Science.gov

Sample records for vehicle passenger service

  1. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  2. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  3. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  4. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  5. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  6. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  7. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  8. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire § 177.870 Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. (a) Vehicles transporting passengers and property... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or...

  9. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  10. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  11. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  12. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  13. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or other hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except...

  14. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  15. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing.

  16. Market penetration of electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Froker, D.

    1983-01-01

    The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for future personal transportation needs is described. The results forecast an approximate total market share of EVs sold in the passenger vehicle market to be 10% for 1990 and 20% for the year 2000. The sensitivity analysis disclosed that the parameters mainly responsible for changes of EV market share were range, purchase price, year purchased, and to some extent, the maximum cruising speed, in order of importance. Surprisingly, fuel prices, whether for electricity or gasoline, did not have much effect on market share even when considering much greater increases than we have seen in the past 10 years. As might be expected with fuel prices having negligible effects, changes in the efficiencies of EVs and ICVs also altered our expected market share very little. (LCL)

  17. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  18. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  19. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  20. REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

  1. Toll road crashes of commercial and passenger motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Solomon, Mark G; Preusser, David F

    2002-05-01

    Revenue-collection data from toll roads allow for accurate estimates of miles driven by vehicle type and, when combined with crash data, valid estimates of crash involvements per mile driven. Data on vehicle-miles traveled and collisions were obtained from toll road authorities in Florida. Kansas, and New York. In addition, state crash files and published vehicle-miles of travel were obtained for toll roads in Illinois. Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Large commercial motor vehicles were significantly underinvolved in single-vehicle crashes on all state toll roads. In five states, commercial motor vehicles were significantly overinvolved in multiple-vehicle crashes relative to passenger vehicles; the exceptions were Kansas, where they had significantly lower multiple-vehicle involvement rates, and Indiana. where there were no significant differences in multiple-vehicle involvements by vehicle type. The risk of commercial motor vehicle involvement in multiple-vehicle crashes resulting in deaths or serious injuries was double that of passenger vehicles in the two states (Ohio and Pennsylvania) that identified serious injuries. Whether crash rates, on toll roads of commercial motor vehicles are higher or lower than those of passenger vehicles appears to depend on the type of crash, specific toll road. and traffic density.

  2. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  3. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  4. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  5. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  6. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jovovic, Vladimir

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  7. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  8. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  9. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  10. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  12. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  13. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  14. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  15. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  16. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  17. Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

    2005-01-01

    Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings.

  18. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities...

  19. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  1. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  2. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the FRA and Amtrak jointly drafted performance metrics and standards for intercity passenger rail service... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in...

  3. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  4. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  5. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  6. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  7. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roads, or which in the judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  9. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads, or which in the judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... roads, or which in the judgment of the Executive Director are beyond the carrying capacity or safety... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial passenger-carrying... PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  11. Scarce metals in conventional passenger vehicles and end-of-life vehicle shredder output.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Rolf; Du, Xiaoyue; Haag, Olaf; Restrepo, Eliette; Wäger, Patrick A

    2015-04-07

    Concurrent with the demand for cleaner, lighter, and more efficient vehicles, many scarce metals (SMs) are used in passenger vehicles because of their unique physical and chemical properties. To explore the recycling potential of these metals, it is important to understand their distribution in the vehicles as well as their fate at the vehicles' end-of-life. However, this information remains very scattered and sparse. In this paper, we present a study investigating the distribution of 31 SMs in selected electrical and electronic (EE) components of conventional passenger vehicles and in the end-of-life vehicle shredder fractions from a shredder plant in Switzerland. The results of the chemical analyses show that the mass fractions of Co, Sn, Sr, Ta, Y, and Zr were dominant with >20,000 g/t in the selected EE components and Ag, Ga, Mo, Sb, Sn, Sr, and Zr with >50 g/t in the analyzed shredder fractions. The largest masses of 17 SMs were found in the shredder light fraction, which is incinerated in municipal waste treatment plants mainly in Switzerland; thus, these SMs are currently not recovered. The SM mass fractions in both the EE components and the shredder fractions were projected to their total masses in 100 hypothetical midrange passenger vehicles. The resulting mass balance showed a mismatch of >50% for 23 metals, which indicates other important SM sources such as alloys.

  12. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...This NPRM is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak operates certain passenger rail service routes to petition FRA to be considered as a passenger rail service provider over such a route in lieu of Amtrak for a period not to exceed five years......

  13. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  17. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  18. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles....

  19. Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, B; Mock, C; Kaufman, R; Grossman, D; Henary, B; Crandall, J

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: During the last two decades changes in vehicle design and increase in the number of the light truck vehicles (LTVs) and vans have led to changes in pedestrian injury profile. Due to the dynamic nature of the pedestrian crashes biomechanical aspects of collisions can be better evaluated in field studies. Design and settings: The Pedestrian Crash Data Study, conducted from 1994 to 1998, provided a solid database upon which details and mechanism of pedestrian crashes can be investigated. Results: From 552 recorded cases in this database, 542 patients had complete injury related information, making a meaningful study of pedestrian crash characteristics possible. Pedestrians struck by LTVs had a higher risk (29%) of severe injuries (abbreviated injury scale ⩾4) compared with passenger vehicles (18%) (p = 0.02). After adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed, LTVs were associated with 3.0 times higher risk of severe injuries (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 7.29, p = 0.013). Mortality rate for pedestrians struck by LTVs (25%) was two times higher than that for passenger vehicles (12%) (p<0.001). Risk of death for LTV crashes after adjustment for pedestrian age and impact speed was 3.4 times higher than that for passenger vehicles (95% CI 1.45 to 7.81, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Vehicle type strongly influences risk of severe injury and death to pedestrian. This may be due in part to the front end design of the vehicle. Hence vehicle front end design, especially for LTVs, should be considered in future motor vehicle safety standards. PMID:15178671

  20. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  1. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Superintendent are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not be... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying... THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  2. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Superintendent are beyond the carrying capacity or safety factor of the roads, will not be... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying... THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  3. Transition to Low-GWP Alternatives in Passenger Vehicle Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives in newly manufactured passenger vehicle air conditioners (ACs), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  4. Baseline Tests of the GE-100 Centennial Electric Passenger Vehicle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    IP’IIN 1. Description. ’The (;E-100 Cenlemnial Vehicle i.s tilt Near-’Iern Rel’erene Elei- Irh" Vehicle. It is a 3-ilor. l,-ipassenger coninhnter car ...conduct an evaluation of reliability. However, there was an interruption in tite testing to allow the car to be dent(nistrateI to the public. When the... car was returned, it required 2.5 gal of water to service the hatterv and one mohdule had to he replaced because of a burned post. These problems are

  5. Influence of bio-fuels on passenger car vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrea, M.; Kapernaum, M.; Wahl, C.

    2009-04-01

    In order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants, vehicles design and fuel formulation have changed. Ultra clean vehicle technologies started to be used in increased number. As a result, the emissions composition is expected to change as well. The use of new technologies and new fuels require new emissions tests especially for non-regulated compounds. The interest in using bio fuels as alternative fuels for petroleum-based ones has increased constantly in the last years. The advantages of the bio fuels usage is given by their similar proprieties, characteristics of renew ability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on the exhaust emission. The study involved measurements on a roller test facility of a reference passenger car representing new technologies (emission standards, injection system). The vehicle operated by use of reference gasoline and reference gasoline blended (10 and 20%) with bio-ethanol (EtOH). The measurements used different driving cycles: ARTEMIS cycle, real world driving cycle, NEDC cycle, the standard European driving cycle and additionally, a driving cycle consisting in Idle, 30, 50, 90 km/h. The sampling positions were before and after the catalyst and in the exhaust pipe. The detailed speciation of NMVOC' (non methane volatile organic compounds) was completed by use of active carbon tubes, DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) tubes and cold traps. The particles were monitored by use of an on-line EEPS (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer). CO2, NO, NO2 and NOX (NO +NO2) were continuously monitored by use of an on- line FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy)- MEXA system. The investigations reveal that among the carbonylic compounds 15 oxygenated species were found in engine out exhaust and only 3 in tailpipe emissions, namely formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acroleine. These are of great interest due to their impacts on human health. The hydrocarbons emissions decrease by increased of EtOH content. New compounds were observed

  6. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Engine. (2) Transmission. (3) Right front fender. (4) Left front fender. (5) Hood. (6) Right front door...) Front bumper. (12) Rear bumper. (13) Right rear quarter panel (passenger cars). (14) Left rear quarter panel (passenger cars). (15) Right-side assembly (MPVs). (16) Left-side assembly (MPVs). (17) Pickup...

  7. Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

    2000-02-01

    Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

  8. Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

  9. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the sensitivity of: (1) mission analysis results to the boundary values given for number of passenger cars and average annual vehicle miles traveled per car; (2) vehicle characteristics and performance to specifications; and (3) tradeoff study results to the expected parameters.

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  11. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  15. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  16. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  17. Use of nonlinear asymmetrical shock absorber to improve comfort on passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M.; Pontes, B. R.; Balthazar, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this study the behaviour of two different types of shock absorbers, symmetrical (linear) and asymmetrical (nonlinear) is compared for use on passenger vehicles. The analyses use different standard road inputs and include variation of the severity parameter, the asymmetry ratio and the velocity of the vehicle. Performance indices and acceleration values are used to assess the efficacy of the asymmetrical systems. The comparisons show that the asymmetrical system, with nonlinear characteristics, tends to have a smoother and more progressive performance, both for vertical and angular movements. The half-car front asymmetrical system was introduced, and the simulation results show that the use of the asymmetrical system only at the front of the vehicle can further diminish the angular oscillations. As lower levels of acceleration are essential for improved ride comfort, the use of asymmetrical systems for vibrations and impact absorption can be a more advantageous choice for passenger vehicles.

  18. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  19. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  20. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  1. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  2. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  3. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  4. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  5. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 665 RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants’ Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Diane L.; Boyett, Kimberly S.; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-01-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  7. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  9. Stocks, Flows, and Distribution of Critical Metals in Embedded Electronics in Passenger Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Eliette; Løvik, Amund N; Wäger, Patrick; Widmer, Rolf; Lonka, Radek; Müller, Daniel B

    2017-02-07

    One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle. This network is combined with a material flow analysis along the vehicle lifecycle in Switzerland to quantify the stocks and flows of Ag, Au, Pd, Ru, Dy, La, Nd, and Co in automotive embedded EEE. In vehicles in use, we calculated 5-2(+3) t precious metals in controllers embedded in all vehicle types and 220-60(+90) t rare earth elements (REE); found mainly in five electric motors: alternator, starter, radiator-fan and electronic power steering motor embedded in conventional passenger vehicles and drive motor/generator embedded in hybrid and electric vehicles. Dismantling these devices before ELV shredding, as well as postshredder treatment of automobile shredder residue may increase the recovery of CMs from ELVs. Environmental and economic implications of such recycling strategies must be considered.

  10. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  11. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty... standards apply for purposes of in-use testing only and does not apply to certification or...

  15. A PSFI-based analysis on the energy efficiency potential of China’s domestic passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Huanhuan; Zhao, Dongchang

    2017-01-01

    In this article, China’s domestic passenger vehicles (excluding new energy vehicles) are categorized into two groups: local brand vehicles and vehicles manufactured by joint ventures. Performance-Size-Fuel economy Index (PSFI) will be applied to analyse the speed of technical progress and the future trends of these vehicles. In addition, a forecast on energy efficiency potential of domestic passenger vehicles from 2016 to 2020 will be made based on different Emphasis on Reducing Fuel Consumption (ERFC) scenarios. According to the study, if the process of technical progress continues at its current speed, domestic ICE passenger vehicles will hardly meet Phase IV requirements by 2020 even though companies contribute as much technical progress to fuel consumption reduction as possible.

  16. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions of...) materials must be handled and placed in the vehicle as prescribed in § 177.842. [29 FR 18795, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §...

  17. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identification number assigned to the motor vehicle by its original manufacturer in the country where the motor... the target area specified by the original manufacturer for that part, pursuant to paragraph (e) of... logo visibly alters the appearance of the label. (2) Other means of identification. (i) Removal...

  18. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identification number assigned to the motor vehicle by its original manufacturer in the country where the motor... the target area specified by the original manufacturer for that part, pursuant to paragraph (e) of... logo visibly alters the appearance of the label. (2) Other means of identification. (i) Removal...

  19. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  20. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  4. Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F. |; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

  5. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  6. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  7. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... to regulate drivers, motor carriers, and vehicle equipment. ``At a minimum, the regulations shall... even the drivers, often do not know which FMCSA-authorized motor carrier is operating the vehicle and... governing driving and operational safety of motor vehicles, including driver's hours of service and...

  8. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  9. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  10. Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Lee

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

  11. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide emissions from five passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hua Lu

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, three unregulated components, ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, emitted from five passenger vehicles are investigated. With focus upon emission factors from existing production technology, vehicles produced between 1989 and 1998 with considerable mileage (7000 to 280,000) are chosen. Among the five vehicles, four were sold in the European market, whereas one was sold in the US market. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer. An EU2000 Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a US Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) of the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) are used in the study. The regulated emissions are measured using a Horiba Mexa series. Unregulated emissions, ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are analysed by mass spectrometer, gas chromatography and CNT-NA, TIM315-74W method, respectively. Both the unregulated emissions and the regulated emissions show driving cycle dependency; and they are also improved with newer vehicle and emission control technology. However, a gasoline direct injection vehicle (relatively new technology in this study) has rather high regulated emissions, whereas the NH(3), N(2)O and HCN emissions are low.

  12. Passenger car collision fatalities--with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Björnstig, Johanna; Eriksson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 10(9)km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant deaths per 100,000 cars in car-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars. The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle's lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accounted for most of the fatal injuries. Multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles. An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for those who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2g/L. Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions.

  13. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  14. Driver-passenger collaboration as a basis for human-machine interface design for vehicle navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Antrobus, Vicki; Burnett, Gary; Krehl, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Human Factors concerns exist with vehicle navigation systems, particularly relating to the effects of current Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) on driver disengagement from the environment. A road study was conducted aiming to provide initial input for the development of intelligent HMIs for in-vehicle systems, using the traditional collaborative navigation relationship between the driver and passenger to inform future design. Sixteen drivers navigated a predefined route in the city of Coventry, UK with the assistance of an existing vehicle navigation system (SatNav), whereas a further 16 followed the navigational prompts of a passenger who had been trained along the same route. Results found that there were no significant differences in the number of navigational errors made on route for the two different methods. However, drivers utilising a collaborative navigation approach had significantly better landmark and route knowledge than their SatNav counterparts. Analysis of individual collaborative transcripts revealed the large individual differences in descriptor use by passengers and reference to environmental landmarks, illustrating the potential for the replacement of distance descriptors in vehicle navigation systems. Results are discussed in the context of future HMIs modelled on a collaborative navigation relationship. Practitioner Summary: Current navigation systems have been associated with driver environmental disengagement, this study uses an on-road approach to look at how the driver-passenger collaborative relationship and dialogue can inform future navigation HMI design. Drivers navigating with passenger assistance demonstrated enhanced landmark and route knowledge over drivers navigating with a SatNav.

  15. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  16. Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunyu; Yang, Jikuang

    2010-07-01

    A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were selected from a database of in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in Changsha-IVAC. The sampling criteria were defined as (1) the accident was a frontal impact that occurred between 2003 and 2009; (2) the pedestrian age was above 14; (3) the injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was 1+; (4) the accident involved passenger cars, SUVs, or MPVs; and (5) the vehicle impact speed can be determined. The selected IVAC data set, which included 104 pedestrian accident cases, was weighted based on the national traffic accident data. The logistical regression models of the risks for pedestrian fatalities and AIS 3+ injuries were developed in terms of vehicle impact speed using the unweighted and weighted data sets. A multiple logistic regression model on the risk of pedestrian AIS 3+ injury was developed considering the age and impact speed as two variables. It was found that the risk of pedestrian fatality is 26% at 50 km/h, 50% at 58 km/h, and 82% at 70 km/h. At an impact speed of 80 km/h, the pedestrian rarely survives. The weighted risk curves indicated that the risks of pedestrian fatality and injury in China were higher than that in other high-income countries, whereas the risks of pedestrian casualty was lower than in these countries 30 years ago. The findings could have a contribution to better understanding of the exposures of pedestrians in urban traffic in China, and provide background knowledge for the development of strategies for pedestrian protection.

  17. Practical application of power conditioning to electric propulsion for passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Lee, F. C.; Nehl, T. W.; Overton, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    A functional model 15 HP, 120 volt, 4-pole, 7600 r.p.m. samarium-cobalt permanent magnet type brushless dc motor-transistorized power conditioner unit was designed, fabricated and tested for specific use in propulsion of electric passenger vehicles. This new brushless motor system, including its power conditioner package, has a number of important advantages over existing systems such as reduced weight and volume, higher reliability, and potential for improvements in efficiencies. These advantages are discussed in this paper in light of the substantial test data collected during experimentation with the newly developed conditioner motor propulsion system. Details of the power conditioner design philosophy and particulars are given in the paper. Also, described here are the low level electronic design and operation in relation to the remainder of the system.

  18. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG.

  19. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  20. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  1. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  2. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  3. 49 CFR 39.51 - What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...' provision of auxiliary aids and services to passengers? 39.51 Section 39.51 Transportation Office of the... for Passengers § 39.51 What is the general requirement for PVOs' provision of auxiliary aids and... auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal...

  4. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  6. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  7. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  8. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  9. 41 CFR 301-73.200 - Must we require our employees to use GSA's contract passenger transportation services program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.200... such services are available to your agency....

  10. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  11. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  12. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.; Nilsson, P. T.; Carlsson, J. E.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Wittbom, C.; Rissler, J.; Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Bohgard, M.; Kulmala, M.; Hallquist, M.; Pagels, J. H.

    2013-06-01

    Gasoline vehicles have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from three passenger vehicles (EURO2-EURO4) were investigated with photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out down to atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization instruments included a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind of urban areas. After a cumulative OH exposure of ~5 × 106 cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 (mass fraction at m/z = 43), approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C6-C9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher-order aromatic compounds such as C10 and C11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes. We conclude that approaches using only light aromatic precursors give an incomplete picture of the magnitude of SOA formation and the SOA composition from gasoline exhaust.

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.; Nilsson, P. T.; Carlsson, J. E.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Wittbom, C.; Rissler, J.; Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Bohgard, M.; Kulmala, M.; Hallquist, M.; Pagels, J.

    2012-12-01

    Gasoline vehicles have elevated emissions of volatile organic compounds during cold starts and idling and have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from one Euro II, one Euro III and one Euro IV passenger vehicles were investigated using photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out at atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization methods included a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind urban areas. After 4 h aging the formed SOA was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the Primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 (mass fraction at m/z = 4 3) approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C6-C9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher order aromatic compounds such as C10, C11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes.

  15. The quality of service in passenger transport terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, C.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Ilie, A.; Dinu, O.; Roşca, M.

    2016-11-01

    The quality of service in transport terminals is differently perceived by engineers, economists, transport operators and sociologists. The traveler's perception is nevertheless decisive. The quality of service is well connected with the inside design of terminals, with the facilities in terminals and with the provided service standards. In order to provide a high level of service, the activities taking place in the public transport terminal and the maximum travelers flow size must be carefully analyzed and dimensioned. The purpose of modelling is to find the best route for each traveler from origin (entrance) to destination (exit) through all the intermediate service points, taking into consideration the instant network conditions. In developing the model we consider the walking, the waiting and the serving time. Using a simulation program written in ARENA we determine the waiting time. For validation, the model is used to evaluate the performance level in Bucharest Basarab station. By comparing the total walking distance for the possible routes and the utility function that describes the utility of all activities from entrance to exit we can find the optimal route.

  16. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  17. Public health impacts of excess NOx emissions from Volkswagen diesel passenger vehicles in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chossière, Guillaume P.; Malina, Robert; Ashok, Akshay; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-03-01

    In September 2015, the Volkswagen Group (VW) admitted the use of ‘defeat devices’ designed to lower emissions measured during VW vehicle testing for regulatory purposes. Globally, 11 million cars sold between 2008 and 2015 are affected, including about 2.6 million in Germany. On-road emissions tests have yielded mean on-road NOx emissions for these cars of 0.85 g km‑1, over four times the applicable European limit of 0.18 g km‑1. This study estimates the human health impacts and costs associated with excess emissions from VW cars driven in Germany. A distribution of on-road emissions factors is derived from existing measurements and combined with sales data and a vehicle fleet model to estimate total excess NOx emissions. These emissions are distributed on a 25 by 28 km grid covering Europe, using the German Federal Environmental Protection Agency’s (UBA) estimate of the spatial distribution of NOx emissions from passenger cars in Germany. We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model to predict the corresponding increase in population exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone in the European Union, Switzerland, and Norway, and a set of concentration-response functions to estimate mortality outcomes in terms of early deaths and of life-years lost. Integrated over the sales period (2008–2015), we estimate median mortality impacts from VW excess emissions in Germany to be 1200 premature deaths in Europe, corresponding to 13 000 life-years lost and 1.9 billion EUR in costs associated with life-years lost. Approximately 60% of mortality costs occur outside Germany. For the current fleet, we estimate that if on-road emissions for all affected VW vehicles in Germany are reduced to the applicable European emission standard by the end of 2017, this would avert 29 000 life-years lost and 4.1 billion 2015 EUR in health costs (median estimates) relative to a counterfactual case with no recall.

  18. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... bidder's verifiable cost projections for their proposed service, rather than the historical Amtrak costs... quantitative measurements of the cost and benefit streams expected to result from the adoption of a rule... pay for any such operating subsidy, or any other costs arising from the proposed pilot program;...

  19. Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

  20. 49 CFR 39.91 - Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... travel with service animals? 39.91 Section 39.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disabilities § 39.91 Must PVOs permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a PVO... overnight accommodations, you must also provide reasonable refrigeration space for the service animal...

  1. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  2. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  3. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  4. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  5. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.42 Service in an Integrated Setting to... to provide service to individuals with disabilities in an integrated, safe, timely, and...

  6. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  7. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-07

    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  8. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  9. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section...

  10. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section...

  11. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section...

  14. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  15. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) remote servicing kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1988-01-01

    With the design and development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) progressing toward an early 1990 initial operating capability (IOC), a new era in remote space operations will evolve. The logical progression to OMV front end kits would make available in situ satellite servicing, repair, and consummables resupply to the satellite community. Several conceptual design study efforts are defining representative kits (propellant tanks, debris recovery, module servicers); additional focus must also be placed on an efficient combination module servicer and consummables resupply kit. A remote servicer kit of this type would be designed to perform many of the early maintenance/resupply tasks in both nominal and high inclination orbits. The kit would have the capability to exchange Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), exchange propellant tanks, and/or connect fluid transfer umbilicals. Necessary transportation system functions/support could be provided by interfaces with the OMV, Shuttle (STS), or Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). Specific remote servicer kit designs, as well as ground and flight demonstrations of servicer technology are necessary to prepare for the potential overwhelming need. Ground test plans should adhere to the component/system/breadboard test philosophy to assure maximum capability of one-g testing. The flight demonstration(s) would most likely be a short duration, Shuttle-bay experiment to validate servicer components requiring a micro-g environment.

  16. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately.

  17. Ubiquitous Connected Train Based on Train-to-Ground and Intra-Wagon Communications Capable of Providing on Trip Customized Digital Services for Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper. PMID:24803192

  18. Ubiquitous connected train based on train-to-ground and intra-wagon communications capable of providing on trip customized digital services for passengers.

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Itziar; Perallos, Asier; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Carballedo, Roberto; Angulo, Ignacio; Elejoste, Pilar; Bahillo, Alfonso; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús

    2014-05-05

    During the last years, the application of different wireless technologies has been explored in order to enable Internet connectivity from vehicles. In addition, the widespread adoption of smartphones by citizens represents a great opportunity to integrate such nomadic devices inside vehicles in order to provide new and personalized on trip services for passengers. In this paper, a proposal of communication architecture to provide the ubiquitous connectivity needed to enhance the smart train concept is presented and preliminarily tested. It combines an intra-wagon communication system based on nomadic devices connected through a Bluetooth Piconet Network with a highly innovative train-to-ground communication system. In order to validate this communication solution, several tests and simulations have been performed and their results are described in this paper.

  19. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices C and D, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of tradeoff studies are presented in summary form. Various aspects of the overall vehicle design discussed include selection of the base vehicle, the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics. The drivetrain design and integration, power conditioning unit, battery subsystem, control system, environmental system are described. Specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures, and advanced technology components are included.

  20. The development of a test specification to determine the rollover protection of passengers in light commercial vehicles fitted with canopies.

    PubMed

    Honiball, E J; van Niekerk, J L

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, a basic test specification is proposed to assess the structural integrity of a canopy that covers the load-area of a light commercial vehicle (LCV) used to carry passengers in the rear. The proposed test specification is a first step towards improving the safety of these passengers during rollover accidents. Different test methods were evaluated for applicability, ease of use and financial implications. The mass and geometric characteristics of three different one-ton LCVs were experimentally obtained and used to determine the minimum lateral velocity that will result in a rollover should a tripping mechanism be encountered. These velocities, in conjunction with other published data, were used to determine the energy required for a pendulum qualification test. It was decided that 7.7 kJ of energy delivered by a pendulum travelling between 4 and 7 m/s just prior to impact would be the most representative load case. A finite element analysis (FEA) of the proposed impact test on a specimen canopy was completed. Thereafter, the actual pendulum impact test was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed test procedure as well as the correlation with the FEA. It was shown that both FEA and actual testing are viable qualification procedures and that they can in fact be used to reliably assess the strength of the canopy. Finally, the outline of a test specification was developed and proposed, which can be used by national regulatory institutions to assess the structural integrity of commercially manufactured canopies.

  1. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  2. The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

  3. GEO Collision Avoidance using a Service Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M.; Concha, M.

    2013-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is defined as the knowledge and characterization of all aspects of space. SSA is now a fundamental and critical component of space operations. The increased dependence on our space assets has in turn lead to a greater need for accurate, near real-time knowledge of all space activities. Key areas of SSA include improved tracking of small objects, determining the intent of maneuvering spacecraft, identifying all potential high risk conjunction events, and leveraging non-traditional sensors in support of the SSA mission. As the size of the space object population grows, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows. Moreover, as the SSA mission evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis, the need for new, more sophisticated collision avoidance methods are required. This paper demonstrates the utility of using a service vehicle to perform collision avoidance maneuver for GEO satellites. We present the planning and execution details required to successfully execute a maneuver; given the traditional conjunction analysis timelines. Various operational constraints and scenarios are considered as part of the demonstration. Development of the collision avoidance strategy is created using SpaceNav's collision risk management tool suite. This study aims to determine the agility required of any proposed servicing capability to provide collision avoidance within traditional conjunction analysis and collision avoidance operations timelines. Key trades and analysis items are given to be: 1. How do we fuse the spacecraft state data with the tracking data collected from the proximity sensor that resides on the servicing spacecraft? 2. How do we deal with the possibility that the collision threat for the event may change as the time to close approach is reduced? 3. Perform trade space of maneuver/thrust time versus achievable change in the spacecraft's orbit. 4. Perform trade space of proximity of service vehicle to spacecraft versus time

  4. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 91.535 Section 91.535 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES...

  5. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  6. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  7. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  8. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  9. 41 CFR 301-73.201 - What method of payment may be used for contract passenger transportation service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS Contract Passenger Transportation Services § 301-73.201 What... contractor-issued travel charge card(s), or your agency centrally billed or other established account, or...

  10. 15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited servicing of vehicles. 265... § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make nonemergency repairs on privately owned vehicles on the site....

  11. 15 CFR 265.18 - Prohibited servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited servicing of vehicles. 265... § 265.18 Prohibited servicing of vehicles. No person shall make nonemergency repairs on privately owned vehicles on the site....

  12. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  13. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  14. [The mechanism of injuring of front-seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle collisions: forensic issues].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Zivković, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Forensic pathologists sometimes need to determine seating positions of automobile occupants after road traffic accidents as accurately as possible. That could be of essential significance particularly in regard to the question of guilt both in the criminal and civil law. So far, medical surveys have implied the specific injury which would undoubtedly point at the allocation of the seating positions of fatally injured car occupant. Some of the injuries could occur by both direct and indirect force action. Same type of injury of the specific body region in both drivers and front seat passengers could occur by different mechanism and in different phases of the accident. Sometimes neither the order of injury occurrence remains unclear, nor whether some of the injuries are post-mortal. What makes it even harder is the fact that same body regions, i.e. head and thorax, are most affected in both drivers and front seat passengers, and that these injuries are often fatal. Even if the victim survives the accident for some time and later dies in hospital, the possibility of accident reconstruction and determination of car occupants seating position at the moment of accident declines with the time length of survival period. Examining the victims' clothes, searching for biological traces, technical expert inspection of the vehicle, traffic expert analysis of the site, enables adequate reconstruction of the traffic accident. All this implies that in such cases the knowledge of underlying mechanism of car occupants' injury is insufficient, and that a close cooperation between forensic pathologists and the team of other forensic technical experts is necessary.

  15. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  16. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  17. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  18. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  19. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  20. 45 CFR 3.25 - Servicing of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Servicing of vehicles. 3.25 Section 3.25 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.25 Servicing of vehicles....

  1. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-05

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability.

  2. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  3. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... using the seat cushion retention test. Those provisions make the language more consistent with that of a...., Washington, DC 20590. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background--October 21, 2008 Final Rule... greater than 16,000 lbs. are most often an integrated vehicle designed specifically for that...

  4. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  5. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  6. Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ivens, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

  7. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  8. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  9. Quantifying electric vehicle battery degradation from driving vs. vehicle-to-grid services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dai; Coignard, Jonathan; Zeng, Teng; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2016-11-01

    The risk of accelerated electric vehicle battery degradation is commonly cited as a concern inhibiting the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. However, little quantitative evidence exists in prior literature to refute or substantiate these concerns for different grid services that vehicles may offer. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to quantify electric vehicle (EV) battery degradation from driving only vs. driving and several vehicle-grid services, based on a semi-empirical lithium-ion battery capacity fade model. A detailed EV battery pack thermal model and EV powertrain model are utilized to capture the time-varying battery temperature and working parameters including current, internal resistance and state-of-charge (SOC), while an EV is driving and offering various grid services. We use the proposed method to simulate the battery degradation impacts from multiple vehicle-grid services including peak load shaving, frequency regulation and net load shaping. The degradation impact of these grid services is compared against baseline cases for driving and uncontrolled charging only, for several different cases of vehicle itineraries, driving distances, and climate conditions. Over the lifetime of a vehicle, our results show that battery wear is indeed increased when vehicles offer V2G grid services. However, the increased wear from V2G is inconsequential compared with naturally occurring battery wear (i.e. from driving and calendar ageing) when V2G services are offered only on days of the greatest grid need (20 days/year in our study). In the case of frequency regulation and peak load shaving V2G grid services offered 2 hours each day, battery wear remains minimal even if this grid service is offered every day over the vehicle lifetime. Our results suggest that an attractive tradeoff exists where vehicles can offer grid services on the highest value days for the grid with minimal impact on vehicle battery life.

  10. 46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., vessels may carry at least 12 hand red flare distress signals approved under approval series 160.021 or... teams; (iii) Procedures for moving passengers from the vessel's spaces to areas protected from fire...

  11. 46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., vessels may carry at least 12 hand red flare distress signals approved under approval series 160.021 or... teams; (iii) Procedures for moving passengers from the vessel's spaces to areas protected from fire...

  12. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. ``Small entities'' include small businesses, not-for... Federal Register (74 FR 51083) that incorporated brake performance and emissions tests into FTA's bus... the actual performance of these buses in real-life service, particularly during rush hour...

  13. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  14. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  15. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  16. 46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... passengers. 3 Alternative applies during periods of the year the vessel operates in warm water. 4 Alternative applies if the vessel operates in shallow water not more than 3 miles from shore where the vessel cannot..., vessels may carry at least 12 hand red flare distress signals approved under approval series 160.021...

  17. 75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a working condition fringe... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH65 Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles as defined in section 274(i). Qualified...

  18. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode.

  19. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability...Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security Phase-II (SPIDERS-II) • Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and V2G Power services 2. Tactical

  20. Fatal passenger vehicle crashes 1999 to 2004 with drivers under age 15: the impact in Texas and other southern and southwestern states.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Larry

    2007-03-01

    Texas has more fatal crashes involving unlicensed drivers under age 15 than does any other US state. Numbers and rates of such crashes are also above the national mean in many southern and Southwest states. Data on fatal passenger vehicle crashes from 1999 through 2004 were obtained from the online Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). During the study period, there were 51 fatal passenger vehicle crashes in Texas in which drivers were under age 15. These crashes accounted for 12.3% of the US total. Nine southern states, including Texas, together accounted for 44% of all fatal crashes involving drivers under 15. Unlicensed crash rates per million inhabitants were higher in Texas than in other states with comparable populations but were much lower than those in other southern, southwest, and north central states. While Texas has recently improved its compliance with proposed graduated licensing models, state law explicitly prohibits police from stopping drivers based solely on age-related probable cause. This restriction may be a major barrier to effective detection and interdiction of under-age unlicensed driving. Because of the relatively high number of fatal crashes involving drivers under age 15 occurring in Texas, preventive efforts targeted to this state could modestly reduce the national burden of deaths due to very young unlicensed drivers. Expanding these efforts to other southern and southwest states could further reduce numbers and rates of such crashes. Expanded use of graduated licensing and increased public awareness are likely to prove effective tools in this public health effort.

  1. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  2. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 665 RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger... call to address issues concerning its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation...

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  4. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  5. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  7. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  8. Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2013-02-01

    Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 μg/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 μg/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (∑ B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 μg/m3and 37.652 μg/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

  9. Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Saxer, Christian J.; Wilhelm, Patrick

    The US urban driving cycle (FTP-75) is widely used to estimate both the emissions under hot engine conditions as well as those associated with the cold start. Applying fast analysis techniques such as chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS) the warm-up behavior of individual vehicles can be monitored at a time resolution of 1 s. CI-MS has been used to investigate the emissions of methane, benzene and the alkyl benzene class of compounds. The amount of the emissions at cold start influence was deduced from the time-resolved emission data of four gasoline-driven vehicle classes representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades. Overall, the emissions of five EURO-0, 20 EURO-1, 18 EURO-2 and so far of six EURO-3 passenger cars were recorded. The test vehicles were selected from the currently operating Swiss car fleet based on the car sales statistics. The average methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions are reported using both, the traditional bag method as well as the regression model. At room temperature a clear reduction of 94%, 81% and 85% was found for the methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions from EURO-0 to EURO-3 technology, respectively.

  10. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  11. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty

  12. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement... § 173.5a Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles... CONTAINED * * * ” on the shipping paper for each movement on a public highway. (b) Mechanical...

  13. Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallkamp, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

  14. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  15. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  16. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  17. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  18. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  19. Effects of diesel/biodiesel blends on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a passenger vehicle operated over the European and the Athens driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    This paper presents the regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions of a diesel passenger vehicle, operated with low sulphur automotive diesel and soy methyl ester blends. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted under real driving conditions (Athens Driving Cycle, ADC) and compared with those of a modified New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, equipped with an indirect injection diesel engine, fuelled with diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20% respectively. Unregulated emissions of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 nitro-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate matter were measured. Qualitative hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the SOF. Regulated emissions of NO x, CO, HC, CO 2, and PM were also measured over the two test cycles. It was established that some of the emissions measured over the (hot-start) NEDC differed from the real-world cycle. Significant differences were also observed in the vehicle's fuel consumption between the two test cycles. The addition of biodiesel reduced the regulated emissions of CO, HC and PM, while an increase in NO x was observed over the ADC. Carbonyl emissions, PAHs and nitro-PAHs were reduced with the addition of biodiesel over both driving cycles.

  20. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  1. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Michael; Owens, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  2. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each of... agency in the development of the EIS. The Service Level EIS will evaluate a reasonable range of corridor alternatives and make decisions regarding the preferred corridor, location of train service termini,...

  3. 75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... vehicles when they are operated within a 75 air-mile radius (86.3 statute miles or 138.9 kilometers) from... beyond a 75-air-mile radius. This action is required by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... direct compensation when the vehicle is operated beyond a 75 air-mile radius (86.3 statute miles or...

  4. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  5. Pre- and post-catalyst-, fuel-, velocity- and acceleration-dependent benzene emission data of gasoline-driven EURO-2 passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Weilenmann, Martin

    The benzene emission characteristics of six gasoline-driven EURO-2 vehicles, three passenger cars and three light duty vehicles, have been determined by time-resolved chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Aliquots of the exhaust gas were monitored pre- and post-catalyst with two independently operating mass spectrometers. Each vehicle was driven with two different fuels having benzene contents of 1 and 2 vol%. Seven driving cycles—including the European (EDC) and the US (FTP-75) driving cycle—with a total driving time of about 8800 s were studied. Herein, we discuss the average emission characteristics of the entire fleet at transient driving in the velocity range of 0-150 km h -1. The conversion efficiencies of the involved catalytic systems were deduced from the pre- and post-catalyst data. On average, the vehicles showed optimal benzene conversion efficiencies (>95%) in the velocity range of 30-90 km h -1. When driving below 20 or above 100 km h -1 reduced benzene conversion was found (80-82%). No benzene conversion was observed when driving above 130 km h -1. In contrast, the post-catalyst benzene emissions exceeded those of the untreated exhaust gas by 19-49%. Thus on an average, benzene was formed across the catalysts under these conditions. In addition, the influence of the benzene content of the gasoline on the tail-pipe emissions was also studied. The use of the gasoline with 1 vol% benzene instead of 2 vol% induced a 20-30% reduction of the post-catalyst emissions when driving below 50 km h -1. The fuel effect became smaller above 100 km h -1 and was even negative at high engine load (>130 km h -1). Thus under these conditions, when benzene is formed across the catalyst, the amount of the emitted benzene was independent of the benzene level of the fuel.

  6. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  7. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination...) If your web site that passengers use to make reservations or purchase tickets is not accessible to a... phone). If a discount is made available to a passenger who books a flight using an inaccessible web...

  8. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination...) If your web site that passengers use to make reservations or purchase tickets is not accessible to a... phone). If a discount is made available to a passenger who books a flight using an inaccessible web...

  9. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination...) If your web site that passengers use to make reservations or purchase tickets is not accessible to a... phone). If a discount is made available to a passenger who books a flight using an inaccessible web...

  10. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions.

  11. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  12. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National... is rules that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough...

  13. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

  14. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  15. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  16. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  17. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  18. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  19. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  20. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  1. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Apurba; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery and pack designs for electric vehicle applications. We develop models of power capability and manufacturing operations to identify the minimum cost cell and pack designs for a variety of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) requirements. We find that economies of scale in battery manufacturing are reached quickly at a production volume of ∼200-300 MWh annually. Increased volume does little to reduce unit costs, except potentially indirectly through factors such as experience, learning, and innovation. We also find that vehicle applications with larger energy requirements are able to utilize cheaper cells due in part to the use of thicker electrodes. The effect on cost can be substantial. In our base case, we estimate pack-level battery production costs of ∼545 kWh-1 for a PHEV with a 10 mile (16 km) all-electric range (PHEV10) and ∼230 kWh-1 for a BEV with a 200 mile (320 km) all-electric range (BEV200). This 58% reduction, from 545 kWh-1 to 230 kWh-1, is a larger effect than the uncertainty represented by our optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Electrodes thicker than about 100 or 125 microns are not currently used in practice due to manufacturing and durability concerns, but relaxing this constraint could further lower the cost of larger capacity BEV200 packs by up to an additional 8%.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., methanol, ethanol, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas fuels, except as noted. Additionally, this... emissions from gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled, ethanol-fueled and methanol-fueled vehicles must not exceed the standards in this paragraph (e) at low altitude...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline, diesel, methanol, ethanol, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas fuels, except as noted.... Evaporative emissions from gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled, ethanol-fueled and methanol-fueled vehicles must not exceed the standards in this paragraph (e) at low...

  4. Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

  5. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  6. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  7. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an Integrated Setting to Passengers at Intercity, Commuter, and High-Speed Rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use wheelchairs, must have access to all accessible cars available to passengers without disabilities... must be met by providing level-entry boarding to all accessible cars in each train that serves the... of one or more of the following means: (1) Level-entry boarding; (2) Car-borne lifts; (3)...

  8. 49 CFR 37.42 - Service in an integrated setting to passengers at intercity, commuter, and high-speed rail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use wheelchairs, must have access to all accessible cars available to passengers without disabilities... must be met by providing level-entry boarding to all accessible cars in each train that serves the... of one or more of the following means: (1) Level-entry boarding; (2) Car-borne lifts; (3)...

  9. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  10. The consequences of an increase in heavy goods vehicles for passenger car drivers' mental workload and behaviour: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Kruizinga, Anje; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2008-03-01

    The effects of an increase in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) on merging behaviour and on mental workload of motorists during filtering in and out of traffic were studied. Participants drove in a driving simulator in a total of 12 conditions; twice in each of two weather conditions and in three traffic conditions. The weather conditions were clear weather and foggy weather. The traffic conditions were without HGVs (i.e. only private cars), the current mix of HGVs and private cars, and a condition with a 70% increase of HGVs leading to an HGV column in the slow lane. The focus of the study was on assessing effects on behaviour and mental workload during filtering into traffic, and during exiting from the motorway. During the experiment driving performance was registered, behaviour was observed, self reports were collected, and the participant's heart rate was recorded. The results showed that directly after filtering into traffic the variation in driving speed increased and the minimum time headway decreased with an increase in the proportion of HGVs. Joining motorway traffic was considered to involve greater effort and risk in the condition with a column of HGVs. The effects of the conditions on heart rate are less clear, although the moment when the participants joined the traffic is clearly visible. The effects of weather conditions were limited, drivers adapting their driving behaviour in adverse weather by reducing speed. To exit the motorway is not a difficult manoeuvre. For that reason the lane change from the left hand to the right hand lane that preceded the exit was analysed. Although increased mental effort was reported and the lane change was visible in the heart rate record, no critical changes as a result of increase in proportion of HGVs were found for this manoeuvre. However, in the condition with a column of HGVs, the exit that had to be taken was most frequently missed as HGVs obstructed the view of the exit signs. It is concluded that an increase in

  11. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  12. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment... impacts. 523 Vehicle classification. 525 Exemptions from average fuel economy standards. 526 Petitions...

  13. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  14. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  15. 19 CFR 4.7b - Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... miles apart and which is being used to transport only passengers and/or vehicles, or railroad cars, which are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods. Passenger. “Passenger.... “Commercial vessel” means any civilian vessel being used to transport persons or property for compensation...

  16. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers’ fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. Method A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Findings Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. Conclusions The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle. PMID:27346920

  17. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  18. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae.

  19. An investigation of service and refueling infrastructure for energy storage vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The service infrastructure for energy storage vehicles (ESV's) is examined to determine barriers to the introduction of ESV's into the private transportation sector. Electrically rechargeable battery powered vehicles, aluminum/air fuel cell vehicles, and hydrogen powered vehicles are considered. Implications of infrastructure for hybrid vehicles are also discussed. Service delivery systems and refueling methods are identified. Refueling methods for electrically rechargeable vehicles, which are investigated, include overnight home recharging, recharging at parking facilities of businesses, employers and institutions (distributed refueling) and battern exchange systems. The potential for each method is examined and the relative cost of various alternatives is investigated. The production, distribution and supply of aluminum fuel and of hydrogen are considered. Retrofitting possibilities of existing service facilities are examined for each ESV type. Design implications for retrofitting and new facility construction are discussed.

  20. Tuneable autonomy and human interfaces for free-flying servicing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Alexander; Welsh, Teri; McInnes, Colin R.

    2001-02-01

    Future mission applications for on-orbit servicing vehicles include inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) and future crewed deep space missions. The use of robotic servicing vehicles is seen as a key requirement to significantly reduce total human EVA hours for such applications. A necessary technology for these vehicles is the provision of automated mission and trajectory planning tools and suitable human-machine interfaces. This paper will explore new methods for such automation along with approaches to blend autonomy and human control in a seamless manner. These methods have been applied to a range of vehicles including the Daimler-Chrysler ISS Inspector. .

  1. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  2. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  3. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  4. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  5. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  6. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  7. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  8. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  9. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  10. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  11. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  12. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  13. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicles development program. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Applicable data was categorized and processed according to vehicle usage and trip parameters with consideration of payload (cargo, people, size) and driving cycles. A mission that maximizes the fuel potential savings for the total 1985 vehicle fleet was selected. Mission requirements that have a bearing on conventional and hybrid vehicle performance and characteristics were identified and formulated and a reference ICE vehicle was selected that meets or exceeds all requirements while maintaining within applicable constraints. Specifications for vehicle performance were established based on mission requirements, mission related vehicle characteristics, and fuel consumption.

  14. Operations analysis (study 2.6). Volume 4: Computer specification; logistics of orbiting vehicle servicing (LOVES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The logistics of orbital vehicle servicing computer specifications was developed and a number of alternatives to improve utilization of the space shuttle and the tug were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that space servicing offers a potential for reducing future operational and program costs over ground refurbishment of satellites. A computer code which could be developed to simulate space servicing is presented.

  15. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... necessary to legally transport service animals on flights from the U.S. into the United Kingdom is found in... disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany...

  16. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... necessary to legally transport service animals on flights from the U.S. into the United Kingdom is found in... disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany...

  17. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to legally transport service animals on flights from the U.S. into the United Kingdom is found in... disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany...

  18. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... necessary to legally transport service animals on flights from the U.S. into the United Kingdom is found in... disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany...

  19. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... necessary to legally transport service animals on flights from the U.S. into the United Kingdom is found in... disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... disability to travel with service animals? (a) As a carrier, you must permit a service animal to accompany...

  20. Recreation Vehicle Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4507.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The graduate of the Recreational Vehicle Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) know the standards and regulations that relate to recreation vehicles; (2) install, repair and maintain LP gas distribution systems and appliances; (3) install, repair and maintain plumbing and electrical…

  1. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  2. 77 FR 33331 - Regulatory Guidance on the Applicability of Property-Carrier Hours-of-Service Rules to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Property-Carrier Hours-of-Service Rules to the Driveaway Operation of Vehicles Designed to Transport... guidance. SUMMARY: The property-carrier hours-of-service (HOS) rules in 49 CFR 395.3 are applicable to drivers operating commercial motor vehicles designed or used to transport passengers on...

  3. Emissions Impacts and Benefits of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Vehicle-to-Grid Services

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and by improving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEV fleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NO{sub x} emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced even further.

  4. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  5. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  6. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  7. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  8. Customer Service Analysis of Air Combat Command Vehicle Maintenance Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    the survey, the researchers categorized the services or variables into marketing mix components: product, price, promotion, and customer service...comparing and analyzing the variables identified in the previous three phases to determine a strategic marketing mix (46:9). After analyzing the data...service/physical distribution. Additionally, they found that customer service/physical distribution was an integral component of the marketing mix , and

  9. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  10. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV launches, and Space...

  11. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space Station activities. (a) In agreements covering Space Shuttle services, certain ELV launches, and Space...

  12. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  13. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  14. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  15. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  16. Procurement and Delivery of Joint Service Armor Protected Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    vehicles should not ha ve bcen compared to each othcr 0 1’ to a singlc IG E. F8Jl 8FFISMb l!IS6 8PlbY 29 An M S orti eial stated that thc IGCE was based...in thi s casc. Adcquate competition can be cxpccted to result in fail’ and rcasonable contract prices. However, an M S orti cial statcd that they...it comments concerning the fa ir and reasonable con tract price determination from the Ortiee of Defense Procurement Acq ui sit ion Po li cy (D PAP

  17. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  18. Airbags & children: making correct choices in child passenger restraints.

    PubMed

    Kamerling, Susan Nudelman

    2002-01-01

    Countless numbers of young lives are lost each year due to motor vehicle crashes. One of the most effective means of reducing the number of children killed and injured as occupants in motor vehicles is through the use of child passenger restraints. Seat belts and child safety seats save lives and reduce the severity of injuries sustained by occupants in motor vehicle crashes. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and influence families on the proper way to safely transport all motor vehicle passengers. Therefore, nurses working with infants, children, and families have a moral and professional obligation to understand the basics of child passenger safety. At the very least, nurses should be able to direct families appropriately for specifics related to child passenger restraints. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of child passenger safety through a historical, theoretical, and clinical approach. Proper child restraint use is reviewed based on current recommendations for age and size. The potential hazards of child restraint misuse, with an in-depth discussion on airbags, is presented. The discussion on airbags serves to dispel any misconceptions that may be held about airbags. The article includes two case studies that illustrate the injury potential of relatively common misuse patterns. The clinical implications for maternal-child nurses include the recognition that child passenger deaths are primarily due to child restraint nonuse and misuse and the realization of nursing's role in the promotion of proper child passenger restraint.

  19. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development.

  20. Deployment Experiences and Motor Vehicle Crashes Among U.S. Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Address co Health Researc Road, San Die 0749-3797/ http://dx.do 350 Am J PBackground: Motor vehicle crashes ( MVCs ) continue to account for a third of...service member fatalities each year. Sociodemographic factors associated with MVCs among service members have been evaluated, but whether deployment...specific experiences during the recent operations are associated with a higher risk of MVCs is unclear. Purpose: Evaluate if military members with specific

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  2. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  3. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  4. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  5. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  6. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax... passenger automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December...

  7. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  8. 75 FR 38878 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...The Department is issuing a new Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) rule to ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by passenger vessel operators (PVOs). This rulemaking concerns service and policy issues. Issues concerning physical accessibility standards will be addressed at a later time, in conjunction with proposed passenger vessel accessibility guidelines drafted by the......

  9. 78 FR 20385 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle... petitioned NHTSA to decide whether nonconforming 2010 BMW Z4 passenger cars are eligible for importation...

  10. 78 FR 10687 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992 Porsche Carrera Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Nonconforming 1992 Porsche Carrera Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... 1992 Porsche Carrera passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable... Carrera passenger cars are eligible for importation into the United States. The vehicles which JK...

  11. Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, P.; Roberts, C.; Yeo, G.; Stewart, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a view of the current state of monitoring track geometry condition from in-service vehicles. It considers technology used to provide condition monitoring; some issues of processing and the determination of location; how things have evolved over the past decade; and what is being, or could/should be done in future research. Monitoring railway track geometry from an in-service vehicle is an attractive proposition that has become a reality in the past decade. However, this is only the beginning. Seeing the same track over and over again provides an opportunity for observing track geometry degradation that can potentially be used to inform maintenance decisions. Furthermore, it is possible to extend the use of track condition information to identify if maintenance is effective, and to monitor the degradation of individual faults such as dipped joints. There are full unattended track geometry measurement systems running on in-service vehicles in the UK and elsewhere around the world, feeding their geometry measurements into large databases. These data can be retrieved, but little is currently done with the data other than the generation of reports of track geometry that exceeds predefined thresholds. There are examples of simpler systems that measure some track geometry parameters more or less directly and accurately, but forego parameters such as gauge. Additionally, there are experimental systems that use mathematics and models to infer track geometry using data from sensors placed on an in-service vehicle. Finally, there are systems that do not claim to measure track geometry, but monitor some other quantity such as ride quality or bogie acceleration to infer poor track geometry without explicitly measuring it.

  12. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  13. Collisions with passenger cars and moose, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Björnstig, U; Eriksson, A; Thorson, J; Bylund, P O

    1986-01-01

    The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants. PMID:3953927

  14. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... standards prescribed in § 500.104. (b) Any vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

  15. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... standards prescribed in § 500.104. (b) Any vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

  16. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... standards prescribed in § 500.104. (b) Any vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

  17. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for... Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or... standards prescribed in § 500.104. (b) Any vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

  18. 76 FR 76481 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... driver), and severely injuring the two occupants of a MY 1990 Ford Tempo vehicle that was struck by the... to the accident scene. The driver and passenger in Vehicle 1 were unconscious and unresponsive. The driver and passenger in Vehicle 2 were also unconscious and unresponsive. The driver of Vehicle 3...

  19. Real-time measurements of SO2, H2CO, and CH4 emissions from in-use curbside passenger buses in New York City using a chase vehicle.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Wormhoudt, Joda; Nelson, David D; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

    2005-10-15

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory "chased" in-use curbside passenger buses operated by various operators in New York City. With the cooperation of New York State's Metropolitan Transit Authority, the relationships between the emissions of the several gas-phase species and particulate loadings were investigated across several bus technologies, bus types, and fuels (diesel, ultralow sulfur diesel, and compressed natural gas, CNG). The CNG buses followed did not employ an oxidation catalyst. The buses characterized were not prescreened in any fashion and were measured while deployed on their normal in-service routes. This paper focuses on the fuel-based mass emissions of SO2, H2CO, and CH4, measured using tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide emissions from buses known to be burning ultralow sulfur diesel (<30 ppm(m) S) were 16 times lower than those from buses burning normal commercial diesel fuel, nominally less than 300 ppm(m) sulfur. Emissions of formaldehyde and methane from in-use CNG buses were approximately 15 times greater than those from diesel powered buses.

  20. Death by a Thousand Cuts: Micro-Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    exotic approaches as air suction/injection along the wing surface (which might require micro -valves and micro - pumps ), wall heat transfer, or...AU/AWC/___/2001-4 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEATH BY A THOUSAND CUTS: MICRO -AIR VEHICLES (MAV) IN THE SERVICE OF AIR FORCE MISSIONS by...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Death by a thousand Cuts: Micro -Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions Contract

  1. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  2. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  3. Synerjet propulsion and the trimarket opportunity - Orbital, transglobal and lunar transportation services with one vehicle type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed aerospace transporter for performing earth-to-orbit/return missions as well as transatmospheric and in-space high-energy missions is argued to be an effective and feasible alternative for development. The vehicles are based on the exploitation of 'synerjet' technologies that use airbreathing/rocket combined-cycle propulsion. The vehicle is shown to be capable of terrestrial-service intercontinental transglobal flight in an 'orbital cruise' mode as well as round trips from low orbits to high orbits and to the moon. The operational flexibility is linked to the development of synerjet propulsion, so directions are proposed for technology development and validation efforts. The development of the NASP X-30 by NASA is shown to be an important initial contribution to the R&D in this direction.

  4. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shuttle services, certain ELV launches, and Space Station activities, NASA and other signatories (the... Exploration activities unrelated to the International Space Station that involve a launch, NASA shall require... of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launches, and Space...

  5. Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: an experimental investigation using high definition film.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour.

  6. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  12. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  13. Optimization of maneuvers and resources for the rendezvous of a servicing vehicle to a space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, Jacques; Canu, Richard; Joulot, Antoine

    Addressing the generation of flight scenarios for the rendezvous of a servicing vehicle to a space station, solutions in terms of sequences of maneuvers shall be found that meet a generally complex set of mission constraints while optimizing the needed resources. For the optimization of maneuvers and resources during rendezvous, this paper describes a methodology based on the parametric optimization of a sequence of genetic non-impulsional thrust maneuvers which are defined by the user from a standard catalog, allowing to cope with both translations and rotations. The method uses a reduced gradient algorithm to find an optimal trajectory that meet every mission constraint. Most attention has been paid to the standard of realism in the modeling of the chaser and target dynamics, and in the formalization of the constraints on the approach trajectories; these last ones are defined as the terminal position, the attitude and kinematic capture conditions for berthing or docking, the maximal duration allocated to the approach, path constraints, the propulsive capacities of the chaser and a `safety' constraint, which in other words means that any failure on the chaser during the approach shall result in collision avoiding trajectories or in a mechanical contract to the station within safe limits. The criterion for scenarios optimization can be minimization of propellant consumption or phase duration, or a weighed combination of both. For illustration purpose, example results are given for the final approach of a servicing vehicle to an Earth-pointed space station.

  14. Preliminary survey report: evaluation of brake-drum service controls at Pennsylvania Bureau of Vehicle Management, Vehicle Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wagenen, H.D.

    1987-03-01

    Exposure to asbestos during the servicing of brakes on state-owned vehicles at the Bureau of Vehicle Management Maintenance Division, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was investigated as part of a study of control technologies. Brakes had been serviced at this garage facility for the previous year using a BCE-1000 Clayton brake-cleaning unit, sized for cars, vans, and pickups. The brake-cleaning unit consisted of a transparent enclosure hood and a HEPA vacuum filter dust collector, designed to contain and collect all brake-lining dust during vehicular brake maintenance and replacement. The authors conclude that the Clayton BCE-1000 dust-control unit appeared to be effective in containing and collecting brake dust during all vehicular brake maintenance and replacement jobs in this situation.

  15. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  16. SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Clemens; Sjöberg, Fredrik; Delcura, Juan Manuel; Eilertsen, Baard

    2008-07-01

    Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several space agencies during the development phase. The business plan is based on life extension for high value commercial satellites while also providing the satellite operators with various fleet management services such as graveyard burns, slot transfers and on orbit protection against replacement satellite or launch failures. The OLEV spacecraft will be able to dock with a geostationary satellite and uses an electrical propulsion system to extend its life by taking over the attitude control and station keeping functions. The OLEV system is building on the SMART-1 platform developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for ESA as a technology test-bed to demonstrate the use of electrical propulsion for interplanetary orbit transfer manoeuvres. The concept is called SMART-OLEV and takes advantage of the low cost, low mass SMART-1 platform by a maximum use of recurrent platform technology.

  17. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax credit—(1... automobile shall not exceed $1,000. For a passenger automobile placed in service after December 31, 1984,...

  18. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  19. Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

  20. Announcement: National Child Passenger Safety Week - September 18-24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    This year, National Child Passenger Safety Week is September 18-24. In the United States, motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children (1). In 2014, a total of 602 passenger vehicle occupants aged 0-12 years died as a result of a crash (2), and more than 121,350 were injured (1). Of the children who died in 2014, 34% were known to be unrestrained (2). To keep child passengers as safe as possible, drivers should use age- and size-appropriate restraints for all child passengers until adult seat belts fit properly (a lap belt should lay across upper thighs, not abdomen, and a shoulder belt should lay across shoulder and chest, not neck or face) and follow the American Academy of Pediatrics child passenger safety recommendations (3). In addition, children aged <13 years should be properly restrained in the back seat.

  1. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  2. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  3. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  4. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  5. 14 CFR 382.113 - What services are carriers not required to provide to passengers with a disability on board the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What services are carriers not required to... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.113 What services are...

  6. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  7. 77 FR 33098 - Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service of Drivers of Commercial Motor Vehicles; Regulatory Guidance for Oilfield Exception AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... Operations Division, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation,...

  8. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.320 - What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? 102-34.320 Section 102-34.320....320 What Government-issued charge cards may I use to purchase fuel and motor vehicle related services? (a) You may use a fleet charge card specifically issued for this purpose. These cards are designed...

  14. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  15. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  16. The role of the payment vehicle in non-market valuations of a health care service: willingness-to-pay for an ambulance helicopter service.

    PubMed

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the role of the payment vehicle when conducting non-market valuations of health care services using stated preference methods. Based on a contingent valuation study conducted in Denmark encompassing more than 3400 respondents three important conclusions are drawn. Firstly, it is found that the valuation of a publicly financed ambulance helicopter service is higher than for an identical privately financed service. Secondly, the results suggest that the public premium is likely to be partly driven by altruistic preferences, and that some citizens value access to this type of service for all. An important driver is also perceptions of quality of services across the private and public sector. Finally, it is shown that exclusion of protest bidders is problematic and may bias welfare estimates. The take home message is that it is difficult to isolate the value of a good per se, and that analysts should take care in applying the payment vehicle that is likely to be applied in real life when valuing non-market goods. There has been little awareness of the importance of choice of payment vehicle in the literature to date.

  17. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  18. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  19. Natural Environmental Service Support to NASA Vehicle, Technology, and Sensor Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  20. Child Passenger Safety in the Somali Communities of Columbus, Ohio.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Lara B; Fowler, Erica; Roberts, Kristin J; Kaercher, Roxanne M

    2017-04-01

    Children (particularly low-income minorities and refugees) are at high risk for serious injury or death from motor vehicle crashes. Interpreter-assisted data collection included key informant interviews, focus groups and face-to-face surveys with the Somali community of Columbus, Ohio about child passenger safety. Measurements included prevalence of child safety seats use, awareness and knowledge of and barriers to proper use in order to inform development, implementation, and initial evaluation of a culturally-appropriate intervention for Somali families. Somali parents regarded child passenger safety as an important topic, but many reported improper restraint behaviors of one or more children and/or did not have an adequate number of child safety seats. Few parents reported having child safety seats installed by a professional technician. Child passenger safety practices in the Somali communities of Columbus are a public health concern that should be addressed with culturally-appropriate interventions.

  1. Shigellosis at sea: an outbreak aboard a passenger cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Merson, M H; Tenney, J H; Meyers, J D; Wood, B T; Wells, J G; Rymzo, W; Cline, B; DeWitt, W E; Skaliy, P; Mallison, F

    1975-02-01

    Between June 23 and June 30, 1973, 90% of 650 passengers and at least 35% of 299 crew members experienced a diarrheal illness during a 7-day Caribbean cruise aboard a passenger cruise liner. Symptoms were consistent with shigellosis, and Shigella flexneri 6, Boyd 88 biotype, was isolated from rectal swabs taken from 8 to 35 ill passengers and 33 of 294 crew members. Epidemiologic evidence incriminated the ship's water, including ice, as the probable vehicle of transmission, and elevated coliform counts were found in potable water samples obtained aboard the vessel at the peak of the outbreak. Potential sources of contamination of the vessel's potable water supply were investigated, and improvements in the loading and chlorination of potable water were recommended.

  2. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  3. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  4. 77 FR 57186 - Technical Report on Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint of Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... is: Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars... all vehicles in the crash as well as pedestrians. The analyses comprised MY 2000-2007 cars and LTVs...

  5. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  6. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  7. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  8. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems. PMID:28049820

  9. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  10. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  11. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  12. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  13. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  14. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  15. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2011, including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2011....

  16. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... of model year (MY) 2007 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2007. The.... This document publishes the final data on thefts of model year (MY) 2007 passenger motor vehicles...

  17. 77 FR 38024 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in ] calendar year (CY) 2010 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2010....

  18. 75 FR 50733 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2008 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2008....

  19. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2009....

  20. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    PubMed

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  2. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  3. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  5. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  6. Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    simulation were used to select a viable *electric vehicle system to compete economically with conventional USAF passenger cars . This system was then...It is, however, also used by the Environment Pro- tection Agency for new car urban fuel economy tests. This 23-minute cycle is the recorded...batteries that could be conveniently installed within the body of the car while retaining four passenger capa- bility was twelve. Based on the

  7. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service or by a Customs officer acting on behalf of that agency. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of passengers. 122.156 Section 122.156 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A.; Ewing, Patrick M.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C.; Hunter, Mitchell C.; Koide, Roger T.; Mortensen, David A.; Smith, Richard G.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services

  9. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  10. Government Oversight of Field Service Representative and Instructor Services in Support of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    New Equipment Training OCONUS Outside the Continental United States OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OPNET Operator New Equipment Training...new and unfamiliar. Specifically, the Instructors were ordered to:  provide MRAP vehicle Operator New Equipment Training ( OPNET ) and Field- Level...support for the JPO MRAP. In addition, the contracts required the OEMs to provide OPNET and FLMNET instruction and cross-training FSRs on the

  11. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Passenger Presence was associated with waiting for a greater number of vehicles to pass before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and

  12. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, passenger presence was associated with a greater number of vehicles before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and susceptibility to peer pressure

  13. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  14. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  15. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  16. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  17. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  18. University-School-Community Partnership as Vehicle for Leadership, Service, and Change: A Critical Brokerage Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney; Miller, Peter; Lovelace, Temple S.

    2016-01-01

    Using a critical brokerage perspective to advance theoretical insights in the development of a community university partnership and understanding of the organizational embeddedness of a community empowerment agency in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, this article suggests that partnerships between American universities and communities are perfect vehicles for…

  19. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  20. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  1. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  2. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  3. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to...

  4. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), are proposing accessibility guidelines for the construction and alteration of passenger vessels covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure that the vessels are readily accessible to and usable by passengers with disabilities. The guidelines would apply to passenger vessels, other than ferries......

  5. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  6. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  7. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  8. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  10. Satellite Servicing Using the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle in Low Earth Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    feature built-in test equipment and computer aided calibration to return the satellite back to operational status. 3. Operational User satellite ... orientation is also assumed to be unconstrained during servicing. Spacecraft non-availability time would depend on the complexity of servicing required. It has

  11. 19 CFR 24.22 - Fees for certain services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is being used to transport only: (i) Passengers, and/or (ii) Vehicles, or railroad cars, which are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods. (b) Fee for arrival of certain... of passengers or cargo during the repair period; (ii) Any railroad car transporting only...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... vehicle has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4....

  13. Child passenger deaths involving drinking drivers--United States, 1997-2002.

    PubMed

    2004-02-06

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among children aged >/=1 year in the United States, and one in four crash-related deaths among child passengers aged passenger deaths involving drinking drivers during 1997-2002, CDC analyzed data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among the 2,355 children who died in alcohol-related crashes, 1,588 (68%) were riding with drinking drivers; the majority of these children were not restrained. To reduce the number of child fatalities in alcohol-related motor-vehicle crashes, effective interventions are needed to prevent alcohol-impaired driving and to increase use of child passenger restraints.

  14. Combined effect of noise and vibration on passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    An extensive research program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive model of passenger comfort response to combined noise and vibration environments has been completed. This model was developed for use in the prediction and/or assessment of vehicle ride quality and as a ride quality design tool. The model has the unique capability to transform individual elements of vehicle interior noise and vibration into subjective units and combining the subjective units to produce a total subjective discomfort index as well as the other useful subjective indices. This paper summarizes the basic approach used in the development of the NASA ride comfort model, presents some of the more fundamental results obtained, describes several application of the model to operational vehicles, and discusses a portable, self-contained ride quality meter system that is a direct hardware/software implementation of the NASA comfort algorithm.

  15. Recognition of In-Vehicle Group Activities (iVGA): Phase-I, Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-27

    or sitting in the back seat right behind the frontal driver and passenger . Figure 8 illustrates the taxonomy of whereabouts of the driver and the...front of vehicle. Whereas, the other passengers may be found sitting inside, and in front of vehicle next to the driver, or sitting in the back seat ... passenger located in the back seat . The deductions from the head configuration in state of down and up are plausible inferences that may require

  16. 14 CFR 259.8 - Notify passengers of known delays, cancellations, and diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flight. (2) The U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier shall incorporate such notification service commitment into its Customer Service Plan as specified in section 259.5 of this chapter. (b) For its... carrier that permits passengers to subscribe to flight status notification services, the carrier...

  17. 14 CFR 259.8 - Notify passengers of known delays, cancellations, and diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flight. (2) The U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier shall incorporate such notification service commitment into its Customer Service Plan as specified in section 259.5 of this chapter. (b) For its... carrier that permits passengers to subscribe to flight status notification services, the carrier...

  18. 14 CFR 259.8 - Notify passengers of known delays, cancellations, and diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flight. (2) The U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier shall incorporate such notification service commitment into its Customer Service Plan as specified in section 259.5 of this chapter. (b) For its... carrier that permits passengers to subscribe to flight status notification services, the carrier...

  19. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  20. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  1. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  2. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel efficient passenger... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  3. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  4. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel efficient passenger... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  5. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel efficient passenger... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  6. A Smartphone App to Communicate Child Passenger Safety: An Application of Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, A. C.; McDonald, E. M.; Omaki, E.; Shields, W.; Case, J.; Aitken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Child passenger safety remains an important public health problem because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children, and the majority of children ride improperly restrained. Using a mobile app to communicate with parents about injury prevention offers promise but little information is available on how to create such a tool.…

  7. A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

  8. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  9. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  10. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  11. [The peculiar features of conducting comprehensive expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents. This, in turn, creates difficulties for the forensic medical experts as regards personality identification of the subjects who happened to be inside the car at the moment of the collision especially in the case of unascertainable circumstances of the accident and/or the involvement of several victims. The authors describe peculiarities of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during road traffic accidents including such that result from bringing the driver and the passengers closer to the construction elements of the car (stage I), their direct contact with these elements (stage II), and subsequent displacement (stage III).

  12. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  13. Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-18

    Report No. DODIG-2012-102 June 18, 2012 Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services...Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY, AND LOGISTICS AUDITOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost

  14. Service Learning: A Vehicle for Building Health Equity and Eliminating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Samantha; de Zapien, Jill; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Rosales, Cecilia; Bergsma, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection on the broader social, economic, and political contexts of health. We describe the elements and impact of five distinct week-long intensive SL courses focused on the context of urban, rural, border, and indigenous health contexts. Students involved in these SL courses demonstrated a commitment to community-engaged scholarship and practice in both their student and professional lives. SL is directly in line with the core public health value of social justice and serves as a venue to strengthen community–campus partnerships in addressing health disparities through sustained collaboration and action in vulnerable communities. PMID:25706014

  15. Service learning: a vehicle for building health equity and eliminating health disparities.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Samantha; de Zapien, Jill; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Rosales, Cecilia; Bergsma, Lynda; Taren, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection on the broader social, economic, and political contexts of health. We describe the elements and impact of five distinct week-long intensive SL courses focused on the context of urban, rural, border, and indigenous health contexts. Students involved in these SL courses demonstrated a commitment to community-engaged scholarship and practice in both their student and professional lives. SL is directly in line with the core public health value of social justice and serves as a venue to strengthen community-campus partnerships in addressing health disparities through sustained collaboration and action in vulnerable communities.

  16. Young Drivers and Their Passengers: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies on Crash Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Berbiche, Djamal; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to appraise the evidence from epidemiological studies of crash risk in young drivers accompanied by passengers, compared with solo driving. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Transportation Research Information Services, and Web of Science for studies published between January 1, 1989 and August 1, 2013. Epidemiological studies were selected for review if they focused on crashes of young drivers (≤24 years old) and included both a no-passenger comparison group and some measure of exposure to enable calculation of risk estimates. Fifteen articles (17 studies) were selected; seven studies reported on fatal crashes and 10 on nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Studies on fatal crashes showed increased risk, compared with solo driving, for young drivers with at least one passenger (significant risk estimates ranging from 1.24 to 1.89) and two or more passengers versus solo driving (1.70–2.92). Increased risk was also found for fatal crashes and for combined or nonfatal crashes with male versus female passengers (1.53–2.66) and for younger versus older drivers (1.42–3.14). Results more clearly indicate increased risk for passenger presence in fatal crashes than that in nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Findings of this review, based on correlational studies, support licensing policies that limit the presence and number of young passengers for young drivers. PMID:26112735

  17. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  18. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  19. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section 86.231-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.231-94 Vehicle preparation....

  20. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section 86.231-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.231-94 Vehicle preparation....

  1. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section 86.231-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.231-94 Vehicle preparation....

  2. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section 86.231-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.231-94 Vehicle preparation....

  3. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  4. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  5. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  6. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  7. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  8. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  9. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  10. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  11. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  12. INCREASING SEAT BELT USE IN SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS WITH A GEARSHIFT DELAY

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard; Tenenbaum, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of park. Unbelted participants experienced either a constant delay (8 s) or a variable delay (M  =  8 s). A 16-s delay was introduced for those U.S. drivers who did not show significant improvement. Seat belt use increased from 48% to 67% (a 40% increase) for U.S. drivers and from 54% to 74% (a 37% increase) for Canadian drivers. The fixed delay was more effective for U.S. drivers than the variable delay, but there was no difference between these two delay schedules for Canadian drivers. After the driver fastened his or her seat belt, it tended to remain fastened for the duration of the trip. PMID:21358899

  13. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  14. New batteries and their impact on electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of electric vehicles and electric vehicle batteries. The present and predicted performance levels of some battery systems such as lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and zinc-chlorine are considered, as are the characteristics that an electric vehicle must possess in order to appeal to customers. The implications of battery improvements for manufacturers of electric vehicles are discussed. Lack of knowledge of passenger range requirements for electric vehicles is noted.

  15. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  16. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  17. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  18. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  19. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  20. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  1. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  2. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  3. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  4. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  5. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  6. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  7. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  8. Hardware-software complex of informing passengers of forecasted route transport arrival at stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnoy, V. Yu; Pushkarev, M. I.; Fadeev, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the hardware-software complex of informing the passengers of the forecasted route transport arrival. A client-server architecture of the forecasting information system is represented and an electronic information board prototype is described. The scheme of information transfer and processing, starting with receiving navigating telemetric data from a transport vehicle and up to the time of passenger public transport arrival at the stop, as well as representation of the information on the electronic board is illustrated and described. Methods and algorithms of determination of the transport vehicle current location in the city route network are considered in detail. The description of the proposed forecasting model of transport vehicle arrival time at the stop is given. The obtained result is applied in Tomsk for forecasting and displaying the arrival time information at the stops.

  9. Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Preliminary Anthropometric Specification for Land Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Conducted at 1 BDE Melbourne. Gordon, C. C. (2002). Multivariate anthropometric models for seated workstation design . Contemporary Ergonomics . Gordon...Ideally, the vehicle should safely accommodate (both as operator and passenger ) a large proportion of ADF personnel. Historically, when designing ...key advantage of using human subjects in the ergonomic assessment of a vehicle design is that a full range of tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress

  11. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  12. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  13. 49 CFR 571.216 - Standard No. 216; Roof crush resistance; Applicable unless a vehicle is certified to § 571.216a.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... S1. Scope. This standard establishes strength requirements for the passenger compartment roof. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries due to the crushing of the roof... passenger cars, and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR of 2,722 kilograms...

  14. 49 CFR 571.216 - Standard No. 216; Roof crush resistance; Applicable unless a vehicle is certified to § 571.216a.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... S1. Scope. This standard establishes strength requirements for the passenger compartment roof. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries due to the crushing of the roof... passenger cars, and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR of 2,722 kilograms...

  15. 49 CFR 571.216 - Standard No. 216; Roof crush resistance; Applicable unless a vehicle is certified to § 571.216a.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... S1. Scope. This standard establishes strength requirements for the passenger compartment roof. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries due to the crushing of the roof... passenger cars, and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR of 2,722 kilograms...

  16. Future Directions in the Design, Development, and Investigation of Technology as a Service Delivery Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment outcome research with children and adolescents has progressed to such an extent that numerous handbooks have been devoted to reviewing and summarizing the evidence base. Ensuring that consumers of these advancements in state-of-the-field interventions have the opportunity to access, engage in, and benefit from this evidence-base, however, has been wrought with challenge. As such, much discussion exists about innovative strategies for overcoming the gap between research and practice; yet, no other potential solution that has received more attention in both the popular and academic press than technology. The promise of technology is not surprising given the fast-paced evolution in development and, in turn, a seemingly endless range of possibilities for novel service delivery platforms. Yet, this is precisely the most formidable challenge threatening to upset the very promise of this potential solution: The rate of emerging technologies is far outpacing the field’s capacity to demonstrate the conceptual or empirical benefits of such an approach. Accordingly, this paper aims to provide a series of recommendations that better situate empirical enquiry at the core of a collaborative development, testing, and deployment process that must define this line of work if the promise of mental health technologies is going to be a reality for front-line clinicians and the clients they serve. PMID:24400723

  17. Train Timetable Evaluation from the Viewpoints of Passengers by Microsimulation of Train Operation and Passenger Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

    In order to evaluate train timetables from passengers' points of view, it is indispensable to estimate the disutilities of passengers. This can be done by estimating the movements of passengers and trains accurately. In particular, when there are many passengers, an interaction between the passengers and trains must be considered. To this end, we have developed a microsimulation system to simulate both train operation and passengers' train choice behavior. The system can simulate train choice behaviors of more than one million passengers as well as their positions in trains. It is possible to estimate the delays caused by congestion in trains as well. The system is based on models of different attitudes of the passengers with respect to the train choice behavior, with includes the choice of the earliest train, transfer avoidance, and congestion avoidance; a passengers' train choice behavior reflects his/her preferences. We applied this system to an actual railway line in a metropolitan area and evaluated two train schedules by calculating the generalized cost that reflects each passenger's disutility in his/her experience. Through the numerical experiments, we have confirmed that the proposed method is very useful for evaluating timetables from passengers' points of view.

  18. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  3. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  4. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  5. 78 FR 50014 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... request for comments about thefts of model year (MY) 2011 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in..., 2013 publication, the vehicle theft rate for CY/MY 2011 vehicles was erroneously reported to be...

  6. 76 FR 65610 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2009 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009. The... reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature of this program is the Federal Motor Vehicle...

  7. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The... reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature of this program is the Federal Motor Vehicle...

  8. The sleep of commercial vehicle drivers under the 2003 hours-of-service regulations.

    PubMed

    Hanowski, Richard J; Hickman, Jeffery; Fumero, Maria C; Olson, Rebecca L; Dingus, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has found that commercial drivers get an average of 5.18 h of sleep per night. The revised hours-of-service (HOS) regulations (in the United States) are in place to provide drivers with more opportunities to get sleep. However, are drivers really getting more sleep under these new regulations? Also, is there a relationship between sleep quantity and involvement in critical incident (crashes, near-crashes, or crash-relevant conflicts)? Data from 73 truck drivers, collected during a naturalistic driving study after the implementation of the 2003 HOS regulations, were analyzed to determine overall sleep quantity (using actigraphy), along with sleep quantity prior to being involved in a critical incident. Sixty-two drivers had at least seven consecutive days (Monday through Sunday) of reliable actigraphy data; mean sleep quantity per 24-h period (midnight centered using the Cole-Kripke algorithm) for these drivers was 6.28 h (S.D.=1.42 h). Fifty-eight critical incidents were recorded in the 10th and 11th driving hours. Analysis results indicated that drivers received significantly less sleep in the period prior to a critical incident as compared to their mean overall sleep quantity. The results of this study indicate drivers may be getting more sleep under the revised 2003 HOS regulations as compared to the old regulations. In addition, significantly less sleep in the 24-h period prior to involvement in a critical incident suggests driver fatigue may have been a potential contributing factor in these critical incidents.

  9. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 2: Mission handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) for support of future space missions is defined. Some 20 generic missions are defined each representative of the types of missions expected to be flown in the future. These include the service and update of communications satellites, emergency repair of surveillance satellites, and passenger transport of a six man crew rotation/resupply service to a deep space command post. The propulsive and functional capabilities required of the MOTV to support a particular mission are described and data to enable the user to determine the number of STS flights needed to support the mission, mission peculiar equipment requirements, parametrics on mission phasing and requirements, ground and flight support requirements, recovery considerations, and IVA/EVA trade analysis are presented.

  10. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  11. Vehicle/engine integration. [orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  12. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  13. Psychophysical evaluation of auditory signals in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Dewi, Ratna Sari; Huang, Min-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Twenty-one experienced drivers were recruited for the evaluation of sounds of four functions (horn, indicator, door open warning, and parking sensor) made by 11 car brand names. Each participant was required to evaluate all of the above sound signals by a pair-comparison test. After the comparison test, each participant was shown his/her pair-comparison result and was asked to comment on their preference and appropriateness of a sound. The physical properties and interview data were compared and summarized to propose design recommendations. Our results indicate that complex tones and a fundamental frequency between 500 and 1000 Hz were most preferred for horns while for indicators the preferred sounds had a higher dominant frequency. To reduce monotony, the indicators with double clicks and an OFF time interval of between 330 and 400 ms between two clicks were most preferred. Regarding door warning sounds, the waveform starting with a higher intensity then fading towards zero intensity is most preferred while for parking sensors, sounds beginning with a longer OFF time (about 500 ms) and having 3 or 4 distinctive tempo variations were most preferred. The relationship between pleasurability and pitch, loudness, and the tempo of sound signals basically followed an inverted-U function. Sound designers should avoid using very extreme parameter values when generating sound for a given function.

  14. 14 CFR 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Service Class F) is a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following... applicable to the performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services...

  15. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  16. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  17. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  18. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  19. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  20. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...