatile phase.

    PubMed

    Giechaskiel, B; Chirico, R; Decarlo, P F; Clairotte, M; Adam, T; Martini, G; Heringa, M F; Richter, R; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C

    2010-10-01

    European regulation for Euro 5/6 light duty emissions introduced the measurement of non-volatile particles with diameter >23 nm. The volatile phase is removed by using a heated dilution stage (150 degrees C) and a heated tube (at 300-400 degrees C). We investigated experimentally the removal efficiency for volatile species of the specific protocol by conducting measurements with two Euro 3 diesel light duty vehicles, a Euro 2 moped, and a Euro III heavy duty vehicle with the system's heaters on and off. The particle number distributions were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was used to identify the non-refractory chemical composition of the particles. A Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) was used to measure the black carbon concentration. The results showed that the condensed material in the accumulation mode (defined here as particles in the diameter range of approximately 50-500 nm) was removed with an efficiency of 50-90%. The (volatile) nucleation mode was also completely evaporated or was decreased to sizes <23 nm; thus these particles wouldn't be counted from the particle counter, indicating the robustness of the protocol.

  10. Evaluation of the particle measurement programme (PMP) protocol to remove the vehicles' exhaust aerosol volatile phase.

    PubMed

    Giechaskiel, B; Chirico, R; Decarlo, P F; Clairotte, M; Adam, T; Martini, G; Heringa, M F; Richter, R; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C

    2010-10-01

    European regulation for Euro 5/6 light duty emissions introduced the measurement of non-volatile particles with diameter >23 nm. The volatile phase is removed by using a heated dilution stage (150 degrees C) and a heated tube (at 300-400 degrees C). We investigated experimentally the removal efficiency for volatile species of the specific protocol by conducting measurements with two Euro 3 diesel light duty vehicles, a Euro 2 moped, and a Euro III heavy duty vehicle with the system's heaters on and off. The particle number distributions were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was used to identify the non-refractory chemical composition of the particles. A Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) was used to measure the black carbon concentration. The results showed that the condensed material in the accumulation mode (defined here as particles in the diameter range of approximately 50-500 nm) was removed with an efficiency of 50-90%. The (volatile) nucleation mode was also completely evaporated or was decreased to sizes <23 nm; thus these particles wouldn't be counted from the particle counter, indicating the robustness of the protocol. PMID:20692024

  11. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. PMID:26844787

  12. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations.

  13. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; Smith, David E.; Wagner, Robert M.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, K. Dean; Thomas, John F.

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.

  14. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; Smith, David E.; Wagner, Robert M.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, K. Dean; Thomas, John F.

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxidemore » (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.« less

  15. Simulation and Design of Vehicle Exhaust Power Generation Systems: The Interaction Between the Heat Exchanger and the Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Cong; Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Liu, Lisheng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle exhaust power generation systems (VEPGS), mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, cooling system, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and clamping device, have attracted wide interest and attention for power generation from waste heat. In this work, systematical research was conducted to investigate the thermal performance, power output, and thermal stress of a VEPGS by using the multifield coupling method. Different from previous research, this work simulates a model that integrates the heat exchanger and TEMs, focusing on the effect of the TEMs on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. It is found that the TEMs have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. When not considering the effects of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature of the TEMs would be seriously underestimated, which would result in underestimation of the power output of the VEPGS and the level of thermal stress of the TEMs. Meanwhile, when considering the effect of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature distribution exhibits significant changes, and its temperature uniformity is significantly improved. The results suggest that, in VEPGS design and optimization, the interaction between the heat exchanger and TEMs should be considered. This study also contributes to a more accurate assessment method for VEPGS design and simulation.

  16. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Trace Gases and Pollutants Observed with a Light Rail Vehicle Platform in Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Crosman, E.; Fasoli, B.; Leclair-Marzolf, L.; Jacques, A.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments are characterized by both spatial complexity and temporal variability, each of which present challenges for measurement strategies aimed at constraining estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. To address these challenges we initiated a project in December 2014 to measure trace species (CO2, CH4, O3, and Particulate Matter) by way of a Utah Transit Authority (UTA) light rail vehicle whose route traverses the Salt Lake Valley in Utah on an hourly basis, retracing the same route through commercial, residential, suburban, and rural typologies. Light rail vehicles present advantages as a measurement platform, including the absence of in-situ fossil fuel emissions, repeated transects across a urban region that provides both spatial and temporal information, and relatively low operating costs. We present initial results from the first year of operations including the spatiotemporal patterns of greenhouse gases and pollutants across Salt Lake City, UT with an emphasis on criteria pollutants, identification of sources, and future applications of this measurement platform.

  17. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample analysis must...

  18. Energy saving exhaust siphon

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.B.

    1982-04-06

    A device is disclosed for attachment to the tailpipe of an exhaust system comprising a body portion placed around the tailpipe, but spaced apart from the tailpipe, in a manner that air may easily flow between the body portion and the tailpipe when the vehicle is moving in a forward direction, a narrowing portion operative to compress the air flow, and an exhaust discharge portion operative for the exhaust from the tailpipe and the air to be discharged therethrough.

  19. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  20. The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas Alan

    1988-01-01

    Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has

  1. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  2. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  3. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  4. Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi

  5. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.

    2014-05-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater than... defined as an Otto-cycle engine designed to run at an air-fuel ratio significantly greater than... flexible-fuel and dual-fuel light-duty vehicles. Flexible-fuel and dual-fuel light-duty vehicles shall...

  7. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  8. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  9. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    PubMed

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental

  10. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  11. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 3: Experimental technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The jet induced effects of several exhaust nozzle configurations (axisymmetric, and vectoring/modulating varients) on the aeropropulsive performance of a twin engine V/STOL fighter design was determined. A 1/8 scale model was tested in an 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The experimental aspects of the static and wind-on programs are discussed. Jet effects test techniques in general, fow through balance calibrations and tare force corrections, ASME nozzle thrust and mass flow calibrations, test problems and solutions are emphasized.

  12. Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

    2011-10-30

    The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

  13. Emission factors of fine particles, carbonaceous aerosols and traces gases from road vehicles: Recent tests in an urban tunnel in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Li, Guanghui; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Xinyu; Deng, Wei; Liu, Tengyu; Huang, Zuzhao; Zhang, Zhanyi

    2015-12-01

    Motor vehicles contribute primarily and secondarily to air quality problems due to fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) pollution in China's megacities. Characterizing vehicle emission with the rapid change of vehicle numbers and fleet compositions is vital for both bottom-up emission survey and top-down source apportioning. To obtain emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5, carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases for road vehicles, in urban Guangzhou we conducted a field campaign in 2014 in the Zhujiang Tunnel, a heavily burdened tunnel with about 40,000 motor vehicles passing through each of its two separated bores per day. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled for offline analysis while trace gases including SO2, NOx and CO were measured online and in situ. An eddy covariance system with an integrated 3-D sonic anemometer was also adopted to measure CO2 and winds inside the tunnel. We recorded an average fleet composition of 61% light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) + 12% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) + 27% liquefied petroleum gas vehicles (LPGVs), and EFs of 82.7 ± 28.3, 19.3 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 3.3 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively, for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). These EFs were respectively 23.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% lower when compared to that measured in the same tunnel in 2004. EFs of PM2.5, OC and EC were higher at night time (148 ± 126, 29 ± 24 and 21 ± 18 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively) due to significantly elevated fractions of HDVs in the traffic fleets. An average ratio of OC to EC 1.45 from this tunnel study was much higher than that of ∼0.5 in previous tunnel studies. The EFs of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and NMHCs for road traffic were also obtained from our tunnel tests, and they were 20.7 ± 2.9, (1.29 ± 0.2)E+03, (3.10 ± 0.68)E+03, (3.90 ± 0.49)E+05, and 448 ± 39 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively.

  14. Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

  15. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... of the dilution tunnel. (v) Free from sharp bends. (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter... particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the selection of an...

  16. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  17. Emission factors for high-emitting vehicles based on on-road measurements of individual vehicle exhaust with a mobile measurement platform.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Suk; Kozawa, Kathleen; Fruin, Scott; Mara, Steve; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Jakober, Chris; Winer, Arthur; Herner, Jorn

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 microm (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission factors were comparable to those reported in previous tunnel and remote sensing studies as well as the predictions by Emission Factors (EMFAC) 2007 mobile source emission model for Los Angeles County. Variation in emissions due to different driving modes (idle, low- and high-speed acceleration, low- and high-speed cruise) was found to be relatively small in comparison to intervehicle variability and did not appear to interfere with the identification of high emitters, defined as the vehicles whose emissions were more than 5 times the fleet-average values. Using this definition, approximately 5% of the LDGVs and HDDTs measured were high emitters. Among the 143 LDGVs, the average emission factors of NO(x), black carbon (BC), PM2.5, and ultrafine particle (UFP) would be reduced by 34%, 39%, 44%, and 31%, respectively, by removing the highest 5% of emitting vehicles, whereas CO emission factor would be reduced by 50%. The emission distributions of the 93 HDDTs measured were even more skewed: approximately half of the NO(x) and CO fleet-average emission factors and more than 60% of PM2.5, UFP, and BC fleet-average emission factors would be reduced by eliminating the highest-emitting 5% HDDTs. Furthermore, high emissions of BC, PM2.5, and NO(x) tended to cluster among the same vehicles. PMID:22070037

  18. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  19. Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa.

  20. Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa

  1. Analysis of possibilities of waste heat recovery in off-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Zybala, R.; Leszczynski, J.; Nieroda, P.; Schmidt, M.; Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of the waste heat recovery investigations for an agricultural tractor engine (7.4 dm3) and excavator engine (7.2 dm3) in real operating conditions. The temperature of exhaust gases and exhaust mass flow rate has been measured by precise portable exhaust emissions analyzer SEMTECH DS (SENSORS Inc.). The analysis shows that engines of tested vehicles operate approximately at constant speed and load. The average temperature of exhaust gases is in the range from 300 to 400 °C for maximum gas mass flows of 1100 kg/h and 1400 kg/h for tractor and excavator engine respectively. Preliminary tests show that application of TEGs in tested off-road vehicles offers much more beneficial conditions for waste heat recovery than in case of automotive engines.

  2. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  3. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. II. The influence on aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AiAt) activities in the liver of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Stanosek, J; Ludyga, K; Kochanski, L

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) an alanine aminotransferase (AIAT) in the whole homogenate and subcellular liver fractions of guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the neutralization products of these gases is presented in this paper. In the liver of animals exposed to the chronic action of combustion exhaust gases a decrease of both enzyme activities in the whole homogenate as well as in the subcellular fractions could be noted. Statistically significant changes are shown by AspAT. In the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products an increase of AIAT activity was observed. The activity of AspAT still shows a decrease, but less distinct in comparison with group I. An exception here is the mitochondrial fraction in which the AspAT activity is distinctly increased.

  4. Development of Hot Exhaust Emission Factors for Iranian-Made Euro-2 Certified Light-Duty Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Banitalebi, Ehsan; Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) are fundamental, necessary data for air pollution research and scenario implementation. With the vision of generating national EFs of the Iranian transportation system, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to develop the basic EFs for a statistically significant sample of Iranian gasoline-fueled privately owned light duty vehicles (LDVs) operated in Tehran. A smaller sample size of the same fleet was examined by chassis dynamometer (CD) bag emission measurement tests to quantify the systematic differences between the PEMS and CD methods. The selected fleet was tested over four different routes of uphill highways, flat highways, uphill urban streets, and flat urban streets. Real driving emissions (RDEs) and fuel consumption (FC) rates were calculated by weighted averaging of the results from each route. The activity of the fleet over each route type was assumed as a weighting factor. The activity data were obtained from a Tehran traffic model. The RDEs of the selected fleet were considerably higher than the certified emission levels of all vehicles. Differences between Tehran real driving cycles and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was attributed to the lower loading of NEDC. A table of EFs based on RDEs was developed for the sample fleet.

  5. Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

  6. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  7. Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

  8. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks. PMID:25938939

  9. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  10. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  11. Analysis of motor vehicle emissions over eastern Los Angeles, California from in-situ airborne measurements of trace gases and particulates during CalNex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Perring, A.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ measurements of trace gases and particulates were acquired on the instrumented NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May and June 2010. Multiple daytime research flights under similar meteorological conditions provide a sufficient data set for characterizing automobile emissions over the eastern Los Angeles (eLA) area of the South Coast air basin. Ratios of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to isolate emissions of light duty vehicles from those of medium/heavy duty diesel trucks. Observations in the mixed boundary layer for the eLA area are separated according to latitude, longitude, and altitude. Industrial influences are eliminated by filtering the data according to SO2 mixing ratio and wind direction. The resulting correlations show weekday-to-weekend differences in enhancement ratios of NOx to CO and BC to CO, indicating a general tendency for higher emissions from heavy duty vehicles during the week. The CalNex data over eLA in 2010 will be compared to eLA data from a research flight in May 2002 by the WP-3D aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) field study.

  12. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted.

  13. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. PMID:24095967

  14. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  15. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  16. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  17. Quasi non-intrusive sampling and analysis of gases associated with the boundary layer on the tethered satellite and similar supersonic and hypersonic research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, C.; Niederriter, S.; Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect that one candidate inlet, an assembly of capillary openings in a thin glass plate (a multichannel plate), might have on the overall sampling process is considered. The flow characteristics of the plate, under a variety of conditions of external pressure and mass flow, is evaluated. A review of capillary flow theory is presented with some development of the pertinent equations. The predicted mass flow will be compared to that determined perimentally to assess the effect that mass flow through one capillary might have upon a neighboring capillary. Mass spectrometric measurements of mixtures flowing through the multichannel plate (MCP) is also considered. In the first part of the experiments, the flow was in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. The experimental gases were Argon and mixtures of carbon dioxide in air. Ongoing experiments are discussed which are conducted with the flow parallel to the surface of the plate, a simulation of the kind of flow that a flight vehicle would experience.

  18. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Neele, Filip P.

    2004-08-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achieved using a spray of cold water in the inner parts of the exhaust system. The effects are compared with the effect of cooling with air. A typical frigate size diesel engine serves as an example for gas flow, composition and temperature of the plume. The infrared emission of the cooled an un-cooled exhaust gases is calculated. Both the spectral behaviour and the integrated values over typical bands are discussed. Apart from the signature also some advantages of water exhaust gas cooling for the ship design are discussed.

  19. Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Hiereth, H.; Withalm, G.

    1981-06-09

    An internal combustion engine with an exhaust-gas turbocharger, particularly a mixture-compressing internal combustion engine, is disclosed in which a bleeder valve is provided which during the operation of the internal combustion engine in the partial load range conducts the exhaust gases in bypassing relationship to the turbine of the exhaust gas turbocharger.

  20. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  1. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.114-94 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.114-94 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the CO...) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent; and...

  2. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  3. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a location... gasoline engine shall discharge to the atmosphere at or within 6 inches forward of the rearmost part of the bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1066, as follows: (i) Establish appropriate load settings based on loaded vehicle..., the US06 driving schedule, and the SC03 driving schedule. See 40 CFR 1066.801 for further information... substitute for the SC03 value in the equation for the types of vehicles identified in 40 CFR 600.115...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average NMOG value, a manufacturer may use adjusted values to estimate the contributions of hybrid electric vehicles (or “HEVs”) based on the range of the HEV without the use of the engine. See § 86.1702...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... average NMOG value, a manufacturer may use adjusted values to estimate the contributions of hybrid electric vehicles (or “HEVs”) based on the range of the HEV without the use of the engine. See § 86.1702...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions...

  7. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  8. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  9. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 2: Analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation, employing a 1/8 scale model in an 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (Mach 0.4-1.4), was conducted to determine the jet effects of several exhaust nozzles on the aeropropulsive performance of a V/STOL fighter design. The force and pressure data show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type, jet area and deflection angle on an underwing nacelle installation. At unvectored conditions, the single expansion ramp nozzles show large performance gains relative to a circular nozzle installation. Additionally, a further drag reduction is realized when the nonaxisymmetric nozzle is vectored through a 10 degree deflection angle. The combined payoff of the vectored nonaxisymmetric nozzle over the baseline circular nozzle installation is equivalent to 25 percent of zero lift drag.

  10. Axisymmetric & non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced-effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 1: Data presentation. [conducted in Ames 11-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.; Ordonez, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A 1/8 scale jet-effects model was tested in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The data presented show that significant differences in aeropropulsion performance can be expected by varying the exhaust nozzle type and its geometric parameters on a V/STOL underwing nacelle installation.

  11. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated

  12. Electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

  13. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  14. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  15. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  16. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  17. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  18. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend. PMID:25993509

  19. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend.

  20. Gas exhaust nozzle for ARC furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Buhler, K.

    1984-10-09

    Arc furnace has a furnace shell, a furnace lid with lid ring and a lid lifting and swivelling means as well as a lid opening in the furnace lid for exhausting the flue gas from the interior of the furnace and a flue gas exhaust nozzle for removing the flue gases above the lid opening, the nozzle being supported on the furnace lid ring. By means of this design feature as well as a guide arrangement and a locking means the flue gas exhaust nozzle can be completely integrated into the operating steps of the arc furnace in a simple and economical fashion.

  1. 40 CFR 1037.104 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certification. You must adjust the calculated emissions by the global warming potential (GWP): GWP equals 25 for... provisions of 40 CFR 86.1818. To do this, calculate the CH4 and/or N2O emission credits needed (negative... CFR 86.1818-12(f) does not apply for vehicles subject to the standards of this section....

  2. Co-laser photoacoustic spectroscopy of gases and vapours for trace gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernegger, S.; Sigrist, M. W.

    This comprehensive study reviews the sensitive and selective detection of trace gases by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. A computer controlled CO-laser photoacoustic system is presented. The wavelength range between 5.0 and 6.5 μm is of great interest because it coincides with specific absorption bands of various gases and vapours of environmental concern. However, since water-vapour, which is present in most samples, absorbs rather strongly in this wavelength region, its contribution to the total absorption has to be determined with high accuracy. For this purpose, we developed a dual-beam setup with sample- and reference cell. The novel design of these resonant photoacoustic cells is based on a new matrix formalism with distributed acoustic impedances and sources. Our photoacoustic system is calibrated with certified gas mixtures and vapours. In total, the absorption cross sections of 18 gases and vapours have been derived for all CO-laser lines. In addition to the absorption, the relaxation time of vibrationally excited nitric oxide (NO) could be deduced by measuring the phase shift of the photoacoustic signal for a sample of nitrogen containing traces of NO and water-vapour. The main application concerns the detection of multiple components in gas mixtures, particularly in exhaust gases. The high sensitivity achieved permits the detection of trace gases at ppbv concentrations. The problem of interfering absorptions occurring for multicomponent mixtures is studied in detail. We discuss measurements and results on exhausts of various vehicles. The photoacoustic spectra of the exhaust samples are analyzed on the basis of the calibration spectra with the aid of an iterative mathematical procedure. The individual concentrations of 12 of the most important components including nitric oxide, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes could be derived. In particular, the selective detection of the different isomers of xylene is emphasized.

  3. 102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  5. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  15. Improved Exhaust Diffuser for Jet-Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    High-altitude simulator reduced power requirements. Test cell uses its exhaust-capture duct only to remove gases from engine; cooling air evacuated through separate path by auxiliary suction system. This way, capture duct cross-sectional area kept close to exhaust jet area, leading to greatly improved recovery performance.

  16. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  17. Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, N.

    1986-05-13

    A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation chamber and to the engine intake manifold; and a cyclone drum connected to the electrostatic precipitator for removing particles from the exhaust gases in the electrostatic precipitator. The method consists of: dissociating the molecules of the exhaust gas from the engine in the dissociation chamber into monomolecules by subjecting the exhaust gas to the effects of a corona discharge in the dissociation chamber; removing carbon and other particulate matter from the exhaust in the electrostatic precipitator and cyclone drum to dedust the exhaust gas; and igniting a mixture of fuel and the dedusted exhaust gas in the combustion chamber of the engine, whereby fuel is initially oxidized solely by an oxygen component of the dissociated exhaust gas.

  18. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  19. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described.

  20. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1976-01-01

    Scramjet/airframe integration design philosophy for hypersonic aircraft results in configurations having lower aft surfaces that serve as exhaust nozzles. There is a strong coupling between the exhaust plume and the aerodynamics of the vehicle, making accurate simulation of the engine exhaust mandatory. The experimental verification of the simulation procedure is described. The detonation tube simulator was used to produce an exact simulation of the scramjet exhaust for a Mach 8 flight condition. The pressure distributions produced by the exact exhaust flow were then duplicated by a cool mixture Argon and Freon 13B1. Such a substitute gas mixture validated by the detonation tube technique could be used in conventional wind tunnel tests. The results presented show the substitute gas simulation technique to be valid for shockless expansions.

  1. Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

    1983-01-01

    Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

  2. SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

  3. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  4. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.

    1981-02-03

    An E.G.R. control system includes a pressure modulator operative to modulate the magnitude of the port vacuum as applied to a diaphragm type actuator of an E.G.R. valve. The modulator comprises a housing and a diaphragm assembly disposed in the housing and consisting of a pair of diaphragms and a member connecting the diaphragms so that they are deformed simultaneously. The diaphragm assembly divides the interior of the housing into first, second and third chambers which are communicated with the engine carburetor venturi, vented to the atmosphere and communicated with the E.G.R. passage between the E.G.R. valve and a fixed restriction in the E.G.R. passage upstream of the E.G.R. valve, respectively, so that the diaphragm assembly is moved in response to variation in the venturi vacuum and also in response to variation in the exhaust gas pressure in the E.G.R. passage between the restriction and the E.G.R. valve. A valve member is mounted on the diaphragm assembly for movement therewith to control the flow of the atmospheric air from the second chamber into the E.G.R. valve actuator so that the port vacuum as applied to the E.G.R. valve actuator is modulated. The controlled flow of the recirculated exhaust gases through the E.G.R. passage from the exhaust pipe into the intake pipe is in proportion to the intake air flow.

  6. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  7. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  8. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  10. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...

  11. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  12. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  13. 40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-78 Section 600.112-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for...

  14. 40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for...

  15. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.140-94... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.140-94 Exhaust sample analysis. The following sequence shall.... This concentration is CFS in the calculations. (e) For CH4 analysis: (1) In the event that...

  16. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  17. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  18. A Method for Reducing the Temperature of Exhaust Manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1931-01-01

    This report describes tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on an "air-inducting" exhaust manifold for aircraft engines. The exhaust gases from each cylinder port are discharged into the throat of an exhaust pipe which has a frontal bellmouth. Cooling air is drawn into the pipe, where it surrounds and mixes with the exhaust gases. Temperatures of the manifold shell and of the exhaust gases were obtained in flight for both a conventional manifold and the air-inducting manifold. The air-inducting manifold was installed on an engine which was placed on a test stand. Different fuels were sprayed on and into the manifold to determine whether the use of this manifold reduced the fire hazard. The flight tests showed reductions in manifold temperatures of several hundred degrees, to values below the ignition point of aviation gasoline. On the test stand when the engine was run at idling speeds fuels sprayed into the manifold ignited. It is believed that at low engine speeds the fuel remained in the manifold long enough to become thoroughly heated, and was then ignited by the exhaust gas which had not mixed with cooling air. The use of the air-inducting exhaust manifold must reduce the fire hazard by virtue of its lower operating temperature, but it is not a completely satisfactory solution of the problem.

  19. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  20. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  1. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  2. Control logic for exhaust gas driven turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Adeff, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method of controlling an exhaust gas driven turbocharger supplying charge air for an internal combustion engine powering vehicle, the turbocharger being adjustable from a normal mode to a power mode in which the charge air available to the engine during vehicle acceleration is increased over that available when the turbocharger is in the normal mode, the vehicle including engine power control means switchable by the vehicle operator from a normal mode to a power mode so that the vehicle operator may selectively elect either the normal mode or the power mode, comprising the steps of measuring the speed of the vehicle, permitting the vehicle operator to elect either the power mode or the normal mode for a subsequent vehicle acceleration, and then adjusting the turbocharger to the power mode when the speed of the vehicle is less than a predetermined reference speed and the vehicle operator has elected to power mode to increase the charge air available to the engine and thereby increasing engine power on a subsequent acceleration of the vehicle.

  3. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  4. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  5. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were

  6. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A.; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M. C.; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. RESULTS: The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel

  7. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Dah Y.

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  8. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  9. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  10. Exhaust gas purifying device

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.; Hamada, S.

    1985-04-23

    An exhaust gas purifying device for use with a diesel engine comprising a filter block disposed in an engine exhaust passage for collecting exhaust gas particulates, and a heater for incinerating the collected exhaust gas particulates. The filter block has parallel channels defined therein and separated from one another by porous partition walls, some of the channels being closed at their inlet ends with blind plugs while the other channels are closed at their outlet ends with blind plugs. The heater is supported by the blind plugs.

  11. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet requirements for exhaust... fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing. (a) Candidate vehicles which conform to the emission... the in-use fleet and tested in their as-received condition. (b) Candidate vehicles for the test...

  12. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at colder temperatures. Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must calculate and report the weighted mass of...

  13. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  15. Suicidal carbon monoxide inhalation of exhaust fumes. Investigation of cases

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunenari, S.; Yonemitsu, K.; Kanda, M.; Yoshida, S.

    1985-09-01

    The inhalation of automobile exhaust gases is a relatively frequent suicidal method. Two such cases of special interest to forensic pathology and toxicology have been introduced. In case 1, a suicide note disclosed the victim's mental state, the inside conditions of the car, and toxic effects of automobile exhaust. In case 2, a reconstruction experiment has revealed important factors for the investigation of the scene, such as the size of a vinyl hose, the conditions of connecting site of the hose with the exhaust pipe, etc.

  16. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  17. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Minoura, M.; Yorioka, K.

    1980-11-18

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the exhaust gas pressure while the ratio of the exhaust gas flow rate to the air intake into the engine is varied in correspondence to the intake pipe negative pressure. This exhaust gas recirculation system can be adapted to a fuel injection type intake system as well as other intake systems provided with an air valve for regulating air intake or having no venturi constriction such as employed in an su type carburetor.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic jet exhaust impinging onto a flat surface is a fundamental flow encountered in space or with a missile launch vehicle system. The flow is important because it can endanger launch operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a landing rocket s exhaust on soils. From numerical simulations and analysis, we developed characteristic expressions and curves, which we can use, along with rocket nozzle performance, to predict cratering effects during a soft-soil landing. We conducted a series of multiphase flow simulations with two phases: exhaust gas and sand particles. The main objective of the simulation was to obtain the numerical results as close to the experimental results as possible. After several simulating test runs, the results showed that packing limit and the angle of internal friction are the two critical and dominant factors in the simulations.

  20. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  1. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (4) For methanol-fueled engines, cooling or reaction of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct... unless compensation for varying flow rate is made). The sample collection lines shall be heated to a... overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow...

  3. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  4. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  5. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  6. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia

    2014-05-01

    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

  7. Atmospheric scavenging exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. The airborne HCl concentration varied from 0.2 to 10.0 ppm and the raindrop sizes tested included 0.55 mm, 1.1 mm, and 3.0 mm. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments. A large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique employed. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity.

  8. Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

  9. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, J; Sutherland, D; Stone, S N; Duncan, L M; Behnke, R

    1980-10-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail.

  10. 40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007-08... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... Vehicle acceptability. (a) All certification vehicles and other vehicles tested to meet the...

  11. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of §...

  13. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of §...

  14. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of §...

  15. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of §...

  16. Exhaust gas recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.

    1983-01-04

    An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The egr valve operates in association with the carburetor throttle valve for metering the flow of egr gas. The egr controlling valve is separated by a diaphragm into an egr gas chamber communicating with the egr passage between the egr controlling valve and the egr valve and a negative pressure chamber communicating with the intake manifold. The negative pressure chamber contains a compression spring, and the diaphragm is connected with a valve member through a rod upon which is disposed a stopper to serve as a different seal in place of the valve member to close off the exhaust gas passage, which valve member and stopper are constructed to be opened and closed by pressure difference between the egr gas chamber and the negative pressure chamber and by elastic force of the compression spring. The egr controlling valve functions to control the pressure difference around the egr valve to be constant.

  17. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe... the air conditioning system controls as follows: (i) A/C mode setting at Maximum. (ii) Airflow...

  18. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe... the air conditioning system controls as follows: (i) A/C mode setting at Maximum. (ii) Airflow...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your vehicle's full useful.... Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as... deterioration factor is the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your vehicle's full useful.... Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as... deterioration factor is the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions...

  1. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration factors that represent the deterioration expected in emissions over your vehicle's full useful.... Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as... deterioration factor is the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions...

  2. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  3. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  4. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  5. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles certified to the SFTP exhaust emission standards, if air conditioning is projected to be available... which have air conditioning available and would require that any vehicle selected under this section has air conditioning installed and operational....

  8. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  9. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: (1... named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as...

  14. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  15. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  17. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  18. Results of an investigation of jet plume effects on an 0.010-scale model (75-OTS) of the space shuttle integrated vehicle in the 9 x 7-foot leg of the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnel (IA82B), volume 1. [an exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The base pressure environment was investigated for the first and second stage mated vehicle in a supersonic flow field from Mach 1.55 through 2.20 with simulated rocket engine exhaust plumes. The pressure environment was investigated for the orbiter at various vent port locations at these same freestream conditions. The Mach number environment around the base of the model with rocket plumes simulated was examined. Data were obtained at angles of attack from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero yaw, and at yaw angles from -4 deg through +4 deg at zero angle of attack, with rocket plume sizes varying from smaller than nominal to much greater than nominal. Failed orbiter engine data were also obtained. Elevon hinge moments and wing panel load data were obtained during all runs. Photographs of the tested configurations are shown.

  19. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  20. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-08 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel...

  1. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for NOX,...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for NOX,...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.105 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.105 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.105 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  9. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.105 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.105 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.102 Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for NOX,...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  15. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  16. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  17. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test validity, shall... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission...

  18. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...) Total hydrocarbon mass: HCmass=Vmix × DensityHC × (HCconc/1,000,000) (2) Oxides of nitrogen mass...=Total hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or...

  19. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  20. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  1. Exhaust cloud rise and growth for Apollo Saturn engines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical and analytical results have been reduced from time-lapse photographs of exhaust clouds during the launch of Apollo 10, 14, 15, and 16 from the Kennedy Space Center. Theoretical predictions of the buoyant cloud rise and growth compare very favorably to actual measurements. The mathematical model predicts with engineering accuracy the terminal altitude and size of the clouds. A principal input to MSFC's multilayer diffusion model is top height of the exhaust cloud. It is this characteristic dimension that is the main subject of this report. An interesting occurrence during launch is the formation of bimodal exhaust cloud which is due to the north-south oriented flame trench directly beneath the base of the vehicle. This study has added considerable information on engine exhaust cloud rise and growth which is essential to the study of atmospheric dispersal in time and space.

  2. Validation of scramjet exhaust simulation technique at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, H. B.; Konopka, W.; Leng, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current design philosophy for hydrogen-fueled, scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with strong couplings between the engine plume and vehicle aerodynamics. The experimental verification of the scramjet exhaust simulation is described. The scramjet exhaust was reproduced for the Mach 6 flight condition by the detonation tube simulator. The exhaust flow pressure profiles, and to a large extent the heat transfer rate profiles, were then duplicated by cool gas mixtures of Argon and Freon 13B1 or Freon 12. The results of these experiments indicate that a cool gas simulation of the hot scramjet exhaust is a viable simulation technique except for phenomena which are dependent on the wall temperature relative to flow temperature.

  3. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix I). The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used to set dynamometer horsepower. (b) Within five... the following times prior to the cold start exhaust test. Hours Class I 6 Class II 8 Class III 12 In no case shall the vehicle be stored for more than 36 hours prior to the cold start exhaust test....

  4. 40 CFR 86.1828-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Cold CO testing. For cold temperature CO exhaust emission compliance for each durability group, the... of vehicles under this section. (g) Cold temperature NMHC testing. For cold temperature NMHC exhaust... paragraph (a) of this section. When the expected worst-case cold temperature NMHC vehicle is also...

  5. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  6. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  7. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  8. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  9. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles may be tested for their exhaust THC emissions using the Federal test procedure as detailed in 40 CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... following test procedures must be used to screen candidate vehicles for their exhaust THC emissions to...

  10. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  11. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  12. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Girling, Robbie D; Lusebrink, Inka; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Poppy, Guy M

    2013-10-03

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx) fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee's foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

  13. Exhaust recycle to carburetor of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.R.

    1984-03-20

    A hot slipstream from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine is used directly, that is without valving it, to heat and vaporize fuel as it is sprayed from the fuel nozzle of a carburetor having a booster venturi above the throttle plate, provided the ratio of the volume of slipstream to the volume of exhaust gases is self-regulated within narrow limits at all times during the engine's operation, in accordance with the physical considerations governing gas flow. The main jets of a conventional carburetor may be changed to provide decreased flow of gasoline by about 10% to give better mileage without sacrificing performance of the engine, and without adversely affecting the exhaust emissions which are otherwise controlled by a conventional emission control system.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles. 86.1811-01 Section 86.1811-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards....1811-04. (a) Exhaust emission standards. (1) Exhaust emissions shall not exceed the following...

  15. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Bass, John C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  16. Optical fibre sensors for the monitoring of harmful emissions from land transport vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulrooney, Jim; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed; Zhao, W. Z.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Degner, M.; Ewald, H.; Lochmann, S.; Al-Shamma'a, A.; Lucas, J.; Merlone Borla, E.; Faraldi, P.; Pidria, M.

    2005-06-01

    In order to meet increasingly stringent emission control laws it is necessary to develop a sensor that can accurately monitor the level of pollutants entering the atmosphere from land transport vehicles. These pollutants are generally a mixture of hot gases and particulates. An optical fibre sensor is particularly well suited to this task. Due to it's small size and weight it is minimally invasive making it suitable for insertion into the vehicle's exhaust system. Optical fibres are immune from poisoning by the analyte gases, although they do require shielding from airborne particulates. As they do not transmit electricity they are also highly safe and furthermore they are immune from electromagnetic interference. To detect the presence of the gases it is proposed to use an optical absorption technique. The majority of gases of industrial and environmental importance have their fundamental absorption line in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with weaker overtones in the near infrared. Due to the greater availability of components, optimised for communications, most optical fibre gas sensing has taken place in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. In this paper mid-infrared optical fibre gas sensing techniques are investigated and the results of the investigation are presented. Due to the inhomogeneous state of the gas flow it is necessary to measure temperature especially just upstream of the after-treatment section where this can rise to as high as 650oC with large temporal gradients. Measurements of temperature of hot gases from a full size test engine using an optical fibre probe based on fluorescence decay time measurements are also presented.

  17. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  18. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  19. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  20. Prediction of Launch Vehicle Ignition Overpressure and Liftoff Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The LAIOP (Launch Vehicle Ignition Overpressure and Liftoff Acoustic Environments) program predicts the external pressure environment generated during liftoff for a large variety of rocket types. These environments include ignition overpressure, produced by the rapid acceleration of exhaust gases during rocket-engine start transient, and launch acoustics, produced by turbulence in the rocket plume. The ignition overpressure predictions are time-based, and the launch acoustic predictions are frequency-based. Additionally, the software can predict ignition overpressure mitigation, using water-spray injection into the rocket exhaust stream, for a limited number of configurations. The framework developed for these predictions is extensive, though some options require additional relevant data and development time. Once these options are enabled, the already extensively capable code will be further enhanced. The rockets, or launch vehicles, can either be elliptically or cylindrically shaped, and up to eight strap-on structures (boosters or tanks) are allowed. Up to four engines are allowed for the core launch vehicle, which can be of two different types. Also, two different sizes of strap-on structures can be used, and two different types of booster engines are allowed. Both tabular and graphical presentations of the predicted environments at the selected locations can be reviewed by the user. The output includes summaries of rocket-engine operation, ignition overpressure time histories, and one-third octave sound pressure spectra of the predicted launch acoustics. Also, documentation is available to the user to help him or her understand the various aspects of the graphical user interface and the required input parameters.

  1. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-19

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP).

  2. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of car exhausts and coal combustion emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.; Ahlbourg, U.

    1983-01-01

    Car exhausts and coal combustion emissions may cause a spectrum of health effects, varying from annoyance reactions, to bronchitis, to cancer in the respiratory organs and possibly also other organs. Deaths in cardiovascular diseases in particularly sensitive individuals have furthermore, under certain circumstances, been associated with ambient air pollution. The objective of the meeting was to examine the relevance of short-term and long-term biological tests for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the assessment of human carcinogenic risk that may arise from exposure to air pollution from motor vehicle exhausts and coal combustion products. (135 refs.)

  3. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  4. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions. PMID:26806073

  5. Corrosion of Exhaust and Filtration Equipment in a Radioactive Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    2003-10-31

    Condensation in the exhaust gas system of an incinerator burning low activity radioactive wastes led to numerous corrosion developments and rapid failure of the discharge filters. The problem was traced to insufficient reheat of the exhaust gases following scrubbing. Rust particulate and moisture loaded the filters, leading to water accumulation, chloride cracking of the filter housings, and plugging and tearing of the filter media itself. To mitigate the problem, the exhaust gas temperature was increased, thermal insulation was installed on the ductwork, and the interiors of the ducts and new filter housings were lined with a protective coating.

  6. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

  7. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  8. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  9. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  10. Dispersal of gases generated near a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Duric, Nebojsa; Sulkanen, Martin; Fernini, Ilias

    1990-10-01

    The dispersal of gases evolved by prospective lunar base operations is presently modeled analytically using continuous (mining and habitat-venting) and impulsive (primarily rocket exhaust) injections of gases. In the case of impulsive injection, the neutral atmosphere and associated ionosphere both decay on time-scales of about 20 min; in that of continuous injection, the atmosphere near the base grows and achieves a steady state after about 20 min. Both direct and diffusive transport mechanisms are considered, and it is concluded that for the injection rates and assumptions presently employed the artificial lunar atmospheres produced are not significantly detrimental to astronomical observations and high-vacuum materials processing operations.

  11. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation

  13. Flow analysis and design optimization methods for nozzle afterbody of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods developed for the aerodynamic analysis and the shape optimization of the nozzle-afterbody section of a hypersonic vehicle. Initially, exhaust gases were assumed to be air. Internal-external flows around a single scramjet module were analyzed by solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Then, exhaust gases were simulated by a cold mixture of Freon and Argon. Two different models were used to compute these multispecies flows as they mixed with the hypersonic airflow. Surface and off-surface properties were successfully compared with the experimental data. In the second phase of this project, the Aerodynamic Design Optimization with Sensitivity analysis (ADOS) was developed. Pre and post optimization sensitivity coefficients were derived and used in this quasi-analytical method. These coefficients were also used to predict inexpensively the flow field around a changed shape when the flow field of an unchanged shape was given. Starting with totally arbitrary initial afterbody shapes, independent computations were converged to the same optimum shape, which rendered the maximum axial thrust.

  14. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR 86.132-96... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52...

  15. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR 86.132-96... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52...

  16. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  17. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  18. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  19. The toxicity of diesel exhaust: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Krivoshto, Irina N; Richards, John R; Albertson, Timothy E; Derlet, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Diesel fuel and the products of its combustion represent one of the toxins most commonly encountered by people living in both urban and rural areas of the world. As nations become more heavily populated, there will be increasing reliance on diesel fuel to power mass transportation and commercial vehicles, as well as heavy machinery involved in construction, farming, and mining. The majority of patients who present to urban primary care clinics and emergency departments will have had significant chronic exposure to diesel exhaust because most use and/or live near busy streets and highways. Furthermore, those who operate or work or live near diesel-powered machinery will have even more toxic exposure. Primary care physicians should be aware of the acute and chronic deleterious clinical effects of diesel exhaust. In this article we review the toxicity and myriad health problems associated with diesel exhaust.

  20. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  1. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size.

  2. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  4. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown...

  6. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  7. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cycle. (viii) Catalytic converter characteristics. (ix) Thermal reactor characteristics. (x) Type of air... Administrator. The vehicle selected is the vehicle expected to exhibit the highest emissions of those vehicles remaining in the engine family. (v) For high-altitude exhaust emission compliance for each engine...

  8. 40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007-08... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.007-08 Vehicle acceptability. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning service accumulation on a test vehicle, the manufacturer may perform a zero-kilometer exhaust emission test. (2)...

  10. 40 CFR 86.423-78 - Test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test vehicles. 86.423-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.423-78 Test vehicles. (a)(1) Before beginning service accumulation on a test vehicle, the manufacturer may perform a zero-kilometer exhaust emission test. (2)...

  11. 40 CFR 1066.405 - Vehicle preparation and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preparation and preconditioning. 1066.405 Section 1066.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust...

  12. Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, S-107

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-10-09

    This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases.

  13. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  14. Divergent Electrocardiographic Responses to Whole and Particle-Free Diesel Exhaust Inhalation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine PM2.5. While inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM related health effects, DE’s complex mixture of PM, gases and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contri...

  15. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  16. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  17. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  18. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  19. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  20. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  1. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  2. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  3. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure.

  4. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. PMID:26179557

  5. 40 CFR 600.010-08 - Vehicle test requirements and minimum data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General... average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. For the purpose of calculating...

  6. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

  7. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation.

  8. Noxious gases in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932

  9. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  10. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure.

    PubMed

    Golokhvast, Kirill S; Chernyshev, Valery V; Chaika, Vladimir V; Ugay, Sergey M; Zelinskaya, Elena V; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Denis A

    2015-10-01

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1-5 µm - soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10-30 µm - metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400-1,000 µm - metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm(2)/cm(3)). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract.

  11. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinay Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Patel, Devendra K; Khan, Altaf Husain; Tripathi, Madhu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of emissions from petrol and diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects. In the present study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified from smokes released by the automobile exhaust from petrol and diesel. Intensive sampling of unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust were done by using 800-cm(3) motor car and 3,455-cm(3) vehicle, respectively. The particulate phase of exhaust was collected on Whatman filter paper. Particulate matters were extracted from filter paper by using Soxhlet. PAHs were identified from particulate matter by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using C(18) column. A total of 14 PAHs were identified in petrol and 13 in case of diesel sample after comparing to standard samples for PAH estimation. These inhalable PAHs released from diesel and petrol exhaust are known to possess mutagenic and carcinogenic activity, which may present a potential risk for the health of inhabitants.

  12. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  13. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  14. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section 600.006-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  15. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section 600.006-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  16. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel economy data vehicles. 600.006-08 Section 600.006-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...

  17. 40 CFR 80.51 - Vehicle test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the fuels required in § 80.49 when testing to augment the complex emission model. (c) Exhaust emissions tests, dynamometer procedure per 40 CFR 86.137-90 with: (1) Exhaust Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene... sequence applicable when augmenting the emission models through vehicle testing is as follows: (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 80.51 - Vehicle test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the fuels required in § 80.49 when testing to augment the complex emission model. (c) Exhaust emissions tests, dynamometer procedure per 40 CFR 86.137-90 with: (1) Exhaust Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene... sequence applicable when augmenting the emission models through vehicle testing is as follows: (a)...

  19. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  20. Influence of increased exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the thermodynamic processes in CI DI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielecha, I.; Skowron, M.; Bueschke, W.; Cieślik, W.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the conducted research was the thermodynamic identification of combustion process involving up to 50-60% recirculated exhaust gasses in compression ignition engine. The values of the respective indicators obtained for the high share of exhaust gasses in the cylinder were compared to the values obtained in the engine working without EGR. The research was conducted on the single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine equipped with recirculated gas cooling system. The conditions of combustion process were determined using indicators of engine operation and measurements of fast-varying cylinder pressure. The evaluation of the influence of different share of exhaust gases in the cylinder on the combustion course and heat release was conducted. As a result of the conducted research the possibility of utilizing the high share of exhaust gasses (50-60%) with simultaneous ecological benefits, not only in relation to nitrogen oxides, was demonstrated.

  1. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in

  2. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe.

  3. Kinetic Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...

  4. Toxic gases from fires.

    PubMed

    Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F

    1978-06-23

    The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol. PMID:208143

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation from in-use motor vehicle emissions using a potential aerosol mass reactor.

    PubMed

    Tkacik, Daniel S; Lambe, Andrew T; Jathar, Shantanu; Li, Xiang; Presto, Albert A; Zhao, Yunliang; Blake, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Jayne, John T; Croteau, Philip L; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from in-use vehicle emissions was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) flow reactor deployed in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Experiments consisted of passing exhaust-dominated tunnel air through a PAM reactor over integrated hydroxyl radical (OH) exposures ranging from ∼ 0.3 to 9.3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Experiments were performed during heavy traffic periods when the fleet was at least 80% light-duty gasoline vehicles on a fuel-consumption basis. The peak SOA production occurred after 2-3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Additional OH exposure decreased the SOA production presumably due to a shift from functionalization to fragmentation dominated reaction mechanisms. Photo-oxidation also produced substantial ammonium nitrate, often exceeding the mass of SOA. Analysis with an SOA model highlight that unspeciated organics (i.e., unresolved complex mixture) are a very important class of precursors and that multigenerational processing of both gases and particles is important at longer time scales. The chemical evolution of the organic aerosol inside the PAM reactor appears to be similar to that observed in the atmosphere. The mass spectrum of the unoxidized primary organic aerosol closely resembles ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA). After aging the exhaust equivalent to a few hours of atmospheric oxidation, the organic aerosol most closely resembles semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and then low-volatility organic aerosol (LV-OOA) at higher OH exposures. Scaling the data suggests that mobile sources contribute ∼ 2.9 ± 1.6 Tg SOA yr(-1) in the United States, which is a factor of 6 greater than all mobile source particulate matter emissions reported by the National Emissions Inventory. This highlights the important contribution of SOA formation from vehicle exhaust to ambient particulate matter concentrations in urban areas.

  6. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.116-12 Special... 0.067 72.1 0.639 0.056 (2) To determine fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...

  7. Sampling and chemical characterization of workplace atmospheres contaminated with airborne diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Tomkins, B.A.; Ilgner, R.H.; Higgins, C.E.; Gayle, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical composition of workplace atmospheres contaminated with diesel exhaust appear to be exceedingly complex. Building to building differences occur even though the fuel source for vehicles operating in such a facility are identical. There appear to be substantial differences between the particle size distributions of workplace atmospheres and that of those sources which contaminate them. Long duration sampling tends to alter the apparent composition of the collected particle phase, and composite samples of shorter duration may enhance compositional accuracy. Diluted idling large vehicle engine exhaust is probably not a compositionally accurate surrogate for workplace atmospheres for inhalation toxicology studies.

  8. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  9. Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a Delta Wing and a Swept Wing-Body Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Lake, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic travel is not allowed over populated areas due to the disturbance caused by the sonic boom. Research has been performed on sonic boom reduction and has included the contribution of the exhaust nozzle plume. Plume effect on sonic boom has progressed from the study of isolated nozzles to a study with four exhaust plumes integrated with a wing-body vehicle. This report provides a baseline analysis of the generic wing-body vehicle to demonstrate the effect of the nozzle exhaust on the near-field pressure profile. Reductions occurred in the peak-to-peak magnitude of the pressure profile for a swept wing-body vehicle. The exhaust plumes also had a favorable effect as the nozzles were moved outward along the wing-span.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures for total hydrocarbon (THC), particulate matter (PM), and high altitude conditions. Diesel light... and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99 Protection of Environment... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures for total hydrocarbon (THC), particulate matter (PM), and high altitude conditions. Diesel light... and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99 Protection of Environment... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures for total hydrocarbon (THC), particulate matter (PM), and high altitude conditions. Diesel light... and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99 Protection of Environment... Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1709-99 Exhaust emission standards...

  13. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  14. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  15. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  16. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  17. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  18. Round Robin analysis of alcolol and carbonyl synthetic exhaust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.L.; Biller, W.F.; Tejada, S.B.; Siegl, W.O.; Jensen, T.E.

    1994-07-25

    Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. The purpose of the study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation methodologies. 'Synthetic exhaust' samples were prepared of mixed DN-carbonyl standards deposited on DNPH-coated cartridges, and solutions of alcohol in water. The fifteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum, and regulatory organizations. The results described in this paper consider only variability asociated with the analytical measurement of the samples that have already been collected in impingers or on cartridges. In general, alochols (methanol and ethanol) were quantified without difficulty. With the exception of acrolein and crotonaldehyde, the quantitation of the carbonyl samples was fairly good considering the variety of analytical methods that were employed.

  19. Round robin analysis of alcohol and carbonyl synthetic exhaust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.L.; Biller, W.F.; Tejada, S.B.; Siegl, W.O.; Rosenhamer, D.; Newkirk, M.S.; Crowley, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. The purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation methodologies. `Synthetic exhaust` samples were prepared of mixed DNPH-carbonyl standards deposited on DNPH cartridges, and solutions of alcohol in water. The fifteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. The results described in this paper consider only variability associated with the analyltical measurement of samples that have already been collected in impingers or on cartridges. In general, alcohols (methanol and ethanol) were quantified without difficulty. With the exception of acrolein and crotonaldehyde, the quantitation of the carbonyl samples was very good considering the variety of analytical methods that were used. 9 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).