Sample records for vermiculite

  1. Treatment of oily waters using vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Deepa; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari; Jin, Yee-Chung

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the removal of oil from water by expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. A pH of 9 showed a higher removal efficiency of oil by vermiculite. Oil removal efficiencies at pH 9 were found to be 79%, 93%, 90%, 57% for standard mineral oil (SMO), Canola oil (CO), Kutwell oil (KUT45), refinery effluent (RE), respectively, in the case of expanded vermiculite, and 56%, 58%, 47%, 43% for SMO, CO, KUT45 and RE, respectively, for hydrophobized vermiculite. Kinetic data satisfied both the Lagergren and Ho models. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm was the best-fit isotherm for oil removal by both expanded and hydrophobized vermiculite. The data showed a higher adsorptive capacity by the expanded vermiculite compared to the hydrophobized vermiculite. Desorption studies showed that the expanded vermiculite did not desorb oil to the same extent compared to hydrophobized vermiculite. The Freundlich isotherm was the best-fit model for desorption. Expanded vermiculite showed better retention than hydrophobic vermiculite. The results showed that the expanded vermiculite had a greater affinity for oil than hydrophobized vermiculite.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Vermiculite, a hydrated magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate mineral, has a range of uses that take advantage of its fire resistance, good insulating properties, high liquid absorption capacity, inertness and low density. Most applications for vermiculite use an exfoliated (heat-expanded) form of the mineral. In general, coarser grades of vermiculite are used as loose fill insulation and in horticulture. Finer grades are used in wallboard and plasters and for animal feeds and fertilizers.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: Vermiculite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  4. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  5. Surface area of vermiculite with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Josephus; Bohor, Bruce F.

    1969-01-01

    Surface-area studies were made on several homoionic vermiculites with both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates. These studies show that only very slight penetration occurs between individual vermiculite platelets. This is in contrast to an earlier investigation of montmorillonite where it was found that the degree of penetration between layers is quite high, particularly for carbon dioxide, and is governed by the size and charge of the interlayer cation. The inability of these adsorbates to penetrate substantially between vermiculite platelets is due primarily to this mineral's high surface-charge density.The extent of penetration of nitrogen and carbon dioxide at the edges of vermiculite platelets, though slight, is influenced by the coordinated water retained within the sample at a given degassing temperature. Forces between layers are weakened with increasing water content, which permits slightly greater penetration by adsorbate gases. Thus, the surface area of vermiculite, as determined by gas adsorption, is larger than the calculated external surface area based upon particle size and shape considerations. In addition, "extra" surface is provided by the lifting and scrolling of terminal platelets. These morphological features are shown in scanning electron micrographs of a naturally occuring vermiculite.

  6. Stabilization of Cr(VI) from fine ferrochrome dust using exfoliated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Mulange Wa Mulange, Delphin; Garbers-Craig, Andrie Mariana

    2012-07-15

    This study proved that vermiculite, a natural occurring mineral, can effectively remove and stabilize Cr(VI) from fine ferrochrome dust leachate. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to determine the effect of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose on the removal of Cr(VI). The process was found to be highly pH dependent. The optimum conditions for the Cr(VI) removal are at a pH of 1.5, contact time of 2h and adsorbent dose of 10gL(-1). The stability of the Cr(VI)-loaded vermiculite remained unchanged after 12 months, when the vermiculite was evaluated with the ASTM and TCLP Cr(VI) leach methods. However, Cr(VI) desorption did take place when the Acid Rain Test was used. The adsorption kinetic data fits the pseudo-second order model, while the equilibrium data of Cr(VI) adsorption onto vermiculite are best described by the Langmuir isotherm. The presence of hydrobiotite and biotite in the industrial vermiculite slightly decreased the degree of adsorption of Cr(VI). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR VERMICULITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermiculite is a nonfibrous silicate mineral with multiple consumer uses that has been shown to contain various concentrations of asbestiform fibers. ermiculite is a micaceous hydrate of magnesium-iron-aluminum silicates with the ability to exfoliate or expand up to 20 times its ...

  8. Polarized XANES and EXAFS spectroscopic investigation into copper(II) complexes on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnare, Luca J.; Vailionis, Arturas; Strawn, Daniel G.

    2005-11-01

    Interaction of heavy metals with clay minerals can dominate solid-solution reactions in soil, controlling the fate of the metals in the environment. In this study we used powdered and polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to investigate Cu sorbed on Llano vermiculite and compare the results to reported Cu sorption mechanism on Wyoming (WY) smectite and reduced South African (SA) vermiculite. Analysis of the Cu K-edge spectra revealed that Cu sorbed on Llano vermiculite at high ionic strength ( I) has the greatest degree of covalent bond character, followed by Cu sorbed on montmorillonite at high I, and Cu sorbed on reduced SA vermiculite at high I. Cu sorbed on clay minerals at low I has the least covalent character. EXAFS data from Cu sorbed Ca- and K-equilibrated Llano vermiculites showed the presence of a second-shell Al, Si, or Mg backscatterer at 3.02 Å. This distance is consistent with Cu sorbing via a corner-sharing monodentate or bidentate bond. Polarized XANES and EXAFS results revealed that the angle between the Cu atom and the mineral sorption sites is 68° with respect to the [001] direction. From the bond angle and the persistence of the second-shell backscatterer when the interlayer is collapsed (K-equilibration), we conclude that Cu adsorption on the Llano vermiculite is not occurring in the interlayer but rather Cu is adsorbing onto the edges of the vermiculite. Results from this research provide evidence that Cu forms inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes on clay minerals, and does not form the vast multinuclear surface precipitates that have been observed for Co, Zn, and Ni.

  9. TiO2 activation using acid-treated vermiculite as a support: Characteristics and photoreactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ling; Dai, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Vermiculite was treated by sulfuric or nitric acid aqueous solutions with different concentration. These modified materials as the promising supports, were used to immobilize TiO2. TiO2 was prepared by the precursor, which was obtained by substituting partly isopropyl alcohol with Cl- in titanium chloride {[Ti(IV)(OR)nClm] (n = 2-3, m = 4 - n)}. The TiO2/vermiculite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the nitrogen absorption. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by removal of methylene blue (MB). The pure anatase type crystalline phase was well deposited on the supports. The concentrations of acid for treatment had a significant influence on pore sizes and surface area of vermiculite. The treatment process changed microstructure of vermiculite, modified its characteristics, and farther improved the catalytic activity and absorption capacity of TiO2/vermiculite composites. The treatment effect of nitric acid was superior to that of sulfuric acid.

  10. Interaction between the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0, its genetic derivatives and vermiculite: Effects on chemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Using bacteria of the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens wild type CHA0 and its genetic derivative strains CHA77, CHA89, CHA400, CHA631 and CHA661 (which differ in one gene only) the changes in chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the clay mineral vermiculite affected by microbial activity were studied in order to test whether the individually different production of metabolites by the genetically engineered strains may alter the clay mineral vermiculite in distinct ways. With the novel strategy of working with living wild type bacteria, their genetic derivatives and clay, the following properties of the mineral altered by the various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were determined: grain size, X-Ray diffraction pattern, intercrystalline swelling with glycerol, layer charge, CEC, BET surface and uptake of trace elements. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the changes in major, minor and trace elements of the clay vermiculite affected by microbial activity. Among all analyzed trace elements, Fe, Mn and Cu are the most interesting. Fe and Mn are taken up from the clay mineral by all bacterial strains whereas Cu is only removed from vermiculite by strains CHA0, CHA77, CHA400 and CHA661. The latter mentioned strains all produce the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and monoacetylphloroglucinol which can complex Cu efficiently. Therefore the alteration of only one gene of the bacteria is causing significant effects on the clay mineral.

  11. RESEARCH METHOD FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF FIBROUS AMPHIBOLE IN VERMICULITE ATTIC INSULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL hosted a meeting on July 17-18, 2003 entitled, "Analytical Method for Bulk Analysis of Vermiculite." The purpose of this effort was to produce an interim research method for use by U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) for the analysis of bulk vermiculite for...

  12. Biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mix for hybrid poplar

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Catherine E. Brewer; Richard B. Hall

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus nigra L. × Populus suaveolens Fischer subsp. maximowiczii A. Henry). We compared three treatments (peat moss (control), peat moss mixed with vermiculite, and peat moss mixed with...

  13. Differentiation of commercial vermiculite based on statistical analysis of bulk chemical data: Fingerprinting vermiculite from Libby, Montana U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunter, M.E.; Singleton, E.; Bandli, B.R.; Lowers, H.A.; Meeker, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Major-, minor-, and trace-element compositions, as determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, were obtained on 34 samples of vermiculite to ascertain whether chemical differences exist to the extent of determining the source of commercial products. The sample set included ores from four deposits, seven commercially available garden products, and insulation from four attics. The trace-element distributions of Ba, Cr, and V can be used to distinguish the Libby vermiculite samples from the garden products. In general, the overall composition of the Libby and South Carolina deposits appeared similar, but differed from the South Africa and China deposits based on simple statistical methods. Cluster analysis provided a good distinction of the four ore types, grouped the four attic samples with the Libby ore, and, with less certainty, grouped the garden samples with the South Africa ore.

  14. Fatal asbestosis 50 years after brief high intensity exposure in a vermiculite expansion plant.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robert S; Abraham, Jerrold L; Harber, Philip; Burnett, Bryan R; Morris, Peter; West, Phil

    2002-04-15

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old accountant whose only asbestos exposure was during a summer job 50 years earlier in a California vermiculite expansion plant. Vermiculite is a silicate material that is useful in building and agriculture as a filler and insulating agent. He developed extensive fibrocalcific pleural plaques and end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, with rapidly progressive respiratory failure. Careful occupational and environmental history revealed no other source of asbestos exposure, and the initial clinical diagnosis was idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; open lung biopsy shortly before his death confirmed asbestosis. Electron microscopic lung fiber burden analysis revealed over 8,000,000 asbestos fibers per gram dry lung, 68% of which were tremolite asbestos. Additional asbestiform fibers of composition not matching any of the standard asbestos varieties were also present at over 5,000,000 fibers per gram dry lung. Comparison analysis of a sample of Libby, Montana, vermiculite showed a similar mix of asbestiform fibers including tremolite asbestos. This case analysis raises several concerns: risks of vermiculite induced disease among former workers of the more than 200 expansion plants throughout the United States; health effects of brief but very high-intensity exposures to asbestos; and possible health effects in end-users of consumer products containing vermiculite.

  15. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letters and guidance that detail the requirements of asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants as is applies to vermiculite asbestos-containing material during residential demolitions

  16. Investigation of Key Parameters of Rock Cracking Using the Expansion of Vermiculite Materia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chi-Hyung; Hu, Jong Wan

    2015-10-12

    The demand for the development of underground spaces has been sharply increased in lieu of saturated ground spaces because the residents of cities have steadily increased since the 1980s. The traditional widely used excavation methods ( i.e ., explosion and shield) have caused many problems, such as noise, vibration, extended schedule, and increased costs. The vibration-free (and explosion-free) excavation method has currently attracted attention in the construction site because of the advantage of definitively solving these issues. For such reason, a new excavation method that utilizes the expansion of vermiculite with relatively fewer defects is proposed in this study. In general, vermiculite materials are rapidly expanded in volume when they receive thermal energy. Expansion pressure can be produced by thermal expansion of vermiculite in a steel tube, and measured by laboratory tests. The experimental tests are performed with various influencing parameters in an effort to seek the optimal condition to effectively increase expansion pressure at the same temperature. Then, calibrated expansion pressure is estimated, and compared to each model. After analyzing test results for expansion pressure, it is verified that vermiculite expanded by heat can provide enough internal pressure to break hard rock during tunneling work.

  17. Insight into the adsorption of chloramphenicol on a vermiculite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tri, Nguyen Ngoc; Carvalho, A. J. P.; Dordio, A. V.; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Trung, Nguyen Tien

    2018-05-01

    Four stable configurations were found upon adsorption of the chloramphenicol on a period slab model of the vermiculite surface, using the PBE and C09-vdW functionals in a projector-augmented wave (PAW) method approach. The adsorption is a strong chemisorption process, characterized by an adsorption energy of -106.5 kcal mol-1 at the most stable configuration. Stability of configurations contributed mainly by Mg⋯O/Cl attractive electrostatic interactions and C/Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. It is remarkable that the vermiculite is found to be a solid material with good potential to be used for adsorption and consequent removal of this type of antibiotic drugs.

  18. Investigation of Key Parameters of Rock Cracking Using the Expansion of Vermiculite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chi-Hyung; Hu, Jong Wan

    2015-01-01

    The demand for the development of underground spaces has been sharply increased in lieu of saturated ground spaces because the residents of cities have steadily increased since the 1980s. The traditional widely used excavation methods (i.e., explosion and shield) have caused many problems, such as noise, vibration, extended schedule, and increased costs. The vibration-free (and explosion-free) excavation method has currently attracted attention in the construction site because of the advantage of definitively solving these issues. For such reason, a new excavation method that utilizes the expansion of vermiculite with relatively fewer defects is proposed in this study. In general, vermiculite materials are rapidly expanded in volume when they receive thermal energy. Expansion pressure can be produced by thermal expansion of vermiculite in a steel tube, and measured by laboratory tests. The experimental tests are performed with various influencing parameters in an effort to seek the optimal condition to effectively increase expansion pressure at the same temperature. Then, calibrated expansion pressure is estimated, and compared to each model. After analyzing test results for expansion pressure, it is verified that vermiculite expanded by heat can provide enough internal pressure to break hard rock during tunneling work. PMID:28793610

  19. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    PubMed

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  20. Adsorption of ammonium from simulated wastewater by montmorillonite nanoclay and natural vermiculite: experimental study and simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Farhad; Jalali, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    In this research, montmorillonite nanoclay (MNC) and vermiculite were used to adsorb ammonium (NH 4 + ) from simulated wastewater. The effect of organic acids, cations, and anions on adsorption of NH 4 + was also studied using batch experiments. The presence of organic acids significantly decreased the NH 4 + adsorption using both adsorbents and the reduction followed the order of citric acid > malic acid > oxalic acid. The presence of cations in wastewater could decrease the adsorption of NH 4 + and the ion exchange selectivity on the MNC and vermiculite followed the orders Mg > Ca ≥ K > Na and Mg > > Ca > Na > K, respectively. Adsorption of NH 4 + by adsorbents in the presence of sulfate (SO 4 ) was higher than those in the presence of phosphate (PO 4 ) and chloride (Cl) anions. Results indicated that MNC and vermiculite had good potential for NH 4 + removal depending on adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, and initial NH 4 + concentration. The effect of pH on removal of NH 4 + indicated that MNC would be more appropriate as the adsorbent than vermiculite at low pH values. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the rate-controlling step adsorption for NH 4 + by MNC and vermiculite was heterogeneous chemisorption and followed the pseudo-second-order model. The desorption experiments indicated that the adsorption of NH 4 + by adsorbents was not fully reversible, and the total recovery of adsorbed NH 4 + for MNC and vermiculite varied in the range of 72 to 94.6% and 11.5 to 45.7%, respectively. Cation exchange model (CEM) in PHREEQC program was used to simulate NH 4 + adsorption. Agreement between measured and simulated data suggested that CEM was favored in simulating adsorption of NH 4 + by clay minerals. The results indicated that MNC and vermiculite have good performance as economic and nature-friendly adsorbents that can ameliorate the water and environment quality.

  1. Community exposure to asbestos from a vermiculite exfoliation plant in NE Minneapolis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James; Pratt, Gregory C; Johnson, Jean; Messing, Rita B

    2006-11-01

    Western Mineral Products/W. R. Grace operated a vermiculite plant in a mixed industrial/residential area of northeast Minneapolis from 1936 to 1989. The plant processed vermiculite ore contaminated with amphibole asbestos from a mine in Libby, MT. Air monitoring in the early 1970s found fiber concentrations in excess of 10 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc), indicating that worker exposure to asbestos was occasionally 100 times the current occupational standard. Residents of the surrounding community also had direct contact with vermiculite processing wastes (containing up to 10% amphibole asbestos) that were made freely available. Children played on waste piles and neighborhood residents hauled the wastes away for home use. In total, 259 contaminated residential properties have been found to date. Reported emission factors and plant process data were used as inputs to model airborne emissions from the plant over several operating scenarios using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ISC-Prime model. Results estimate short-term air concentrations of asbestos fibers in residential areas nearest the plant may have at times exceeded current occupational standards. Exposure estimates for other pathways were derived primarily from assessments done in Libby by the U.S. EPA. The Northeast Minneapolis Community Vermiculite Investigation (NMCVI) was conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health to identify and characterize the exposures of a cohort of over 6000 people who live or lived in Northeast Minneapolis and may have been exposed to asbestos. This cohort is now being investigated in a respiratory health screening study conducted by the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Department of Health.

  2. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x 1 , x 2 and x 3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (q i ) and the coded variables tested (x i ). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  3. 18. CLOSEUP OF NITROGEN REGENERATOR IN FOREGROUND AND VERMICULITE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CLOSE-UP OF NITROGEN REGENERATOR IN FOREGROUND AND VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWER FOR THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Collective Structural Changes in Vermiculite Clay Suspensions Induced by Cesium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shingo; Nishitsuji, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Tohru; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, Cs radioisotopes have been dispersed over a wide area. Most of the Cs has remained on the surface of the soil because Cs+ is strongly adsorbed in the interlayer spaces of soil clays, particularly vermiculite. We have investigated the microscopic structure of an aqueous suspension of vermiculite clay over a wide length scale (1-1000 Å) by small-angle X-ray scattering. We determined the effect of the adsorption behavior of Cs+ on the structural changes in the clay. It was found that the abruption of the clay sheets was induced by the localization of Cs+ at the interlayer. This work provides important information for predicting the environmental fate of radioactive Cs in polluted areas, and for developing methods to extract Cs from the soil and reduce radioactivity.

  5. Low-Level Fiber-induced Radiographic Changes Caused by Libby Vermiculite

    PubMed Central

    Rohs, Amy M.; Lockey, James E.; Dunning, Kari K.; Shukla, Rakesh; Fan, Huihao; Hilbert, Tim; Borton, Eric; Wiot, Jerome; Meyer, Cristopher; Shipley, Ralph T.; LeMasters, Grace K.; Kapil, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: From 1921 to 1990, vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana, was shipped worldwide for commercial and residential use. A 1980 study of a manufacturing facility using Libby vermiculite was the first to demonstrate a small but significant prevalence of pleural chest radiographic changes associated with amphibole fibers contained in the ore. Objectives: This follow-up study of the original cohort evaluated the extent of radiographic changes and cumulative fiber exposure (CFE) 25 years after cessation of exposure. Methods: From the original cohort of 513 workers, 431 (84%) were living and available for participation and exposure reconstruction. Of these, 280 (65%) completed both chest radiographs and interviews. Primary outcomes were pleural and/or interstitial changes. Measurements and Main Results: Pleural and interstitial changes were demonstrated in 80 (28.7%) and 8 (2.9%) participants, respectively. Of those participants with low lifetime CFE of less than 2.21 fiber/cc-years, 42 (20%) had pleural changes. A significant (P < 0.001) exposure–response relationship of pleural changes with CFE was demonstrated, ranging from 7.1 to 54.3% from the lowest to highest exposure quartile. Removal of individuals with commercial asbestos exposure did not alter this trend. Conclusions: This study indicates that exposure within an industrial process to Libby vermiculite ore is associated with pleural thickening at low lifetime CFE levels. The propensity of the Libby amphibole fibers to dramatically increase the prevalence of pleural changes 25 years after cessation of exposure at low CFE levels is a concern in view of the wide national distribution of this ore for commercial and residential use. PMID:18063841

  6. Enhanced desorption of cesium from collapsed interlayer regions in vermiculite by hydrothermal treatment with divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangbiao; Wang, Xinpeng; Wu, Hao; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Takeshita, Kenji

    2017-03-15

    Adsorption of cesium (Cs) on phyllosilicates has been intensively investigated because natural soils have strong ability of immobilizing Cs within clay minerals resulting in difficulty of decontamination. The objectives of present study are to clarify how Cs fixation on vermiculite is influenced by structure change caused by Cs sorption at different loading levels and how Cs desorption is affected by various replacing cations induced at different treating temperature. As a result, more than 80% of Cs was readily desorbed from vermiculite with loading amount of 2% saturated Cs (5.49×10 -3 mmolg -1 ) after four cycles of treatment of 0.01M Mg 2+ /Ca 2+ at room temperature, but less than 20% of Cs was desorbed from saturated vermiculite. These distinct desorption patterns were attributed to inhibition of Cs desorption by interlayer collapse of vermiculite, especially at high Cs loadings. In contrast, elevated temperature significantly facilitated divalent cations to efficiently desorb Cs from collapsed regions. After five cycles of treatment at 250°C with 0.01M Mg 2+ , ∼100% removal of saturated Cs was achieved. X-ray diffraction analysis results suggested that Cs desorption was completed through enhanced diffusion of Mg 2+ cations into collapsed interlayer space under hydrothermal condition resulting in subsequent interlayer decollapse and readily release of Cs + . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconnaissance study of the geology of U.S. vermiculite deposits: Are asbestos minerals common constituents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Lowers, Heather; Bush, Alfred L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Unusually high incidences of asbestos-related mortality and respiratory disease in the small town of Libby, Montana, have been linked to amphibole mineral fibers intergrown with the vermiculite deposits mined and milled near the town from 1923 to 1990. A study conducted by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that mortality due to asbestosis in Libby mine and mill workers and residents during 1979 to 1998 was much higher than expected for a similar Montana or United States population group. Recent medical testing of past and present mineworkers and residents of Libby showed lung abnormalities in nearly one-fifth of the adult study participants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under Superfund authority, is completing sampling and cleanup of asbestos-bearing materials in the mine, mill, and town sites. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study, reviewed herein, to investigate the mineral content of other U.S. vermiculite deposits and to determine if the amphibole asbestos minerals like those found in the Libby deposits are common in other vermiculite deposits.

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF SULFIDE, BIOTITE, AND VERMICULITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride is transformed in aqueous solutions containing dissolved hydrogen sulfide more rapidly in the presence of the minerals biotite and vermiculite than in homogeneous systems. Approximately 8045% of the CC4 was transformed to COP via the measured intermediate, CS...

  9. Spin-glass freezing in a Ni-vermiculite intercalation compound.

    PubMed

    Marcos, C; Argüelles, A; Khainakov, S A; Rodríguez Fernández, J; Blanco, J A

    2012-08-29

    We report on the magnetic properties of a Ni(2+)-vermiculite intercalation compound from Santa Olalla, Huelva (Spain). This modified vermiculite was studied by means of DC and AC magnetic measurements. The existence of two maxima in magnetic susceptibility below 10 K was interpreted in terms of the Cole-Cole formalism as being due to spin-glass freezing in this material. The temperature, frequency and external magnetic field dependences of these anomalies located at temperatures around 2-3 K and 8-10 K in the imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility, χ″, seem to suggest the existence of spin-relaxation phenomena between the magnetic moments of the Ni(2+) ions. A dynamic study of the relaxation processes associated with these phenomena considering the Cole-Cole formalism allows us to interpret the anomaly found at 2-3 K according to a law of activated dynamics, obtaining values for the critical exponent, ψν < 1, characteristic of a d = 2 spin-glass-like system, while the maximum observed in χ″ at 8-10 K can be described by means of a law of standard dynamics with a value of the exponent z of around 5, representative of a d = 3 spin-glass-like system.

  10. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR FIBROUS AMPHIBOLE IN VERMICULITE ATTIC INSULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed a test method for the analysis of fibrous amphibole in vermiculite attic insulation. This method was developed to provide the Agency with monitoring tools to study the occurrence and potential for exposure to fibrous amphibo...

  11. Pleural plaques and their effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kathleen A; Flynn, J Jay; Goodman, Julie E; Zu, Ke; Karmaus, Wilfried J J; Mohr, Lawrence C

    2014-09-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the relationship between asbestos-related pleural plaques (PPs) and lung function, with disparate and inconsistent results. Most use chest radiographs to identify PPs and simple spirometry to measure lung function. High-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning improves the accuracy of PP identification. Complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs), including spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, provide a more definitive assessment of lung function. The goal of this study was to determine, using HRCT scanning and complete PFTs, the effect of PPs on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners. The results of HRCT scanning and complete PFTs performed between January 2000 and August 2012 were obtained from the medical records of 166 Libby vermiculite miners. Multivariate regression analyses with Tukey multivariate adjustment were used to assess statistical associations between the presence of PPs and lung function. Adjustments were made for age, BMI, smoking history, duration of employment, and years since last occupational asbestos exposure. Nearly 90% of miners (n = 149) had evidence of PPs on HRCT scan. No significant differences in spirometry results, lung volumes, or diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide were found between miners with PPs alone and miners with normal HRCT scans. Miners with both interstitial fibrosis and the presence of PPs had a significantly decreased total lung capacity in comparison with miners with normal HRCT scans (P = .02). Age, cumulative smoking history, and BMI were significant covariates that contributed to abnormal lung function. Asbestos-related PPs alone have no significant effect on lung function in Libby vermiculite miners.

  12. Electrolytic ammonia removal and current efficiency by a vermiculite-packed electrochemical reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Yao, Ji; Fang, Xueyou; Huang, Yuanxing; Mu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The ammonia removal as well as the current efficiency during electrolysis was investigated by using a vermiculite-packed electrochemical reactor under continuous mode. Experimental results showed that adsorption of ammonia by vermiculite and electrolytic desorption of ammonia simultaneously existed in the reactor, leading to 89% removal of initial 30 mg N/L ammonia and current efficiency of 25% under the condition of 2.0 A, 6.0 min hydraulic retention time with 300 mg Cl/L chloride as the catalyst. The ammonia removal capacity had a linear relationship with the products of hydraulic retention time, current and chloride concentration within experimental conditions. The treatment results of secondary effluent indicated that 29.9 mg N/L ammonia can be reduced to 4.6 mg N/L with 72% removal of total nitrogen and a current efficiency of 23%, which was 2% less than synthetic wastewater due to the reducing components in the real wastewater. PMID:28102340

  13. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway.

  14. Low-level fiber-induced radiographic changes caused by Libby vermiculite: a 25-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E; Dunning, Kari K; Shukla, Rakesh; Fan, Huihao; Hilbert, Tim; Borton, Eric; Wiot, Jerome; Meyer, Cristopher; Shipley, Ralph T; Lemasters, Grace K; Kapil, Vikas

    2008-03-15

    From 1921 to 1990, vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana, was shipped worldwide for commercial and residential use. A 1980 study of a manufacturing facility using Libby vermiculite was the first to demonstrate a small but significant prevalence of pleural chest radiographic changes associated with amphibole fibers contained in the ore. This follow-up study of the original cohort evaluated the extent of radiographic changes and cumulative fiber exposure (CFE) 25 years after cessation of exposure. From the original cohort of 513 workers, 431 (84%) were living and available for participation and exposure reconstruction. Of these, 280 (65%) completed both chest radiographs and interviews. Primary outcomes were pleural and/or interstitial changes. Pleural and interstitial changes were demonstrated in 80 (28.7%) and 8 (2.9%) participants, respectively. Of those participants with low lifetime CFE of less than 2.21 fiber/cc-years, 42 (20%) had pleural changes. A significant (P < 0.001) exposure-response relationship of pleural changes with CFE was demonstrated, ranging from 7.1 to 54.3% from the lowest to highest exposure quartile. Removal of individuals with commercial asbestos exposure did not alter this trend. This study indicates that exposure within an industrial process to Libby vermiculite ore is associated with pleural thickening at low lifetime CFE levels. The propensity of the Libby amphibole fibers to dramatically increase the prevalence of pleural changes 25 years after cessation of exposure at low CFE levels is a concern in view of the wide national distribution of this ore for commercial and residential use.

  15. Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Min Hyeock; Ko, Jung A; Kang, Dong Ho; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. The morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part III. Radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Amandus, H E; Althouse, R; Morgan, W K; Sargent, E N; Jones, R

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the exposure-response relationship for tremolite-actinolite fiber exposure and radiographic findings among 184 men employed at a Montana vermiculite mine and mill. Workers were included if they had been employed during 1975-1982 and had achieved at least 5 years tenure at the Montana site. Past fiber exposure was associated with an increased prevalence of parenchymal and pleural radiographic abnormalities. Smoking was not significantly related to the prevalence of small opacities. However, the number of workers who had never smoked was small, and this prevented measurement of the smoking effect. Under control for smoking and age, the prevalence of small opacities was significantly greater for vermiculite workers with greater than 100 fiber/cc-years exposure than for comparison groups (cement workers, blue collar workers, and coal miners) who had no known occupational fiber exposure. A logistic model predicted an increase of 1.3% in the odds ratio for small opacities at an additional exposure of 5 fiber-years.

  17. Morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part III. Radiographic findings

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amandus, H.E.; Althouse, R.; Morgan, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the exposure-response relationship for tremolite-actinolite fiber exposure and radiographic findings among 184 men employed at a Montana vermiculite mine and mill. Workers were included if they had been employed during 1975-1982 and had achieved at least 5 years tenure at the Montana site. Past fiber exposure was associated with an increased prevalence of parenchymal and pleural radiographic abnormalities. Smoking was not significantly related to the prevalence of small opacities. However, the number of workers who had never smoked was small, and this prevented measurement of the smoking effect. Under control for smoking and age,more » the prevalence of small opacities was significantly greater for vermiculite workers with greater than 100 fiber/cc-years exposure than for comparison groups (cement workers, blue collar workers, and coal miners) who had no known occupational fiber exposure. A logistic model predicted an increase of 1.3% in the odds ratio for small opacities at an additional exposure of 5 fiber-years.« less

  18. Asbestos-related radiographic findings among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite: impact of workers' personal hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Timothy J; Franzblau, Alfred; Dunning, Kari K; Borton, Eric K; Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of worker hygiene by determining the prevalence of radiographic changes consistent with asbestos exposure among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite that contained amphibole fibers. Workers and household contacts had chest radiographs and completed questionnaires regarding hygiene and potential exposure pathways. Participants included 191 household contacts of 118 workers. One household contact (0.5%) had localized pleural thickening, and three (1.6%) had irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater. Worker radiographs demonstrated pleural changes in 45% and irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater in 8%. Libby vermiculite-exposed workers demonstrated an elevated prevalence of pleural and interstitial chest radiographic changes. There was, however, no increased prevalence of similar changes among household contacts, likely because of personal hygiene measures taken by the majority of workers.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Root Traits and the Associated QTLs for Maize Seedlings Grown in Paper Roll, Hydroponics and Vermiculite Culture System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Gao, Kun; Shan, Shengchen; Gu, Riling; Wang, Zhangkui; Craft, Eric J; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing; Chen, Fanjun

    2017-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) plays an important role in the acquisition of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the environment. Currently RSA is rarely considered as criteria for selection to improve nutrient uptake efficiency in crop breeding. Under field conditions roots can be greatly influenced by uncontrolled environment factors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop fast selection methods for evaluating root traits of young seedlings in the lab which can then be related to high nutrient efficiency of adult plants in the field. Here, a maize recombination inbred line (RILs) population was used to compare the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen and phosphorous efficiency traits. The phenotypes of eight RSA-related traits were evaluated in young seedlings using three different growth systems (i.e., paper roll, hydroponics and vermiculite), and then subjected to correlation analysis with N efficiency and P efficiency related traits measured under field conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) of RSA were determined and QTL co-localizations across different growth systems were further analyzed. Phenotypic associations were observed for most of RSA traits among all three culture systems. RSA-related traits in hydroponics and vermiculite weakly correlated with Nitrogen (NupE) uptake efficiency ( r = 0.17-0.31) and Phosphorus (PupE) uptake efficiency ( r = 0.22-0.34). This correlation was not found in the paper roll growth system. A total of 14 QTLs for RSA were identified in paper rolls, 18 in hydroponics, and 14 in vermiculite. Co-localization of QTLs for RSA traits were identified in six chromosome regions of bin 1.04/1.05, 1.06, 2.04/2.05, 3.04, 4.05, and 5.04/5.05. The results suggest the problem of using the phenotype from one growth system to predict those in another growth system. Assessing RSA traits at the seedling stage using either hydroponics or a vermiculite system appears better suited than the paper roll system as an important index

  20. Comparative Analysis of Root Traits and the Associated QTLs for Maize Seedlings Grown in Paper Roll, Hydroponics and Vermiculite Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhigang; Gao, Kun; Shan, Shengchen; Gu, Riling; Wang, Zhangkui; Craft, Eric J.; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing; Chen, Fanjun

    2017-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) plays an important role in the acquisition of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the environment. Currently RSA is rarely considered as criteria for selection to improve nutrient uptake efficiency in crop breeding. Under field conditions roots can be greatly influenced by uncontrolled environment factors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop fast selection methods for evaluating root traits of young seedlings in the lab which can then be related to high nutrient efficiency of adult plants in the field. Here, a maize recombination inbred line (RILs) population was used to compare the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen and phosphorous efficiency traits. The phenotypes of eight RSA-related traits were evaluated in young seedlings using three different growth systems (i.e., paper roll, hydroponics and vermiculite), and then subjected to correlation analysis with N efficiency and P efficiency related traits measured under field conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) of RSA were determined and QTL co-localizations across different growth systems were further analyzed. Phenotypic associations were observed for most of RSA traits among all three culture systems. RSA-related traits in hydroponics and vermiculite weakly correlated with Nitrogen (NupE) uptake efficiency (r = 0.17–0.31) and Phosphorus (PupE) uptake efficiency (r = 0.22–0.34). This correlation was not found in the paper roll growth system. A total of 14 QTLs for RSA were identified in paper rolls, 18 in hydroponics, and 14 in vermiculite. Co-localization of QTLs for RSA traits were identified in six chromosome regions of bin 1.04/1.05, 1.06, 2.04/2.05, 3.04, 4.05, and 5.04/5.05. The results suggest the problem of using the phenotype from one growth system to predict those in another growth system. Assessing RSA traits at the seedling stage using either hydroponics or a vermiculite system appears better suited than the paper roll system as an important

  1. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-11-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities.

  2. On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal funus inoculum in compost and vermiculite mixtures: results of on-farm demonstrations and impact of compost microbiological quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and vermiculite with a nurse host plant. Demon...

  3. An evaluation of potential occupational exposure to asbestiform amphiboles near a former vermiculite mine.

    PubMed

    Hart, Julie F; Spear, Terry M; Ward, Tony J; Baldwin, Caitlan E; Salo, Marissa N; Elashheb, Mohamed I

    2009-01-01

    Amphibole asbestos (AA) has been detected on the surface of tree bark in forests neighboring an abandoned vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana. In the present study, simulations were performed to assess potential AA exposure associated with United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS) occupational activities. Bark samples were collected prior, and personal breathing zone (PBZ) and Tyvek clothing wipe samples were collected during and immediately after trials that simulated FS activities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed AA bark concentrations up to 15 million structures per square centimeter (s/cm(2)). AA was detected in 25% of the PBZ TEM samples. AA was detected on wipe samples collected from all activities evaluated. This research demonstrates the potential for airborne exposure and transport of AA in the Kootenai National Forest. These findings are especially relevant to those that work in the area and to the general public who may conduct recreational activities.

  4. Effect of particle size on the experimental dissolution and auto-aluminization processes of K-vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennet, Jean-Christophe; Hubert, Fabien; Tertre, Emmanuel; Ferrage, Eric; Robin, Valentin; Dzene, Liva; Cochet, Carine; Turpault, Marie-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    In acidic soils, the fixation of Al in the interlayer spaces of 2:1 clay minerals and the subsequent formation of hydroxyl interlayer minerals (HIMs) are known to reduce soil fertility. The resulting crystal structure of HIMs consist of complex mixed-layer minerals (MLMs) with contrasting relative proportions of expandable, hydroxy-interlayers (HI) and illite layers. The present study aims to experimentally assess the influence of particle size on the formation of such complex HIMs for vermiculite saturated with potassium (K). Based on chemical and structural data, this study reports the dissolution and Al-interlayer occupancy of three size fractions (0.1-0.2, 1-2 and 10-20 μm) of K-vermiculite, which were obtained at pH = 3 by using stirred flow-through reactors. The Al-interlayer occupancies were ordered 0.1-0.2 μm < 10-20 μm < 1-2 μm even though the dissolution rate (in molvermiculite g-1 s-1) increases with decreasing particle size. For fine particles (0.1-0.2 μm), a rapid but low Al-interlayer occupancy during the transitory state and a null rate in the steady-state were evidenced and interpreted as indicating (i) a rapid but limited K+ interlayer exchange during the first step of the overall reactions and (ii) a stoichiometric dissolution of the crystal (TOT layer + interlayer) in the steady-state. By contrast, although the stoichiometric dissolution of the TOT layer is reached in the steady-state for the coarsest fractions (10-20 and 1-2 μm), the Al-interlayer occupancies continue to evolve due to the exchange of interlayer K+, which continues to progress for a longer duration. The mechanism of auto-aluminization is interpreted in the present study as multiple processes that involve (i) the dissolution of the mineral under acidic conditions, (ii) the interlayer diffusion of initial interlayer cations and their exchange with those from the aqueous phase and (iii) the fixation of interlayer aluminum. Competition between the kinetics of ion

  5. The morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part I. Exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Amandus, H E; Wheeler, R; Jankovic, J; Tucker, J

    1987-01-01

    The vermiculite ore and concentrate of a mine and mill near Libby, Montana, was found to be contaminated with fibrous tremolite-actinolite. Of 599 fibers (length greater than 5 microns and width greater than 0.45 micron) counted in eight airborne membrane filter samples, 96% had an aspect ratio greater than 10 and 16% had an aspect ratio greater than 50. Additionally, 73% of the fibers were longer than 10 microns, 36% were longer than 20 microns, and 10% were longer than 40 microns. Estimates of exposure before 1964 in the dry mill were 168 fibers/cc for working areas, 182 fibers/cc for sweepers, 88 fibers/cc for skipping, and 13 fibers/cc for the quality control laboratory. In 1964-1971, exposure estimates for these areas were 33, 36, 17, and 3 fibers/cc, respectively. Estimates of exposures in the mine before 1971 ranged from 9-23 fibers/cc for drillers and were less than 2 fibers/cc for nondrilling jobs. All 8-hr TWA job exposure estimates decreased from 1972-1976, and from 1977-1982 were less than 1 fiber/cc.

  6. Selective Adsorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution by Triethylenetetramine-Grafted Polyacrylamide/Vermiculite

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shiqing; Wang, Lan; Mao, Xinyou; Yang, Liping; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-01-01

    Amine groups play significant roles in polymeric composites for heavy metals removal. However, generating a composite with a large number of functional and stable amine groups based on clay is still a challenge. In this work, a new amine-functionalized adsorbent based on acid-activated vermiculite (a-Verm) was prepared by organic modification of silane coupling agent as bridge, followed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and further grafting of triethylene tetramine (TETA). The obtained polymeric composite g-PAM/OVerm was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG/DTG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, confirming that amine groups were successfully grafted onto the surface of Verm. The efficacy g-PAM/OVerm for removing Pb(II) was tested. The adsorption equilibrium data on g-PAM/OVerm was in good accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and the adsorption maximal value of Pb(II) was 219.4 mg·g−1. The adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Additionally, g-PAM/OVerm has better selectivity for Pb(II) ion in comparison with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. The present work shows that g-PAM/OVerm holds great potential for removing Pb(II) from wastewater, and provides a new and efficient method for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. PMID:29597288

  7. Morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part I. Exposure estimates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amandus, H.E.; Wheeler, R.; Jankovic, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vermiculite ore and concentrate of a mine and mill near Libby, Montana, was found to be contaminated with fibrous tremolite-actinolite. Of 599 fibers (length greater than 5 microns and width greater than 0.45 micron) counted in eight airborne membrane filter samples, 96% had an aspect ratio greater than 10 and 16% had an aspect ratio greater than 50. Additionally, 73% of the fibers were longer than 10 microns, 36% were longer than 20 microns, and 10% were longer than 40 microns. Estimates of exposure before 1964 in the dry mill were 168 fibers/cc for working areas, 182 fibers/cc formore » sweepers, 88 fibers/cc for skipping, and 13 fibers/cc for the quality control laboratory. In 1964-1971, exposure estimates for these areas were 33, 36, 17, and 3 fibers/cc, respectively. Estimates of exposures in the mine before 1971 ranged from 9-23 fibers/cc for drillers and were less than 2 fibers/cc for nondrilling jobs. All 8-hr TWA job exposure estimates decreased from 1972-1976, and from 1977-1982 were less than 1 fiber/cc.« less

  8. Morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part II. Mortality

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amandus, H.E.; Wheeler, R.

    1987-01-01

    The vermiculite ore and concentrate of a mine and mill located near Libby, Montana was found to be contaminated with a fiber of the tremolite/acetinolite series. A study was conducted to estimate the exposure-response relationship for mortality for 575 men who had been hired prior to 1970 and employed at least 1 year at the Montana site. Individual cumulative fiber exposure (fiber-years) was calculated. Results indicated that mortality from nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) and lung cancer was significantly increased compared to the U.S. white male population. For those workers more than 20 years since hire, the standard mortality rate (SMR)more » for lung cancer (ICDA 162-163) was 84.7, 225.1, 109.3, and 671.3 for less than 50, 50-99, 100-399, and more than 399 fiber-years respectively. Corresponding results for NMRD (ICDA 460-519) were 327.8, 283.5, 0, and 278.4. Based on a linear model for greater than 20 years since hire, the estimated percentage increase in lung cancer mortality risk was 0.6% for each fiber-year of exposure. At 5 fiber-years, the estimated percentage was 2.9% from an unrestricted (nonthreshold) linear model and 0.6% from a survival model.« less

  9. Influence of humic acid on adsorption of Hg(II) by vermiculite.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Fernando Henrique; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2014-10-01

    Geochemical mobility of Hg(II) species is strongly affected by the interactions of these compounds with naturally occurring adsorbents such as humic acids, clay minerals, oxides, etc. Interactions among these sorbents affect their affinity for Hg(II) and a full understanding of these processes is still lacking. The present work describes the influence of a humic acid (HA) sample on the adsorption of Hg(II) by vermiculite (VT). Adsorption isotherms were constructed to evaluate the affinity of Hg(II) by VT, HA, VT modified with humic acid (VT-HA), and VT-HA in presence of soluble humic acid (VT-HA + HA). All experiments were made at pH 6.0 ± 0.1 in 0.02 M NaNO3 and 25.0 ± 0.5 °C for initial Hg(II) concentrations from 1.0 to 100 μM. Determinations of Hg(II) were made by square wave voltammetry automated by sequential injection analysis, an approach that enables the determination of the free plus labile fractions of Hg(II) in HA suspensions without the need for laborious separation steps. The adsorption isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations, showing that HA was the material with the higher adsorption capacity (537 ± 30 μmol g(-1)) in comparison with VT and VT-HA (44 ± 3 and 51 ± 11 μmol g(-1), respectively). Adsorption order was HA > VT-HA + HA > VT = VT-HA. At pH 6.0 the interaction of HA with VT is weak and only 14% of C initially added to the suspension was effectively retained by the mineral. Desorption of Hg(II) in acidic medium (0.05 M HCl) was higher in binary (VT-HA) and ternary (VT-HA + HA) systems in comparison with that of VT and HA alone, suggesting that interactions between VT and HA are facilitated in acidic medium, weakening the binding to Hg(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger

  11. Effects of NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ on the Cesium Adsorption/Desorption in Binding Sites of Vermiculitized Biotite.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangbiao; Wang, Xinpeng; Wu, Hao; Takahashi, Hideharu; Inaba, Yusuke; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Takeshita, Kenji

    2017-12-05

    The reversibility of cesium adsorption in contaminated soil is largely dependent on its interaction with micaceous minerals, which may be greatly influenced by various cations. Herein, we systematically investigated the effects of NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ on the adsorption/desorption of Cs + into different binding sites of vermiculitized biotite (VB). Original VB was initially saturated by NH 4 + , K + , or Mg 2+ ; we then evaluated the adsorption of Cs + on three treated VBs, and the desorption by extraction with NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , or Ca 2+ was further evaluated. Our structural analysis and Cs + extractability determinations showed that NH 4 + and K + both collapsed the interlayers of VB, resulting in the dominant adsorption of Cs + to external surface sites on which Cs + was readily extracted by NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , or Ca 2+ irrespective of their species, whereas Mg 2+ maintained the VB with expanded interlayers, leading to the overwhelming adsorption of Cs + in collapsed interlayer sites on which the Cs + desorption was difficult and varied significantly by the cations used in extraction. The order of Cs + extraction ability from the collapsed interlayers was K + ≫ Mg 2+ ≈ Ca 2+ ≫ NH 4 + . These results could provide important insights into Cs migration in soil and its decontamination for soil remediation.

  12. The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

  13. Acid-base treated vermiculite as high performance adsorbent: Insights into the mechanism of cationic dyes adsorption, regeneration, recyclability and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Dańko, Tomasz; Freitas, Olga; Figueiredo, Sónia; Chmielarz, Lucjan

    2017-04-01

    Additional treatment with NaOH of acid activated vermiculite results in even higher increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison to samples modified only in acidic solution (first step of activation) with respect to raw material. Optimization of treatment conditions and adsorption capacity for two cationic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and astrazon red (AR)), also as binary mixture, was evaluated. The capacity, based on column studies, increased from 48 ± 2 to 203 ± 4 mg g -1 in the case of methylene blue and from 51 ± 1 to 127 ± 2 mg g -1 in the case of astrazon red on starting and acid-base treated material, respectively. It was shown that adsorption mechanism changes for both cationic dyes after NaOH treatment and it results in decrease of adsorption rate. In binary mixtures methylene blue is bound stronger by adsorbent and astrazon red may be removed in initial stage of adsorption. Extensive studies on desorption/regeneration process proved high efficiency in recyclable use of all materials. Although cation exchange capacity decreases due to acid treatment, after base treatment exchange properties are used more efficiently. On the other hand, increased specific surface area has less significant contribution into the adsorption potential of studied materials. Obtained adsorbents worked efficiently in 7 adsorption-regeneration cycles and loss of adsorption capacity was observed only in two first cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structure control of aluminized clay minerals on the mobility of caesium in contaminated soil environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzene, Liva; Ferrage, Eric; Viennet, Jean-Christophe; Tertre, Emmanuel; Hubert, Fabien

    2017-02-01

    Radioactive caesium pollution resulting from Fukushima Dai-ichi and Chernobyl nuclear plant accidents involves strong interactions between Cs+ and clays, especially vermiculite-type minerals. In acidic soil environments, such as in Fukushima area, vermiculite is subjected to weathering processes, resulting in aluminization. The crystal structure of aluminized clays and its implications for Cs+ mobility in soils remain poorly understood due to the mixture of these minerals with other clays and organic matter. We performed acidic weathering of a vermiculite to mimic the aluminization process in soils. Combination of structure analysis and Cs+ extractability measurements show that the increase of aluminization is accompanied by an increase in Cs+ mobility. Crystal structure model for aluminized vermiculite is based on the interstratification of unaltered vermiculite layers and aluminized layers within the same particle. Cs+ in vermiculite layers is poorly mobile, while the extractability of Cs+ is greatly enhanced in aluminized layers. The overall reactivity of the weathered clay (cation exchange capacity, Cs+ mobility) is then governed by the relative abundance of the two types of layers. The proposed layer model for aluminized vermiculite with two coexisting populations of caesium is of prime importance for predicting the fate of caesium in contaminated soil environments.

  15. Potting Media Affect Growth and Disease Development of Container-Grown Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    William H. Pawuk

    1981-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) seedlings grew best in equal parts of peat and vermiculite with a low pH. Seedlings grew better in shredded pine cone media than pine bark media. Growth increased when soil or vermiculite was added to cone or bark chips. Commercial bark-vermiculite...

  16. Synthesis of new oligothiophene derivatives and their intercalation compounds: Orientation effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Lee, B.-G.; Park, N.-G.; Pugh, J.R.; Eberl, D.D.; Frank, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The orientation dependence of intercalated oligothiophene derivatives in vermiculite and metal disulfides MS2 (M = Mo, Ti and Zr) on the pendant group on the thiophene ring and the host material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Amino and nitro derivatives of bi-, ter- and quarter-thiophenes were synthesized for the first time. The amino-oligothiophenes were intercalated into vermiculite by an exchange reaction with previously intercalated octadecylammonium vermiculite and into MS2 by the intercalation-exfoliation technique. Analysis of the XRD data indicates that a monolayer of amino-oligothiophene orients perpendicularly to the silicate surface in vermiculite and lies flat in the van der Waals gap of MS2.

  17. Finalizing the Libby Action Plan Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Libby, Montana is the location of a former vermiculite mine that operated from 1923 to 1990. The vermiculite ore from the mine co-existed with amphibole asbestos, referred to as Libby Amphibole Asbestos (LAA). Combined with the cessation of the asbestos mining and processing oper...

  18. Mechanisms of removal of three widespread pharmaceuticals by two clay materials.

    PubMed

    Dordio, A V; Miranda, S; Prates Ramalho, J P; Carvalho, A J Palace

    2017-02-05

    Pharmaceutical residues presence in the environment is among nowadays top emergent environmental issues. For removal of such pollutants, adsorption is a generally efficient process that can be complementary to conventional treatment. Research of cheap, widely available adsorbents may make this process economically attractive. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of two clay materials (exfoliated vermiculite, LECA) to adsorb gemfibrozil, mefenamic acid and naproxen in lab-scale batch assays. Results show that both adsorbents are able to remove the pharmaceuticals from aqueous medium. Although vermiculite exhibited higher adsorption capacities per unit mass of adsorbent, LECA yielded higher absolute removals of the pharmaceuticals due to the larger mass of adsorbent. Quantum chemistry calculations predicted that the forms of binding of the three molecules to the vermiculite surface are essentially identical, but the adsorption isotherm of naproxen differs substantially from the other two's. The linear forms of the latter impose limits at lower concentrations to the removal efficiencies of these pharmaceuticals by vermiculite, thereby electing LECA as more efficient. Notwithstanding, vermiculite's high specific adsorption capacity and also its much faster adsorption kinetics suggest that there may be some benefits in combining both materials as a composite adsorbent solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Journal Article: Low Levels of Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos and Localized Pleural Thickening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Libby Amphibole asbestos (LAA) is a mixture of amphibole fibers present in ore from the vermiculite mine near Libby, MT (1). Workers and community residents were exposed to LAA at the mining operations in Libby, MT (2, 3), as well as at vermiculite processing facilities in Marys...

  20. Phytotoxicity and fate of 1,1,2-trichloroethylene: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Inderjit; Asakawa, Chikako; Kakuta, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    1,1,2-Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic contaminant, poses serious environmental concerns. A study was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of TCE to a crop species and its fate in vermiculite. Growth bioassays were carried out using carrot (Daucus carota L.) as the test species. Three different concentrations, 0.25, 0.50, and 1 ppm were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of TCE. When added to petri plates with cotton pads, TCE did not have any effect on carrot seedling growth. However, when added to vermiculite, it significantly suppressed growth. Shoot growth was inhibited only at the 1 ppm concentration. Recovery experiments were carried out to study the fate of TCE in vermiculite. A significant decline in the percent recovery was observed with time. Interestingly, TCE additional peaks (unknown organic molecules) were detected with declining concentrations. The available chloride ion concentration in vermiculite containing 1 ppm of TCE for 24 hr was significantly higher compared to control.

  1. 15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL EASTERN VIEW OF LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT SHOWING TWIN OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWER (ON RIGHT), VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWERS (ON LEFT FOREGROUND), AND AN ARGON FRACTIONATING TOWER (BEHIND VERMICULITE STORAGE TOWER). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Preparation and characterization of "Libby Amphibole" toxicological testing material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Wilson, Stephen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Benzel, William M.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) began work in Libby, Mont. in 1999 when an Emergency Response Team was sent to investigate local concern and media reports regarding asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. Since that time, the site has been granted Superfund status and site remediation to a safe level of asbestos has been ongoing. The amphibole asbestos from the Vermiculite Mountain vermiculite deposit near Libby, Mont. (Libby amphibole) is unusual in the sense that it is currently not classified as one of the regulated six asbestos minerals—chrysotile (a serpentine mineral) and the amphibole minerals amosite (asbestiform cummingtonite-grunerite), crocidolite (asbestiform riebeckite), asbestiform anthophyllite, asbestiform tremolite, and asbestiform actinolite. The amphiboles from the Vermiculite Mountain vermiculite deposit, primarily winchite and richterite, are related to tremolite and in the past have been referred to as sodium-rich tremolite or soda tremolite (Larsen, 1942; Boettcher, 1966; Wylie and Verkouteren, 2000; Gunter and others, 2003; Meeker and others, 2003). The public health issues in Libby, Mont. have brought to light many of the inconsistencies in the literature regarding fiber characteristics, nomenclature, and toxicology. To better understand the toxicological characteristics of the Libby amphibole, investigators require a sufficient quantity of material representing the range of fibrous amphiboles present in the vicinity of Vermiculite Mountain to use in toxicology studies. The material collected in 2000 (Meeker and others, 2003) has been exhausted and a second collection and preparation effort, funded by the USEPA, was conducted in 2007. Both the 2000 (LA2000) and 2007 (LA2007) materials were generated to support research needs identified by the USEPA and the National Toxicology Program, and new in-vivo and in-vitro toxicology studies are underway. This Open-File Report describes the process of preparation and summarizes the

  3. Development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Amer, G A; Utkhede, R S

    2000-09-01

    The effect of various carrier formulations of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida were tested on germination, growth, and yield of lettuce and cucumber crops in the presence of Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum, respectively. Survival of B. subtilis and P. putida in various carriers under refrigeration (about 0 degree C) and at room temperature (about 22 degrees C) was also studied. In all carrier formulations, B. subtilis strain BACT-0 survived up to 45 days. After 45 days of storage at room temperature (about 22 degrees C), populations B. subtilis strain BACT-0 were significantly higher in vermiculite, kaolin, and bacterial broth carriers compared with other carriers. Populations of P. putida were significantly higher in vermiculite, peat moss, wheat bran, and bacterial broth than in other carriers when stored either under refrigeration (about 0 degree C) or at room temperature (about 22 degrees C) for 15 or 45 days. Germination of lettuce seed was not affected in vermiculite, talc, kaolin, and peat moss carriers, but germination was significantly reduced in alginate and bacterial broth carriers of B. subtilis compared to the non-treated control. Germination of cucumber seed was not affected by any of the carriers. Significantly higher fresh lettuce and root weights were observed in vermiculite and kaolin carriers of B. subtilis compared with P. aphanidermatum-inoculated control plants. Lettuce treated with vermiculite, and kaolin carriers of B. subtilis, or non-inoculated control lettuce plants had significantly lower root rot ratings than talc, peat moss, bacterial broth, and P. aphanidermatum-inoculated control plants. Growth and yield of cucumber plants were significantly higher in vermiculite-based carrier of P. putida than the other carriers and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum-inoculated plants.

  4. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this subpart who uses a dry control device to... control device. (b) In lieu of a continuous opacity monitoring system, the owner or operator of a ball... vermiculite fluid bed dryer, or a vermiculite rotary dryer who uses a dry control device may have a certified...

  5. Nested case-control study of autoimmune disease in an asbestos-exposed population.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Pfau, Jean C; Larson, Theodore C; Spence, Michael R

    2006-08-01

    To explore the potential association between asbestos exposure and risk of autoimmune disease, we conducted a case-control study among a cohort of 7,307 current and former residents of Libby, Montana, a community with historical occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. Cases were defined as those who reported having one of three systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs): systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Controls were randomly selected at a 3:1 ratio from among the remaining 6,813 screening participants using frequency-matched age and sex groupings. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SAIDs among those >or=65 years of age who had worked for the vermiculite mining company were 2.14 (95% CI, 0.90-5.10) for all SAIDs and 3.23 (95% CI, 1.31-7.96) for RA. In this age group, exposure to asbestos while in the military was also an independent risk factor, resulting in a tripling in risk. Other measures of occupational exposure to vermiculite indicated 54% and 65% increased risk for SAIDs and RA, respectively. Those who had reported frequent contact with vermiculite through various exposure pathways also demonstrated elevated risk for SAIDs and RA. We found increasing risk estimates for SAIDs with increasing numbers of reported vermiculite exposure pathways (p<0.001). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that asbestos exposure is associated with autoimmune disease. Refined measurements of asbestos exposure and SAID status among this cohort will help to further clarify the relationship between these variables.

  6. Childhood exposure to Libby amphibole during outdoor activities.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace K; Burkle, Jeffrey; Lockey, James E; Black, Brad; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Residents of Libby, MT were exposed to amphibole asbestos through multiple environmental pathways. Previous exposure characterization has primarily relied on qualitative report of these exposure activities. The objectives of this study were to describe available data from the US EPA preremediation actions for Libby amphibole (LA) exposure in Libby, MT and develop an approach to characterize outdoor residential exposure to LA among children. Homes in Libby, MT included in the US EPA preremediation Contaminant Screening Survey (CSS) were categorized by the presence of interior and/or exterior visible vermiculite and concentrations of LA were measured in samples of dust and soil. Airborne exposure to LA while digging/gardening, raking, and mowing were estimated using US EPA activity-based sampling (ABS) results. Residential histories and frequency/duration of childhood activities were combined with ABS to demonstrate the approach for estimating potential exposure. A total of 3154 residential properties participated in the CSS and 44% of these had visible exterior vermiculite. Airborne concentrations of LA where there was visible vermiculite outdoors were 3-15 times higher during digging/gardening, raking, and mowing activities compared with homes without visible outdoor vermiculite. Digging and gardening activities represented the greatest contribution to estimated exposures and 73% of the participants reported this activity before the age of 6 years. This methodology demonstrated the use of historical preremediation data to estimate residential exposures of children for specific activities. Children younger than age 6 years may have been exposed to LA while digging/gardening, especially at homes where there is visible outdoor vermiculite. This approach may be extended to other activities and applied to the entire cohort to examine health outcomes.

  7. Organically Modified Nanoclay-Reinforced Rigid Polyurethane Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong Tae; Qian, Yuqiang; Lindsay, Chris; Stein, Andreas; Macosko, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The nanodispersion of vermiculite in polyurethanes was investigated to produce organoclay-reinforced rigid gas barrier films. Reducing gas transport can improve the insulation performance of closed cell polyurethane foam. In a previous study, the dispersion of vermiculite in polyurethanes without organic modification was not sufficient due to the non-uniform dispersion morphology. When vermiculite was modified by cation exchange with long-chain quaternary ammonium cations, the dispersion in methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was significantly improved. Dispersion was improved by combining high intensity dispersive mixing with efficient distributive mixing. Polymerization conditions were also optimized in order to provide a high state of nanodispersion in the polyurethane nanocomposite. The dispersions were characterized using rheological, microscopic and scattering/diffraction techniques. The final nanocomposites showed enhancement of mechanical properties and reduction in permeability to carbon dioxide at low clay concentration (around 2 wt percent).

  8. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    PubMed

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contemplating the feasibility of vermiculate blended chitosan for heavy metal removal from simulated industrial wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, N.; Soundarrajan, M.; Arungalai Vendan, S.; Sudha, P. N.; Renganathan, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    Wastewater contaminated by heavy metals pose great challenges as they are non biodegradable, toxic and carcinogenic to the soil and aquifers. Vermiculite blended with chitosan have been used to remove Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from the industrial wastewater. The results indicate that the vermiculite blended with chitosan adsorb Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from industrial waste water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH 5.0 and 5.5 respectively for chromium and cadmium. The adsorption rate was observed to be 72 and 71 % of chromium and cadmium respectively. The initial optimum contact time for Cr(VI) was 300 min with 59.2 % adsorption and 300 min for Cd(II) with 71.5 % adsorption. Whereas, at 4-6 there is saturation, increasing the solid to liquid ratio for chitosan biopolymers increases the number of active sites available for adsorption. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 5.0 and 5.5 for chromium and cadmium respectively. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich equations. It was observed that adsorption kinetics of both the metal ions on vermiculite blended chitosan is well be analyzed with pseudo-second-order model. The negative free energy change of adsorption indicates that the process was spontaneous and vermiculite blended chitosan was a favourable adsorbent for both the metals.

  10. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

  11. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  12. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite.

  13. Optimization of the production of mycorrhizal inoculum on substrate with organic fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ieda R; Pedone-Bonfim, Maria VL; Silva, Fábio SB; Maia, Leonor C

    2014-01-01

    The system for production of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) using sand and vermiculite irrigated with nutrient solution is promising. However, organic amendments added to the substrate can stimulate sporulation of AMF and replace the nutrient solution. The aim of this study was to maximize the production of AMF (Acaulospora longula, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama and Gigaspora albida) using selected organic substrates (vermicompost, coir dust and Tropstrato) together with sand and vermiculite. The production of spores varied among the tested AMF and according to the organic source added to the substrate. The vermicompost promoted higher sporulation of A. longula in relation to the other AMF and substrates. The Tropstrato® inhibited the sporulation of D. heterogama while the reproduction of C. etunicatum was not affected by the organic compounds. The inoculum of A. longula also showed a high number of infective propagules and promoted biomass accumulation in maize plants. The system of inoculum production using sand and vermiculite + 10% vermicompost favors the production of infective inoculum of A. longula with the fungus benefiting growth of corn plants. PMID:25763020

  14. Mortality from asbestos-associated disease in Libby, Montana 1979-2011.

    PubMed

    Naik, Samantha Lampert; Lewin, Michael; Young, Rand; Dearwent, Steve M; Lee, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Research on asbestos exposure in Libby, MT, has focused on occupational exposure in vermiculite mining and processing, but less attention has been paid to asbestos-related mortality among community members without vermiculite mining occupational history. Our study reports on asbestos-related mortality in Libby over 33 years (1979-2011) while controlling for occupational exposure. We calculated sex-specific 33-year standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for Libby residents who died from 1979 to 2011 with an asbestos-related cause of death. Decedent address at time of death was geocoded to confirm inclusion in the Libby County Division. We controlled for past W.R. Grace employment by including and then removing them from the SMR analysis. Six hundred and ninety-four decedents were identified as having at least one asbestos-related cause of death and residing in our study area boundary. Statistically significant (P<0.05) 33-year SMRs, both before and after controlling for W.R. Grace employment, were found for: male and female non-malignant respiratory diseases, female COPD, and asbestosis for both sexes combined. Eighty-five men and two women were matched to employment records. We observed elevated asbestos-related mortality rates among males and females. SMR results for asbestosis were high for both sexes, even after controlling for past W.R. Grace employment. These results suggest that the general population may be experiencing asbestos-related effects, not just former vermiculite workers. Additional research is needed to determine whether SMRs remain elevated after controlling for secondary exposure, such as living with vermiculite workers.

  15. Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram

    2008-10-01

    Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower.

  16. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  17. Sorbent materials for rapid remediation of wash water during radiological event relief

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jolin, William C.; Kaminski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Procedures for removing harmful radiation from interior and exterior surfaces of homes and businesses after a nuclear or radiological disaster may generate large volumes of radiologically contaminated waste water. Rather than releasing this waste water to potentially contaminate surrounding areas, it is preferable to treat it onsite. Retention barrels are a viable option because of their simplicity in preparation and availability of possible sorbent materials. This study investigated the use of aluminosilicate clay minerals as sorbent materials to retain 137Cs, 85Sr, and 152Eu. Vermiculite strongly retained 137Cs, though other radionuclides displayed diminished affinity for the surface. Montmorillonite exhibited increased affinitymore » to sorb 85Sr and 152Eu in the presence of higher concentrations of 137Cs. To simulate flow within retention barrels, vermiculite was mixed with sand and used in small-scale column experiments. The GoldSim contaminate fate module was used to model breakthrough and assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as sorbent materials in retention barrels. The modeled radionuclide breakthrough profiles suggest that vermiculite-sand and montmorillonite-sand filled barrels could be used for treatment of contaminated water generated from field operations.« less

  18. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  19. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets.

  20. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    PubMed

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The composition and morphology of amphiboles from the Rainy Creek complex, near Libby, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, G.P.; Bern, A.M.; Brownfield, I.K.; Lowers, H.A.; Sutley, S.J.; Hoefen, T.M.; Vance, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty samples of amphibole-rich rock from the largest mined vermiculite deposit in the world in the Rainy Creek alkaline-ultramafic complex near Libby, Montana, were collected and analyzed. The amphibole-rich rock is the suspected cause of an abnormally high number of asbestos-related diseases reported in the residents of Libby, and in former mine and mill workers. The amphibole-rich samples were analyzed to determine composition and morphology of both fibrous and non-fibrous amphiboles. Sampling was carried out across the accessible portions of the deposit to obtain as complete a representation of the distribution of amphibole types as possible. The range of amphibole compositions, determined from electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, indicates the presence of winchite, richterite, tremolite, and magnesioriebeckite. The amphiboles from Vermiculite Mountain show nearly complete solid solution between these end-member compositions. Magnesio-arfvedsonite and edenite may also be present in low abundance. An evaluation of the textural characteristics of the amphiboles shows the material to include a complete range of morphologies from prismatic crystals to asbestiform fibers. The morphology of the majority of the material is intermediate between these two varieties. All of the amphiboles, with the possible exception of magnesioriebeckite, can occur in fibrous or asbestiform habit. The Vermiculite Mountain amphiboles, even when originally present as massive material, can produce abundant, extremely fine fibers by gentle abrasion or crushing.

  2. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  3. Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

    Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

  4. Pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic responses in Fischer 344 rats after intratracheal instillation exposure to Libby amphibole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased incidences of asbestosis and mesothelioma have been reported in workers from Libby, Montana, associated with exposures to amphibole-contaminated vermiculite. In this study we investigated pulmonary and histopathological changes following Libby amphibole (LA) exposure i...

  5. Early Onset of Atypical Proliferative Lesions in the Lungs of a Libby Amphibole (LA) Exposed Rat Model of Cardiovascular Disease-Associated Iron Overlo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Miners and residents of Libby, Montana have increased incidences of asbestos-related diseases associated with exposure to amphibole contaminated vermiculite. Amphiboles have been shown to bind endogenous iron and modulate fiber induced inflammatory response. We hypoth...

  6. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  7. Design and performance of a trickle-bed bioreactor with immobilized hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Phillips, H A; Scharer, J M; Bols, N C; Moo-Young, M

    1992-01-01

    A trickle-bed system employing inert matrices of vermiculite or polyurethane foam packed in the downcomer section of a split-flow air-lift reactor has been developed for hybridoma culture to enhance antibody productivity. This quiescent condition favoured occlusion and allowed the cells to achieve densities twelve fold greater (12.8 x 10(6) cells/ml reactor for polyurethane foam) than in free cell suspension. The reactor was operated in a cyclic batch mode whereby defined volumes of medium were periodically withdrawn and replaced with equal volumes of fresh medium. The pH of the medium was used as the indicator of the feeding schedule. Glucose, lactate and ammonia concentrations reached a stationary value after 5 days. With vermiculite packing, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) concentration of 2.4 mg/l was achieved after 12 days. The MAb concentration declined then increased to a value of 1.8 mg/l. In the polyurethane foam average monoclonal antibody (MAb) concentrations reached a stationary value of 1.1 mg/l in the first 20 days and increased to a new stationary state value of 2.1 mg/l for the remainder of the production. MAb productivity in the trickle-bed reactor was 0.3 mg/l.d (polyurethane foam) and 0.18 mg/l.d (vermiculite) in comparison to 0.12 mg/l.d for free cell suspension. This trickle-bed system seems to be an attractive way of increasing MAb productivity in culture.

  8. Growing Media Affect Size of Container-Grown Red Pine

    Treesearch

    Howard M. Phipps

    1974-01-01

    Red pine seedlings were grown in nine different soil media and in two types of containers in a greenhouse. Growth differed significantly among the media after 16 weeks, with the largest seedlings produced in a peat-vermiculite mix

  9. Laboratory evaluation of a reactive baffle approach to NOx control. Final technical report, February-April 1993

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nelson, S.G.; Van Stone, D.A.; Little, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    Vermiculite, vermiculite coated with magnesia, and activated carbon sorbents have successfully removed NOx (and carbon monoxide and particles) from combustion exhausts in a subscale drone jet engine test cell (JETC), but back pressure so generated elevated the temperature of the JETC and of the engine. The objective of this effort was to explore the feasibility of locating the sorbents in the face of the duct or of baffles parallel to the direction of flow within the ducts. Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are stationary sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), soot, and unburned or partially oxidized carbon compounds that formmore » as byproducts of imperfect combustion. Regulation of NOx emissions is being considered for implementation under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Several principles have been examined as candidate methods to control NOx emissions from JETCs.« less

  10. Low levels of exposure to libby amphibole asbestos and localized pleural thickening.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista Yorita; Bateson, Thomas F; Kopylev, Leonid

    2013-11-01

    To explore the relationship between low levels of exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA) and pleural abnormalities, specifically localized pleural thickening (LPT). Three studies presenting the risks associated with quantitative LAA exposure estimates were reviewed, paying particular attention to lower exposure ranges. Studies reviewed were conducted among workers exposed to LAA at mining and milling operations in Libby, Montana, at a vermiculite processing facility in Marysville, Ohio, and community residents exposed to LAA from a vermiculite processing facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Pleural abnormalities were evaluated using radiographs. Despite differences in study populations and design, each study found that cumulative inhalation LAA exposure was associated with increased risk of LPT even at low levels of exposure. Inhalation exposure to LAA is associated with increased risk of LPT even at the lowest levels of exposure in each study.

  11. Clay mineralogy of weathering profiles from the Carolina Piedmont.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Saprolite profiles (12) that formed over various crystalline rocks from the Charlotte 1o X 2o quadrangle showed overall similarity in their clay mineralogy to depths of 6 to 45 m indicating control by weathering processes rather than by rock type. Most saprolite contained 10-25% clay, and ranged 3 to 70%. Kaolinite and halloysite composed = or >75% of the clay fraction of most samples. The ratio kaolinite:halloysite ranged widely, from 95% kaolinite to 90% halloysite, independent of depth. Clay-size mica was present in all profiles, and ranged 5-75% over a sericite schist. Mixed-layer mica-smectite and mica-vermiculite were subordinate; discrete smectite and vermiculite were rare. The abundance of halloysite indicates a continuously humid environment since the time of profile formation, because of the rapidity with which halloysite dehydrates irreversibly. -R.S.M.

  12. Comparative Long-Term Toxicity of Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos after Single or Multiple Intratracheal Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    In former mine workers of Libby, Montana, exposure to amphibole-containing vermiculite has been linked to increased rates of asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Although many studies have shown adverse effects of Libby Amphibole (LA) exposure, little is known regarding th...

  13. Effects of Libby amphibole exposure on the development of autoimmunity in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggest that exposure to the amphibole-containing vermiculite in Libby, MT was associated with increased risk (odds ratio of 2.14) for developing systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID). Elevated titers of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were also found in Libby res...

  14. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler and a Breathing Zone Model for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for asbestos structures to become airborne when the source is disturbed. The source can be naturally occurring asbestos in soil, mine tailings in the soil at brownfield sites, vermiculite attic insulation in indoor envi...

  15. Long term response of rats to single intratracheal exposure of Libby amphibole or amosite

    EPA Science Inventory

    In former mine workers and residents of Libby, Montana, exposure to amphibolecontaminated vermiculite has been associated with increased incidences of asbestosis and mesothelioma. In this study, we investigated long-term effects of Libby amphibole (LA) exposure relative to the w...

  16. LONG TERM RESPONSE OF RATS TO SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL EXPOSURE OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) OR AMOSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In former mine workers of Libby, Montana, exposure to amphibole-contaminated vermiculite has been associated with increased incidences of asbestosis and mesothelioma. In this study, we investigated long term effects of Libby amphibole (LA) exposure in a rat model. Rat respirable ...

  17. Safety Characteristics of Lithium Primary and Secondary Battery Systems. Formulation of a Lithium Battery Safety Matrix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    bags. 3) Cushioning of mineral wool , vermiculite or equivalent. Required labeling FLAMMABLE SOLID FLAMMABLE SOLID and DANGEROUS WHEN WET Authorized modes...or equivalent material such as mineral wool . Only permitted, hazardous waste transport companies may carry lithium batteries for disposal. The

  18. In vitro determinants of asbestos fiber toxicity: Effect on the relative toxicity of Libby Amphibole in pirmary human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background An abnormally high incidence of lung disease has been observed in the residents of Libby, Montana, which has been attributed to occupational and environmental exposure to fibrous amphiboles originating from a nearby contaminated vermiculite mine. The composition of L...

  19. Toxicologic Comparison between Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos following Intratracheal Instillation in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    An abnormally high incidence of asbestosis and mesothelioma has been reported in residents of Libby, Montana, after exposure to amphibole-contaminated vermiculite. However, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity of the Libby amphibole (LA) remains unclear. In the present study,...

  20. 46 CFR 164.009-3 - Noncombustible materials not requiring specific approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart: (a) Sheet glass, block glass, clay, ceramics, and uncoated fibers. (b) All metals, except... only sand, gravel, expanded vermiculite, expanded or vesicular slags, diatomaceous silica, perlite, or pumice. (d) Woven, knitted or needle punched glass fabric containing no additives other than lubricants...

  1. Cellular and inflammatory responses in bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs in rats after intratracheal instillation of Libby amphibole or amosite asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high incidence of asbestos-related disease in residents of Libby, Montana, is associated with the mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite, but the etiology of disease related to Libby amphibole asbestos (LA) exposure is unclear. In this study, water elutriation was used t...

  2. Evaluation of biochar-anaerobic potato digestate mixtures as renewable components of horticultural potting media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various formulations are used in horticultural potting media, with sphagnum peat moss, vermiculite and perlite currently among the most common components. We are examining a dried anaerobic digestate remaining after the fermentation of potato processing wastes to replace organic components such as p...

  3. SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR SUBJECTING PLANTS TO WATER STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A system was evaluated for growing plants at reproducible levels of water stress. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown in vermiculite, transferred to a semipermeable membrane system that encased the root vermiculate mass, and then placed into nutrient solutions to which vario...

  4. Effects of Libby amphibole asbestos exposure on two rat models of rheumatoid arthritis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggests that occupational exposure to the amphibole-containing vermiculite in Libby, MT was associated with increased risk for developing autoimmune diseases and had an odds ratio of 3.23 for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our goal was to determine wh...

  5. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  6. Optimizing Dose Characterizations for Measurement of in vivo Relative Potencies of Mineral Fibers

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEERL and OSWER representatives were invited to Libby, MT, for meetings on September 26-27, 2007, to discuss research addressing the health effects of asbestos contamination of that community. Vermiculite ore mined for 70 years near the town contained substantial amounts of amp...

  7. Analysis of the Importance of Oxides and Clays in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn Adsorption and Retention with Regression Trees

    PubMed Central

    González-Costa, Juan José; Reigosa, Manuel Joaquín; Matías, José María; Fernández-Covelo, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the influence of the different soil components and of the cation-exchange capacity on the adsorption and retention of different heavy metals: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. In order to do so, regression models were created through decision trees and the importance of soil components was assessed. Used variables were: humified organic matter, specific cation-exchange capacity, percentages of sand and silt, proportions of Mn, Fe and Al oxides and hematite, and the proportion of quartz, plagioclase and mica, and the proportions of the different clays: kaolinite, vermiculite, gibbsite and chlorite. The most important components in the obtained models were vermiculite and gibbsite, especially for the adsorption of cadmium and zinc, while clays were less relevant. Oxides are less important than clays, especially for the adsorption of chromium and lead and the retention of chromium, copper and lead. PMID:28072849

  8. Transport of Water, Dissolved Substances, Heat and Electric Current through Shales and Clay-Rich Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-20

    E. Anderson reviewed what was known about the dehydrations of gypsum, smectite, halloysite , vermiculite, and the zeolite minerals. Simple...dehydrations such as those of gypsum and halloysite occur at sharply-defined temperatures and thus contribute a time-limited fluid pulse at a given point. The

  9. Influence of host plants and soil diluents on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus propagation for on-farm inoculum production using leaf litter compost and agrowastes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Claroideoglomus etunicatum NNT10, C. etunicatum PBT03 and Funneliformis mosseae RYA08) were propagated using different culture materials (sterile sandy soil by itself or mixed 1:1 (v/v) with clay-brick granules, rice husk charcoal, or vermiculite) and host plants (...

  10. POLISHING INDUSTRIAL WASTE STREAM EFFLUENTS USING FLY ASH - NATURAL CLAY SORBENT COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory evaluation of the use of acidic and basic fly ashes, bentonite, bauxite, illite, kaolinite, zeolite, vermiculite, and activated alumina is presented for polishing a 3.8 x 10 to the 6th power liters per day waste stream from the feldspar mining and processing industry...

  11. Depth and type of substrate influence the ability of Nasonia vitripennis to locate a host

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The foraging behaviour of a parasitoid insect species includes the host’s habitat and subsequent location of the host. Habitats substrate, substrate moisture, and light levels can affect the host searching of different species of parasitoids. However, the depth at which parasitoids concentrate their search effort is another important ecological characteristic and plays an important role in locating a host. Here, we investigated the ability of a pupal parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), to penetrate and kill fly pupae located at different depths of the substrate. Three different types of substrate were tested: loam soil, compost, and vermiculite substrate. In both loam soil and compost, all of the parasitism activity was restricted to pupae placed directly on the surface. Parasitism activity in vermiculite showed that the average number of pupae parasitized decreased with depth of substrate. These results suggest that fly pupae situated deeper in the substrate are less subjected to parasitism by N. vitripennis . PMID:25373205

  12. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  13. [Effects of fungus on the growth of Dendrobium candidum and D. nobile in vitro culture].

    PubMed

    Song, J Y; Guo, S X

    2001-12-01

    To examine effects of fungus AR-18 (Epulorhiza sp.) on the growth of Dendrobium candidum and D. nobile in vitro culture. Effects of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were studied in vitro culture, when agar was used as rest, and effects of fungus AR-18 and nutrients on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were studied in vitro culture, when vermiculite was used as rest. In agar medium, effects of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum and D. nobile were not significant (P > 0.05). However, in vermiculite medium, the effect of fungus AR-18 on fresh weight of D. nobile was significant (P < 0.05). Fresh weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 16% compared with the non-inoculated ones (control). The effect of fungus AR-18 on dry weight of D. nobile was very significant (P < 0.01). Dry weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 21% compared with the control. In vermiculite medium, the effect of combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) on fresh weight of D. nobile was very significant (P < 0.01). Fresh weight of D. nobile inoculated with fungus AR-18 was increased by 47% compared with the control, while the effect of combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Nutrients) on fresh weight of D. nobile was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, the effect of combinations treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Nutrients) and (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) on dry weight of D. nobile was not significant (P > 0.05). So the combination treatment (Fungus AR-18 + Distilled H2O) was the best for the growth of D. nobile. In vermiculite medium, effects of fungus AR-18 and nutrients on fresh weight and dry weight of D. candidum were not significant (P > 0.05). It is important in vitro culture to select a proper rest for the control of the growth of fungus to establish a beneficial symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi. If the fungus AR-18 is utilized as

  14. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  15. Potential bioavailability of mercury in humus-coated clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daiwen; Zhong, Huan

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that both clay and organic matter in soils play a key role in mercury biogeochemistry, while their combined effect is less studied. In this study, kaolinite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite were coated or not with humus, and spiked with inorganic mercury (IHg) or methylmercury (MeHg). The potential bioavailability of mercury to plants or deposit-feeders was assessed by CaCl2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) extraction. For uncoated clay, IHg or MeHg extraction was generally lower in montmorillonite, due to its greater number of functional groups. Humus coating increased partitioning of IHg (0.5%-13.7%) and MeHg (0.8%-52.9%) in clay, because clay-sorbed humus provided more strong binding sites for mercury. Furthermore, humus coating led to a decrease in IHg (3.0%-59.8% for CaCl2 and 2.1%-5.0% for BSA) and MeHg (8.9%-74.6% for CaCl2 and 0.5%-8.2% for BSA) extraction, due to strong binding between mercury and clay-sorbed humus. Among various humus-coated clay particles, mercury extraction by CaCl2 (mainly through cation exchange) was lowest in humus-coated vermiculite, explained by the strong binding between humus and vermiculite. The inhibitory effect of humus on mercury bioavailability was also evidenced by the negative relationship between mercury extraction by CaCl2 and mercury in the organo-complexed fraction. In contrast, extraction of mercury by BSA (principally through complexation) was lowest in humus-coated montmorillonite. This was because BSA itself could be extensively sorbed onto montmorillonite. Results suggested that humus-coated clay could substantially decrease the potential bioavailability of mercury in soils, which should be considered when assessing risk in mercury-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  17. Allometry, nitrogen status, and carbon stable isotope composition of Pinus ponderosa seedlings in two growing media with contrasting nursery irrigation regimes

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert E. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Nursery irrigation regimes that recharged container capacity when target volumetric water content reached 72%, 58%, and 44% (by volume) influenced Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson growth more than either a 1:1 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - vermiculite (PV) or a 7:3 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - sawdust (PS) medium. Exponential fertilization avoided...

  18. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Treesearch

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  19. Mineral carbonation of gaseous carbon dioxide using a clay-hosted cation exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Mo; Roh, Ki-Min

    2013-01-01

    The mineral carbonation method is still a challenge in practical application owing to: (1) slow reaction kinetics, (2) high reaction temperature, and (3) continuous mineral consumption. These constraints stem from the mode of supplying alkaline earth metals through mineral acidification and dissolution. Here, we attempt to mineralize gaseous carbon dioxide into calcium carbonate, using a cation exchange reaction of vermiculite (a species of expandable clay minerals). The mineralization is operated by draining NaCI solution through vermiculite powders and continuously dropping into the pool of NaOH solution with CO2 gas injected. The mineralization temperature is regulated here at 293 and 333 K for 15 min. As a result of characterization, using an X-ray powder diffractometer and a scanning electron microscopy, two types of pure CaCO3 polymorphs (vaterite and calcite) are identified as main reaction products. Their abundance and morphology are heavily dependent on the mineralization temperature. Noticeably, spindle-shaped vaterite, which is quite different from a typical vaterite morphology (polycrystalline spherulite), forms predominantly at 333 K (approximately 98 wt%).

  20. Comparing growth of ponderosa pine in two growing media

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    I compared growth of container ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings grown in a 1:1 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:coarse vermiculite medium (P:V) and a 7:3 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:Douglas-fir sawdust medium (P:S) at three different irrigation regimes. By using exponential fertilization techniques, I was able to supply seedlings with similar amounts...

  1. Multiple pathway asbestos exposure assessment for a Superfund community.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Conway, Kathrene; Landguth, Erin L; McNew, Tracy; Linker, Laura; Pfau, Jean; Black, Brad; Szeinuk, Jaime; Flores, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Libby, MT, USA, was the home to workers at a historical vermiculite mining facility and served as the processing and distribution center for this industrial product that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos. Several pathways of environmental asbestos exposure to the general population have been identified. The local clinic and health screening program collects data from participants on past occupational and environmental exposures to vermiculite and asbestos. Health studies among this population have demonstrated associations between amphibole exposure and health outcomes, but critical questions regarding the nature and level of exposure associated with specific outcomes remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive exposure assessment approach that integrates information on individuals' contact frequency with multiple exposure pathways. For 3031 participants, we describe cumulative exposure metrics for environmental exposures, occupational exposures, and residents' contact with carry-home asbestos from household workers. As expected, cumulative exposures for all three occupational categories were higher among men compared with women, and cumulative exposures for household contact and environmental pathways were higher among women. The comprehensive exposure assessment strategies will advance health studies and risk assessment approaches in this population with a complex history of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure.

  2. Estimation of landslide-triggering factors using clay minerals, ASTER satellite image and GIS in the Busan area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G. C.; Kim, M. G.; Choi, J. J.; Ryu, J. O.; Nho, J. G.; Choo, C. O.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at estimating landslide-inducing factors such as extreme rainfall, slope, and geological factors in Busan city, southeastern Korea, using clay mineralogy, DM analysis and DB construction in order to develop the landslide evaluation standards suitable for the country. GIS-based data collected from the study area include geological maps, topological maps, soil maps, forest maps and others in the DB construction. Data extraction and processing for landslide-induced factors consist of expandable clay minerals identified using XRD, along with XRF and weathering sensitivity analysis and fundamental soil analysis on 38 bulk samples composed of weathered rocks and soils. Finally landslide sensibility maps were constructed using ArcGIS, together with ASTER satellite images for identifying clay minerals on regional areas helpful for saving time and money. In Mt. Cheonma, 16 samples are composed of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Hwangryeong and Mt. Geumryeun, 12 samples consist of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, kaolinite and hornblende, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Songhak, 10 samples are composed of quartz, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite. Quartz, albite and illite are abundant in most samples, regardless of sites studied. IDW interpolation method was applied to the Busan area. The resolution of space grids consists of 5 m x 5 m. Especially, illite was used as the most effective factor that induces landslide using IDW interpolation and ASTER satellite images. In conclusion, sensibility maps constructed using 16 layers including illite content, weathered sensibility are well in accordance with the real sites where landslides took place, showing that areas with high sensibility are closely related to the high frequencies of landslide. This research was supported by the Public Welfare & Safety Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded

  3. Asbestos Removal in the Construction Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    a lower strength lighter building panel. 5.3.3 Sprayed Coatings Mineral wool fiber and vermiculite have replaced asbestos in sprayed coating...wearing resistance and non- slip properties in floor tiles. Glass or mineral wool fibers may be used as alternative fibers, but make for a brittle...asbestos, for many applications, is millboard made from aluminosilicate fibers or mineral wool fibers. These fibers are bonded with a high temperature

  4. Program and Abstracts for Clay Minerals Society 28th Annual Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the annual meeting. Some of the main topics covered include: (1) fundamental properties of minerals and methods of mineral analysis; (2) surface chemistry; (3) extraterrestrial clay minerals; (4) geothermometers and geochronometers; (5) smectite, vermiculite, illite, and related reactions; (6) soils and clays in environmental research; (7) kaolinite, halloysite, iron oxides, and mineral transformations; and (8) clays in lakes, basins, and reservoirs.

  5. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  6. Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by halophilic archaea.

    PubMed

    Martin del Campo, Martha; Camacho, Rosa M; Mateos-Díaz, Juan C; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Córdova, Jesus; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are extremophiles, adapted to high-salt environments, showing a big biotechnological potential as enzyme, lipids and pigments producers. Four inert supports (perlite, vermiculite, polyurethane foam and glass fiber) were employed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the halophilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. TC6 to investigate biomass and esterase production. A very low esterase activity and high water activity were observed when perlite, vermiculite and polyurethane were used as supports. When glass fiber was employed, an important moisture loss was observed (8.6%). Moreover, moisture retention was improved by mixing polyurethane and glass fiber, resulting in maximal biomass and esterase production. Three halophilic archaea: Natronococcus sp. TC6, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui were cultured by submerged fermentation (SmF) and by SSF; an improvement of 1.3- to 6.2-fold was observed in the biomass and esterase production when SSF was used. Growth was not homogeneous in the mixture, but was predominant in the glass fiber thus was probably because the glass fiber provides a holder to the cells, while the polyurethane acts as an impregnation medium reservoir. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first report on haloarchaea cultivation by SSF aiming biomass and esterase/lipase activity production.

  7. Adjustment of growth and central metabolism to a mild but sustained nitrogen-limitation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tschoep, Hendrik; Gibon, Yves; Carillo, Petronia; Armengaud, Patrick; Szecowka, Marek; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Koehl, Karin; Stitt, Mark

    2009-03-01

    We have established a simple soil-based experimental system that allows a small and sustained restriction of growth of Arabidopsis by low nitrogen (N). Plants were grown in a large volume of a peat-vermiculite mix that contained very low levels of inorganic N. As a control, inorganic N was added in solid form to the peat-vermiculite mix, or plants were grown in conventional nutrient-rich solids. The low N growth regime led to a sustained 20% decrease of the relative growth rate over a period of 2 weeks, resulting in a two- to threefold decrease in biomass in 35- to 40-day-old plants. Plants in the low N regime contained lower levels of nitrate, lower nitrate reductase activity, lower levels of malate, fumarate and other organic acids and slightly higher levels of starch, as expected from published studies of N-limited plants. However, their rosette protein content was unaltered, and total and many individual amino acid levels increased compared with N-replete plants. This metabolic phenotype reveals that Arabidopsis responds adaptively to low N by decreasing the rate of growth, while maintaining the overall protein content, and maintaining or even increasing the levels of many amino acids.

  8. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: perlite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  10. Endogenous and exogenous ice-nucleating agents constrain supercooling in the hatchling painted turtle.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Baker, Patrick J; Dinkelacker, Stephen A; Lee, Richard E

    2003-02-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) commonly hibernate in their shallow, natal nests. Survival at temperatures below the limit of freeze tolerance (approximately -4 degrees C) apparently depends on their ability to remain supercooled, and, whereas previous studies have reported that supercooling capacity improves markedly with cold acclimation, the mechanistic basis for this change is incompletely understood. We report that the crystallization temperature (T(c)) of recently hatched (summer) turtles acclimated to 22 degrees C and reared on a substratum of vermiculite or nesting soil was approximately 5 degrees C higher than the T(c) determined for turtles acclimated to 4 degrees C and tested in winter. This increase in supercooling capacity coincided with elimination of substratum (and, in fewer cases, eggshell) that the hatchlings had ingested; however, this association was not necessarily causal because turtles reared on a paper-covered substratum did not ingest exogenous matter but nevertheless showed a similar increase in supercooling capacity. Our results for turtles reared on paper revealed that seasonal development of supercooling capacity fundamentally requires elimination of ice-nucleating agents (INA) of endogenous origin: summer turtles, but not winter turtles, produced feces (perhaps derived from residual yolk) that expressed ice-nucleating activity. Ingestion of vermiculite or eggshell, which had modest ice-nucleating activity, had no effect on the T(c), whereas ingestion of nesting soil, which contained two classes of potent INA, markedly reduced the supercooling capacity of summer turtles. This effect persisted long after the turtles had purged their guts of soil particles, because the T(c) of winter turtles reared on nesting soil (mean +/- S.E.M.=-11.6+/-1.4 degrees C) was approximately 6 degrees C higher than the T(c) of winter turtles reared on vermiculite or paper. Experiments in which winter turtles were fed INA commonly found in

  11. Exploring the potential of phyllosilicate minerals as potassium fertilizers using sodium tetraphenylboron and intensive cropping with perennial ryegrass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Wang, Huoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Zijun; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    In response to addressing potassium (K) deficiency in soil and decreasing agricultural production costs, the potential of K-bearing phyllosilicate minerals that can be directly used as an alternative K source has been investigated using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) extraction and an intensive cropping experiment. The results showed that the critical value of K-release rate and leaf K concentration was 3.30 g kg−1 h−1 and 30.64 g (kg dry matter)−1, respectively under the experimental conditions. According to this critical value, the maximum amount of released K that could be utilized by a plant with no K deficiency symptoms was from biotite (27.80 g kg−1) and vermiculite (5.58 g kg−1), followed by illite, smectite and muscovite with 2.76, 0.88 and 0.49 g kg−1, respectively. Ryegrass grown on phlogopite showed K deficiency symptoms during the overall growth period. It is concluded that biotite and vermiculite can be directly applied as a promising and sustainable alternative to the use of classical K fertilizers, illite can be utilized in combination with soluble K fertilizers, whereas muscovite, phlogopite and smectite may not be suitable for plant growth. Further field experiments are needed to assess the use of these phyllosilicate minerals as sources of K fertilizer. PMID:25782771

  12. Characterization of clay scales forming in Philippine geothermal wells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reyes, A.G.; Cardile, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Smectite scales occur in 24 out of the 36 blocked wells located in Tongonan, Palinpinon and Bacon-Manito. These comprise 2-85% of the well scales and form at depths of 33-2620 m, where measured and fluid inclusion temperatures are 40-320{sup 0}C. Most, however, occur below the production casing show where temperatures are {ge}230{sup 0}C, often at depths coinciding with aquifers. The clay scales are compositionally and structurally different from the bentonite used in drilling, which is essentially sodium-rich montmorillonite. The clay deposits are expanding, generally disordered, and combine the characteristics of a montmorillonite, saponite and vermiculite in terms of reaction tomore » cationic exchange treatments, structure and composition. Six types of clay scales are identified, but the predominant one, comprising 60-100% of the clay deposits in a well, is Mg- and Fe-rich and referred to as a vermiculitic species. The crystallinity, degree of disorder, textures, optical characteristics, structure and relative amounts of structural Al, Mg and Fe vary with time, temperature and fluid composition, but not with depth and measured pressure. Despite its variance from bentonite characteristics, one of the dominant suggested mechanisms of clay scale formation uses the drilling mud in the well as a substrate, from which the Mg- and Fe-rich clay evolves.« less

  13. Technological Aspects of Waterworks Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkanova, M. Yu; Nikolaenko, E. V.; Gevel, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The water yielding capacity of the sludge in water-supply network treatment facilities is determined by the water quality in a water source and its treatment technology. The paper studies the sludge of water-supply network treatment facilities formed in the conditions of low turbidity and average water colour index in the water source. Such sludge has a low water yielding capacity and is subject to conditioning. The paper shows the influence of seasonal variations of turbidity, water colour index and temperature of the feed water on the specific sludge filtration resistance. It considers the specific features of sludge formation in different settling basins influencing its water yielding capacity. It is shown that the washwater return performed at one of the blocks of the facilities increases the feed water turbidity and leads to the formation of the sludge easily susceptible to conditioning. The paper studies the following methods of the reagent sludge treatment: polyacrylamide-based flocculant treatment, joint treatment with flocculant and vermiculite filler, lime treatment. The use of vermiculite allows to reduce the required flocculant dose. The author determines optimum doses of reagents allowing to direct the sludge for further mechanical dewatering after conditioning. It is shown that, when the sludge is processed with lime, the filtrate formed at dewatering can be reused as an alkalifying agent, which will allow one to cut the costs for the acquisition of reagents.

  14. Analysis of the role of the two flagella of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in competition for nodulation of soybean.

    PubMed

    Althabegoiti, Maria Julia; Covelli, Julieta M; Pérez-Giménez, Julieta; Quelas, Juan Ignacio; Mongiardini, Elías J; López, Maria Florencia; López-García, Silvina L; Lodeiro, Aníbal R

    2011-06-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum has two types of flagella. One has thin filaments consisting of the 33-kDa flagellins FliCI and FliCII (FliCI-II) and the other has thick filaments consisting of the 65-kDa flagellins FliC1, FliC2, FliC3, and FliC4 (FliC1-4). To investigate the roles of each flagellum in competition for nodulation, we obtained mutants deleted in fliCI-II and/or fliC1-4 in the genomic backgrounds of two derivatives from the reference strain USDA 110: the streptomycin-resistant derivative LP 3004 and its more motile derivative LP 3008. All mutations diminished swimming motility. When each mutant was co-inoculated with the parental strain on soybean plants cultivated in vermiculite either at field capacity or flooded, their competitiveness differed according to the flagellin altered. ΔfliCI-II mutants were more competitive, occupying 64-80% of the nodules, while ΔfliC1-4 mutants occupied 45-49% of the nodules. Occupation by the nonmotile double mutant decreased from 55% to 11% as the water content of the vermiculite increased from 85% to 95% field capacity to flooding. These results indicate that the influence of motility on competitiveness depended on the water status of the rooting substrate. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Boletus edulis species complex and rockroses (Cistus sp.).

    PubMed

    Águeda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; Fernández-Toirán, Luz Marina; Cisneros, Óscar; de Miguel, Ana María; Modrego, María Pilar; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Pera, Joan

    2008-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizas of Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Boletus reticulatus were synthesized with Cistus sp. under laboratory conditions using synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat-vermiculite and nutrient solution. The fungal strains isolated from sporocarps were identified by molecular techniques. The inoculated seedlings were grown for 4-5 months. The ectomycorrhizas formed were described based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The three ectomycorrhizas described were very similar, with white monopodial-pinnate morphology, a three-layered plectenchymatous mantle on plan view and boletoid rhizomorphs.

  16. Finalizing the Libby Action Plan Research Program | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Libby, Montana is the location of a former vermiculite mine that operated from 1923 to 1990. The vermiculite ore from the mine co-existed with amphibole asbestos, referred to as Libby Amphibole Asbestos (LAA). Combined with the cessation of the asbestos mining and processing operations, there has been significant progress in reducing the exposure to LAA in Libby, Montana. In 2009, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly with the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) declared a public health emergency in Libby due to observed asbestos-related health effects in the region. As part of this effort, the EPA led a cross-agency research program that conducted analytical, toxicological, and epidemiological research on the health effects of asbestos at the Libby Asbestos Superfund Site (Libby Site) in Libby, Montana. The Libby Action Plan (LAP) was initiated in 2007 to support the site-specific risk assessment for the Libby Site. The goal of the LAP research program was to explore the health effects of LAA, and determine toxicity information specific to LAA in order to accurately inform a human health risk assessment at the Libby Site. LAP research informed data gaps related to the health effects of exposure to LAA, particularly related to specific mechanisms of fiber dosimetry and toxicity (e.g., inflammatory responses), as well as investigated disease progression in exposed populations and advanced asbestos analytical techniques. This work incl

  17. Hydrological performance of dual-substrate-layer green roofs using porous inert substrates with high sorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui

    2017-06-01

    Given that the common medium in existing green roofs is a single layer composed of organic and inorganic substrates, seven pilot-scale dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs (G1-G7), which include nutrition and adsorption substrate layers, were constructed in this study. The effectiveness of porous inert substrates (activated charcoal, zeolite, pumice, lava, vermiculite and expanded perlite) used as the adsorption substrate for stormwater retention was investigated. A single-substrate-layer green roof (G8) was built for comparison with G1-G7. Despite the larger total rainfall depth (mm) of six types of simulated rains (43.2, 54.6, 76.2, 87.0, 85.2 and 86.4, respectively), the total percent retention of G1-G7 varied between 14% and 82% with an average of 43%, exhibiting better runoff-retaining capacity than G8 based on the maximum potential rainfall storage depth per unit height of adsorption substrate. Regression analysis showed that there was a logarithmic relationship between cumulative rainfall depth with non-zero runoff and stormwater retention for G1-G4 and a linear relationship for G5-G8. To enhance the water retention capacity and extend the service life of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs, the mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with expanded perlite and/or vermiculite is more suitable as the adsorption substrate than the mixture containing lava and/or zeolite.

  18. Where Occupation and Environment Overlap: US Forest Service Worker Exposure to Libby Amphibole Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Butler, Corey; Berry, David; Wroble, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an evaluation of exposures to asbestiform amphibole, known as Libby Amphibole (LA), to personnel from the US Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USFS) working in the Kootenai National Forest near a former vermiculite mine close to Libby, Montana. LA is associated with vermiculite that was obtained from this mine; mining and processing over many years have resulted in the spread of LA into the surrounding Kootenai Forest where it has been found in tree bark, soil, and forest floor litter. As a result of this and other contamination, Libby and surrounding areas have been designated a “Superfund” site by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This article describes the application of EPA methods for assessing cancer risks to NIOSH sampling results. Phase-contrast microscopy for airborne asbestos fiber evaluation was found to be less useful than transmission electron microscopy in the presence of interfering organic (plant) fibers. NIOSH Method 7402 was extended by examination of larger areas of the filter, but fiber counts remained low. There are differences between counting rules in NIOSH 7402 and the ISO method used by EPA but these are minor in the context of the uncertainty in concentration estimates from the low counts. Estimates for cancer risk are generally compatible with those previously estimated by the EPA. However, there are limitations to extrapolating these findings of low risk throughout the entire area and to tasks that were not evaluated. PMID:25715191

  19. Where occupation and environment overlap: US Forest Service worker exposure to Libby Amphibole fibers.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Butler, Corey; Berry, David; Wroble, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an evaluation of exposures to asbestiform amphibole, known as Libby Amphibole (LA), to personnel from the US Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USFS) working in the Kootenai National Forest near a former vermiculite mine close to Libby, Montana. LA is associated with vermiculite that was obtained from this mine; mining and processing over many years have resulted in the spread of LA into the surrounding Kootenai Forest where it has been found in tree bark, soil, and forest floor litter. As a result of this and other contamination, Libby and surrounding areas have been designated a "Superfund" site by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This article describes the application of EPA methods for assessing cancer risks to NIOSH sampling results. Phase-contrast microscopy for airborne asbestos fiber evaluation was found to be less useful than transmission electron microscopy in the presence of interfering organic (plant) fibers. NIOSH Method 7402 was extended by examination of larger areas of the filter, but fiber counts remained low. There are differences between counting rules in NIOSH 7402 and the ISO method used by EPA but these are minor in the context of the uncertainty in concentration estimates from the low counts. Estimates for cancer risk are generally compatible with those previously estimated by the EPA. However, there are limitations to extrapolating these findings of low risk throughout the entire area and to tasks that were not evaluated.

  20. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukesh; Manhas, R. K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Raina, A. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Kamboj, S. K.

    2011-02-01

    The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64-80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and opaques comprising of iron minerals constituted the heavy mineral fraction (20%). The mineralogy of both the sand and clay fractions revealed a mixed mineralogy. The clay minerals in the order of their dominance were vermiculite, illite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. The presence of vermiculite and illite in appreciable quantities indicates that these were synthesized from the K-rich soil solution, as orthoclase and micas were present in significant quantities in the sand minerals. The mineral suites identified in the study shows that the geological, climatological and topographical factors of the region collectively played a dominant role in their formation and transformation. After critical appraisal of the results, it may be deduced that the mineralogical composition, physicochemical properties and total elemental analysis of the soils do not show any deficiency of the bases and other plant nutrients in general. The inherent fertility of the soil is good as indicated by the sand and clay mineralogy of the soil and the biotite and feldspar together with the mica is an important source of nutrients for the vegetation in the soils of the Doon valley.

  1. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of continuous rice cultivation and different waterlogging periods on morphology, clay mineralogy, Eh, pH and K in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Bahmanyar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different rice cultivation periods on the properties of selected soils in alluvial plain were studied in Mazandaran province (north of Iran) in 2004. Soils were sampled form 0, 6, 16, 26 and over 40 years rice cultivation fields. In each treatment three soil profiles and six nearby auger holes were studied. The present study results indicated that continuous rice cultivation have changed soil moisture regime from xeric to aquic, soil color from brown to grayish, surface horizons from mollic to ochric epipedon and soil structure changed from granular or blocky to massive. Therefore, the soil order has changed from Mollisols to Inceptisols. No illuviation and eluviation of clay minerals occurred as a consequence of rice cultivation. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clay minerals in non-rice cultivated field were illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, but in rice field were illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, respectively. In contrast of montmorillonite, the amount of illite and vermiculite have been decreased by increasing periods of rice cultivation. The pH values of the saturated soil surface in six weeks past plantation have shifted toward neutrality. While Eh value of non-paddy soils were about +90 mv, surface horizons of paddy soils at field conditions had Eh value about +40, -12, -84, -122 mv, respectively. The amounts of organic matter and available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were increased whereas available K was decreased in paddy soils.

  3. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. High sodium coal-firing experiences at Basin Electric Power Cooperative's Leland Olds Station

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Laning, V.R.; Bartle, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes some of the efforts made at the Leland Olds Station to cope with the problems created from high sodium content coals. Such coals have historically presented superheater fouling problems for utilities; ash deposits from high sodium coals have a very high sintering strength and are very difficult to remove by conventional methods. It is reported that the addition of limestone in the pulverizer unit at Leland Olds and vermiculite ore in the cyclone unit has helped reduce the fouling characteristics of high sodium lignites in North Dakota at an affordable cost.

  5. Rolled lawn as tool for industrial barren remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbacheva, T. T.; Ivanova, L. A.; Kikuchi, R.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    Fast development of the industrial and urban territories during last century has led to great disturbance of natural ecosystems in a lot of regions of the world. In the Far North the risk resulted from technogenic influence involves essentially more expressed negative consequences for the nature comparing to a regions of averages and southern latitudes due to higher sensitivity of northern ecosystems. Since thirtieth years of last century industrial complexes on extraction and processing of nonferrous metals ores are functioned on Kola peninsula territory. They are powerful sources of emissions of acidifying substances and heavy metals. Long term influence of these emissions resulted in deep degradation of terrestrial ecosystems up to industrial barren arising in immediate proximity to industrial centre Monchegorsk. The most radical way of disturbed territories rehabilitation is biological remediation. In 2006-2008 innovative methods of high-quality grass cover performance was developed in local enterprise «VIPON» in Apatity. Vermiculite trademark «VIPON» is characterized by not broken structure of minerals combined with week reactance, high mechanical durability, favorable рН equal 6.5-7.0, valuable absorptive and ion exchange properties. Final product of proposed technology was rolled lawn which successfully applied for remediation of disturbed sites in urban territories as such as industrial plots with low contamination. One of abstract authors namely L.Ivanova is one of technology implementators. During 2008 the field test was performed near the smelter complex (67°51'N, 32°48'E) to estimate suitability of proposed method for site remediation in more severe conditions such as in industrial barren. The method is based on cultivation of perennial grasses using hydroponics with thermally inflated vermiculite from local deposit (Kovdor) followed by rolled lawn placement on very contaminated sites near Monchegorsk. Great advantage of rolled lawn is short

  6. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  7. Exposure matrix development for the Libby cohort.

    PubMed

    Noonan, C W

    2006-11-01

    The Libby, MT, cohort includes current and former residents with potential historical exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. This cohort includes individuals with a broad range of exposure experiences and work histories. While both occupational and nonoccupational exposure pathways were found to be relevant in recent investigations of health effects among this cohort, there has not been a comprehensive approach to characterizing these varied exposure pathways. Any approach toward assessing historical exposures among this population must account for three general categories: (1) occupational exposures, (2) residential exposures, and (3) exposures related to a variety of nonoccupational activities thought to be associated with vermiculite/asbestos exposure in this community. First, a job exposure matrix is commonly used in occupational epidemiology to assess historical worker exposures, allowing for the incorporation of numerous occupational categories and weighting factors applied to specific jobs for different time periods. Second, residential exposures can best be quantified by integrating individuals' residential histories with data on environmental asbestos contamination in the community. Previous soil or sediment sampling as well as air modeling could inform estimates of time- and spatial-dependent exposure concentrations for a residential exposure matrix. Finally, exposure opportunities due to nonoccupational activities could be weighted by factors such as time, geography, environmental sampling, and an assessment of the relative importance for each pathway. These three matrices for occupational, residential, and activity exposure pathways could be combined or used separately to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative, or semiquantitative, assessment of individual exposure in future epidemiological studies of this cohort.

  8. Growth of Three Lettuce Cultivars in NASA's HDU PEM During the 2010 DRATS Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. Rooting media and slow release fertilizers were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that had shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. These tests involved comparing growth, color and quality of the lettuce cultivars grown under VEGGIE LED array (Orbitec, Madison, WI) or Biomass Production System for Education ((BSEe), Orbitec, Madison, WI) compact fluorescent lamps using a gravity feed water delivery system. Mission relevant conditions of CO2, temperature and RH were maintained using controlled environment chambers (EGC, Chagrin Falls, OH). Growth data was obtained for the two red leaf lettuce cultivars, Outredgeous and Firecracker, and the green Bibb lettuce cultivar, Flandria. Growth and quality was evaluated using different concentrations (7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) of commercial slow release fertilizer (Osmocote Plus 15-9-12, Scotts, Maryville, OH) and Nutricote 18-6-8 (Florikan, Sarasota, FL) in either a peat/vermiculite media (sunshine LP5 MiX, Sungro, Bellview, WA) or calcined montmorillonite clay [(arcillite,)Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL]. The commercial peat/vermiculite mix generally resulted in larger plants than those grown in arcillite. Increasing the concentration of Osmocote from 7.5 to 15 g/L increased the height, dry mass, and leaf area of lettuce cultivars. In contrast, there was a decrease in growth parameters when concentration of Nutricote was increased from 7.5 to 15 g/L. The best growth was obtained with the 7.5 g/L Nutricote using a commercial peat/vermiculite mixture. This media was used for field testing VEGGIE plant system in the 2010 DRAT test. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple

  9. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift is known to influence denudation rates. Denudation, including chemical weathering and physical erosion, affects soil production rates and weathering intensities. At topographic steady state, weathering can be transport- or weathering-limited. In the transport-limited regime, low denudation rates should lead to comparatively high weathering intensities, while in the weathering-limited case high denudation rates are associated with lower weathering intensities. Here, we test if this relationship applies to semi-arid environments where chemical weathering is generally slow. Three catchments (EST, FIL and CAB) were studied in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in southeast Spain, spanning a range of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr) from EST to CAB. In each catchment, two ridgetop soil profiles were sampled down to the bedrock. The three catchments have similar vegetation and climatic conditions, with precipitation of 250- 315 mm/yr and mean annual temperature of 15-17 °C. The mineralogy of the bedrock, as determined by XRD, is similar across the three catchments and is characterized by the presence of quartz, muscovite, clinochlore, biotite and plagioclase. This primary mineral assemblage is also found in the catchment soils, indicating that the soils studied derive from the same parent material. The soil clay-size fraction is dominated by kaolinite, vermiculite and illite. However, the proportions of the soil primary and secondary minerals vary between the catchment sites. The abundance of biotite decreases from CAB (14%) to EST (4%), whereas the quartz and clay contents show an opposite tendency (from 30 to 69% and 9.9 to 14.3%, respectively). Further, the abundance of vermiculite increases from CAB to EST. The results are interpreted in terms of increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST by weathering of biotite into vermiculite and enrichment of soils on more weathering resistant

  10. Mineralogical and geochemical features of the alteration processes of magmatic ores in the Beni Bousera ultramafic massif (north Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, Zaineb; Gervilla, Fernando; Essaifi, Abderrahim; Wafik, Amina

    2017-08-01

    The Beni Bousera ultramafic massif (Internal Rif, Morocco) is characterized by the presence of two types of small-scale magmatic mineralizations (i) a mineralization consisting mainly of chromite and Ni arsenides associated to orthopyroxene and cordierite (Cr-Ni ores), and (ii) a mineralization mainly composed of magmatic Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides containing variable amounts of graphite and chromite associated to phlogopite, clinopyroxène and plagioclase (S-G ores). Theses ores underwent High-T (450-550 °C) and Low-T (150-300 °C) alteration processes. The High-T alteration processes are tentatively related to intrusion of leucogranite dykes. They are preserved in the Galaros Cr-Ni ore deposit where nickeline is partly dissolved and transformed to maucherite, and orthopyroxene alters to phlogopite. Ni and Co were mobilized to the fluid phase, rising up their availability and promoting their diffusion into chromite and phlogopite, which have significantly higher contents in Ni and Co in phlogopite-rich ores than in orthopyroxene- and nickeline-rich ones. The Low-T alteration processes are related to serpentinization/weathering spatially associated with a regional shear zone. They affected both the Cr-Ni and S-G ores. In the Cr-Ni ores, Ni-arsenides were completely leached out while chromite is fractured within a matrix of chlorite, vermiculite and Ni-rich serpentine. In S-G ores, the silicates were altered into amphibole, Fe-rich chlorite and pectolite in clinopyroxene- and plagioclase-bearing ores while sulfides were completely leached out in phlogopite-bearing ores where iron oxides and hydroxides, and Fe-rich vermiculite were deposited. Chromite composition is not affected by the Low-T alteration processes.

  11. Barley responses to combined waterlogging and salinity stress: separating effects of oxygen deprivation and elemental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanrong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and waterlogging are two major factors affecting crop production around the world and often occur together (e.g., salt brought to the surface by rising water tables). While the physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant responses to each of these environmental constraints are studied in detail, the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to their combined stress are much less understood. In this study, whole-plant physiological responses to individual/combined salinity and waterlogging stresses were studied using two barley varieties grown in either vermiculite (semi-hydroponics) or sandy loam. Two weeks of combined salinity and waterlogging treatment significantly decreased plant biomass, chlorophyll content, maximal quantum efficiency of PSII and water content (WC) in both varieties, while the percentage of chlorotic and necrotic leaves and leaf sap osmolality increased. The adverse effects of the combined stresses were much stronger in the waterlogging-sensitive variety Naso Nijo. Compared with salinity stress alone, the combined stress resulted in a 2-fold increase in leaf Na+, but a 40% decrease in leaf K+ content. Importantly, the effects of the combined stress were more pronounced in sandy loam compared with vermiculite and correlated with changes in the soil redox potential and accumulation of Mn and Fe in the waterlogged soils. It is concluded that hypoxia alone is not a major factor determining differential plant growth under adverse stress conditions, and that elemental toxicities resulting from changes in soil redox potential have a major impact on genotypic differences in plant physiological and agronomical responses. These results are further discussed in the context of plant breeding for waterlogging stress tolerance. PMID:23967003

  12. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HYDROPONIC SUBSTRATE COMBINATIONS AND WATERING REGIMES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTI-FUNGAL PROPERTIES OF SIPHONOCHILUS AETHIOPICUS

    PubMed Central

    S, Xego; L, Kambizi; F, Nchu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Production of medicinal plants in controlled environments, particularly hydroponic technology, provides opportunities for high quality biomass accumulation and optimizes production of secondary metabolites. Applying special watering regimes in combination with efficient soil draining is an encouraging new tool for the production of pharmaceutical relevant plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of substrate combinations and watering regimes on nutrient uptake, anti-F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolite profile of S. aethiopicus. Materials and Methods: Coir was used as the main component for the preparation of media in different combinations; TI (Coir + vermiculite + perlite + bark), T2 (Coir + bark), T3 (Coir + perlite) and T4 (Coir + vermiculite). Plants in different treatments were grown under two watering regimes: 3 and 5-days watering intervals. At 9 weeks post treatment, plants were harvested, oven dried and tissue nutrient content, anti-F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolites were analyzed. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) on the uptake of P, K, N, Mg, Fe, Cu, B and NH4-.The highest mean values for most nutrients were obtained in treatments under 3-days interval. Acetone extracts of S. aethiopicus under 5-days interval were the most bioactive against F. oxysporum. The MIC values obtained are relatively lower for the rhizomes, ranging from 0.078 - 0.3125 mg/ml compared to the higher MIC values (0.375 - 0.75 mg/ml) obtained in the leaves. LC-MS analysis of acetone extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as caffeic acid, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, kaempferol, epicatechin, naringenin, hesperetin and protocatechuic acid. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity and/or the phytochemical profile of the crude extracts were affected by watering regimes. PMID:28480420

  13. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HYDROPONIC SUBSTRATE COMBINATIONS AND WATERING REGIMES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTI-FUNGAL PROPERTIES OF SIPHONOCHILUS AETHIOPICUS.

    PubMed

    S, Xego; L, Kambizi; F, Nchu

    2017-01-01

    Production of medicinal plants in controlled environments, particularly hydroponic technology, provides opportunities for high quality biomass accumulation and optimizes production of secondary metabolites. Applying special watering regimes in combination with efficient soil draining is an encouraging new tool for the production of pharmaceutical relevant plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of substrate combinations and watering regimes on nutrient uptake, anti- F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolite profile of S. aethiopicus . Coir was used as the main component for the preparation of media in different combinations; TI (Coir + vermiculite + perlite + bark), T2 (Coir + bark), T3 (Coir + perlite) and T4 (Coir + vermiculite). Plants in different treatments were grown under two watering regimes: 3 and 5-days watering intervals. At 9 weeks post treatment, plants were harvested, oven dried and tissue nutrient content, anti- F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences ( P < 0.05) on the uptake of P, K, N, Mg, Fe, Cu, B and NH4 - .The highest mean values for most nutrients were obtained in treatments under 3-days interval. Acetone extracts of S. aethiopicus under 5-days interval were the most bioactive against F. oxysporum . The MIC values obtained are relatively lower for the rhizomes, ranging from 0.078 - 0.3125 mg/ml compared to the higher MIC values (0.375 - 0.75 mg/ml) obtained in the leaves. LC-MS analysis of acetone extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as caffeic acid, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, kaempferol, epicatechin, naringenin, hesperetin and protocatechuic acid. The antimicrobial activity and/or the phytochemical profile of the crude extracts were affected by watering regimes.

  14. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study of mineral-organic matter associations in pasture soil clay fractions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils.

  15. Specific Features of Profile Distribution and Crystallochemistry of Phyllosilicates in Soils of the Cisbaikal Forest-Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Gamzikov, G. P.; Chechetko, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of agrogray, dark gray, and agro-dark gray soils (Luvic Greyzemic Retic Phaeozems); agro-dark gray residual-calcareous soils (Calcaric Cambic Phaeozems); clay-illuvial agrochernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems); and agrochernozems with migrational-mycelial carbonates (Haplic Chernozems) developed in the forest-steppe of Central Siberia within the Irkutsk Depression has been studied. The clay (<1 μm) fraction separated from these soils consists of mixed-layer minerals with alternating layers of hydromica, smectite, vermiculite, and chlorite; the proportions between them change within the soil profiles. The clay fraction also contains hydromicas, kaolinite, chlorite, and some admixture of the fine-dispersed quartz. Each type of the soils is characterized by its own distribution pattern of clay material with specific alternation of layers in the mixed-layer formations. Mixed-layer minerals of the chlorite-vermiculite type predominate in the upper horizons of texture-differentiated soils. Down the soil profile, the content of mixed-layer mica-smectitic minerals increases. In the clay fraction of arable dark gray-humus soils with residual carbonates, the distribution of the clay fraction and major mineral phases in the soil profile is relatively even. An increased content of well-crystallized kaolinite is typical of these soils. The parent material of agrochernozems has a layered character: the upper horizons are generally depleted of clay, and the middle-profile and lower horizons are characterized by the considerable kaolinite content. In general, the clay material of soils of the Tulun-Irkutsk forest-steppe differs considerably from the clay material of foreststeppe soils developed from loesslike and mantle loams in the European part of Russia. In particular, this difference is seen in the proportions between major mineral phases and between biotitic and muscovitic components, as well as in the degree of crystallinity and behavior of

  16. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun; Zhao, Shijie; Cui, Mingxing; Han, Guangxuan; Wen, Pei

    2018-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging. After 7 days of severe waterlogging, PSII and PSI photoinhibition arose, indicated by significant decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and PSI (△MR/MR 0 ), and PSI seemed more vulnerable because of greater decrease in △MR/MR 0 than Fv/Fm. In line with decreased △MR/MR 0 and unchanged Fv/Fm after 9 days of moderate waterlogging, the amount of PSI reaction center protein rather than PSII reaction center protein was lowered, confirming greater PSI vulnerability. According to positive correlation between △MR/MR 0 and efficiency that an electron moves beyond primary quinone and negative correlation between △MR/MR 0 and PSII excitation pressure, PSI inactivation elevated PSII excitation pressure by depressing electron transport at PSII acceptor side. Thus, PSI vulnerability induced PSII photoinhibition and endangered the stability of whole photosynthetic apparatus under waterlogging. In agreement with photosystems photoinhibition, elevated H 2 O 2 concentration and lipid peroxidation in the leaves corroborated waterlogging-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, Jerusalem artichoke is a waterlogging sensitive species in terms of photosynthesis and PSI vulnerability. Consistently, tuber yield was tremendously reduced by waterlogging, confirming waterlogging sensitivity of Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the role of clay minerals in the chromium(VI) bioremoval by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 under growth condition: microscopic, spectroscopic and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunxi; Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Yuewu; Ruan, Bo; Li, Liping; Tran, Lytuong; Zhu, Nengwu; Dang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the role of clay minerals, e.g., kaolinite and vermiculite, in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under growth condition in glucose-amended mediums as a method for treating Cr(VI)-contaminated subsurface environment such as soil. Our results indicated that glucose could acted as an essential electron donor, and clay minerals significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by improving the consumption rate of glucose and stimulating the growth and propagation of P. aeruginosa. Cr(VI) bioreduction by both free cells and clay minerals-amended cells followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with the latter one fitting better. The mass balance analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) and the adsorption of total chromium on clay minerals-bacteria complex was small, implying that Cr(VI) bioremoval was not mainly due to the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto cells or clay minerals or clay minerals-cells complex but mainly due to the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of P. aeruginosa under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). Atomic force microscopy revealed that the addition of clay minerals (e.g. vermiculite) decreased the surface roughness of Cr(VI)-laden cells and changed the cell morphology and dimension. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that organic matters such as aliphatic species and/or proteins played an important role in the combination of cells and clay minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the attachment of cells on the surface of clay minerals, indicating that clay minerals could provide a microenvironment to protect cells from Cr(VI) toxicity and serve as growth-supporting materials. These findings manifested the underlying influence of clay minerals on microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and gave an understanding of the interaction between pollutants, the environment and the biota.

  18. Breeding protocol for the sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Thais Marchi; da Rocha Silva, Flávia Benini; Machado, Vicente Estevam; Oliveira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz; de Castro, Camila Feitosa; Rodrigues, Marili Villa Nova; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals. Currently, our colony is at F22 generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - A potential source of several uncommon mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, B. S.; Lowers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex is a 31-kM2 (12-sq mile) alkalic intrusion located about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, CO. The intrusion has been well studied and described because of its classic petrology and architecture ofa carbonatite-alkalic complex. The complex is also noteworthy because it contains enrichments of titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), vanadium and deposits of vermiculite and nepheline syenite. In particular, the complex is thought to host the largest titanium and niobium resources in the United States, although neither has been developed. It may be economic to extract multiple resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan.

  20. Analysis of mixed-layer clay mineral structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, W.F.

    1953-01-01

    Among the enormously abundant natural occurrences of clay minerals, many examples are encountered in which no single specific crystallization scheme extends through a single ultimate grain. The characterization of such assemblages becomes an analysis of the distribution of matter within such grains, rather than the simple identification of mineral species. It having become established that the particular coordination complex typified by mica is a common component of many natural subcrystalline assemblages, the opportunity is afforded to analyze scattering from random associations of these complexes with other structural units. Successful analyses have been made of mixed hydration states of montmorillonite, of montmorillonite with mica, of vermiculite with mica, and of montmorillonite with chlorite, all of which are variants of the mica complex, and of halloysite with hydrated halloysite.

  1. Spectral analysis of Deccan intrabasaltic bole beds: Implications for the formation and alteration of phyllosilicates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Patricia; Chevrier, Vincent; Sayyed, M. R. G.; Islam, R.

    2017-01-01

    To fully understand phyllosilicates on Mars, it is beneficial to study analog deposits on Earth. One attractive candidate for martian phyllosilicates is the intrabasaltic bole beds (palaeosols) from the Deccan Volcanic Province of India. Eleven samples from the upper-layer red Deccan bole beds and underlying yellow and green Deccan bole beds were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), near-infrared (1.0-2.5 μm) and mid-infrared (5-15 μm) reflectance spectroscopy. Analysis of the bole beds indicated that the red boles are composed of a mixture of montmorillonite and hematite, yellow boles contain vermiculite and minor montmorillonite and green boles are composed mainly of nontronite (smectite) and celadonite (mica). While the bole beds are all chemically similar to each other and to the underlying basalt from which they were weathered, they are mineralogically different. This suggests transformation from one mineral to the next without ion transfer or loss which could be indicative of a limited-water environment. In fact, celadonite can transform into smectites (such as montmorillonite), often with vermiculite as an intermediate step. This not only explains the stratigraphy and mineralogy of the Deccan bole beds but may also explain the layered phyllosilicates identified in various, global locations on Mars. The transition observed in the Deccan bole beds suggests an evolution of the alteration process from deuteric alteration to low-temperature weathering, likely due to changes in temperature, in a closed system (no significant ion transfer) as evidenced by the minerals' similar chemistry. Thus, the Deccan bole beds are a good analog for the phyllosilicates layers on Mars and by studying the chemistry, mineralogy and spectral properties of the Deccan bole beds, we can link their formation and alteration processes to those of martian phyllosilicates. This will provide a clearer understanding of the environmental conditions on Mars at the time of the phyllosilicates

  2. Water deficit modulates gene expression in growing zones of soybean seedlings. Analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, a new beta-tubulin gene, and expression of genes encoding cell wall proteins.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1991-10-01

    Transfer of soybean seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite (psi w = -0.3 MPa) results in a reversible decrease in hypocotyl growth and modulation of several polysomal mRNAs (Plant Physiol 92: 205-214). We report here the isolation of two cDNA clones (pGE16 and pGE95) which correspond to genes whose mRNA levels are increased, and one cDNA clone (pGE23) which corresponds to a gene whose mRNA level is decreased in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation by water deficit. In well-watered seedlings mRNAs hybridizing to pGE16 and pGE95 are most abundant in mature regions of the seedling, but in water-deficient seedlings mRNA levels are reduced in mature regions and enhanced in elongating regions. RNA corresponding to soybean proline-rich protein 1 (sbPRP1) shows a similar tissue distribution and response to water deficit. In contrast, in well-watered seedlings, the gene corresponding to pGE23 was highly expressed in the hypocotyl and root growing zones. Transfer of seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite caused a rapid decrease in mRNA hybridizing to pGE23. Sequence analysis revealed that pGE23 has high homology with beta-tubulin. Water deficit also reduced the level of mRNA hybridizing to JCW1, an auxin-modulated gene, although with different kinetics. Furthermore, mRNA encoding actin, glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) were down-regulated in the hypocotyl zone of elongation of seedlings exposed to water deficit. No effect of water deficit was observed on the expression of chalcone synthase. Decreased expression of beta-tubulin, actin, JCW1, HRGP and GRP and increased expression of sbPRP1, pGE95 and pGE16 in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation could participate in the reversible growth inhibition observed in water-deficient soybean seedlings.

  3. Application of inorganic carrier-based formulations of fluorescent pseudomonads and Piriformospora indica on tomato plants and evaluation of their efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sarma, M V R K; Kumar, V; Saharan, K; Srivastava, R; Sharma, A K; Prakash, A; Sahai, V; Bisaria, V S

    2011-08-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads are widely used as bioinoculants for improving plant growth and controlling phytopathogenic fungi. Piriformospora indica (Pi), a symbiotic root endophyte, also has beneficial effects on a number of plants. The present study focuses on the improvement of growth yields of tomato plants and control of Fusarium wilt using inorganic carrier-based formulations of two fluorescent pseudomonad strains (R62 and R81) and Pi. The inorganic carrier-based formulations of pseudomonad strains and Pi were tested for plant growth promotion of tomato plants under glass house and field conditions. In controlled glass house experiments, 8·8-fold increase in dry root weight and 8·6-fold increase in dry shoot weight were observed with talcum powder-based consortium formulation of R81 and Pi. Field trial experiments ascertained the glfass house results with a considerable amount of increase in plant growth responses, and amongst all the treatments, R81 + Pi treatment performed consistently well in field conditions with an increase of 2·6-, 3·1- and 3·9-fold increase in dry root weight, shoot weight and fruit yield, respectively. The fluorescent pseudomonad R81 and Pi also acted as biocontrol agents, as their treatments could control the incidence of wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants under glass house conditions. The culture broths of pseudomonads R62, R81 and Pi were successfully used for development of talcum- and vermiculite-based bioinoculant formulations. In controlled glasshouse experiments, the talcum-based bioinoculant formulations performed significantly better over vermiculite-based formulations. In field experiments the talcum-based consortium formulation of pseudomonad R81 and Pi was most effective. This study suggests that the formulations of pseudomonad strains (R62 and R81) and Pi can be used as bioinoculants for improving the productivity of tomato plants. The application of such formulations is a step

  4. Supplement a to compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Fifth edition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous and Subbituminous Coal Combustion; Anthracite Coal Combustion; Fuel Oil Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion in Boilers; Lignite Combustion; Waste Oil Combustion: Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and all Stationary Dual-fuel engines; Natural Gas Processing; Organic Liquid Storage Tanks; Meat Smokehouses; Meat Rendering Plants; Canned Fruits and Vegetables; Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables; Pickles, Sauces and Salad Dressing; Grain Elevators and Processes; Cereal Breakfast Foods; Pasta Manufacturing; Vegetable Oil Processing; Wines and Brandy; Coffee Roasting; Charcoal; Coal Cleaning; Frit Manufacturing; Sandmore » and Gravel Processing; Diatomite Processing; Talc Processing; Vermiculite Processing; paved Roads; and Unpaved Roads. Also included is information on Generalized Particle Size Distributions.« less

  5. Clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and soil organic carbon distribution within soil aggregates in temperate forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Virto, Iñigo; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Soil mineralogy is of primary importance for key environmental services provided by soils like carbon sequestration. However, current knowledge on the effects of clay mineralogy on soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization is based on limited and conflicting data. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and SOC distribution within soil aggregates in mature Pinus radiata D.Don forest plantations. Nine forest stands located in the same geographical area of the Basque Country (North of Spain) were selected. These stands were planted on different parent material (3 on each of the following: sandstone, basalt and trachyte). There were no significant differences in climate and forest management among them. Moreover, soils under these plantations presented similar content of clay particles. We determined bulk SOC storage, clay mineralogy, the content of Fe-Si-Al-oxides and oxyhydroxides and the distribution of organic C in different soil aggregate sizes at different soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm). The relationship between SOC and abiotic factors was investigated using a factor analysis (PCA) followed by stepwise regression analysis. Soils developed on sandstone showed significantly lower concentration of SOC (29 g C kg-1) than soils developed on basalts (97 g C kg-1) and trachytes (119 g C kg-1). The soils on sandstone presented a mixed clay mineralogy dominated by illite, with lesser amounts of hydroxivermiculite, hydrobiotite and kaolinite, and a total absence of interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. In contrast, the major crystalline clay mineral identified in the soils developed on volcanic rocks was interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. Nevertheless, no major differences were observed between basaltic and trachytic soils in the clay mineralogy. The selective extraction of Fe showed that the oxalate extractable iron was significantly lower in soils on sandstone (3.7%) than on basalts (11.2%) and

  6. Survival of Steinernema feltiae in different formulation substrates: improved longevity in a mixture of gel and vermiculite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) have a symbiotic association with bacteria, which make them highly virulent to insects. These nematodes have been commercially produced as biopesticides, but nematode products still face significant barriers related to the preservat...

  7. Geochemical barriers for environment protection and recovery of nonferrous metals.

    PubMed

    Chanturiya, Valentine; Masloboev, Vladimir; Makarov, Dmitriy; Nesterov, Dmitriy; Bajurova, Julia; Svetlov, Anton; Men'shikov, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    A study of natural minerals, ore tailings and their products as materials for artificial geochemical barriers is presented. In particular, it focuses on interaction between calcite and dolomite and sulfate solutions containing nickel, copper and iron under static conditions. Calcite of -0.1 mm fraction has been shown to perform well as a barrier when added to water phases of tailing dumps and natural reservoirs. Experiments under dynamic conditions have revealed a high potential of thermally activated copper-nickel tailings as barriers. After a 500-day precipitating period on a geochemical barrier, the contents of nickel and copper in ore dressing tailings were found to increase 12- and 28-fold, respectively. An effective sorbent of copper, iron and nickel ions is a brucite-based product of hydrochloric acid treatment of vermiculite ore tailings. Its sorption capacity can be essentially increased through thermal activation.

  8. Wall extensibility and cell hydraulic conductivity decrease in enlarging stem tissues at low water potentials. [Glycine max L. Merr

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, J.S.

    1990-08-01

    Measurements with a guillotine psychrometer indicate that the inhibition of stem growth at low water potentials (low {psi}{sub w}) is accompanied by decreases in cell wall extensibility and tissue hydraulic conductance to water that eventually limit growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). To check this conclusion, we measured cell wall properties and cell hydraulic conductivities with independent techniques in soybean seedlings grown and treated the same way, i.e. grown in the dark and exposed to low {psi}{sub w} by transplanting dark grown seedlings to vermiculite of low water content. Results suggest that the plastic properties of the cellmore » walls and the conductance of the cells to water were decreased at low {psi}{sub w} but that the elastic properties of the walls were of little consequence in this response.« less

  9. Production, Survival, and Evaluation of Solid-Substrate Inocula of Penicillium oxalicum, a Biocontrol Agent Against Fusarium Wilt of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Larena, I; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT Production of conidia of Penicillium oxalicum (ATCC number pending), a biocontrol agent of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, was tested in liquid and solid fermentation. P. oxalicum produced 250-fold more conidia in solid than in liquid fermentation at 30 days after inoculation of substrate. Solid fermentation was carried out in plastic bags (600 cm(3)) especially designed for solid fermentation (VALMIC) containing 50 g of peat/vermiculite (PV) (1:1, wt/wt) with 40% moisture, sealed, sterilized, and then inoculated with 1 ml of a conidial suspension of P. oxalicum (10(5) conidia g(-1) dry substrate), sealed again, and incubated in darkness at 20 to 25 degrees C for 30 days. Addition of amendments to PV in a proportion of 0.5 (wt/wt) significantly increased conidial production of P. oxalicum. The best production was obtained on PV plus meal of cereal grains (barley) or leguminous seeds (lentil) (100-fold higher). Conidial production obtained after 5 days of inoculation was similar to that obtained at 30 days. However, viability of conidia produced in PV plus lentil meal was 35% higher than that of conidia produced in PV plus barley meal. Changes in proportions (1:1:0.5, wt/wt/wt; 1:1:1, wt/wt/wt; 1:0.5:0.5, wt/wt/wt; 1:1:0.5, vol/vol/vol) of components of the substrate (peat/vermiculite/lentil meal) did not enhance production or viability of conidia. Optimal initial moisture in the substrate was 30 to 40%. At lower moistures, significant reductions of production of conidia were observed, particularly at 10%. There was a general decline in the number of conidia in bags with time of storage at -80, -20, 4, and 25 degrees C, or at room temperature (range from 30 to 15 degrees C), with the highest decline occurring from 60 to 180 days. Conidial viability also was reduced with time, except for conidia stored at -20 degrees C. Fresh conidia produced in solid fermentation system or those conidia stored at -20 degrees C for 180 days reduced Fusarium wilt of

  10. Sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous Chaswood Formation, southeastern Canada: The origin of kaolin-rich mudstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Dolansky, Lila; Piper, David J. W.

    2005-07-01

    The Lower Cretaceous fluvial sandstone-mudstone succession of the Chaswood Formation is the proximal equivalent of offshore deltaic rocks of the Scotian Basin that are reservoirs for producing gas fields. This study interprets the mineralogical consequences of Cretaceous weathering and early diagenesis in a 130-m core from the Chaswood Formation in order to better understand detrital and diagenetic minerals in equivalent rocks offshore. Mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The rocks can be divided into five facies associations: light gray mudstone, dark gray mudstone, silty mudstone and muddy sandstone, sorted sandstone and conglomerate, and paleosols. Facies transitions in coarser facies are related to deposition in and near fluvial channels. In the mudstones, they indicate an evolutionary progression from the dark gray mudstone facies association (swamps and floodplain soils) to mottled paleosols (well-drained oxisols and ultisols following syntectonic uplift). Facies transitions and regional distribution indicate that the light gray mudstone facies association formed from early diagenetic oxidation and alteration of the dark gray mudstone facies association, probably by meteoric water. Principal minerals in mudstones are illite/muscovite, kaolinite, vermiculite and quartz. Illite/muscovite is of detrital origin, but variations in abundance show that it has altered to kaolinite in the light gray mudstone facies association and in oxisols. Vermiculite developed from the weathering of biotite and is present in ultisols. The earliest phase of sandstone cementation in reducing conditions in swamps and ponds produced siderite nodules and framboidal pyrite, which were corroded and oxidized during subsequent development of paleosols. Kaolinite is an early cement, coating quartz grains and as well-crystallized, pore-filling booklets that was probably synchronous with the formation of the light gray

  11. The influence of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs on rainwater runoff quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-08-15

    This study investigates the ability of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs to retain rainwater and reduce pollutant leaching. The substrates in dual-substrate-layer green roofs consist of an upper organic nutrition layer for plant growth and a lower inorganic adsorption layer for water retention and pollutant reduction. One traditional single-substrate-layer extensive green roof was built for comparison with dual-substrate-layer green roofs. During the experimental period, dual-substrate-layer green roofs supported better natural vegetation growth, with coverage exceeding 90%, while the coverage in single-substrate-layer green roof was over 80%. Based on the average retention value of the total rainfall for four types of simulated rains (the total rainfall depth (mm) was 43.2, 54.6, 76.2 and 86.4, respectively), the dual-substrate-layer green roofs, which used the mixture of activated charcoal with perlite and vermiculite as the adsorption substrate, possessed better rainfall retention performance (65.9% and 55.4%) than the single-substrate-layer green roof (52.5%). All of the dual-substrate-layer green roofs appeared to be sinks for organics, heavy metals and all forms of nitrogen in all cases, while acted as sources of phosphorus contaminants in the case of heavy rains. In consideration of the factors of water retention, pollution reduction and service life of the green roof, a mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with perlite and vermiculite is recommended as the adsorption substrate. The green roofs were able to mitigate mild acid rain, raising the pH from approximately 5.6 in rainfall to 6.5-7.6 in green roof runoff. No signs of a first flush effect for phosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, organics, zinc, lead, chromium, manganese, copper, pH or turbidity were found in the green roof runoff. Cost analysis further proved the practicability of dual-substrate-layer green roofs in retaining rainwater, and

  12. The influence of oxalate-promoted growth of saponite and talc crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, Dirk; Hartman, Hyman; Eberl, Dennis D.; Sears, S. Kelly; Hesse, Reinhard; Vali, Hojatollah

    2013-01-01

    The intercalating growth of new silicate layers or metal hydroxide layers in the interlayer space of other clay minerals is known from various mixed-layer clay minerals such as illite-smectite (I-S), chlorite-vermiculite, and mica-vermiculite. In a recent study, the present authors proposed that smectite-group minerals can be synthesized from solution as new 2:1 silicate layers within the low-charge interlayers of rectorite. That study showed how oxalate catalyzes the crystallization of saponite from a silicate gel at low temperatures (60ºC) and ambient pressure. As an extension of this work the aim of the present study was to test the claim that new 2:1 silicate layers can be synthesized as new intercalating layers in the low-charge interlayers of rectorite and whether oxalate could promote such an intercalation synthesis. Two experiments were conducted at 60ºC and atmospheric pressure. First, disodium oxalate solution was added to a suspension of rectorite in order to investigate the effects that oxalate anions have on the structure of rectorite. In a second experiment, silicate gel of saponitic composition (calculated interlayer charge −0.33 eq/O10(OH)2) was mixed with a suspension of rectorite and incubated in disodium oxalate solution. The synthesis products were extracted after 3 months and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The treatment of ultrathin sections with octadecylammonium (nC = 18) cations revealed the presence of 2:1 layer silicates with different interlayer charges that grew from the silicate gel. The oxalate-promoted nucleation of saponite and talc crystallites on the rectorite led to the alteration and ultimately to the destruction of the rectorite structure. The change was documented in HRTEM lattice-fringe images. The crystallization of new 2:1 layer silicates also occurred within the expandable interlayers of rectorite but not as new 2:1 silicate layers parallel to the previous 2

  13. Reactive Transport of Marcellus Shale Waters in Natural Aquifers: the Role of Mineralogical Compositions and Spatial Distribution Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z.; Wen, H.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Accidental release of Marcellus Shale waters (MSW) can release high concentrations of chemicals that can deteriorate groundwater quality. It is important to understand the reactive transport and fate of chemicals from MSW. Natural aquifers typically have complex mineralogical compositions and are heterogeneous with large spatial variation in terms of physical and geochemical properties. To investigate the effects of mineralogical compositions, flow-through experiments and reactive transport modeling were carried out using 3 large columns (5 cm×50 cm, Quartz, Calcite, and Vermiculite). Results indicate calcite immobilizes heavy metals by precipitation and solid solution partitioning (coprecipitation). Vermiculite retards heavy metals through ion exchange. The sorbed chemicals however slowly release back to the groundwater. Na and Ca transport similarly to Br in Qtz and Cal columns however become sorbed in Vrm column during release through ion exchange by 27.8% and 46.5%, respectively and later slowly release back to aqueous phase. To understand the role of mineral spatial patterns, three 2D flow-cell (40 cm×12 cm×1 cm) experiments were carried out. All flow cells have the same clay mass within quartz matrix but different spatial patterns characterized by the relative length of the clay zone ( 0, ¼, ½) of the domain length (L). Results show that in the uniform column, ion exchange dominates and most Ba sorbs to the solid phase, to an extent Ba cannot precipitate out with SO4 as barite. In 1/2-Zone, however, most Ba precipitates as barite. In 1/4-Zone, both ion exchange and mineral precipitation occur. In general, the 1/2-Zone has the smallest ion exchange capacity for other species including Na, Ca, Mg, K and heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) as well. Our flow cell experiment emphasizes the importance of mineral spatial patterns in regulating not only reaction rates but also the type of reactions in controlling the reactive transport of MSW chemicals. The

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of weathering profiles developed on mylonites in the Fodjomekwet-Fotouni section of the Cameroon Shear Zone (CSZ), West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tematio, P.; Tchaptchet, W. T.; Nguetnkam, J. P.; Mbog, M. B.; Yongue Fouateu, R.

    2017-07-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical investigation of mylonitic weathering profiles in Fodjomekwet-Fotouni was done to better trace the occurrence of minerals and chemical elements in this area. Four representative soil profiles were identified in two geomorphological units (upland and lowland) differentiating three weathering products (organo-mineral, mineral and weathered materials). Weathering of these mylonites led to some minerals association such as vermiculite, kaolinite, goethite, smectite, halloysite, phlogopite and gibbsite. The minerals in a decreasing order of abundance are: quartz (24.2%-54.8%); kaolinite (8.4%-36.0%); phlogopite (5.5%-21.9%); goethite (7.8%-16.1%); vermiculite (6.7%-15.7%); smectite (10.2%-11.9%); gibbsite (9.0%-11.8%) and halloysite (5.6%-11.5%) respectively. Patterns of chemical elements allow highlighting three behaviors (enriched elements, depleted elements and elements with complex behavior), depending on the landscape position of the profiles. In the upland weathering products, K, Cr and REEs are enriched; Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Rb, S and Sr are depleted while Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Ba, Co, Cu, Ga, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sc, V, Y, Zn and Zr portray a complex behavior. Contrarily, the lowland weathering profiles enriched elements are Fe, Ti, Co, Cr, Cu, V, Zr, Pr, Sm, Tb, Dy, Er and Yb; while depleted elements are Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, Ba, Ga, S, Sr, Y, Zn, La, Ce and Nd; and Si, Al, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sc evidenced complex behaviors. In all the studied weathering products, the REEs fractionation was also noticeable with a landscape-position dependency, showing light REEs (LREEs) enrichment in the upland areas and heavy REEs (HREEs) in lowland areas. SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 are positively correlated with most of the traces and REEs (Co, Cu, Nb, Ni, Mo, Pb, Sc, V, Zn, Zr, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Er, Yb), pointing to the fact that they may be incorporated into newly formed clay minerals and oxides. Ba, Cr, Ga, Rb, S, Sr, Y, Pr and Nd behave like alkalis and

  15. Role of clay minerals in the transportation of iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.

    1958-01-01

    The clay minerals have iron associated with them in several ways: 1. (1) as an essential constituent 2. (2) as a minor constituent within the crystal lattice where it is in isomorphous substitution and 3. (3) as iron oxide on the surface of the mineral platelets. Nontronite, "hydromica," some chlorites, vermiculite, glauconite and chamosite contain iron as an essential constituent. Kaolinite and halloysite have no site within the lattice for iron, but in certain environments iron oxide (goethite or hematite) is intimately associated as a coating on the micelles. Analyses of clay minerals show that the content of Fe2O3 varies: 29 per cent (nontronite), 7??3 per cent (griffithite), 4.5 per cent ("hydromica"), 5.5 per cent (chlorite), 4 per cent (vermiculite) and 18 per cent (glauconite). The FeO content is: 40 per cent (chamosite), 7.8 per cent (griffithite), 1-2 per cent ("hydromica"), 3 per cent (glauconite) and 2 per cent (chlorite). The iron associated with the clay minerals remains stable in the environment in which the minerals occur, but if either pH or Eh or both are changed the iron may be affected. Change of environment will cause: 1. (1) removal of iron by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+; 2. (2) ion-exchange reactions; 3. (3) instability of the crystal lattice. Experiments using bacterial activity to produce reducing conditions with kaolinite and halloysite coated with iron oxides and with nontronite in which ferric iron is in the octahedral position within the lattice showed that ferric oxide is removed at Eh +0??215 in fresh water and at Eh +0.098 in sea water. Hematite, goethite, and indefinite iron oxides were removed at different rates. Red ferric oxides were changed to black indefinite noncrystalline ferrous sulphide at Eh -0.020 but reverted to ferric oxide under oxidizing conditions. Nontronite turned bright green under reducing conditions and some of the ferrous iron remained within the lattice on a return to oxidizing conditions. Bacterial activity

  16. Evidences of early aqueous Mars: Implications on the origin of branched valleys in the Ius Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Tapas R.; Jain, Nirmala; Vamshi, Gasiganti T.; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2017-11-01

    This study shows results of morphological and spectroscopic analyses of Ius Chasma and its southern branched valleys using Orbiter datasets such as Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO-HiRISE) and digital terrain model (HRSC-DTM). Result of the spectral analysis reveals presence of hydrated minerals such as opal, nontronite and vermiculite in the floor and wall rock areas Ius Chasma indicating alteration of parent rock in an water rich environment of early Mars. Topographic gradient and morphological evidences such as V-shaped valleys with theatre shaped stubby channels, dendritic drainage and river piracy indicate that these valleys were initially developed by surface runoff due to episodic floods and further expanded due to groundwater sapping controlled by faults and fractures. Minerals formed by aqueous alteration during valley formation and their intricate association with different morphological domains suggest that surface runoff played a key role in the development of branched valleys south of Ius Chasma on Mars.

  17. Evaluation of a nematode bio-product Dbx-20% against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita affecting grapevine under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Eid, H Z; Noweer, E M A; Ashour, N E; Ameen, Hoda H

    2006-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in El-Shourouk Farm, El-Beheira governorate, western Nile valley, Egypt to determine the effectiveness of the commercial bio-product Dbx 1003 20% containing the nematode-trapping fungus Dactylaria brochopaga against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infesting grapevine variety Superior. Its effects on plant growth criteria and yield production were also investigated. The fungus was introduced to soil by either of two ways. First: soil was drenched with spore suspension at the rate of 3 l/tree. Second: 1/2 kg of a vermiculite substrate, as a carrier of spores and mycelia was added around each tree both as single and twice application in autumn and spring. All treatments significantly reduced M. incognita J2 in soil and number of root galls compared with the untreated control. Significant yield increases have been observed with all treatments compared with the untreated control. Spores suspension twice applications gave the highest yield production.

  18. Speciation of individual mineral particles of micrometer size by the combined use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform-infrared imaging and quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Malek, Md Abdul; Ryu, JiYeon; Kim, BoWha; Song, Young-Chul; Kim, HyeKyeong; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-07-15

    Our previous work demonstrated for the first time the potential of the combined use of two techniques, attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) imaging and a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis, low-Z particle EPMA, for the characterization of individual aerosol particles. In this work, the speciation of mineral particles was performed on a single particle level for 24 mineral samples, including kaolinite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, talc, quartz, feldspar, calcite, gypsum, and apatite, by the combined use of ATR-FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle EPMA techniques. These two single particle analytical techniques provide complementary information, the ATR-FT-IR imaging on mineral types and low-Z particle EPMA on the morphology and elemental concentrations, on the same individual particles. This work demonstrates that the combined use of the two single particle analytical techniques can powerfully characterize externally heterogeneous mineral particle samples in detail and has great potential for the characterization of airborne mineral dust particles.

  19. A Typology of Communication Dynamics in Families Living a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster.

    PubMed

    Orom, Heather; Cline, Rebecca J W; Hernandez, Tanis; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruckdeschel, John C

    2012-10-01

    With increasing numbers of communities harmed by exposures to toxic substances, greater understanding of the psychosocial consequences of these technological disasters is needed. One community living the consequences of a slow-motion technological disaster is Libby, Montana, where, for nearly 70 years, amphibole asbestos-contaminated vermiculite was mined and processed. Former mine employees and Libby area residents continue to cope with the health consequences of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure and with the psychosocial challenges accompanying chronic and often fatal asbestos-related diseases (ARD). Nine focus groups were conducted with Libby area residents. Transcripts were analyzed to explore patterns of family communication about ARD. The following five patterns emerged: Open/Supportive, Silent/Supportive, Open/Conflictual, Silent/Conflictual, and Silent/Denial. Open/Supportive communication included encouragement to be screened for ARD, information about ARD and related disaster topics, and emotional support for people with ARD. In contrast, communication patterns characterized by silence or conflict have the potential to hinder health-promoting communication and increase psychological distress.

  20. The influence of pH on biotite dissolution and alteration kinetics at low temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acker, James G.; Bricker, O.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biotite dissolution rates in acidic solutions were determined in fluidized-bed reactors and flowthrough columns. Biotite dissolution rates increased inversely as a linear function of pH in the pH range 3-7, where the rate order n = -0.34. Biotite dissolved incongruently over this pH range, with preferential release of magnesium and iron from the octahedral layer. Release of tetrahedral silicon was much greater at pH 3 than at higher pH. Iron release was significantly enhanced by low pH conditions. Solution compositions from a continuous exposure flow-through column of biotite indicated biotite dissolves incongruently at pH 4, consistent with alteration to a vermiculite-type product. Solution compositions from a second intermittent-flow column exhibited elevated cation release rates upon the initiation of each exposure to solution. The presence of strong oxidizing agents, the mineral surface area, and sample preparation methodology also influenced the dissolution or alteration kinetics of biotite. ?? 1992.

  1. Favourable culture conditions for mycelial growth of Hydnum repandum, a medicinal mushroom.

    PubMed

    Peksen, Aysun; Kibar, Beyhan; Yakupoglu, Gokcen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources that affect mycelial growth of Hydnum repandum, a medicinal mushroom, were investigated. Different inoculum media for vegetative inoculum production were also examined. The best suitable pH for mycelial growth was found to be 5.5. Among constant temperatures, the best mycelial growth was obtained at 20 and 25°C. The mycelial growth drastically decreased at 15°C, and no mycelia were obtained at 30°C. Glucose and mannitol were found to be the most suitable carbon sources. Ca(NO3)2 as a nitrogen source gave the best results for mycelial growth. The poorest mycelial growth was noted in sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and in NH4NO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 as nitrogen sources. Peat and peat: vermiculite mixtures (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, v:v) were the best media to use in producing the vegetative inoculum of H. repandum.

  2. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature and moisture effect on spore emission in the fungal biofiltration of hydrophobic VOCs.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, Alberto; Salgado-Ísmodes, Vanida; Pino, Miguel; Hernández, Sergio; Revah, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of temperature and moisture on the elimination capacity (EC), CO(2) production and spore emission by Fusarium solani was studied in biofilters packed with vermiculite and fed with n- pentane. Three temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) were tested and the highest average EC (64 g m(-3) h(-1)) and lower emission of spores (2.0 × 10(3) CFU m(-3) air) were obtained at 25°C. The effect of moisture content of the packing material indicates that the highest EC (65 g m(-3) h(-1)) was obtained at 50 % moisture. However, lowest emission (1.3 × 10(3) CFU m(-3) air) was obtained at 80 % moisture. Furthermore, the results show that a slight decrease in spore emission was found with increasing moisture content. In all cases, the depletion of the nitrogen source in the biofilter induced the sporulation, a decay of the EC and increased spore emission.

  4. Biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Bapat, S; Shah, A K

    2000-02-01

    A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.

  5. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1°x2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J.I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C., in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the Central Blue Ridge, and the Cullowhee mine in the east flank of the Blue Ridge. D. Organic fuels:  The rocks of the quadrangle contain no coal and probably lie outside the maximum range in thermal maturity permitting the survival of oil. The rocks in the Valley and Ridge and for a short distance eastward below the west flank of the Blue Ridge probably lie within a zone of thermal maturity permitting the survival of natural gas. Consequently the western part of the quadrangle is an area of high risk for hydrocarbon exploration. No exploration drilling has been done in this belt. 

  6. Global distribution of clay-size minerals on land surface for biogeochemical and climatological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Akihiko; Wagai, Rota

    2017-01-01

    Clay-size minerals play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemistry and atmospheric physics, but their data have been only partially compiled at global scale. We present a global dataset of clay-size minerals in the topsoil and subsoil at different spatial resolutions. The data of soil clay and its mineralogical composition were gathered through a literature survey and aggregated by soil orders of the Soil Taxonomy for each of the ten groups: gibbsite, kaolinite, illite/mica, smectite, vermiculite, chlorite, iron oxide, quartz, non-crystalline, and others. Using a global soil map, a global dataset of soil clay-size mineral distribution was developed at resolutions of 2' to 2° grid cells. The data uncertainty associated with data variability and assumption was evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, and validity of the clay-size mineral distribution obtained in this study was examined by comparing with other datasets. The global soil clay data offer spatially explicit studies on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, dust emission to the atmosphere, and other interdisciplinary earth sciences. PMID:28829435

  7. The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGosen, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

  8. A review of the health effects of energy conserving materials.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, L; Purdom, P W

    1983-01-01

    The energy conservation movement has promoted both greater use of insulating materials and the reduction of heat losses by sealing air leaks. The release of volatile or airborne materials from the installation of these building materials under these conditions has resulted in an exacerbated indoor air pollution with the potential for certain health and safety hazards. Consequently, a comparative review of the health and safety hazards, exposure standards, and regulatory action associated with the more commonly used insulating materials with particular respect to current energy conservation measures was undertaken. The materials reviewed included asbestos, urea-formaldehyde foam, polyvinyl chloride, cellulosic insulations, fibrous glass, mineral wool, and vermiculite. Although no longer used, the past installation of asbestos in a friable form is the greatest potential health hazard. The exposure to formaldehyde gas from its release from urea-formaldehyde foam has elicited subjective complaints of sensory irritation and unresolved controversy and regulatory action regarding its toxicity to humans. Lesser health problems have been associated with the more widely used fibrous glass and mineral or rock wools. PMID:6342431

  9. Behaviour of tunnel lining material in road tunnel fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, M.; Khurana, S.; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    The worldwide road tunnel linings are protected against possible fire scenarios to safeguard the structure and assist in occupant evacuation. There are various choices of active and passive protection available, passive protections includes calcium silicate boards, polypropylene fibers, vermiculite cement based sprays, and other intumescent materials. Tunnel fire is a complex phenomenon and researchers in the past has highlighted that there are various factors which affect the tunnel fires. The effect of passive protection techniques on tunnel fire is not well understood, especially for the insulation boards. It’s been understood from past research that for a heavy good vehicular (HGV) fire in the tunnel, the heat feedback effect is significant. Insulation boards may also affect the tunnel fires by altering the heat feedback effect in vehicular tunnels and hence this can affect the overall heat release rates and temperature profile inside a tunnel. This study focuses on studying the role of insulation boards in tunnel fires and evaluating its effect on overall heat release rate and tunnel temperatures.

  10. Mineral resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln County, Nevada

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shawe, D.R.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted investigations to appraise the identified resources and to assess the potential for undiscovered resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, southeastern Nevada. There are no identified resources in or near the study area; however, there are no occurrences of commercial-grade limestones and sand gravel. The study area has high mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, silver, and (or) gold in its southern part and copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, arsenic, and (or) antimony in its northern part. Part of the study area has moderate mineral resource potentialmore » for antimony. Two areas in the central part of the study area have moderate mineral resource potential for molybdenum, tungsten, and (or) tin. The study area has moderate energy resource potential for oil and gas, except for areas of low potential where significant hydrothermal activity has occurred. It has low mineral and energy resource potential for manganese, barite, vermiculite, coal, and geothermal energy.« less

  11. Super Oxygen and Improved Water Vapor Barrier of Polypropylene Film with Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Nanocoatings.

    PubMed

    Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-06-01

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is widely used in packaging. Although its orientation increases mechanical strength and clarity, BOPP suffers from a high oxygen transmission rate (OTR). Multilayer thin films are deposited from water using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is combined with either poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or vermiculite (VMT) clay to impart high oxygen barrier. A 30-bilayer PEI/VMT nanocoating (226 nm thick) improves the OTR of 17.8 μm thick BOPP by more than 30X, rivaling most inorganic coatings. PEI/PAA multilayers achieve comparable barrier with only 12 bilayers due to greater thickness, but these films exhibit increased oxygen permeability at high humidity. The PEI/VMT coatings actually exhibit improved oxygen barrier at high humidity (and also improve moisture barrier by more than 40%). This high barrier BOPP meets the criteria for sensitive food and some electronics packaging applications. Additionally, this water-based coating technology is cost effective and provides an opportunity to produce high barrier polypropylene film on an industrial scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nontronite mineral identification in nilgiri hills of tamil nadu using hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshkumar, M.; Yarakkula, Kiran

    2017-11-01

    Hyperspectral Remote sensing is a tool to identify the minerals along with field investigation. Tamil Nadu has abundant minerals like 30% titanium, 52% molybdenum, 59% garnet, 69% dunite, 75% vermiculite and 81% lignite. To enhance the user and industry requirements, mineral extraction is required. To identify the minerals properly, sophisticated tools are required. Hyperspectral remote sensing provides continuous extraction of earth surface information in an accurate manner. Nontronite is an iron-rich mineral mainly available in Nilgiri hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Due to the large number of bands, hyperspectral data require various preprocessing steps such as bad bands removal, destriping, radiance conversion and atmospheric correction. The atmospheric correction is performed using FLAASH method. The spectral data reduction is carried out with minimum noise fraction (MNF) method. The spatial information is reduced using pixel purity index (PPI) with 10000 iterations. The selected end members are compared with spectral libraries like USGS, JPL, and JHU. In the Nontronite mineral gives the probability of 0.85. Finally the classification is accomplished using spectral angle mapper (SAM) method.

  13. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pelletized biochar as a carrier for AM fungi in the on-farm system of inoculum production in compost and vermiculite mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi is suitable for vegetable and horticultural crop production because the inocula may be efficiently mixed into horticultural potting media for plant production in the greenhouse. These inocula are not amenable for use in row crop production bec...

  15. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium (r-Cs) of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of its chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation-remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). R-Cs in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.). This is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. Climate and geographical conditions for Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl zone differ. For example, the catchments of the Chernobyl zone are flat and characterized by low slopes, while Fukushima's watersheds are hilly with steep slopes. Annual precipitation also differs substantially, with annual average for Fukushima about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The soils on the north-east coast of the Honshu island that were primarily affected by the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident differ significantly from the Chernobyl zone soils. The proportion of clays such as illite, vermiculite etc. is 20-30% at Fukushima, which is higher than in the sandy loam soils of the Chernobyl zone. In addition to the landscape differences, the speciation of r-Cs in fallout was also different between Fukushima and Chernobyl. It is a challenge to compare r-Cs behavior in FDNPP and Chernobyl zones. Comparative analysis has been carried out for r-Cs wash-off parameters and the distribution coefficient Kd in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. The r-Cs distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. This suggests higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. The normalized

  16. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elliott, W. Crawford; Kahn, Bernd; Rosson, Robert

    2011-11-14

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative atmore » the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are found in the quaternary

  17. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C-, in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains Abstract Figure 1. Location of the Knoxville 1ºx2º quadrangle, with state and county boundaries National Park in the Central Blue Ridge, and the Cullowhee mine in the east flank of the Blue Ridge. D. Organic fuels: The rocks of the quadrangle contain no coal and probably lie outside the maximum range in thermal maturity permitting the survival of oil. The rocks in the Valley and Ridge and for a short distance eastward below the west flank of the Blue Ridge probably lie within a zone of thermal maturity permitting the survival of natural gas. Consequently the western part of the quadrangle is an area of high risk for hydrocarbon exploration. No exploration drilling has been done in this belt.

  18. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  19. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma--an outline.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J Corbett

    2010-11-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, well designed case-referent studies put beyond doubt that exposure to airborne asbestos fibres was a cause of malignant mesothelioma. Some 35 cohort mortality studies in a large variety of industries during the 20-year period, 1974-1994, showed a wide range of outcomes, but in general that the risk was higher in exposures which included amphiboles rather than chrysotile alone. Real progress began, however, with discoveries along several lines: the link between pleural changes and mineralogy, the concept and importance of biopersistence, the developments in counting and typing mineral fibres in lung tissue, and data on amphibole mining in South Africa and Australia for comparison with that on chrysotile in Canada and Italy. This led to the recognition of the potential contamination in North America of chrysotile with tremolite. A survey in Canada in 1980-1988 and other surveys demonstrated that crocidolite, amosite, and tremolite could explain almost all cases of mesothelioma. Effective confirmation of this was finally achieved with data on vermiculite miners in Libby, Montana, in the years 1983-1999, where exposure was to tremolite-actinolite and/or other amphibole fibres alone.

  20. Boron toxicity to sycamore of minesoil mixed with sewage sludge containing glass fibers. [Platanus occidentalis L

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Glover, T.N.

    Acid, infertile, erosive, barren orphan coal minesoils are a regional problem in the eastern coal fields. Learning how to establish permanent forest ecosystems on these minesoils is a goal of reclamation research in Ohio. This greenhouse research tested Newark, Ohio sewage sludge at 70, 160, 250, and 340 Mg ha/sup -1/ as treatments to promote growth of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) seedlings in toxic minesoils. Sycamore seed did germinate and grow in sludge-amended minesoil, whereas growth was nil in the absence of sewage sludge. Soil pH, available P, exchangeable K and Ca, available Zn, and extractable B all increasedmore » with sludge addition, but exchangeable Mg, available Mn and CEC declined. Regressions of N, P, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu content of seedlings on rate of sludge addition were significant and positive; a similar regression of manganese was significant and negative. Stress symptoms appearing on lower leaves of sycamore seedlings grown in sludge-minesoil mixtures matched boron toxicity symptoms of sycamore produced in solution cultures containing 2 or 4 mg kg/sup -1/ of B and in mixtures of glass fiber insulation, a component of the sludge, with peat and vermiculite.« less

  1. Experimental alteration of artificial and natural impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Declercq, J.; Dypvik, H.; Aagaard, Per; Jahren, J.; Ferrell, R.E.; Horton, J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    The alteration or transformation of impact melt rock to clay minerals, particularly smectite, has been recognized in several impact structures (e.g., Ries, Chicxulub, Mj??lnir). We studied the experimental alteration of two natural impact melt rocks from suevite clasts that were recovered from drill cores into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and two synthetic glasses. These experiments were conducted at hydrothermal temperature (265 ??C) in order to reproduce conditions found in meltbearing deposits in the first thousand years after deposition. The experimental results were compared to geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) of the same alteration and to original mineral assemblages in the natural melt rock samples. In the alteration experiments, clay minerals formed on the surfaces of the melt particles and as fine-grained suspended material. Authigenic expanding clay minerals (saponite and Ca-smectite) and vermiculite/chlorite (clinochlore) were identified in addition to analcime. Ferripyrophyllite was formed in three of four experiments. Comparable minerals were predicted in the PHREEQC modeling. A comparison between the phases formed in our experiments and those in the cores suggests that the natural alteration occurred under hydrothermal conditions similar to those reproduced in the experiment. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Behavioural response of Phytoseiulus persimilisin inert materials for technical application.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, Dennis; Sermann, Helga; Katz, Peter; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    A large scale application of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot for use in the biological control of spider mites in the field requires testing the behaviour of Phytoseiulus persimilis in inert materials, like millet pelts and Vermiculite (1-3 mm). In laboratory studies, the distribution of the individuals in such materials, the time of remaining in the material were proved. To examine the abiotic influences on the time of remaining in the material, the dampness of the materials was varied (0%, 5% and 10%). Moreover, the influence of attitude of materials was tested. The time of emigration from the material was noted for each individual. Emigration from all dry materials was completed 15 minutes at the latest after set up of the mites. The increase of dampness had an obvious effect on the time of remaining in the material. In this respect the material millet pelts showed the most favourable effect with 10% dampness. Increasing attitude of material the mobility of predatory mites will be influenced negatively above 75 cm. Up to 50 cm, mites have not a problem to move in the material and the time of remaining can be prolonged considerably.

  3. Controlling effective aspect ratio and packing of clay with pH for improved gas barrier in nanobrick wall thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-12-24

    Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders.

  4. Micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Henckelia incana: an endemic and medicinal Gesneriad of South India.

    PubMed

    Prameela, J; Ramakrishnaiah, H; Krishna, V; Deepalakshmi, A P; Naveen Kumar, N; Radhika, R N

    2015-07-01

    Henckelia incana is an endemic medicinal plant used for the treatment of fever and skin allergy. In the present study shoot regeneration was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with auxins, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3- butyric acid (IBA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and cytokinins, 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Kinetin (Kn) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mgl(-1). MS medium with IBA (18.08), NAA (17.83) and IAA (17.58) at 0.5 mgl(-1) concentrations showed efficient regeneration. Regenerated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with and without 0.5 mgl(-1) IBA or NAA. The plantlets were successfully hardened in rooting trays (peat, vermiculite and sand) and transferred to field mileu. The genetic fidelity of in vitro raised plants was assessed by using three different single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) markers namely random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and direct amplification of mini-satellite DNA region (DAMD). The results consistently demonstrated true-to-true type propagation. This is the first report of in vitro propagation and establishment of true-to-true type genetic fidelity in H. incana.

  5. Enhancement of clover growth by inoculation of P-solubilizing fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Souchie, Edson L; Azcón, Rosario; Barea, Jose M; Silva, Eliane M R; Saggin-Júnior, Orivaldo J

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the synergism between several P-solubilizing fungi isolates and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve clover ( Trifolium pratense) growth in the presence of Araxá apatite. Clover was sown directly in plastic pots with 300g of sterilized washed sand, vermiculite and sepiolite 1:1:1 (v:v:v) as substrate, and grown in a controlled environment chamber. The substrate was fertilized with 3 g L(-1) of Araxá apatite. A completely randomized design, in 8×2 factorial scheme (eight P-solubilizing fungi treatments with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi)and four replicates were used. The P-solubilizing fungi treatments consisted of five Brazilian P-solubilizing fungi isolates (PSF 7, 9, 20, 21 and 22), two Spanish isolates ( Aspergillus niger and the yeast Yarowia lipolytica) and control (non-inoculated treatment). The greatest clover growth rate was recorded when Aspergillus niger and PSF 21 were co-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Aspergillus niger, PSF 7 and PSF 21 were the most effective isolates on increasing clover growth in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Greater mycorrhizal colonization resulted in greater clover growth rate in most PSF treatments. PSF 7 was the best isolate to improve the establishment of mycorrhizal and rhizobia symbiosis.

  6. Geology of the Spruce Pine District, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancy Counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1962-01-01

    The Spruce Pine pegmatite district, a northeastward-trending belt 25 miles long and 10 miles wide, lies in parts of Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties in the Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina. The most abundant rocks in the district are interlayered mica and amphibole gneisses and schists, all of which are believed to be of Precambrian age. These rocks are cut by small bodies of dunite and associated rocks of Precambrian (?) age, large bodies of alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age, and basaltic and diabasic dikes and sills of Triassic (?) age. The rocks of the district have been weathered to saprolite that is locally 50 feet thick. The major structure in the area is a southwestward-plunging asymmetrical synclinorium that has its steeper limb on the northwest side. Feldspar, muscovite as sheet and scrap (ground) mica, and kaolin from the alaskite and associated pegmatite account for over 90 percent of the total mineral production of the district. Amounts of other pegmatite minerals, including quartz, beryl, columbite-tantalite, rare-earth and uranium minerals are an extremely small part of the mineral resources. Actual or potential products from other rocks are olivine, vermiculite, asbestos, talc, chromium and nickel, soapstone, mica schist, garnet, kyanite, dolomite marble, and construction materials.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range,more » and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.« less

  8. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper.

    PubMed

    Dikin, Dmitriy A; Stankovich, Sasha; Zimney, Eric J; Piner, Richard D; Dommett, Geoffrey H B; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2007-07-26

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  9. Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.

    PubMed

    Standing, Taryn-Ann; du Plessis, Erika; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-06-01

    The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified.

  10. Cloud iron speciation: Experimental simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofikitis, A. M.; Colin, J. L.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Losno, R.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of our contribution is to identify major processes controlling iron speciation in the atmospheric aqueous phase. Fe is known to participate in a variety of redox reactions in cloud chemistry, as well as controlling free radical production in the troposphere. Iron cycling is slower than cycles with other catalytic transition metals (Cu, Mn). The residence time of each iron species is around ten minutes, this allows analytical separation and determination of each iron redox species and therefore its ratio. As the only source of trace metals in aqueous atmospheric phase is due to the solubilization of aerosols, we present here dissolution rate measurements obtained by laboratory experiments with an open flow reactor. This reactor enables us to reproduce the dissolution of a particle in aqueous atmospheric water. The dissolution rate and the speciation of iron are dependent on the mineralogy of the solid phase. Our experiments included Goethite, hematite and vermiculite, which are typical mineral constituents of dust particles. Comparisons were made with natural loess which is a blend of various crystalline and amorphous phases. We will present results of crustal origin particles dissolution experiments where kinetic parameters are determined, including iron speciation. Major functions of variation are pH and photochemistry in the aqueous weathering solution.

  11. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  12. Endophytic Herbaspirillum seropedicae expresses nif genes in gramineous plants.

    PubMed

    Roncato-Maccari, Lauren D B; Ramos, Humberto J O; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Alquini, Yedo; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, Marshall G; Rigo, Liu U; Steffens, Maria Berenice R; Souza, Emanuel M

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The interactions between maize, sorghum, wheat and rice plants and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were examined microscopically following inoculation with the H. seropedicae LR15 strain, a Nif(+) (Pnif::gusA) mutant obtained by the insertion of a gusA-kanamycin cassette into the nifH gene of the H. seropedicae wild-type strain. The expression of the Pnif::gusA fusion was followed during the association of the diazotroph with the gramineous species. Histochemical analysis of seedlings of maize, sorghum, wheat and rice grown in vermiculite showed that strain LR15 colonized root surfaces and inner tissues. In early steps of the endophytic association, H. seropedicae colonized root exudation sites, such as axils of secondary roots and intercellular spaces of the root cortex; it then occupied the vascular tissue and there expressed nif genes. The expression of nif genes occurred in roots, stems and leaves as detected by the GUS reporter system. The expression of nif genes was also observed in bacterial colonies located in the external mucilaginous root material, 8 days after inoculation. Moreover, the colonization of plant tissue by H. seropedicae did not depend on the nitrogen-fixing ability, since similar numbers of cells were isolated from roots or shoots of the plants inoculated with Nif(+) or Nif(-) strains.

  13. Potency factors for risk assessment at Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Turim, Jay; Alexander, Dominik D; Lau, Edmund C; Cushing, Colleen A

    2010-08-01

    We reanalyzed the Libby vermiculite miners' cohort assembled by Sullivan to estimate potency factors for lung cancer, mesothelioma, nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD), and all-cause mortality associated with exposure to Libby fibers. Our principal statistical tool for analyses of lung cancer, NMRD, and total mortality in the cohort was the time-dependent proportional hazards model. For mesothelioma, we used an extension of the Peto formula. For a cumulative exposure to Libby fiber of 100 f/mL-yr, our estimates of relative risk (RR) are as follows: lung cancer, RR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) =[1.06, 1.17]; NMRD, RR = 1.14, 95% CI =[1.09, 1.18]; total mortality, RR = 1.06, 95% CI =[1.04, 1.08]. These estimates were virtually identical when analyses were restricted to the subcohort of workers who were employed for at least one year. For mesothelioma, our estimate of potency is K(M) = 0.5 x 10(-8), 95% CI =[0.3 x 10(-8), 0.8 x 10(-8)]. Finally, we estimated the mortality ratios standardized against the U.S. population for lung cancer, NMRD, and total mortality and obtained estimates that were in good agreement with those reported by Sullivan. The estimated potency factors form the basis for a quantitative risk assessment at Libby.

  14. Dracaena marginata biofilter: design of growth substrate and treatment of stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Praveen, R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the efficiency of Dracaena marginata planted biofilters to decontaminate urban runoff. A new biofilter growth substrate was prepared using low-cost and locally available materials such as red soil, fine sand, perlite, vermiculite, coco-peat and Sargassum biomass. The performance of biofilter substrate was compared with local garden soil based on physical and water quality parameters. Preliminary analyses indicated that biofilter substrate exhibited desirable characteristics such as low bulk density (1140 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (59.6%), air-filled porosity (7.82%) and hydraulic conductivity (965 mm/h). Four different biofilter assemblies, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). Results from un-spiked artificial rain events suggested that concentrations of most of the chemical components in effluent were highest at the beginning of rain events and thereafter subsided during the subsequent rain events. Biofilter growth substrate showed superior potential over garden soil to retain metal ions such as Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb during metal-spiked rain events. Significant differences were also observed between non-vegetated and vegetated biofilter assemblies in runoff quality, with the latter producing better results.

  15. Novel Application of Glass Fibers Recovered From Waste Printed Circuit Boards as Sound and Thermal Insulation Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Ma, Shulin; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using glass fibers, a recycled material from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB), as sound absorption and thermal insulation material. Glass fibers were obtained through a fluidized-bed recycling process. Acoustic properties of the recovered glass fibers (RGF) were measured and compared with some commercial sound absorbing materials, such as expanded perlite (EP), expanded vermiculite (EV), and commercial glass fiber. Results show that RGF have good sound absorption ability over the whole tested frequency range (100-6400 Hz). The average sound absorption coefficient of RGF is 0.86, which is prior to those of EP (0.81) and EV (0.73). Noise reduction coefficient analysis indicates that the absorption ability of RGF can meet the requirement of II rating for sound absorbing material according to national standard. The thermal insulation results show that RGF has a fair low thermal conductivity (0.046 W/m K), which is comparable to those of some insulation materials (i.e., EV, EP, and rock wool). Besides, an empirical dependence of thermal conductivity on material temperature was determined for RGF. All the results showed that the reuse of RGF for sound and thermal insulation material provided a promising way for recycling WPCB and obtaining high beneficial products.

  16. Seed germination and root elongation as indicators of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sutton, H.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hook, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Wetland ecosystems have often been impacted by the addition of hazardous waste materials. Methods are needed to evaluate the effect of these substances on wetland ecosystems and the organisms within them. This study evaluates the response of various wetland plant species to representative contaminants (cadmium, nickel, atrazine, anthracene, and tetrachloroethylene). Species tested include Caphalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Sparganium americanum (bur-reed), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash). To the authors` knowledge these species have rarely if ever been used in toxicological assays. The endpoints used are germination and root elongation. Preliminary studies using a petri dishmore » system have shown decreased germination at the highest metal concentration (50mg/L) and decreased root elongation in the higher metal concentrations (10, 25, and 50mg/L). Interference from the carrier was observed in the organic tests. Root elongation studies using the metals are being continued using tubes with various sand and vermiculite mixes into which freshly germinated seeds are placed. Species with the best responses will be tested in the field at the Savannah River Site, SC, and also with fuel oil. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which tests are well established.« less

  17. Changes in hyperspectral reflectance signatures of lettuce leaves in response to macronutrient deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacumbaba, R. O.; Beyl, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of specific remote sensing and hyperspectral analysis techniques for the determination of incipient nutrient stress in plants could allow early detection and precision supplementation for remediation, important considerations for minimizing mass of advanced life support systems on space station and long term missions. This experiment was conducted to determine if hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect nutrient stress in Lactuca sativa L. cv. Black Seeded Simpson. Lettuce seedlings were grown for 90 days in a greenhouse or growth chamber in vermiculite containing modified Hoagland's nutrient solution with key macronutrient elements removed in order to induce a range of nutrient stresses, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Leaf tissue nutrient concentrations were compared with corresponding spectral reflectances taken at the end of 90 days. Spectral reflectances varied with growing location, position on the leaf, and nutrient deficiency treatment. Spectral responses of lettuce leaves under macronutrient deficiency conditions showed an increase in reflectance in the red, near red, and infrared wavelength ranges. The data obtained suggest that spectral reflectance shows the potential as a diagnostic tool in predicting nutrient deficiencies in general. Overlapping of spectral signatures makes the use of wavelengths of narrow bandwidths or individual bands for the discrimination of specific nutrient stresses difficult without further data processing.

  18. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  19. Investigations of the characteristics, origin, and residence time of the upland residual mantle of the Piedmont of Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavich, M.J.; Leo, G.W.; Obermeier, S.F.; Estabrook, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    rocks than in those above metagraywacke. Clay minerals in granite, schist, and metagraywacke saprolites are kaolinite, dioctahedral vermiculite, interlayered mica-vermiculite, and minor illite. Gibbsite is developed in near-surface samples of schist. Standard penetration test data for the upper 7 m of saprolite above schist, metagraywacke, and granite suggest alternations between stronger and weaker horizons that correlate with megascopic ally identified zones: soil, massive subsoil, and saprolite. The data correlate with density. Shear strength increases fairly regularly downward in the weathering profile. The engineering behavior of diabase saprolite is controlled by a dense, plastic, near-surface clay layer (montmorillonite and kaolinite) overlying rock that is weathered to a granular state (grus); the engineering properties of serpentinite are controlled by a very thin weathering profile. Similarities in regolith thickness, zonation, mineralogy, and chemistry of quartzofeldspathic rocks indicate the existence of fundamental geochemical and geomechanical controls on regolith evolution on the Piedmont upland. Data from the profiles of quartzofeldspathic regolith are used to construct a model suggesting the principal rate-control steps in the development and downwasting of the upland regolith. This model is consistent with available information about Piedmont hydrology and tectonic uplift.

  20. Sorption of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 by minerals and soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Jeong, Hoon Young

    2015-03-02

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate Tween 80 sorption by oxides, aluminosilicates, and soils. For oxides, the sorption by silica and alumina follow linear isotherms, and that by hematite follows a Langmuir isotherm. Considering isotherm type and surface coverage, Tween 80 may partition into the silica/alumina-water interface, whereas it may bind to hematite surface sites. Among aluminosilicates, montmorillonite shows the greatest sorption due to the absorption of Tween 80 into interlayers. For other aluminosilicates, it sorbs to surfaces, with the sorption increasing as plagioclase<vermiculite

  1. Simulated Warming Differentially Affects the Growth and Competitive Ability of Centaurea maculosa Populations from Home and Introduced Ranges

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors. PMID:22303485

  2. Simulated warming differentially affects the growth and competitive ability of Centaurea maculosa populations from home and introduced ranges.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors.

  3. Recent progress on exploring exceptionally high and anisotropic H+/OH– ion conduction in two-dimensional materials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengzhan; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Ion conducting membranes/electrolytes have been employed extensively in some important industrial and biological systems, especially in fuel cells, water electrolyzers, gas separation, sensors and biological selective ion transport, acting as one of the core components and sometimes directly determining the device performance. However, the traditional polymeric proton exchange membranes (PEMs)/anion exchange membranes (AEMs) suffer from highly toxic preparation procedures, poor thermal and chemical stabilities, and unsatisfactory ion conductivities. This has triggered researchers worldwide to explore alternative inorganic building blocks with high ion conductivities and stabilities from the new materials library, hoping to solve the above long-lasting problems. The recent burgeoning research on two-dimensional (2D) materials has unveiled exceptionally high ionic conductivities, which raises the feasibility of fabricating high-performance nanosheet-based ion conductors/membranes. In this perspective, the recent advances in measuring and understanding the exceptionally high and anisotropic H+/OH– ion conductivities of representative 2D materials, e.g. graphene oxide (GO), vermiculite and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets, are reviewed. In particular, regarding the anisotropic ionic conduction in 2D nanosheets, possible design strategies and technological innovations for fabricating macroscopic nanosheet-based ionic conductors/membranes are proposed for maximizing the high in-plane conduction, which may serve to guide future development of high-performance industrial and biological systems relying on H+/OH– conducting membranes. PMID:29629071

  4. Preparation and thermal properties of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) used in asphalt pavements.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Lin, Feipeng; Liu, Ruohua; Xiao, Ting; Zheng, Jianlong; Qian, Guoping; Liu, Hongfu; Wen, Pihua

    2017-12-05

    Three kinds of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol (PEG) as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) were prepared to choose the most suitable CPCMs in asphalt pavements for the problems of asphalt pavements rutting diseases and urban heat islands. The microstructure and chemical structure of CPCMs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. Thermal properties of the CPCMs were determined by TG and DSC. The maximum PEG absorption of diatomite (DI), expanded perlite (EP) and expanded vermiculite (EVM) could reach 72%, 67% and 73.6%, respectively. The melting temperatures and latent heat of CPCMs are in the range of 52-55 °C and 100-115 J/g, respectively. The results show that PEG/EP has the best thermal and chemical stability after 100 times of heating-cooling process. Moreover, crystallization fraction results show that PEG/EP has slightly higher latent heats than that of PEG/DI and PEG/EVM. Temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture was prepared by substituting the fine aggregates with PEG/EP CPCMs. The upper surface maximum temperature difference of temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture reaches about 7.0 °C in laboratory, and the surface peak temperature reduces up to 4.3 °C in the field experiment during a typical summer day, indicating a great potential application for regulating pavement temperature field and alleviating the urban heat islands.

  5. Recent progress on exploring exceptionally high and anisotropic H+/OH- ion conduction in two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengzhan; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2018-01-07

    Ion conducting membranes/electrolytes have been employed extensively in some important industrial and biological systems, especially in fuel cells, water electrolyzers, gas separation, sensors and biological selective ion transport, acting as one of the core components and sometimes directly determining the device performance. However, the traditional polymeric proton exchange membranes (PEMs)/anion exchange membranes (AEMs) suffer from highly toxic preparation procedures, poor thermal and chemical stabilities, and unsatisfactory ion conductivities. This has triggered researchers worldwide to explore alternative inorganic building blocks with high ion conductivities and stabilities from the new materials library, hoping to solve the above long-lasting problems. The recent burgeoning research on two-dimensional (2D) materials has unveiled exceptionally high ionic conductivities, which raises the feasibility of fabricating high-performance nanosheet-based ion conductors/membranes. In this perspective, the recent advances in measuring and understanding the exceptionally high and anisotropic H + /OH - ion conductivities of representative 2D materials, e.g. graphene oxide (GO), vermiculite and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets, are reviewed. In particular, regarding the anisotropic ionic conduction in 2D nanosheets, possible design strategies and technological innovations for fabricating macroscopic nanosheet-based ionic conductors/membranes are proposed for maximizing the high in-plane conduction, which may serve to guide future development of high-performance industrial and biological systems relying on H + /OH - conducting membranes.

  6. A note on the effect of fault gouge composition on the stability of frictional sliding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.

    1977-01-01

    The frictional properties of fault gouge have been studied at confining pressures to 6 kbars. If the gouge is composed of strong materials such as crushed granite or quartz sand, the frictional strength is high, and violent stick-slip occurs at confining pressures above approximately 1.5 kbars. If the gouge is composed of minerals such as illite, kaolinite, chlorite, or antigorite, which have weak bonding forces between the structural layers, the frictional strength is slightly lower, but violent stick-slip still occurs under high confining pressure. The expanding clays, montmorillonite and vermiculite, which have free water between their structural layers, slide stably at confining pressures as high as 6.25 kbars and exhibit low friction. A similar stable behavior with lowered strength is observed in water-saturated quartz sand when the water is confined within the fault zone during deformation. The results of this series of experiments support water being the stabilizing influence when it is either (1) trapped within or between rocks of low permeability and can provide a high pore pressure when the rocks are deformed, or (2) loosely bonded in a mineral structure, as in the hydrated clays, where it can produce a pseudo-pore pressure when the clay is compressed. In both these cases, the effective stress can be reduced and the deformation stabilized. ?? 1977.

  7. Gemstones and geosciences in space and time. Digital maps to the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold

    2013-12-01

    The gemstones, covering the spectrum from jeweler's to showcase quality, have been presented in a tripartite subdivision, by country, geology and geomorphology realized in 99 digital maps with more than 2600 mineralized sites. The various maps were designed based on the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits" proposed by Dill (2010a, 2010b) to reveal the interrelations between gemstone deposits and mineral deposits of other commodities and direct our thoughts to potential new target areas for exploration. A number of 33 categories were used for these digital maps: chromium, nickel, titanium, iron, manganese, copper, tin-tungsten, beryllium, lithium, zinc, calcium, boron, fluorine, strontium, phosphorus, zirconium, silica, feldspar, feldspathoids, zeolite, amphibole (tiger's eye), olivine, pyroxenoid, garnet, epidote, sillimanite-andalusite, corundum-spinel - diaspore, diamond, vermiculite-pagodite, prehnite, sepiolite, jet, and amber. Besides the political base map (gems by country) the mineral deposit is drawn on a geological map, illustrating the main lithologies, stratigraphic units and tectonic structure to unravel the evolution of primary gemstone deposits in time and space. The geomorphological map is to show the control of climate and subaerial and submarine hydrography on the deposition of secondary gemstone deposits. The digital maps are designed so as to be plotted as a paper version of different scale and to upgrade them for an interactive use and link them to gemological databases.

  8. Response of Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae to volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Nissinen, Anne; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-09-01

    The effects of limonene, a mixture of limonene + carvone (1:1, v/v), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella L.) oviposition, larval feeding, and the behavior of its larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) with cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata, cvs. Rinda and Lennox) and broccoli (B. oleracea subsp. Italica cv Lucky) were tested. Limonene showed no deterrent effect on DBM when plants were sprayed with or exposed to limonene, although there was a cultivar difference. A mixture of limonene and carvone released from vermiculite showed a significant repellent effect, reducing the number of eggs laid on the cabbages. MeJA treatment reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of larvae on cv Lennox leaves. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, C. plutellae preferred the odors of limonene and MeJA to filtered air. In cv Lennox, the parasitoid preferred DBM-damaged plants with limonene to such plants without limonene. C. plutellae females were repelled by the mixture of limonene + carvone. In both cultivars, exogenous MeJA induced the emission of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate + octanal. The attractive effect of limonene and MeJA predicts that these two compounds can be used in sustainable plant protection strategies in organic farming.

  9. Treating contaminated organics using the DETOX process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elsberry, K.D.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-05-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. This paper describes the results of bench-scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for designing a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on solution composition and the contact area were measured for vacuum pump oil scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. Reaction rate was superior in chloride-based solutions and was proportional to the contact areamore » above about 2% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4-liter volume, mixed bench-top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999 + % for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixed bench-top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10 to 100 + grams of organic per liter-hour. Results are also presented on the solvation efficiency of DETOX for mercury, cerium, and neodymium, and for removal/destruction of organics sorbed on vermiculite. The next stage of development will be converting the bench-top unit to continuous processing.« less

  10. Peroxidase activity as an indicator of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sutton, H.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The enzyme peroxidase has been found to increase quantitatively in several aquatic plant species in response to increasing exposure to various contaminants. In this study, a number of wetland species are tested for their usefulness as bioindicators of metal exposure using the peroxidase assay. Woody species tested include Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), and Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), while herbaceous species include Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail) and Sparganium americanum (bur-reed). The assay has been optimized for all of these species. In all cases the pH optimum has been found to be either 5.5 or 6.0 and the substrate optimummore » is 2.8 or 1.4mM hydrogen peroxide. There is considerable variation in baseline peroxidase activity among the species when tested under their optimal assay conditions. These species are being dosed with copper, nickel, and cadmium in order to determine whether a response elicited. Seedlings will be dosed using both petri dish culture conditions and test tubes filled with vermiculite and sand combinations. The peroxidase response will be compared to germination and root elongation endpoints. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which background data is available. The wetland species tested in the present study have rarely if ever been used in toxicological studies.« less

  11. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  12. A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

    2005-06-01

    The Blantyre City Area is part of the African savanna in southern Malawi. Sedimentological, geomorphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were conducted to create a lithofacies terrain model. The project involves mapping, cross-sectioning, grain size, heavy mineral analysis, XRD and the study of sedimentary textures under the petrographic microscope. These classical techniques were combined with GIS-based field and office works. The combined efforts led to 2-D maps and 3-D block diagrams that illustrate the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of the landscape in southern Malawi during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The results obtained through integrated geomorphological-sedimentological studies form the basis for land management (planning of residential areas, waste disposal sites, assessment of bearing capacity of rocks), geohazard prediction (delineation of high risk zones in terms of mass flow and inundation) and the evaluation of high-place (ceramic raw materials) and high-unit value (placers of precious metals and gemstones) mineral commodities in the study area. The study addresses regional and general aspects alike. In regional terms, the study aimed at unraveling the evolution of landforms at the southern end of the East African Rift System during the most recent parts of the geological past. Four stages of peneplanation were established in the working area. Planation was active from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (stage I: early to mid-Cretaceous, stage II: early Tertiary, stage III: early to mid-Tertiary, stage IV: mid- to late Tertiary). During the most recent parts of the Quaternary, strong fluvial incision was triggered by the base-level lowering of the Shire River. Geomorphological alteration of the landscape goes along with a phyllosilicate-sesquioxide transformation from minerals indicative of more acidic meteoric fluids (e.g., gibbsite, kaolinite) to those typical of more alkaline conditions (e.g. smectite, vermiculite

  13. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  14. Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils by Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Manabu; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Akiyama, Hiroko; Hoshino, Yuko Takada; Shimomura, Yumi; Morimoto, Sho; Tago, Kanako; Wang, Yong; Hayakawa, Chihiro; Uetake, Yusuke; Sánchez, Cristina; Eda, Shima; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2013-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas that is also capable of destroying the ozone layer. Agricultural soil is the largest source of N2O (ref. ). Soybean is a globally important leguminous crop, and hosts symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (rhizobia) that can also produce N2O (ref. ). In agricultural soil, N2O is emitted from fertilizer and soil nitrogen. In soybean ecosystems, N2O is also emitted from the degradation of the root nodules. Organic nitrogen inside the nodules is mineralized to NH4+, followed by nitrification and denitrification that produce N2O. N2O is then emitted into the atmosphere or is further reduced to N2 by N2O reductase (N2OR), which is encoded by the nosZ gene. Pure culture and vermiculite pot experiments showed lower N2O emission by nosZ+ strains and nosZ++ strains (mutants with increased N2OR activity) of Bradyrhizobium japonicum than by nosZ- strains. A pot experiment using soil confirmed these results. Although enhancing N2OR activity has been suggested as a N2O mitigation option, this has never been tested in the field. Here, we show that post-harvest N2O emission from soybean ecosystems due to degradation of nodules can be mitigated by inoculation of nosZ+ and non-genetically modified organism nosZ++ strains of B. japonicum at a field scale.

  15. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter’s higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and / or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25893518

  16. In vitro propagation via organogenesis and synthetic seeds of Urginea altissima (L.f.) Baker: a threatened medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Efficient in vitro propagation systems via organogenesis and synthetic seeds were developed for the first time for conservation and commercial propagation from leaf or longitudinal thin cell layer (lTCL) leaf or shoot-tip explants of Urginea altissima . Various plant growth regulators and phloroglucinol were used in semi-solid and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to establish multiplication of shoots and roots for in vitro regeneration. Of the various treatments, the highest number of shoots (17.4 per lTCL leaf explant) was obtained on liquid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM meta -Topolin ( m T) and 2 µM benzyladenine followed by transferal to semi-solid MS media. The shoot tips were encapsulated with liquid MS medium plus 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride. Adventitious shoot regeneration (91.0%; 12.6 shoots per synthetic seed) of synthetic seeds was achieved on semi-solid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM m T and 2 µM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) after 15 days of storage in darkness at 25 ± 2 °C. Regenerated shoots rooted (9.8 roots per shoot; 6.5 cm long) efficiently when transferred to 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid and 2.5 µM NAA. All the plantlets were successfully acclimatized (100%) in a vermiculite:soil (1:1 v/v) mixture in the greenhouse.

  17. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  18. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Steady-state nutrition of soil grown trembling aspen clones and the potential for gaseous pollutant experiments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Coleman, M.D.; Dickson, R.E.; Isebrands, J.G.

    To assess the interaction of gaseous pollutants and plant nutrition it is desirable to grow plants at a constant growth rate while maintaining constant nutrient status. Once constant, or steady-state, conditions are established relationships between growth, nutrition, physiology and stress responses are simplified. Relative nutrient additions are an effective way to maintain such constant conditions in solution culture; however, few experiments have applied such treatments to soil grown plants. This experiment evaluates the response of two aspen clones (259 and 271) to various relative nutrient addition rates (1,2,3,4,5 % per day) applied to the peat:sand:vermiculite growing media. Although the initialmore » lag phase (adjustment period) lasted up to 50 days, subsequent relative growth rates were uniform and related to treatment. Growth responses among treatments were distinct with final biomass in the higher addition rates (3,4,5% per day) as much as twice that of the next lower treatment. Clone 271 (ozone tolerant) produced only 61% of the biomass that clone 259 (ozone sensitive) produced in the 5% per day treatment. Final leaf nitrogen was 1.5, 2.1, 3.4, 3.8, 4.3% dry weight for 1 to 5% per day addition rate treatments respectively. Concentrations between clones were equal. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of steady-state nutrition in controlling growth and nutrient status of soil grown aspen, enabling more critical control of stress experiments.« less

  20. Modeling the effects of light, carbon dioxide, and temperature on the growth of potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yandell, B. S.; Najar, A.; Wheeler, R.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the effects of light, temperature and carbon dioxide on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in a controlled environment in order to ascertain the best growing conditions for potato in life support systems in space. 'Norland' and 'Russet Burbank' were grown in 6-L pots of peat-vermiculite for 56 d in growth chambers at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. Environmental factor levels included continuous light (24-h photoperiod) at 250, 400, and 550 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF; constant temperature at 16, 20, and 24 degrees C; and CO2 at approximately 400, 1000, and 1600 microliters L-1. Separate effects analysis and ridge analysis provided a means to examine the effects of individual environmental factors and to determine combinations of factors that are expected to give the best increases in yields over the central design point. The response surface of Norland indicated that tuber yields were highest with moderately low temperature (18.7 degrees C), low CO2 (400 microliters L-1) and high light (550 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF). These conditions also favored shorter stem growth. Russet Burbank tuber yields were highest at moderately low temperature (17.5 degrees C), high CO2 (1600 microliters L-1) and medium analyses will be used to project the most efficient conditions for growth of potatoes in closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space colonies.

  1. Water stability of aggregates in subtropical and tropical soils (Georgia and China) and its relationships with the mineralogy and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, T. V.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Alekseev, A. O.; Kalinin, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Water-stable aggregates isolated from three subtropical and one tropical soil (Western Georgia and China) were studied for their organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area, magnetic susceptibility, and total chemical elements. The soils were also studied for their particle-size distribution, mineralogy, and nonsilicate Fe and Al oxides. Describe the water stability, three indices have been used: the content of water-stable macroaggregates (>0.25 mm), the mean weighted diameter of the aggregates, and the numerical aggregation index. The yellow-cinnamonic soil (China) was neutral, and the three other soils were acid. The soils were degraded with a low content of organic matter. The yellow-cinnamonic soil was characterized by the lowest water stability due to the predominantly vermiculite composition of the clay. The high water stability of the Oxisol structure was determined by the kaolinites and high content of oxides. In three out of the four soils studied, the hierarchical levels of the soil structure organization were defined; they were identified by the content of organic matter and the Ca + Mg (in Oxisols). Iron oxides mainly participated in the formation of micro-aggregates; Al and Mn contributed to the formation of macroaggregates. The water-stable aggregates acted as sorption geochemical barriers and accumulated Pb, Zn, Cd, Cs, and other trace elements up to concentrations exceeding their levels in the soil by 5 times and more. The highest correlations were obtained with CEC, Mn, and P rather than with organic carbon and Fe.

  2. Production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum in aeroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Hung, L L; Sylvia, D M

    1988-02-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28 degrees C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4 degrees C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

  4. Influence of climate and eolian dust on the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils in the northern Bighorn basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Soil chronosequences in the northern Bighorn basin permit the study of chronologic changes in the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils formed in different climates. Two chronosequences along Rock Creek in south-central Montana formed on granitic alluvium in humid and semiarid climates over the past two million years. A chronosequence at the Kane fans in north-central Wyoming formed on calcareous alluvium in an arid climate over the past 600,000 years. Detailed analyses of elemental chemistry indicate that the soils in all three areas gradually incorporated eolian dust that contained less zirconium, considered to be chemically immobile during weathering, than did the alluvium. B and C horizons of soils in the wettest of the chronosequences developed mainly at logarithmic rates, suggesting that leaching, initially rapid but decelerating, dominated the dust additions. In contrast, soils in the most arid of the chronosequences developed at linear rates that reflect progressive dust additions that were little affected by leaching. Both weathering and erosion may cause changes with time to appear logarithmic in A horizons of soils under the moist and semiarid climatic regimes. Clay minerals form with time in the basal B and C horizons and reflect climatic differences in the three areas. Vermiculite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, and smectite form in the soils of the moist-climate chronosequence; smectite forms in the semiarid-climate chronosequence; and smectite and palygorskite form in the arid-climate chronosequence. ?? 1990.

  5. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225 mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225 mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of home composting process of food waste using different minerals.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, M; Psarras, K; Panaretou, V; Thanos, A G; Malamis, D; Sotiropoulos, A

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the experimental study of the process of composting in a prototype home-scale system with a special focus on process improvement by using different additives (i.e. woodchips, perlite, vermiculite and zeolite). The interventions with different bulking agents were realized through composting cycles using substrates with 10% additives in specific mixtures of kitchen waste materials. The pre-selected proportion of the mixtures examined was 3:1:1 in cellulosic:proteins:carbohydrates, in order to achieve an initial C/N ratio equal to 30. The control of the initial properties of the examined substrates aimed at the consequent improvement of the properties of the final product (compost). The results indicated that composting process was enhanced with the use of additives and especially the case of zeolite and perlite provided the best results, in terms of efficient temperature evolution (>55 °C for 4 consecutive days). Carbon to nitrogen ratios decreased by 40% from the initial values for the reactors were minerals were added, while for the bioreactor tested with woodchips the reduction was slight, showing slowest degradation rate. Moisture content of produced compost varied within the range of 55-64% d.m., while nutrient content (K, Na, Ca, Mg) was in accordance with the limit values reported in literature. Finally, the composts obtained, exhibited a satisfactory degree of maturity, fulfilling the criterion related to the absence of phytotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on pesticide uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Helmi; De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; White, Jason C

    2015-03-01

    The effect of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure, as well as the impact of CNT presence on coexistent pesticide accumulation, was investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce seeds were sown directly into CNT-amended vermiculite (1000 mg L(-1)) to monitor phytotoxicity during germination and growth. During growth, lettuce seedlings were subsequently exposed to chlordane (cis-chlordane [CS], trans-chlordane [TC] and trans-nonachlor [TN]) and p,p'-DDE (all at 100 ng/L) in the irrigation solution for a 19-d growth period. CNT exposure did not significantly influence seed germination (82-96%) or plant growth. Similarly, pesticide exposure had no impact on plant growth, total pigment production or tissue lipid peroxidation. After 19 d, the root content of total chlordane and p,p'-DDE was 390 and 73.8 µg g(-1), respectively; in plants not exposed to CNTs, the shoot levels were 1.58 and 0.40 µg g(-1), respectively. The presence and type of CNT significantly influenced pesticide availability to lettuce seedlings. Non-functionalized CNT decreased the root and shoot pesticide content by 88% and 78%, respectively, but amino-functionalized CNT effects were significantly more modest, with decreases of 57% in the roots and 23% in the shoots, respectively. The presence of humic acid completely reversed the reduced accumulation of pesticides induced by amino-functionalized CNT, likely due to strong competition over adsorption sites on the nanomaterial (NM). These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered NMs in agriculture, especially with leafy vegetables.

  8. Effects of sodium chloride salinity on ecophysiological and biochemical parameters of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L.) from use of de-icing salts for winter road maintenance.

    PubMed

    Laffray, Xavier; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Bourioug, Mohamed; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2018-04-04

    Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips. Seedlings growing in a quartz sand/vermiculite mixture were subjected to NaCl concentrations of 0, 50, or 100 mM for 5 weeks. The results showed that high NaCl concentrations caused a marked reduction in total leaf biomass 55 and 75% for 50 and 100 mM treatments, respectively, in dry weight of stems (84%) and roots (175%) for 100 mM treatment and modified root architecture, whereas no changes appeared in leaf number. A non-significant decrease in relative water content, with changes in ion balance was recorded. Comparison of stressed to control plants show an increase in sodium (3.5-8-fold), potassium (0.6-fold), and chloride (9.5-14-fold) concentrations in the root tips while the K + /Na + ratio decreased. In taproots, no significant biochemical differences were observed between the salt-treated and the control plants for acid invertase activity, reducing sugars, sucrose, or soluble protein contents. The significance of ion and sugar accumulations in relation to osmotic adjustment and the ability of oak seedlings to cope with salt stress are discussed.

  9. Preliminary analysis of thermal-infrared multispectral scanner data of the Iron Hill, Colorado carbonatite-alkalic rock complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; Watson, Kenneth; Miller, Susanne H.

    1992-01-01

    The Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex is in the Powderhorn mining district, approximately 40 km south-southwest of Gunnison, Colorado. The complex, which occupies about 30 sq km, was emplaced in metasedimentay and metavolcanic rocks during the later Precambrian or early Cambrian. The main rock types in the complex, from oldest to youngest, are fenite, pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and dolomitic carbonatite. The carbonatite is limonitic and forms an elliptially shaped 4 sq km stock. Calcitic and dolomitic carbonatite dikes are also numerous throughout the complex and in the pre-existing rocks. Pyroxenite is the most widespread rock type within the complex, but pyroxene is extensively altered to biotite, phlogopite, and vermiculite. Fenite, which formed through Na, K-metasomatism of the country rocks, typically contains more feldspar and less quartz than the equivalent unaltered country rocks. The other alkalic rock types are less widespread and less well exposed. Parts of the complex are covered by Oligocene ash-flow tuff and alluvial, colluvial, and glacial deposits. Sagebrush and grass cover is moderately dense to very dense at low to intermediate elevations; coniferous tree cover is dense at high elevations and on some north-facing slopes at lower elevations. A new algorithm was used to compute spectral emissivity ratios, independent of any emissivity assumptions. This algorithm has the advantage that any of the possible emissivity ratios can be computed and, thus, a large variety of composite ratio images can be constructed, which permits examination of various geologic hypotheses based on the spectral properties of the surface materials.

  10. Biodegradation of benzo[α]pyrene, toluene, and formaldehyde from the gas phase by a consortium of Rhodococcus erythropolis and Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Morales, Paulina; Cáceres, Manuel; Scott, Felipe; Díaz-Robles, Luis; Aroca, Germán; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important indoor contaminants. Their hydrophobic nature hinders the possibility of biological abatement using biofiltration. Our aim was to establish whether the use of a consortium of Fusarium solani and Rhodococcus erythropolis shows an improved performance (in terms of mineralization rate and extent) towards the degradation of formaldehyde, as a slightly polar VOC; toluene, as hydrophobic VOC; and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) as PAH at low concentrations compared to a single-species biofilm in serum bottles with vermiculite as solid support to mimic a biofilter and to relate the possible improvements with the surface hydrophobicity and partition coefficient of the biomass at three different temperatures. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of the surface of the biofilms was affected by the hydrophobicity of the carbon source in F. solani but it did not change in R. erythropolis. Similarly, the partition coefficients of toluene and BaP in F. solani biomass (both as pure culture and consortium) show a reduction of up to 38 times compared to its value in water, whereas this reduction was only 1.5 times in presence of R. erythropolis. Despite that increments in the accumulated CO 2 and its production rate were found when F. solani or the consortium was used, the mineralization extent of toluene was below 25%. Regarding BaP degradation, the higher CO 2 production rates and percent yields were obtained when a consortium of F. solani and R. erythropolis was used, despite a pure culture of R. erythropolis exhibits poor mineralization of BaP.

  11. Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.

    PubMed

    Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher root colonization than those with medium and high P fertilization at both the vegetative and pod-filling stages. P uptake and growth parameters of cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage.

  12. Source-sink regulation of cotyledonary reserve mobilization during cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedling establishment under NaCl salinity.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Almeida, Tânia Dias; Chagas, Roberta Magalhães; Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. This work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. To test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were sown in vermiculite irrigated daily with distilled water (control) or 50mM NaCl and they were evaluated at discrete developmental stages from the seed germination until the whole seedling establishment. The salt treatment coordinately delayed the seedling growth and the cotyledonary reserve mobilization. However, these effects were more pronounced at late seedling establishment than in earlier stages. The storage protein mobilization was affected by salt stress before the lipid and starch breakdown. The globulin fraction represented the most important storage proteins of cashew cotyledons, and its mobilization was markedly delayed by NaCl along the seedling establishment. Free amino acids were mostly retained in the cotyledons of salt-treated seedlings when the mobilization of storage proteins, lipids and starch was strongly delayed. Proline was not considerably accumulated in the cotyledons of cashew seedlings as a response to NaCl salinity. According to these results it is noteworthy that the salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth is narrowly coordinated with the delay of reserve mobilization and the accumulation of hydrolysis products in cotyledons. Also, it was evidenced that free amino acids, especially those related to nitrogen transport, are potential signals involved in the regulation of storage protein hydrolysis during cashew seedling establishment under NaCl salinity.

  13. Asbestos contamination in feldspar extraction sites: a failure of prevention? Commentary.

    PubMed

    Cavariani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous tremolite is a mineral species belonging to the amphibole group. It is present almost everywhere in the world as a natural contaminant of other minerals, like talc and vermiculite. It can be also found as a natural contaminant of the chrysotile form of asbestos. Tremolite asbestos exposures result in respiratory health consequences similar to the other forms of asbestos exposure, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Although abundantly distributed on the earth's surface, tremolite is only rarely present in significant deposits and it has had little commercial use. Significant presence of amphibole asbestos fibers, characterized as tremolite, was identified in mineral powders coming from the milling of feldspar rocks extracted from a Sardinian mining site (Italy). This evidence raises several problems, in particular the prevention of carcinogenic risks for the workers. Feldspar is widespread all over the world and every year it is produced in large quantities and it is used for several productive processes in many manufacturing industries (over 21 million tons of feldspar mined and marketed every year). Until now the presence of tremolite asbestos in feldspar has not been described, nor has the possibility of such a health hazard for workers involved in mining, milling and handling of rocks from feldspar ores been appreciated. Therefore the need for a wider dissemination of knowledge of these problems among professionals, in particular mineralogists and industrial hygienists, must be emphasized. In fact both disciplines are necessary to plan appropriate environmental controls and adequate protections in order to achieve safe working conditions.

  14. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  15. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  16. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  17. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  18. Root development and structure in seedlings of Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Bonacorsi, Nikole K; Seago, James L

    2016-02-01

    The popular, highly recognizable, well-known gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba, was studied to document selected developmental features, which are little known in its primary root system from root tips to cotyledonary node following seed germination. Using seedlings grown in soil, vermiculite, or a mixture, we examined sections at various distances from the root cap to capture a developmental sequence of anatomical structures by using standard brightfield, epifluorescence, and confocal microscopic techniques. The vascular cylinder is usually a diarch stele, although modified diarchy and triarchy are found. Between exarch protoxylem poles, metaxylem usually develops into a complete disc, except near the transition region, which has irregularly arranged tracheary cells. The disc of primary xylem undergoes secondary growth on its metaxylem flanks with many tracheids added radially within a few weeks. Production of fibers in secondary phloem also accompanies secondary growth. In the cortex, endodermis produces Casparian bands early in development and continues into the upper transition region. Phi cells with phi-thickenings (bands of lignified walls) of a layer of inner cortex are often evident before endodermis, and then adjoining, additional layers of cortex develop phi cells; phi cells do not occur in the upper transition region or stem. An exodermis is produced early in root development and is continuous into the transition region and cotyledonary node. Seedling root axes of Ginkgo biloba are more complex than the literature suggests, and our findings contribute to our knowledge of root structure of this ancient gymnosperm. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  20. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  1. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  2. Sand dunes on the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, James Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Inconspicuous ancient sand dunes are present in parts of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. Many dunes are roughly V-shaped, built by northwest winds, especially on the east sides of some of the large rivers. On the uplands, the form and spacing of the dunes are variable. A surficial blanket composed mainly of medium and fine-grained sand-the Parsonsburg Sand-forms both the ancient dunes and the broad plains between the dunes. The sand that forms the dunes is massive and intensely burrowed in the upper part; traces of horizontal or slightly inclined bedding appear near the base. Quartz is the dominant mineral constituent of the sand. Microline is abundant in the very fine to fine sand fraction. The heavy-mineral assemblages (high zircon, tourmaline, rutile) are more mature than in most of the possible source rocks. The most abundant minerals in the clay-sized fraction are dioctahedral vermiculite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and gibbsite. The first four minerals are common in deposits of late Wisconsin and Holocene age. The gibbsite may be detrital, coming from weathered rocks of Tertiary age. The soil profile in the dune sand is weakly to moderately developed. At or near the base of the Parsonsburg Sand are peaty beds that range in age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Microfloral assemblages in the peaty beds suggest that the dunes on the uplands formed in a spruce parkland during the late Wisconsin glacial maximum. The river dunes may also be of late Wisconsin age, but could be Holocene.

  3. Growth response of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. rooted stem cuttings to Frankia in nursery and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Chandrasekaran, K; Geetha, M; Kalaiselvi, R

    2013-11-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. is a tree crop that provides fuel wood, land reclamation, dune stabilization, and scaffolding for construction, shelter belts, and pulp and paper production. C. equisetifolia fixes atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Frankia, a soil bacterium of the actinobacteria group. The roots of C. equisetifolia produce root nodules where the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for all plant metabolic activities. However, rooted stem cuttings of elite clones of C. equisetifolia by vegetative propagation is being planted by the farmers of Pondicherry as costeffective method. As the vegetative propagation method uses inert material (vermiculite) for rooting there is no chance for Frankia association. Therefore after planting of these stocks the farmers are applying 150 kg of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)/acre/year. To overcome this fertilizer usage, the Frankia-inoculated rooted stem cuttings were propagated under nursery conditions and transplanted in the nutrient-deficient soils of Karaikal, Pondicherry (India), in this study. Under nursery experiments the growth and biomass of C. equisetifolia rooted stem cuttings inoculated with Frankia showed 3 times higher growth and biomass than uninoculated control. These stocks were transplanted and monitored for their growth and survival for 1 year in the nutrient-deficient farm land. The results showed that the rooted stem cuttings of C. equisetifolia significantly improved growth in height (8.8 m), stem girth (9.6 cm) and tissue nitrogen content (3.3 mg g-1) than uninoculated controls. The soil nutrient status was also improved due to inoculation of Frankia.

  4. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato. PMID:28824665

  5. Pyritized mudstone and associated facies in the Permian-Triassic boundary of the Çürük Daǧ section, Southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Baki; Koşun, Erdal; Ünal Pinar, Neslihan; Ayranci, Korhan

    2011-03-01

    This paper is the first study of pyritized mudstones (PM) in the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary section of the Çürük Dağ (Taurus, Antalya Nappes, Turkey). The mudstones were generally formed as lensoidal-shaped layers or infill materials within nodular platform limestones (hardground). Normal marine fauna is diminished in the pyritized limestones, whereas tube-like microorganisms are apparently increased with the association of pyrite crystals consisting of both framboidal and cubic crystals. The total rock volumes are up to 50-60% clay minerals and are mainly made up of in situ kaolinite and subordinate mixed layer clays (illite-vermiculite). Kaolinite preferentially developed on feldspar crystals, sometimes covering ostracoda bivalves together with gypsum micronodules composed of fan-shaped gypsum crystals. The origin of the kaolinite is, in situ, directly related to feldspar dissolution via heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, kaolinite is found along with bacterial structures. Other mineralogical compositions include established quartz (mostly β-quartz), gypsum crystals (100-200 μm) glauconite and magnetite. Magnetite grains comprise a minor amount (1-2%) and show some bacterial-induced crystal orientations. Glauconite is formed as an accessory mineral that occurs as infill material in biogenic grains. On the other hand, some microspheres represented by a silica-dominated composition are only observed in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) studies under high magnification. Isotope values (d34S) obtained from the pyritized mudstones show an isotopic heterogeneity that suggests that the pyritized mudstone consists of at least two components, with different sulphur-concentrations and d34S values.

  6. Mineralogy and stratigraphy of phyllosilicate-bearing and dark mantling units in the greater Mawrth Vallis/west Arabia Terra area: Constraints on geological origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Fu, R.; Rossi, C.M.; Michalski, J.R.; Heinlein, C.; Hanus, V.; Poulet, F.; Mustard, R.J.F.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Swayze, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of MRO/CRISM images of the greater Mawrth Vallis region of Mars affirm the presence of two primary phyllosilicate assemblages throughout a region ∼1000 × 1000 km. These two units consist of an Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate and hydrated silica assemblage. The lower unit contains Fe/Mg-smectites, sometimes combined with one or more of these other Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates: serpentine, chlorite, biotite, and/or vermiculite. It is more than 100 m thick and finely layered at meter scales. The upper unit includes Al-smectite, kaolin group minerals, and hydrated silica. It is tens of meters thick and finely layered as well. A common phyllosilicate stratigraphy and morphology is observed throughout the greater region wherever erosional windows are present. This suggests that the geologic processes forming these units must have occurred on at least a regional scale. Sinuous ridges (interpreted to be inverted channels) and narrow channels cut into the upper clay-bearing unit suggesting that aqueous processes were prevalent after, and possibly during, the deposition of the layered units. We propose that layered units may have been deposited at Mawrth Vallis and then subsequently altered to form the hydrated units. The Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage is consistent with hydrothermal alteration or pedogenesis of mafic to ultramafic rocks. The Al-phyllosilicate/hydrated silica unit may have formed through alteration of felsic material or via leaching of basaltic material through pedogenic alteration or a mildly acidic environment. These phyllosilicate-bearing units are overlain by a darker, relatively unaltered, and indurated material that has probably experienced a complex geological history.

  7. Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

    2013-08-01

    A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day.

  8. Growth of the Maize Primary Root at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert E.; Hsiao, Theodore C.; Silk, Wendy Kuhn

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 × Mo17) seedlings growing in vermiculite at various water potentials exhibited substantial osmotic adjustment in the growing region. We have assessed quantitatively whether the osmotic adjustment was attributable to increased net solute deposition rates or to slower rates of water deposition associated with reduced volume expansion. Spatial distributions of total osmotica, soluble carbohydrates, potassium, and water were combined with published growth velocity distributions to calculate deposition rate profiles using the continuity equation. Low water potentials had no effect on the rate of total osmoticum deposition per unit length close to the apex, and caused decreased deposition rates in basal regions. However, rates of water deposition decreased more than osmoticum deposition. Consequently, osmoticum deposition rates per unit water volume were increased near the apex and osmotic potentials were lower throughout the growing region. Because the stressed roots were thinner, osmotic adjustment occurred without osmoticum accumulation per unit length. The effects of low water potential on hexose deposition were similar to those for total osmotica, and hexose made a major contribution to the osmotic adjustment in middle and basal regions. In contrast, potassium deposition decreased at low water potentials in close parallel with water deposition, and increases in potassium concentration were small. The results show that growth of the maize primary root at low water potentials involves a complex pattern of morphogenic and metabolic events. Although osmotic adjustment is largely the result of a greater inhibition of volume expansion and water deposition than solute deposition, the contrasting behavior of hexose and potassium deposition indicates that the adjustment is a highly regulated process. PMID:16667622

  9. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P < 0,001). In the second experiment, 11 infested (average of 13 O. natricis per snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  10. Effects of copper-plasma deposition on weathering properties of wood surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón-Garrido, P.; Mainusch, N.; Militz, H.; Viöl, W.; Mai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Thin layers of copper micro-particles were deposited on the surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) micro-veneers using atmospheric pressure plasma to improve the resistance of the surfaces to weathering. Three different loadings of copper were established. Micro-veneers were exposed to artificial weathering in a QUV weathering tester for 0, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h following the standard EN 927-6 [1]. Mass losses after each exposure showed significant differences between copper coated and untreated micro-veneers. Tensile strength was assessed at zero span (z-strength) and finite span (f-strength) under dry conditions (20 °C, 65% RH). During 48 h, micro-veneers lost their z-strength progressively. In contrast, copper coating at highest loading imparts a photo-protective effect to wood micro-veneers during 144 h exhibiting z-strength retention of 95%. F-strength losses were similar in all copper treated and untreated micro-veneers up to 96 h. However, after 144 h, copper coated micro-veneers at highest loading showed significantly greater strength retention of 56%, while untreated micro-veneers exhibited only 38%. Infrared spectroscopy suggested that copper coating does not stabilize lignin. Inductively Coupled Plasma revealed that micro-veneers coated with the highest loading exhibited the lowest percentage of copper loss. Blue stain resistance of copper coated Scots pine following the guidelines of EN 152 [2] was performed. Additional test with different position of the coated surface was also assessed. Copper coating reduced fungal growth when coated surface is exposed in contact with vermiculite. Spores of Aureobasidium pullulans were not able to germinate on the copper coated surface positioned uppermost.

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Improves Substrate Hydraulic Conductivity in the Plant Available Moisture Range Under Root Growth Exclusion.

    PubMed

    Bitterlich, Michael; Franken, Philipp; Graefe, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soils and are known to affect soil structure. Although their contribution to structure is extensively investigated, the consequences of those processes for soil water extractability and transport has, so far, gained surprisingly little attention. Therefore we asked, whether AMF can affect water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity under exclusion of root ingrowth, in order to minimize plant driven effects. We carried out experiments with tomato inoculated with Rhizoglomus irregulare in a soil substrate with sand and vermiculite that created variation in colonization by mixed pots with wild type (WT) plants and mycorrhiza resistant (RMC) mutants. Sampling cores were introduced and used to assess substrate moisture retention dynamics and modeling of substrate water retention and hydraulic conductivity. AMF reduced the saturated water content and total porosity, but maintained air filled porosity in soil spheres that excluded root ingrowth. The water content between field capacity and the permanent wilting point (6-1500 kPa) was only reduced in mycorrhizal substrates that contained at least one RMC mutant. Plant available water contents correlated positively with soil protein contents. Soil protein contents were highest in pots that possessed the strongest hyphal colonization, but not significantly affected. Substrate conductivity increased up to 50% in colonized substrates in the physiologically important water potential range between 6 and 10 kPa. The improvements in hydraulic conductivity are restricted to substrates where at least one WT plant was available for the fungus, indicating a necessity of a functional symbiosis for this effect. We conclude that functional mycorrhiza alleviates the resistance to water movement through the substrate in substrate areas outside of the root zone.

  12. Structural charge site influence on the interlayer hydration of expandable three-sheet clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Raymond L.; Mankin, Charles J.

    1968-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated the influences of interlayer cation composition, relative humidity, temperature, and magnitude of interlayer surface charge on the interlayer hydration of montmorillonites and vermiculites. It has been suggested that the sites of layer charge deficiencies may also have an influence upon the amount of hydration that can take place in the interlayers of expandable clay minerals. If the interlayer cation-to-layer bonds are considered as ideally electrostatic, the magnitude of the forces resisting expansion may be expressed as a form of Coulomb's law. If this effect is significant, expandable structures in which the charge-deficiency sites are predominantly in the tetrahedral sheet should have less pronounced swelling properties than should structures possessing charge deficiencies located primarily in the octahedral sheet.Three samples that differed in location of layer charge sites were selected for study. An important selection criterion was a non-correlation between tetrahedral charge sites and high surface-charge density, and between octahedral charge sites and low surface-charge density.The effects of differences in interlayer cation composition were eliminated by saturating portions of each sample with the same cations. Equilibrium (001) d values at controlled constant humidities were used as a measure of the relative degree of interlayer hydration.Although no correlation could be made between the degree of interlayer hydration and total surface-charge density, the investigation does not eliminate total surface-charge density as being significant to the swelling properties of three-sheet clay-mineral structures. The results do indicate a correlation between more intense expandability and predominance of charge deficiencies in the octahedral sheet. Conversely, less intense swelling behavior is associated with predominantly tetrahedral charge deficiencies.

  13. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of oil palm and evaluation of their ability to suppress basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings when applied as powder formulations in a glasshouse trial.

    PubMed

    Shariffah-Muzaimah, S A; Idris, A S; Madihah, A Z; Dzolkhifli, O; Kamaruzzaman, S; Maizatul-Suriza, M

    2017-12-18

    Ganoderma boninense, the main causal agent of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) basal stem rot (BSR), severely reduces oil palm yields around the world. To reduce reliance on fungicide applications to control BSR, we are investigating the efficacy of alternative control methods, such as the application of biological control agents. In this study, we used four Streptomyces-like actinomycetes (isolates AGA43, AGA48, AGA347 and AGA506) that had been isolated from the oil palm rhizosphere and screened for antagonism towards G. boninense in a previous study. The aim of this study was to characterize these four isolates and then to assess their ability to suppress BSR in oil palm seedlings when applied individually to the soil in a vermiculite powder formulation. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (512 bp) revealed that the isolates exhibited a very high level of sequence similarity (> 98%) with GenBank reference sequences. Isolates AGA347 and AGA506 showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus and Streptomyces ahygroscopicus, respectively. Isolates AGA43 and AGA48 also belonged to the Streptomyces genus. The most effective formulation, AGA347, reduced BSR in seedlings by 73.1%. Formulations using the known antifungal producer Streptomyces noursei, AGA043, AGA048 or AGA506 reduced BSR by 47.4, 30.1, 54.8 and 44.1%, respectively. This glasshouse trial indicates that these Streptomyces spp. show promise as potential biological control agents against Ganoderma in oil palm. Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism of antagonism and to increase the shelf life of Streptomyces formulations.

  14. Solution Conformations of Graphene Oxide Sheets, and Two-Dimensional Nanofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltonow, Andrew R.

    This work reports studies on the physical properties of collections of nanosheets. First, the configurations of graphene oxide sheets in solution are studied. Polarized optical microscopy reveals quickly and decisively that sheets remain flat and form lyotropic liquid crystals over a wide range of solvent conditions. When solvent conditions are inhospitable enough, sheets agglomerate into stacks rather crumpling upon themselves. Theory and simulation suggest that the crumpled state, which can be formed by compressing sheets, is metastable. This work might correct a persistent misunderstanding about the solution physics of graphene oxide. The other major area of study concerns the hydration layers in between lamellar stacks of exfoliated, restacked nanosheets. These layers comprise massive arrays of parallel two-dimensional nanofluidic channels, which exhibit enhanced unipolar ionic conductivity with counterions as the majority charge carriers. Based on the previously discovered graphene oxide nanofluidic platform, exfoliated vermiculite nanofluidic channels are constructed, which shuttle protons through the hydration channels by a Grotthuss mechanism, and which show superior thermal stability to graphene oxide. The 2D nanofluidics platform is also used to demonstrate "kirigami nanofluidics", where ion transport can be manipulated by cutting the film into specific shapes. This can give rise to ionic current rectification. The rectification effect is attributed to the size and shape mismatch of the concentration polarization zones developed at the inlets and outlets of the nanofluidic channels. The kirigami nanofluidic platform can be used to fabricate ionic diodes and other simple devices. This material platform is expected to be a useful tool for nanofluidics researchers, because it offers a way to carry out nanofluidic experiments quickly with minimal equipment and little expense.

  15. Direct Demonstration of a Growth-Induced Water Potential Gradient.

    PubMed

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J. S.

    1993-05-01

    When transpiration is negligible, water potentials in growing tissues are less than those in mature tissues and have been predicted to form gradients that move water into the enlarging cells. To determine directly whether the gradients exist, we measured water potentials along the radius of stems of intact soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings growing in vermiculite in a water-saturated atmosphere. The measurements were made in individual cells by first determining the turgor with a miniature pressure probe, then determining the osmotic potential of solution from the same cell, and finally summing the two potentials. The osmotic potentials were corrected for sample mixing in the probe. The measurements were checked with a thermocouple psychrometer that gave average tissue water potentials. In the elongating region, the water potential was highest near the xylem and lowest near the epidermis and in the center of the pith. In the basal, more mature region of the same stems, water potentials were near zero next to the xylem and throughout the tissue. These basal potentials reflected mostly the potential of the xylem, which extended into the elongating tissues. Thus, the high basal potential confirmed the high potential near the xylem in the elongating tissues. The psychrometer measurements for each tissue gave average potentials that agreed with the average of the cell potentials from the pressure probe. We conclude that a radial gradient was present in the elongating region that formed a water potential field in three dimensions around the xylem and that confirmed the predictions of Molz and Boyer (F.J. Molz and J.S. Boyer [1978] Plant Physiol 62: 423-429).

  16. Direct Demonstration of a Growth-Induced Water Potential Gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    When transpiration is negligible, water potentials in growing tissues are less than those in mature tissues and have been predicted to form gradients that move water into the enlarging cells. To determine directly whether the gradients exist, we measured water potentials along the radius of stems of intact soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings growing in vermiculite in a water-saturated atmosphere. The measurements were made in individual cells by first determining the turgor with a miniature pressure probe, then determining the osmotic potential of solution from the same cell, and finally summing the two potentials. The osmotic potentials were corrected for sample mixing in the probe. The measurements were checked with a thermocouple psychrometer that gave average tissue water potentials. In the elongating region, the water potential was highest near the xylem and lowest near the epidermis and in the center of the pith. In the basal, more mature region of the same stems, water potentials were near zero next to the xylem and throughout the tissue. These basal potentials reflected mostly the potential of the xylem, which extended into the elongating tissues. Thus, the high basal potential confirmed the high potential near the xylem in the elongating tissues. The psychrometer measurements for each tissue gave average potentials that agreed with the average of the cell potentials from the pressure probe. We conclude that a radial gradient was present in the elongating region that formed a water potential field in three dimensions around the xylem and that confirmed the predictions of Molz and Boyer (F.J. Molz and J.S. Boyer [1978] Plant Physiol 62: 423-429). PMID:12231794

  17. The mineral resources of the Borborema Province in Northeastern Brazil and its sedimentary cover: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, H.

    1995-10-01

    The geotectonic Borborema Province in Northeast Brazil includes several NE-trending Proterozoic metamorphic belts which amalgamate some small older massifs. It has been known since the Second World War for the skarn-hosted scheelite mineralization and the TaLiBeSn-bearing pegmatites of the Seridó Region. With the drastic drop of the international tungsten prices, three mines were closed in the last decade and only the state-owned Bodó Mine remains working. Since 1961, when Brazilian universities begun to graduate geologists, several dozen mineral deposits were discovered and older prospects were reevaluated. These include the copper deposits of Aurora-State of Ceará (CE) and Serrote da Lage-State of Alagoas (AL), the nickel deposits of S. João do Piauí-State of Piauí (PI), the uranium deposits of Itataia-CE, a dozen gold prospects, the ilmenite deposit of Floresta-State of Pernambuco (PE), the vermiculite mine of Paulistana-PI, and the export quality granite at Bom Jardim-PE and Sumé-Congo-State of Paraíba (PB). In the mostly Cretaceous or Cainozoic sedimentary cover, the discovery includes two important oil and gas fields ((Carmópolis-State of Sergipe (SE) and Mossoró-Macau-State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN)); deposits of sulphur (Castanhal-SE), of KNaMg, salts (Carmópolis-SE, Sto. Antônio-AL), of phosphate (Olinda-PE and João Pessoa-PB), of gypsum (Araripe-PE/CE), of bentonite (Boa Vista-PB) and the Ti placers at Mataraca-PB. In the following pages the current knowledge about these deposits is summarized.

  18. Abscisic Acid accumulates at positive turgor potential in excised soybean seedling growing zones.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1991-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) hypocotyl elongating regions when seedlings were transferred to low water potential vermiculite (Psi = -0.3 megapascals) even though positive turgor is retained in this tissue. Accumulation of ABA in growing zones could occur from de novo biosynthesis within this tissue or transport from adjacent nongrowing zones. Both growing and nongrowing hypocotyl and root tissues accumulated significant levels of ABA when excised and dehydrated to reduce turgor. Surprisingly, excised growing zones (which experienced no water loss) also accumulated ABA when incubated in darkness for 4 hours at 100% relative humidity and 29 degrees C. Induction of ABA accumulation in the excised elongating region of the hypocotyl was not caused by disruption of root pressure or wounding. While excision of hypocotyl elongating regions induced ABA accumulation, no change in either extensin or p33 mRNA levels was observed. Accumulation of extensin or p33 mRNA required more severe wounding. This suggests that ABA is not involved in the response of these genes in wounded tissue and that wound signals are not causing ABA accumulation in excised tissue. Accumulation of ABA in excised elongating regions was correlated with growth inhibition and a decline in turgor to the yield threshold (Psi;(p) = 0.37 megapascals; R Matyssek, S Maruyama, JS Boyer [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 1163-1167). Inhibiting hypocotyl growth by transferring seedlings to lower temperatures or light did not cause ABA accumulation. We conclude that induction of ABA accumulation in growing zones is more sensitive to changes in turgor than the induction which occurs in mature tissues.

  19. Abscisic Acid Accumulates at Positive Turgor Potential in Excised Soybean Seedling Growing Zones 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) hypocotyl elongating regions when seedlings were transferred to low water potential vermiculite (Ψ = −0.3 megapascals) even though positive turgor is retained in this tissue. Accumulation of ABA in growing zones could occur from de novo biosynthesis within this tissue or transport from adjacent nongrowing zones. Both growing and nongrowing hypocotyl and root tissues accumulated significant levels of ABA when excised and dehydrated to reduce turgor. Surprisingly, excised growing zones (which experienced no water loss) also accumulated ABA when incubated in darkness for 4 hours at 100% relative humidity and 29°C. Induction of ABA accumulation in the excised elongating region of the hypocotyl was not caused by disruption of root pressure or wounding. While excision of hypocotyl elongating regions induced ABA accumulation, no change in either extensin or p33 mRNA levels was observed. Accumulation of extensin or p33 mRNA required more severe wounding. This suggests that ABA is not involved in the response of these genes in wounded tissue and that wound signals are not causing ABA accumulation in excised tissue. Accumulation of ABA in excised elongating regions was correlated with growth inhibition and a decline in turgor to the yield threshold (Ψ;p = 0.37 megapascals; R Matyssek, S Maruyama, JS Boyer [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 1163-1167). Inhibiting hypocotyl growth by transferring seedlings to lower temperatures or light did not cause ABA accumulation. We conclude that induction of ABA accumulation in growing zones is more sensitive to changes in turgor than the induction which occurs in mature tissues. Images Figure 2 PMID:16668113

  20. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and application of ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowei; Dong, Chen; Chu, Zhengpei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Xie, Beizhen

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the bio-regenerative air revitalization, water recycling and waste management systems and their associated challenges, enhancing the crop yield with less fertilizer input for sustainable food production in space is also a challenge that needs to be overcome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space. Strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins soaked in 1X, 5X, 10X and 15X Hoagland nutrient solutions, respectively, were used as fertilizers in clinoptilolite to cultivate wheat plants, and the morphological and physiological characteristics of the wheat plants were studied and compared with that of the wheat planted in vermiculite and nutrient solutions. The results showed that more ions were attached on the surface of the ion exchange resins as the solution concentration increased. After 14 days, the fresh weight of wheat planted in the ion exchange resin-clinoptilolite (IER-clinoptilolite) treated with 10X and 15X solutions were 190% and 192% higher than that of wheat planted in nutrient solution with the same concentration. Chlorophyll content of wheat plants cultivated in the two kinds of solid medium is significantly higher than that of liquid cultivation. The lowest peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of wheat plants cultivated in the IER-clinoptilolite appeared on the 14th day. According to all the experimental data, it's promising to produce slow-release nutrient fertilizer by using strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins for wheat cultivation in space.

  2. HRTEM/AEM and SEM study of fluid-rock interactions: Interaction of copper, silver, selenium, chromium, and cadmium-bearing solutions with geological materials at near surface conditions, with an emphasis on phyllosilicates. Progress report, September 1, 1992--September 1, 1993

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    TEM of naturally occurring Cu-rich biotites and feldspars from weathered portions of porphyry copper deposits has shown that copper is not in the structure of these minerals, is present in their weathering products such as copper-rich vermiculite layers, submicroscopic iron oxyhydroxides and native copper inclusions, and chrysocoua. Reaction of acidic solutions bearing-Cu{sup 2+}, Ag{sup +}, Cr{sup 6+}, and Se{sup 4+}, at 25C, with biotite indicates that ferrous iron in biotite can reduce Cu{sup 2+}, Ag+, and Cr{sup 6+} to Cu{degrees}, Ag{degrees}, and Cr(III), respectively. However, Se{sup 4+} does not appear to be reduced. Copper is reduced in the interlayer region,more » silver is reduced in the interlayer and on the biotite surfaces, and chromium is reduced at the biotite surface. TEM shows that the reduction of copper and silver by biotite can produce native metal inclusions, whereas reduction of Cr(VI) to CR(III) did not produce any Cr-bearing precipitates. The copper and silver experiments show that iron in biotite can be a much stronger reducing agent than iron in solution. TEM and XPS of biotites reacted with CR(VI) clearly show that edges or (hkO) faces are much more reactive than the basal planes, where the edges are strongly enriched in CR(III) relative to the basal planes. In contrast, biotites reacted with Cr(IH)-bearing solutions show little fractionation between the edges and basal planes. Another important result of our XPS studies is that we demonstrated that the oxidation state of near surface iron in biotite can be quantified.« less

  3. [Study on Rapid Micropropagation in Vitro Technique of Guangfeng Medicinal Yam (Dioscorea opposita) Plantlets].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Sheng-qin; Lv, Si-Jie; Zeng, Yan-hong; Fu, You-zhang; Hong, Sen-rong

    2015-11-01

    In order to provide methodology reference for virus-free and germplasm conservation of Guangfeng medicinal yam (Dioscorea opposita) plantlets, rapid micropropagation in vitro technique of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was studied. Using the method of plant tissue culture, single factor test and flow-cytometry, the basic procedure of Guangfeng medicinal yam tissue culture was established and the DNA content of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings was detected. The best disinfection procedure of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was washed with sterile water for three times after sterilized with 70% alcohol for 20 - 30 s and then washed with sterile water for three times again after sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 10 - 12 min; The best explants of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was slightly woody and more mature stems witha bud; The best proliferation culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L; The best rooting culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L; The best culture method of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was liquid culture; The best transplanting matrix of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was the mixture of paddy clay and fine sand (1: 2) or the mixture of perlite and vermiculite (1: 2); The DNA content between Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings had no significant difference. A fast and efficient micropropagation in vitro technological system of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam is established, and the flow cytometry detect results also show the genetic stability of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets, whose results provide the technical and theoretical basis for the large-scale production of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets.

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  5. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.

  6. VARIABLE CHARGE SOILS: MINERALOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Ranst, Eric; Qafoku, Nikolla; Noble, Andrew

    2016-09-19

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered to be variable charge soils (2) (Table 1). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH and ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate mineralsmore » such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid phase. Highly weathered soils and subsoils (e.g., Oxisols and some Ultisols, Alfisols and Andisols) may undergo isoelectric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They usually have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either the point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or the point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems.« less

  7. The Totumo mud volcano and its near-shore marine sedimentological setting (North Colombia) - From sedimentary volcanism to epithermal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Kaufhold, S.

    2018-04-01

    The Holocene mud volcano exposed at Totumo (younger than 4150 ± 50 yr BP) lines up together with some other landforms of its kind along the Caribbean Coast in northern Colombia. It currently vents a mud of the silicate-phosphate-bearing sulfur-sodium chloride type. The mud volcanoes evolved in an active continental margin setting of the South American Cordillera with high seismicity and affected by pervasive neotectonic structural disturbances. During the Neogene and Quaternary linear terrigenous shoreline sediments alternating with delta deposits evolved on this mobile crustal segment between the Andes and ancient Precambrian cratons. Meso- to microtidal sedimentary settings during transgression and progradation created meta- to instable sedimentary and petrophysical conditions (e.g. overpressure and gas-bearing bubble sands), favorable for the formation of mud volcanoes, whose lithofacies is subdivided into (1) footwall facies (detritus from metabasic, -pelitic source rocks), (2) mud volcano plus lateral facies (material from deep-seated hydrothermal sources, hydrocarbon plays, and brine reflux from the sea), (3) hanging wall facies, sand characterized by a strong longshore drift. The sedimentary volcanism in the area is characterized by different temperatures of formation: (1) pre-stage (<100 °C) and (2) recent stage (≈25 °C). Heavy (pyroxene, amphibole, epidote-clinozoisite, Fe-Ti silicates and oxides, garnet, alumosilicates, tourmaline, zircon, barite, Fe sulfides and -sulfates), light (Ca sulfates, calcite, quartz, feldspar) and clay minerals (kaolinite, mica, pyrophyllite, chlorite, vermiculite) are efficient tools to determine the source of mud, to subdivide the mud volcano system as to its facies and describe its physical-chemical regime as to the temperature of formation, pH and Eh values. The mud volcano system of Totumo bridges the gap between sedimentary "volcanism" and epithermal hot spring deposits of intermediate to high sulfidation and forms a

  8. Laboratory Far-infrared Spectroscopy Of Terrestrial Phyllosilicates To Support Analysis Of Cosmic Dust Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet; Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. H.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poster Abstract: 219th AAS Meeting M. Yesiltas1, T. Brusentsova1, R. E. Peale1, D. Maukonen1, P. Figueiredo1, G. E. Harlow2, D. S. Ebel2, A. Nissinboim2, K. Sherman2, and C. M. Lisse3 Remote spectral detection of hydrated minerals is of general interest in the solar system and dusty circumstellar disks. This paper presents spectroscopy of terrestrial phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 15 - 250 µm to support interpretation of returned data from far-IR space-missions such as the Herschel Space Observatory. The far-IR spectral region beyond 15 micron wavelength is especially diagnostic of mineral composition and crystal structure. Relatively little far-IR spectral data exists in the literature on suitably-characterized naturally-occurring phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 60-210 microns corresponding to the PACS instrument of Herschel Space Observatory. Extending the database of laboratory far-IR spectra of terrestrial mineral analogs is therefore desirable and timely. Seventeen phyllosilicate minerals expected in various astronomical environments were sampled from the American Museum of Natural History for diversity and astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric IDP samples, or in meteorites. These include serpentines (Antigorite and Chrysotile), smectites (Talc, Pyrophyllite, Vermiculite, Montmorillonite, Beidellite, Saponite, Nontronite and Hectorite), chlorites (Clinochlore), micas (Muscovite, Paragonite, Margarite, Clintonite, Biotite and Illite), and kaolinites (Dickite, Nacrite, Kaolinite, Halloysite, Attapulgite and Sepiolite). Spectra of micron-sized powder suspensions in polyethelyne pellets reveal prominent and characteristic far-IR features, which differ significantly in some cases from already published spectra, where available. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by NASA-JPL Contract # 1327221. 1Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 USA2

  9. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the space station mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.; Sharma, Govind C.; Beyl, Caula A.

    1990-01-01

    A desire for fresh vegetables for consumption during long term space missions has been foreseen. To meet this need in a microgravity environment within the limited space and energy available on Space Station requires highly productive vegetable cultivars of short stature to optimize vegetable production per volume available. Special water and nutrient delivery systems must also be utilized. As a first step towards fresh vegetable production in the microgravity of Space Station, several soil-less capillary action media were evaluated for the ability to support growth of two root crops (radish and carrot) which are under consideration for inclusion in a semi-automated system for production of salad vegetables in a microgravity environment (Salad Machine). In addition, productivity of different cultivars of radish was evaluated as well as the effect of planting density and cultivar on carrot production and size. Red Prince radish was more productive than Cherry Belle and grew best on Jiffy Mix Plus. During greenhouse studies, vermiculite and rock wool supported radish growth to a lesser degree than Jiffy Mix Plus but more than Cellular Rooting Sponge. Comparison of three carrot cultivars (Planet, Short n Sweet, and Goldinhart) and three planting densities revealed that Short n Sweet planted at 25.6 sq cm/plant had the greatest root fresh weight per pot, the shortest mean top length, and intermediate values of root length and top fresh weight per pot. Red Prince radish and Short n Sweet carrot showed potential as productive cultivars for use in a Salad Machine. Results of experiments with solid capillary action media were disappointing. Further research must be done to identify a solid style capillary action media which can productively support growth of root crops such as carrot and radish.

  10. Exploring the efficacy of wastewater-grown microalgal biomass as a biofertilizer for wheat.

    PubMed

    Renuka, Nirmal; Prasanna, Radha; Sood, Anjuli; Ahluwalia, Amrik S; Bansal, Radhika; Babu, Santosh; Singh, Rajendra; Shivay, Yashbir S; Nain, Lata

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae possess the ability to grow and glean nutrients from wastewater; such wastewater-grown biomass can be used as a biofertilizer for crops. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate two formulations (formulation with unicellular microalgae (MC1) and formulation with filamentous microalgae (MC2); T4 and T5, respectively), prepared using wastewater-grown microalgal biomass, as a biofertilizer (after mixing with vermiculite/compost as a carrier) in wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. HD2967) under controlled conditions. The highest values of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in soil and nitrogen-fixing potential were recorded in treatment T5 (75% N + full-dose PK + formulation with filamentous microalgae (MC2). Microbial biomass carbon was significantly enhanced by 31.8-67.0% in both the inoculated treatments over control (recommended dose of fertilizers), with highest values in T4 (75% N + full-dose PK + formulation with unicellular microalgae (MC1)). Both the microalgal formulations significantly increased the N, P, and K content of roots, shoots, and grains, and the highest total N content of 3.56% in grains was observed in treatment T5. At harvest stage, the treatments inoculated with microalgal formulations (T4 and T5) recorded a 7.4-33% increase in plant dry weight and up to 10% in spike weight. The values of 1000-grain weight showed an enhancement of 5.6-8.4%, compared with T1 (recommended doses of fertilizers). A positive correlation was observed between soil nutrient availability at mid crop stage and plant biometrical parameters at harvest stage. This study revealed the promise of such microalgal consortia as a biofertilizer for 25% N savings and improved yields of wheat crop.

  11. Wall extensibility and cell hydraulic conductivity decrease in enlarging stem tissues at low water potentials.

    PubMed

    Nonami, H; Boyer, J S

    1990-08-01

    Measurements with a guillotine psychrometer (H Nonami, JS Boyer [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1601-1609) indicate that the inhibition of stem growth at low water potentials (low psi(w)) is accompanied by decreases in cell wall extensibility and tissue hydraulic conductance to water that eventually limit growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). To check this conclusion, we measured cell wall properties and cell hydraulic conductivities with independent techniques in soybean seedlings grown and treated the same way, i.e. grown in the dark and exposed to low psi(w) by transplanting dark grown seedlings to vermiculite of low water content. Wall properties were measured with an extensiometer modified for intact plants, and conductances were measured with a cell pressure probe in intact plants. Theory was developed to relate the wall measurements to those with the psychrometer. In the elongation zone, the plastic deformability of the walls decreased when measured with the extensiometer while growth was inhibited at low psi(w). It increased during a modest growth recovery. This behavior was the same as that for the wall extensibility observed previously with the psychrometer. Tissue that was killed before measurement with the extensiometer also showed a similar response, indicating that changes in wall extensibility represented changes in wall physical properties and not rates of wall biosynthesis. The elastic compliance (reciprocal of bulk elastic modulus) did not change in the elongating or mature tissue. The hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells decreased in the elongating tissue and increased slightly during growth recovery in a response similar to that observed with the psychrometer. We conclude that the plastic properties of the cell walls and the conductance of the cells to water were decreased at low psi(w) but that the elastic properties of the walls were of little consequence in this response.

  12. Wall Extensibility and Cell Hydraulic Conductivity Decrease in Enlarging Stem Tissues at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements with a guillotine psychrometer (H Nonami, JS Boyer [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1601-1609) indicate that the inhibition of stem growth at low water potentials (low ψw) is accompanied by decreases in cell wall extensibility and tissue hydraulic conductance to water that eventually limit growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). To check this conclusion, we measured cell wall properties and cell hydraulic conductivities with independent techniques in soybean seedlings grown and treated the same way, i.e. grown in the dark and exposed to low ψw by transplanting dark grown seedlings to vermiculite of low water content. Wall properties were measured with an extensiometer modified for intact plants, and conductances were measured with a cell pressure probe in intact plants. Theory was developed to relate the wall measurements to those with the psychrometer. In the elongation zone, the plastic deformability of the walls decreased when measured with the extensiometer while growth was inhibited at low ψw. It increased during a modest growth recovery. This behavior was the same as that for the wall extensibility observed previously with the psychrometer. Tissue that was killed before measurement with the extensiometer also showed a similar response, indicating that changes in wall extensibility represented changes in wall physical properties and not rates of wall biosynthesis. The elastic compliance (reciprocal of bulk elastic modulus) did not change in the elongating or mature tissue. The hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells decreased in the elongating tissue and increased slightly during growth recovery in a response similar to that observed with the psychrometer. We conclude that the plastic properties of the cell walls and the conductance of the cells to water were decreased at low ψw but that the elastic properties of the walls were of little consequence in this response. PMID:16667664

  13. Radiocesium distribution in aggregate-size fractions of cropland and forest soils affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Syusaku; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya

    2018-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused serious radiocesium ( 137 Cs) contamination in soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. It is well documented that the interaction of 137 Cs with soil constituents, particularly clay minerals, in surface soil layers exerts strong control on the behavior of this radionuclide in the environment; however, there is little understanding of how soil aggregation-the binding of soil particles together into aggregates-can affect the mobility and bioavailability of 137 Cs in soils. To explore this, soil samples were collected at seven sites under different land-use conditions in Fukushima and were separated into four aggregate-size fractions: clay-sized (<2 μm); silt-sized (2-20 μm); sand-sized (20-212 μm); and macroaggregates (212-2000 μm). The fractions were then analyzed for 137 Cs content and extractability and mineral composition. In forest soils, aggregate formation was significant, and 69%-83% of 137 Cs was associated with macroaggregates and sand-sized aggregates. In contrast, there was less aggregation in agricultural field soils, and approximately 80% of 137 Cs was in the clay- and silt-sized fractions. Across all sites, the 137 Cs extractability was higher in the sand-sized aggregate fractions than in the clay-sized fractions. Mineralogical analysis showed that, in most soils, clay minerals (vermiculite and kaolinite) were present even in the larger-sized aggregate fractions. These results demonstrate that larger-sized aggregates are a significant reservoir of potentially mobile and bioavailable 137 Cs in organic-rich (forest and orchard) soils. Our study suggests that soil aggregation reduces the mobility of particle-associated 137 Cs through erosion and resuspension and also enhances the bioavailability of 137 Cs in soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and development of green roof substrate to improve runoff water quality: plant growth experiments and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Raja, Franklin D

    2014-10-15

    Many studies worldwide have investigated the potential benefits achievable by transforming brown roofs of buildings to green roofs. However, little literature examined the runoff quality/sorption ability of green roofs. As the green roof substrate is the main component to alter the quality of runoff, this investigation raises the possibility of using a mixture of low-cost inorganic materials to develop a green roof substrate. The tested materials include exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, crushed brick and sand along with organic component (coco-peat). Detailed physical and chemical analyses revealed that each of these materials possesses different characteristics and hence a mix of these materials was desirable to develop an optimal green roof substrate. Using factorial design, 18 different substrate mixes were prepared and detailed examination indicated that mix-12 exhibited desirable characteristics of green roof substrate with low bulk density (431 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (39.4%), air filled porosity (19.5%), and hydraulic conductivity (4570 mm/h). The substrate mix also provided maximum support to Portulaca grandiflora (380% total biomass increment) over one month of growth. To explore the leaching characteristics and sorption capacity of developed green roof substrate, a down-flow packed column arrangement was employed. High conductivity and total dissolved solids along with light metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were observed in the leachates during initial stages of column operation; however the concentration of ions ceased during the final stages of operation (600 min). Experiments with metal-spiked deionized water revealed that green roof substrate possess high sorption capacity towards various heavy metal ions (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd). Thus the developed growth substrate possesses desirable characteristics for green roofs along with high sorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Waterlogging tolerance, tissue nitrogen and oxygen transport in the forage legume Melilotus siculus: a comparison of nodulated and nitrate-fed plants.

    PubMed

    Konnerup, Dennis; Toro, Guillermo; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2018-03-14

    Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse. Nodulation, shoot and root growth and tissue N were determined. Porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) and respiration rates of root tissues and nodules, and O2 microelectrode profiling across nodules, were measured in a second experiment. Plants inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) medicae, formed nodules. Nodulated plants grew as well as plants fed NO3-, both in drained and waterlogged conditions. The growth and total N content of nodulated plants (without any NO3- supplied) indicated N2 fixation. Respiration rates (mass basis) were highest in nodules and root tips and lowest in basal root tissues. Secondary aerenchyma (phellem) formed along basal root parts and a thin layer of this porous tissue also covered nodules, which together enhanced gas-phase diffusion of O2 to the nodules; O2 was below detection within the infected zone of the nodule interior. Melilotus siculus reliant on N2 fixation grew well both in drained and waterlogged conditions, and had similar tissue N concentrations. In waterlogged conditions the relatively high respiration rates of nodules must rely on O2 movement via the aerenchymatous phellem in hypocotyl, roots and the outer tissue layers of nodules.

  16. Combined effect of salt and drought on boron toxicity in Puccinellia tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunguang; Dai, Zheng; Xia, Jingye; Chang, Can; Sun, Hongwen

    2018-08-15

    Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem, usually accompanied by salt (NaCl) and drought. The combined stresses may induce complex toxicity to the plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the combined stresses of salt and drought affect B toxicity in plants. Puccinellia tenuiflora seedlings were planted in vermiculite. A three (B) × three (salt) × three (drought) factorial experiment (for a total of 27 treatments) was conducted. After a 30-day cultivation, plants were harvested to determine dry weight and the concentrations of B, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ . Plant growth was inhibited by B toxicity, which was alleviated by salt and drought. B stress enhanced B uptake and transport of the plant, which was inhibited by salt and drought. B stress had a little effect on K + and Na + concentration and caused Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation in the plant. Salt addition increased Na + concentration and inhibited Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. Drought addition inhibited Na + accumulation and enhanced Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. The combined stresses of salt and drought had a greater alleviation on the inhibition of dry weight caused by B than individual salt and drought. Besides, the combined stresses of salt and drought also enhanced B uptake and inhibited B transport. The results indicate that salt, drought, and the combined stresses of salt and drought all can alleviate B toxicity in P. tenuiflora, the main mechanism of which is the restriction of B and Na + uptake caused by salt and drought. The combined stresses of salt and drought have a greater effect on B toxicity than individual salt and drought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protocols for In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Analysis of Medicinally Important Phenolics of a Salep Orchid, Satyrium nepalense D.Don ("Salam Mishri").

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shashi B; Singh, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Satyrium nepalense is a rare and threatened medicinal orchid, populations of which in its native habitats are dwindling because of indiscriminate collections and habitat destruction, thus necessitating the development of methods for its in situ and ex situ conservation. Because of non-endospermous nature of the seeds and the immature embryos at seed dispersal stage, orchids cannot be seed-propagated as other plants. Micropropagation, using plant tissue culture techniques, offers an effective method for the multiplication of orchids. In this chapter, a five-step efficient reproducible protocol for large-scale in vitro multiplication of Satyrium nepalense is described. The first step involves asymbiotic germination of seeds isolated from immature green pods and cultured on Mitra's medium (M) gelled with 0.8 % agar and supplemented with 2 % sucrose and 1 % peptone (hereafter referred to as basal medium, BM). On this medium, seeds start germinating after a week of culture. Protocorms developed from the seeds are sub-cultured on BM fortified with 4 μM kinetin (Kn) after 8 weeks, for shoot differentiation and multiplication. The shoots developed on Kn-supplemented medium are transferred to BM alone for their elongation for the same period. The elongated shoots are transferred to the rooting medium, comprising BM supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid, for further 8 weeks. The regenerated plantlets are transferred to a potting mix of sand and vermiculite (1:1) for acclimatization. The tubers and leaves excised from both in vitro-developed plants and those from their native habitats are analyzed and compared for the contents and concentration of medicinally important phenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), details of which are provided in this chapter.

  18. Effect of fertilizer prepared from human feces and straw on germination, growth and development of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dianlei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui; Hu, Dawei; Qin, Youcai; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste treatment is one of the most important rate-limiting steps in the material circulation and energy flow of Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In our previous work, an efficient and controllable solid waste bio-convertor has been built and a solid waste degradation efficiency of 41.0% has been reached during a 105-d BLSS experiment. However, the fermented residues should be further utilized to fulfill the closure of the system. One solution might be to use the residues as the fertilizer for plant cultivation. Thus in this study, substrates were prepared using different ratios of the fermented residues to the vermiculite. And the influences of different ratios of the fermented residues on the seed germination, growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant capacity of wheat were studied. The results showed that the optimal rate of the fermented residue was 5%. With this ratio, the seed germination reached 97.3% with the root length, shoot length and biomass production as 59 mm, 52 mm and 150 mg, respectively, at the 4th day. Besides, the highest straw height of 25.1 cm was obtained at the 21st day. The salinity adversely affected the growth and some relevant metabolic processes of wheat. The Group-40% led to the lowest seed germination of 34.7% and the minimum straw height of 15 cm. This inhibition might be caused by the high Na content of 2118 mg/kg in the fermented residues. Chlorophyll b was more sensitive to the mineral nutrition stress and affects the wheat photosynthetic characteristics. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and reduced antioxidant enzymes may contribute, directly and/or indirectly, to the decline in the observed pigment contents in wheat.

  19. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Luis; Rincón, Jesusa; Asencio, Isaac; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2007-01-01

    High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

  20. Oxidative potential (OP) and mineralogy of iron ore particulate matter at the Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility (Iran).

    PubMed

    Soltani, Naghmeh; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Sorooshian, Armin; Moore, Farid; Dunster, Christina; Dominguez, Ana Oliete; Kelly, Frank J; Dhakal, Prakash; Ahmadi, Mohamad Reza; Asadi, Sina

    2017-03-09

    Concentrations of total suspended particulate matter, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter <10 μm (PM 10 ), and fallout dust were measured at the Iranian Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility. Samples were characterized in terms of mineralogy, morphology, and oxidative potential. Results show that indoor samples exceeded the 24-h PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass concentration limits (35 and 150 µg m -3 , respectively) set by the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Calcite, magnetite, tremolite, pyrite, talc, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, and illite are the major phases of the iron ore PM. Accessory minerals are quartz, dolomite, hematite, actinolite, biotite, albite, nimite, laumontite, diopside, and muscovite. The scanning electron microscope structure of fibrous-elongated minerals revealed individual fibers in the range of 1.5 nm to 71.65 µm in length and 0.2 nm to 3.7 µm in diameter. The presence of minerals related to respiratory diseases, such as talc, crystalline silica, and needle-shaped minerals like amphibole asbestos (tremolite and actinolite), strongly suggests the need for detailed health-based studies in the region. The particulate samples show low to medium oxidative potential per unit of mass, in relation to an urban road side control, being more reactive with ascorbate than with glutathione or urate. However, the PM oxidative potential per volume of air is exceptionally high, confirming that the workers are exposed to a considerable oxidative environment. PM released by iron ore mining and processing activities should be considered a potential health risk to the mine workers and nearby employees, and strategies to combat the issue are suggested.

  1. Distribution and possible immobilization of lead in a forest soil (Luvisol) profile.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Péter; Németh, Tibor; Mohai, Ilona

    2005-02-01

    Geochemical analyses using a sequential extraction method and lead adsorption studies were carried out in order to characterize the distribution and adsorption of lead on each genetic horizon of a Luvisol profile developed on a pelagic clayey aleurolite. Clay illuviation is the most important pedogenic process in the profile studied. Its clay mineralogy is characterized by chlorite/vermiculite species with increasing chlorite component downward. The amount of carbonate minerals strongly increases in the lower part of the profile resulting in an abrupt rise in soil pH within a small distance. The Pb content of the soil profile exceeds the natural geochemical background only in the Ao horizon, and its amount decreases with depth in the profile without correcting for differences in bulk density, suggesting the binding of Pb to soil organic matter. According to the sequential extraction analysis the organic matter and carbonate content of the soil have the most significant effect on lead distribution. This effect varies in the different soil horizons. Lead adsorption experiments were carried out on whole soil samples, soil clay fractions, as well as on their carbonate and organic matter free variant. The different soil horizons adsorb lead to different extents depending on their organic matter, clay mineral and carbonate content; and the mineralogical features of soil clays significantly affect their lead adsorption capacity. The clay fraction adsorbs 25% more lead than the whole soil, while in the calcareous subsoil a significant proportion of lead is precipitated due to the alkaline conditions. 10 and 5% of adsorbed Pb can be leached with distilled water in the organic matter and clay mineral dominated soil horizons, respectively. These results suggest that soil organic matter plays a decisive role in the adsorption of Pb, but the fixation by clay minerals is stronger.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. Copyright

  3. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood.more » The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder

  4. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  5. Assessment of CO2-Induced Geochemical Changes in Soil/Mineral-Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Choi, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although the storage of CO2 in deep geological formations is considered the most promising sequestration path, there is still a risk that it may leak into the atmosphere. To ensure the secure operation of CO2 storage sites, thus, it is necessary to implement CO2 leakage monitoring systems. Furthermore, the leakage may alter geochemical properties of overlying geological units to have adverse environmental consequences. By elucidating geochemical changes due to CO2 leakage, it is possible to develop effective CO2 monitoring techniques and predict the influence of CO2 leakage. A series of batch experiments were conducted to simulate CO2-induced geochemical changes in soil/mineral-water systems. Soil samples, obtained from Eumseong basin in Eumseong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, were dried for 6 hours at 60° and then divided into two size fractions: < 106 and 106-212 mm. Minerals including mica/illite, vermiculite, and feldspar were purchased and purified if necessary. Prior to batch experiments, soils and minerals were characterized for surface area, mineralogy, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen contents, pH buffering capacity, and metal extractability. Batch experiments were initiated by reacting 100% CO2 atmosphere with aqueous suspensions of 120 g soils or 50 g minerals in 3,000 mL of 10 mM CsClO4 at room temperature. In parallel, the batches having the same soil/mineral compositions were run under the ambient air as controls. To prevent microbial activities, all batches were sterilized with 0.03% HCHO. To track geochemical changes, pH and electrical conductivity were monitored. Also, while solutions were regularly sampled and analyzed for trace metals as well as main cations and anions, solid phases were sampled to observe changes in mineralogical compositions. Geochemical changes in both solution and solid phases during the initial 6 month reaction will be presented. Acknowledgement: The "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from

  6. Mineralogical, chemical, and physical properties of the regolith overlying crystalline rocks, Fairfax County, Virginia: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, Gerhard W.; Pavich, M.J.; Obermeier, Stephen F.

    1977-01-01

    Undisturbed cores of saprolite developed on crystalline rocks of the Piedmont Province in Fairfax County, Virginia have been obtained using a combination of Shelby tubes, Denison sampler, and modified diamond core-drilling. The principal purpose of the core study is to correlate variations in chemistry, mineralogy and texture with engineering properties throughout the weathering profile. Coring sites were chosen to obtain a maximum depth of weathering on diverse lithologies. The rocks investigated include pelitic schist, metagraywacke, granite, diabase and serpentinite. Four to twelve samples per core were selected, depending on thickness of 1) the weathering profile (from about 1 m in serpentinite to more than 30 m in pelitic schist) and on 2) megascopic changes in saprolite character for analysis of petrography, texture, clay mineralogy andd major element chemistry. Shear strength and compressibility were determined on corresponding segments of core. Standard penetration tests were performed adjacent to coring sites to evaluate engineering properties in situ. Geochemical changes of saprolite developed from each rock type follow predictable trends from fresh rock to soil profile, with relative Increases in Si, Ti, Al, Fe3+ and H20; variable K; and relative loss of Fe 2+, Mg, Ca, and Na. These variations are more pronounced in the weathering profiles over mafic and ultramafic rocks than metagraywacke. Clay minerals in granite, schist and metagraywacke saprolite are kaolinite, dioctahedral vermiculite, interlayered micavermiculite, and minor illite. Gibbsite is locally developed in near-surface samples of schist. Standard penetration test data for the upper 7 m of saprolite over schist and metagraywacke suggest alternations between stronger and weaker horizons than probably reflect variations in lithology including the presence of quartz lenses. Results for granite saprolite are most consistent but indicate lower strength. Shear strength increases fairly regularly

  7. Primary events regulating stem growth at low water potentials.

    PubMed

    Nonami, H; Boyer, J S

    1990-08-01

    Cell enlargement is inhibited by inadequate water. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism, all the physical parameters affecting enlargement were monitored to identify those that changed first, particularly in coincidence with the inhibition. The osmotic potential, turgor, yield threshold turgor, growth-induced water potential, wall extensibility, and conductance to water were measured in the elongating region, and the water potential was measured in the xylem of stems of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings. A stepdown in water potential was achieved around the roots by transplanting the seedlings to vermiculite of low water content, and each of the parameters was measured simultaneously in the same plants while intact or within a few minutes of being intact using a newly developed guillotine psychrometer. The gradient of decreasing water potential from the xylem to the enlarging cells (growth-induced water potential) was the first of the parameters to decrease to a growth-limiting level. The kinetics were the same as for the inhibition of growth. The decreased gradient was caused mostly by a decreased water potential of the xylem. This was followed after 5 to 10 hours by a similar decrease in cell wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. Later, the growth-induced water potential recovered as a result of osmotic adjustment and a rise in the water potential of the xylem. Still later, moderate growth resumed at a rate apparently determined by the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. The turgor did not change significantly during the experiment. These results indicate that the primary event during the growth inhibition was the change in the growth-induced water potential. Because the growth limitation subsequently shifted to the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water, the initial change in potential may have set in motion subsequent metabolic changes that altered the characteristics of the

  8. Primary Events Regulating Stem Growth at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Cell enlargement is inhibited by inadequate water. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism, all the physical parameters affecting enlargement were monitored to identify those that changed first, particularly in coincidence with the inhibition. The osmotic potential, turgor, yield threshold turgor, growth-induced water potential, wall extensibility, and conductance to water were measured in the elongating region, and the water potential was measured in the xylem of stems of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings. A stepdown in water potential was achieved around the roots by transplanting the seedlings to vermiculite of low water content, and each of the parameters was measured simultaneously in the same plants while intact or within a few minutes of being intact using a newly developed guillotine psychrometer. The gradient of decreasing water potential from the xylem to the enlarging cells (growth-induced water potential) was the first of the parameters to decrease to a growth-limiting level. The kinetics were the same as for the inhibition of growth. The decreased gradient was caused mostly by a decreased water potential of the xylem. This was followed after 5 to 10 hours by a similar decrease in cell wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. Later, the growth-induced water potential recovered as a result of osmotic adjustment and a rise in the water potential of the xylem. Still later, moderate growth resumed at a rate apparently determined by the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water. The turgor did not change significantly during the experiment. These results indicate that the primary event during the growth inhibition was the change in the growth-induced water potential. Because the growth limitation subsequently shifted to the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water, the initial change in potential may have set in motion subsequent metabolic changes that altered the characteristics of the

  9. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-06-01

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions <20μm one year after the application of biochar. Biochar-C stored in clay-size fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, <0.05μm) was only 14%. Even so, we observed that biochar-C increased with decreasing particle-size in clay-size fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction <0.05μm onto biochar particles. The results suggested that interactions between biochar, minerals and pre-existing organic matter already occurred in the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn sorption and retention models using SVM: Variable selection and competitive model.

    PubMed

    González Costa, J J; Reigosa, M J; Matías, J M; Covelo, E F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the sorption and retention of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils. To that extent, the sorption and retention of these metals were studied and the soil characterization was performed separately. Multiple stepwise regression was used to produce multivariate models with linear techniques and with support vector machines, all of which included 15 explanatory variables characterizing soils. When the R-squared values are represented, two different groups are noticed. Cr, Cu and Pb sorption and retention show a higher R-squared; the most explanatory variables being humified organic matter, Al oxides and, in some cases, cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The other group of metals (Cd, Ni and Zn) shows a lower R-squared, and clays are the most explanatory variables, including a percentage of vermiculite and slime. In some cases, quartz, plagioclase or hematite percentages also show some explanatory capacity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression shows that the different models are not as regular as in multiple regression in terms of number of variables, the regression for nickel adsorption being the one with the highest number of variables in its optimal model. On the other hand, there are cases where the most explanatory variables are the same for two metals, as it happens with Cd and Cr adsorption. A similar adsorption mechanism is thus postulated. These patterns of the introduction of variables in the model allow us to create explainability sequences. Those which are the most similar to the selectivity sequences obtained by Covelo (2005) are Mn oxides in multiple regression and change capacity in SVM. Among all the variables, the only one that is explanatory for all the metals after applying the maximum parsimony principle is the percentage of sand in the retention process. In the competitive model arising from the aforementioned sequences, the most intense competitiveness for the adsorption and retention of different metals appears between

  11. Nitrate Reductase Activity and Polyribosomal Content of Corn (Zea mays L.) Having Low Leaf Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Camila A.; Boyer, J. S.; Hageman, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Desiccation of 8- to 13-day-old seedlings, achieved by withholding nutrient solution from the vermiculite root medium, caused a reduction in nitrate reductase activity of the leaf tissue. Activity declined when leaf water potentials decreased below −2 bars and was 25% of the control at a leaf water potential of −13 bars. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the decrease in nitrate reductase activity was due to reduced levels of nitrate in the tissue, direct inactivation of the enzyme by low leaf water potentials, or to changes in rates of synthesis or decay of the enzyme. Although tissue nitrate content decreased with the onset of desiccation, it did not continue to decline with tissue desiccation and loss of enzyme activity. Nitrate reductase activity recovered when the plants were rewatered with nitrate-free medium, suggesting that the nitrate in the plant was adequate for high nitrate reductase activity. The rate of decay of nitrate reductase activity from desiccated tissue was essentially identical to that of the control, in vivo or in vitro, regardless of the rapidity of desiccation of the tissue. Direct inactivation of the enzyme by the low water potentials was not detected. Polyribosomal content of the tissue declined with the decrease in water potential, prior to the decline in nitrate reductase activity. Changes in ribosomal profiles occurred during desiccation, regardless of whether the tissue had been excised or not and whether desiccation was rapid or slow. Reduction in polyribosomal content did not appear to be associated with changes in ribonuclease activity. Nitrate reductase activity and the polyribosomal content of the tissue recovered upon rewatering, following the recovery in water potential. The increase in polyribosomal content preceded the increase in nitrate reductase activity. Recovery of enzyme activity was prevented by cycloheximide. Based on these results, it appears that nitrate reductase activity was affected primarily by

  12. Gram-negative Biomass in Clay Minerals Analogs: Testing Habitability Potential for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    Landing sites of next missions to Mars i.e., the US 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL11) and the ESA2016 Pasteur ExoMars, will include phyllosilicate outcrops as targets for investigating the geological and biological history of that planet. In this context, we present a study assessing the living biomass and habitability potential in mineralogical Mars analogs such as phyllosilicates and hematite-rich deposits encompassing a broad arid-hyper-arid climate range (annual rainfall <0.2 to ~700mm/y). Samples from the Atacama Desert (Chile), the Death Valley (CA), and the California Coast (USA) were analyzed for microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as proxy for Gram-negatives biomass with the Limulus-Amebocite-Lysate (LAL) assay. Mineral phases were identified using X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD). These samples resulted to contain phyllosilicate phases similar to those identified, or inferred [1], on the surface of Mars by the OMEGA-Mars/Express [e.g., 2], the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) instruments (HiRISE and CRISM) [3]. Basic observations were: 1) there is no systematic pattern in biomass content of clays vs. non-clays (oxidized) materials from the study sites; 2) Atacama desiccation polygons (muscovite and kaolinite) and contiguous hematite-rich hyper-arid deposits contain the lowest biomass, i.e., ~104to-105 cells/g, respectively; 3) the hyper-arid clays contain three-order magnitude lower Gram-negative biomass than those (montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite) from the arid Death Valley site (~107cells/g); and 4) finally, the Gram-negative (~107cells/g) of clay minerals-rich materials from the arid site is about the same than that (~1.5 to ~3.0 x 107cells/g) of water-saturated massive deposits (kaolinite, illite, and vermiculite) from the wetter California coast. Results from this investigation will help testing for the habitability potential of phyllosilicate deposits sampled by the MSL11 Mission. REFERENCES:[1] Bibring et al., 2006, Science 312:400-404; [2] Wang et

  13. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  14. Crop and Substrate Tests with Single Use Rooting "Pillows" for the VEGGIE Plant Growth Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Caro, Janicce; Stutte, Gary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    VEGGIE is a small plant production chamber built by ORBITEC. This chamber can be collapsed for easy stowage and deployed in orbit. It is designed for gravity independent operation, and provides 0.17 square m of crop growth area with three primary subsystems: an LED light panel, extendable transparent Teflon bellows to enclose the plants, and a wicking reservoir. VEGGIE would provide the capability for astronauts to grow fresh foods for dietary supplementation. Initial planting concepts tested with the VEGGIE included direct seeding or plug placement on the reservoir surface. These options had issues of salt accumulation and eventual toxicity if the reservoir was filled with nutrient solution, and hardware reuse was limited due to sanitation. In response a rooting packet or "pillow" concept was developed: single-use bags of media containing time release fertilizer with a wicking surface contacting the VEGGIE reservoir. Pillows being tested are small electrostatic bags with a Nitex nylon mesh side, each holding 100 mL of dry media. Six pillows fit in one VEGGIE unit; however pillow size could vary depending on crop selected. Seeds can be planted directly in pillows and planted pillows can be hydrated in space as desired. Our goals were to define optimal media and crops for an ISS mission scenario. Plant tests in pillows were performed in a controlled environment chamber set to habitat-relevant conditions, and capillary reservoir analogs were utilized. Media tested within pillows included: a commercial peat-based potting mix, arcillite (calcined clay), perlite: vermiculite, and peat-based: arcillite blends. Testing included 15 types of leafy greens, snow pea, radish, and herbs. Media performance was crop dependent, but generally plants showed the greatest growth in the peat-based: arcillite mixes. Crops with the best performance in pillows were identified, and testing is underway with select leafy greens examining plant and microbial load response to repeated harvest

  15. The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaldset, E.

    2012-04-01

    The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study Elen Roaldset(1), Mari Åm (2), and Oddleiv Olesen(3) 1) Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway 2) Statoil R &D, P. O. Box 2470, 7005 Trondheim, Norway 3) Norwegian Geological Survey, P.O.Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim, Norway The Stuoragurra Fault is part of the Lapland province of postglacial faults and was identified in 1983 during a colloborative project between the Geological Surveys of Finland Norway and Sweden. The Stuoragurra Fault is an 80 km long fault zone which contains three main segments of eastward dipping faults (30-55 deg.) with up to 10 m of reverse displacement and a 7 m high escarpment. It cross-cuts glaciofluvial deposits and consequently being younger than 10.000 years. The postglacial fault segments follow to a large extent older fault zones represented by lithified breccias and diabases of Proterozoic age. In this paper we will present textural and mineralogical study of a 135 m continous core drilled across the fault zone. The investigation methods include quality assessments by rock quality designation methods (RQD and Q- methods), textural and petrological descriptions visually and by thin section microscopy, and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Special attention is drawn to neoformed and/or degraded minerals like clay minerals and iron oxides/hydroxides. The quality assessments of the cored material reflect the degree of rock deformation and fragmentation and show the quality of the bedrock generally to be of very poor (about 60%) to poor quality" (25%) The main minerals in the fresh rock are quarts, feldspar, mica and iron oxides (magnetite and ilmenite). Throughout the cored borehole products of weathering have formed on fissures, fractures and in strongly deformed, gravelly, zones. The neoformed minerals include kaolinite, smectite, and vermiculite, as well as goethite. The mineralogical

  16. Radiation-Damage Resistance in Phyllosilicate Minerals From First Principles and Implications for Radiocesium and Strontium Retention in Soils

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sassi, Michel; Rosso, Kevin M.; Okumura, Masahiko

    Accidental discharges of the hazardous nuclear fission products 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ into the environment, such as during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, have repeatedly occurred throughout the nuclear age. Numerous studies of their fate and transport in soils and sediments have demonstrated their strong and selective binding to phyllosilicates such as clay minerals, primarily via cation exchange into interlayer sites. The locally concentrated amounts of these radioactive beta-emitters that can be found in these host minerals raises important questions regarding the long-term interplay and durability of radioisotope-clay association, which is not well known. This study goes beyond the usual short-termmore » focus to address the permanence of radioisotope retention in clay minerals, by developing a general theoretical understanding of their resistance to defect creation. We report ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations of the threshold displacement energy (TDE) of each symmetry-unique atomic specie comprising the unit cell of model vermiculite. The determined TDE values are material specific and radiation independent. We use them to estimate the probability of Frenkel pair creation via direct electron-ion collision, as could be induced by the passage of a high energy electron emitted during the beta-decay of 137Cs, 90Sr and daughter 90Y. For 137Cs and 90Sr, we found that the probability is about 36%, while for 90Y the probability is much higher with about 89%. The long-term retention picture that emerges is that decay will progressively alter the clay interlayer structure and charge, likely leading to delamination of the clay and re-release of residual parent isotopes. Future work examining the effect of Frenkel defect accumulation on the binding energy of parent and daughter radionuclides in the interlayer is thus justifiable, and potentially important for accurate long-term forecasting of radionuclide transport in the environment.« less

  17. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kochhar, G.S.; Manohar, K.

    Cost is one of the major factors to be considered when choosing a thermal insulator. Design engineers continuously strive to provide the best at the lowest possible cost. In the tropics climate conditions are essentially hot and humid and a cause for daily discomfort. To some extent, air-conditioning of buildings has solved this problem. The major deterrent to air-conditioning is the exorbitant cost of imported thermal insulation materials. This has prompted a search for local, low-cost but effective thermal insulation for buildings. Coconut fiber is available at minimal cost from the copra industry in Trinidad, as it is a wastemore » product from the coconut. The viability of using coconut fiber as building thermal insulation was explored by conducting thermal conductivity tests on 200 mm X 400 mm X 60 mm thick slab-like specimens. The test equipment used was a locally designed constant temperature hot box apparatus. This apparatus was designed to test slab-like specimens under steady-state conditions. The reliability if this experimental set up was checked using Gypsum Plaster. The thermal conductivity test results for coconut fiber over the density range 30 kg/m{sup 3} to 115 kg/m{sup 3} showed the characteristic hooked shape graph for fibrous material. For the 60 mm thick specimens at a mean temperature of 39 C, a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.058 W/mK occurred at an optimum density of 85 kg/m{sup 3}. The thermal conductivity of commonly used industrial insulators, namely loose-fill expanded vermiculite, cellular glass and blanket fiber glass, at a mean temperature of 38 C are 0.066 W/mK, 0.061 W/mK and 0.052 W/mK respectively. When compared, these results show that air dried coconut fiber has far reaching potential for use as an effective building thermal insulation.« less

  18. Mineralogy controls on reactive transport of Marcellus Shale waters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhang; Wen, Hang; Komarneni, Sridhar; Li, Li

    2018-07-15

    Produced or flowback waters from Marcellus Shale gas extraction (MSWs) typically are highly saline and contain chemicals including trace metals, which pose significant concerns on water quality. The natural attenuation of MSW chemicals in groundwater is poorly understood due to the complex interactions between aquifer minerals and MSWs, limiting our capabilities to monitor and predict. Here we combine flow-through experiments and process-based reactive transport modeling to understand mechanisms and quantify the retention of MSW chemicals in a quartz (Qtz) column, a calcite-rich (Cal) column, and a clay-rich (Vrm, vermiculite) column. These columns were used to represent sand, carbonate, and clay-rich aquifers. Results show that the types and extent of water-rock interactions differ significantly across columns. Although it is generally known that clay-rich media retard chemicals and that quartz media minimize water-rock interactions, results here have revealed insights that differ from previous thoughts. We found that the reaction mechanisms are much more complex than merely sorption and mineral precipitation. In clay rich media, trace metals participate in both ion exchange and mineral precipitation. In fact, the majority of metals (~50-90%) is retained in the solid via mineral precipitation, which is surprising because we typically expect the dominance of sorption in clay-rich aquifers. In the Cal column, trace metals are retained not only through precipitation but also solid solution partitioning, leading to a total of 75-99% retention. Even in the Qtz column, trace metals are retained at unexpectedly high percentages (~20-70%) due to precipitation. The reactive transport model developed here quantitatively differentiates the relative importance of individual processes, and bridges a limited number of experiments to a wide range of natural conditions. This is particularly useful where relatively limited knowledge and data prevent the prediction of complex rock

  19. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  20. Sedimentology and geochemistry of surface sediments, outer continental shelf, southern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Vallier, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Present-day sediment dynamics, combined with lowerings of sea level during the Pleistocene, have created a mixture of sediments on the outer continental shelf of the southern Bering Sea that was derived from the Alaskan Mainland, the Aleutian Islands, and the Pribilof ridge. Concentrations of finer-grained, higher-organic sediments in the region of the St. George basin have further modified regional distribution patterns of sediment composition. Q-mode factor analysis of 58 variables related to sediment size and composition - including content of major, minor, and trace elements, heavy and light minerals, and clay minerals - reveals three dominant associations of sediment: 1. (1) The most significant contribution, forming a coarse-grained sediment scattered over most of the shelf consists of felsic sediment derived from the generally quartz-rich rocks of the Alaskan mainland. This sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Si, Ba, Rb, quartz, garnet, epidote, metamorphic rock fragments, potassium feldspar, and illite. 2. (2) The next most important group, superimposed on the felsic group consists of andesitic sediment derived from the Aleutian Islands. This more mafic sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Na, Ca, Ti, Sr, V, Mn, Cu, Fe, Al, Co, Zn, Y, Yb, Ga, volcanic rock fragments, glass, clinopyroxene, smectite, and vermiculite. 3. (3) A local group of basaltic sediment, derived from rocks of the Pribilof Islands, is a subgroup of the Aleutian andesite group. Accumulation of fine-grained sediment in St. George basin has created a sediment group containing relatively high concentrations of C, S, U, Li, B, Zr, Ga, Hg, silt, and clay. Sediment of the Aleutian andesite group exhibits a strong gradient, or "plume", with concentrations decreasing away from Unimak Pass and toward St. George basin. The absence of present-day currents sufficient to move even clay-size material as well as the presence of Bering submarine canyon between the Aleutian

  1. Glass transition and relaxation dynamics of propylene glycol-water solutions confined in clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Khalid; Björklund, Jimmy; Nyhlén, Fredrik; Yttergren, Madeleine; Mârtensson, Lena; Swenson, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions of propylene glycol (PG) and propylene glycol methylether (PGME) confined in a two-dimensional layer-structured Na-vermiculite clay has been studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. As typical for liquids in confined geometries the intensity of the cooperative α-relaxation becomes considerably more suppressed than the more local β-like relaxation processes. In fact, at high water contents the calorimetric glass transition and related structural α-relaxation cannot even be observed, due to the confinement. Thus, the intensity of the viscosity related α-relaxation is dramatically reduced, but its time scale as well as the related glass transition temperature Tg are for both systems only weakly influenced by the confinement. In the case of the PGME-water solutions it is an important finding since in the corresponding bulk system a pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependence of the glass transition related dynamics has been observed due to the growth of hydrogen bonded relaxing entities of water bridging between PGME molecules [J. Sjöström, J. Mattsson, R. Bergman, and J. Swenson, Phys. Chem. B 115, 10013 (2011)]. The present results suggest that the same type of structural entities are formed in the quasi-two-dimensional space between the clay platelets. It is also observed that the main water relaxation cannot be distinguished from the β-relaxation of PG or PGME in the concentration range up to intermediate water contents. This suggests that these two processes are coupled and that the water molecules affect the time scale of the β-relaxation. However, this is most likely true also for the corresponding bulk solutions, which exhibit similar time scales of this combined relaxation process below Tg. Finally, it is found that at higher water contents the water relaxation does not merge with, or follow, the α-relaxation above Tg, but instead crosses the

  2. Glass transition and relaxation dynamics of propylene glycol-water solutions confined in clay.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Khalid; Björklund, Jimmy; Nyhlén, Fredrik; Yttergren, Madeleine; Mårtensson, Lena; Swenson, Jan

    2014-07-21

    The molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions of propylene glycol (PG) and propylene glycol methylether (PGME) confined in a two-dimensional layer-structured Na-vermiculite clay has been studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. As typical for liquids in confined geometries the intensity of the cooperative α-relaxation becomes considerably more suppressed than the more local β-like relaxation processes. In fact, at high water contents the calorimetric glass transition and related structural α-relaxation cannot even be observed, due to the confinement. Thus, the intensity of the viscosity related α-relaxation is dramatically reduced, but its time scale as well as the related glass transition temperature Tg are for both systems only weakly influenced by the confinement. In the case of the PGME-water solutions it is an important finding since in the corresponding bulk system a pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependence of the glass transition related dynamics has been observed due to the growth of hydrogen bonded relaxing entities of water bridging between PGME molecules [J. Sjöström, J. Mattsson, R. Bergman, and J. Swenson, Phys. Chem. B 115, 10013 (2011)]. The present results suggest that the same type of structural entities are formed in the quasi-two-dimensional space between the clay platelets. It is also observed that the main water relaxation cannot be distinguished from the β-relaxation of PG or PGME in the concentration range up to intermediate water contents. This suggests that these two processes are coupled and that the water molecules affect the time scale of the β-relaxation. However, this is most likely true also for the corresponding bulk solutions, which exhibit similar time scales of this combined relaxation process below Tg. Finally, it is found that at higher water contents the water relaxation does not merge with, or follow, the α-relaxation above Tg, but instead crosses the

  3. Investigating the Influence of Clay Mineralogy on Stream Bank Erodibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambers, R. K.; Stine, M. B.

    2005-12-01

    Soil scientists concerned with erosion of agricultural fields and geotechnical engineers concerned with the mechanical behavior of soils under different conditions have both examined the role of clay mineralogy in controlling soil/sediment properties. Fluvial geomorphologists studying stream channel erosion and stability have focused more on the effects of particle-size distribution, vegetation and rooting. The clay mineralogy of bed and bank sediment has the potential to influence cohesiveness and erodibility, however. The goal of this study is to determine the influence of clay mineralogy on the erodibility of natural stream bank sediment, utilizing techniques drawn from pedology and soil mechanics. Bank samples were collected from eleven sites in small watersheds in central and western Virginia. To obtain sediment containing a range of different clay minerals, watersheds with different types of bedrock were chosen for sampling. Rock types included mafic to felsic metamorphic and igneous rocks, shale, sandstone, and limestone. Where stream bank materials were clearly stratified, different layers were sampled separately. X-ray diffraction of the clay-fraction of the sediment indicates the presence of kaolinite, illite, vermiculite, and mixed-layer clay minerals in various abundances in the different samples. Clay content is 9-46%, as determined by the hydrometer method, and textures range from silty clay and silt loam to clay loam and sandy loam. Organic mater contents range from 1-5% by the loss-on-ignition method. Bulk density of intact sediment samples averages 1.5 g/cc. Liquid limits range from 23-41 with one sample having a value of 65; plasticity indices range from 15-22. While these tests predict that the samples would show a range of mechanical behaviors, the channel morphology at the sampling sites was not strikingly different, all having steep cut banks eroded primarily by scour with no evidence of mass movement and most having a width/depth ratio around

  4. Tectono-metallogenetic evolution of the Fe-Cu deposit of Dominga, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, E.; Cembrano, J.; Arancibia, G.; Heuser, G.; Neira, S.; Siña, A.; Garrido, I.; Vermeesch, P.; Selby, D.

    2017-04-01

    The Dominga district in northern Chile (2082 Mt at 23.3 % Fe, 0.07 % Cu) shows a spatial and genetic affinity among distinctive structural elements and Fe-Cu-rich paragenetic mineral assemblages. Deep seated, NE-to-E striking structural elements form a right-lateral duplex-like structural system (early structural system, ESS) that cuts a regionally extensive alteration (stage I) zone. The EES system served as a locus and as path for the emplacement of biotite-magnetite alteration/mineralization (stage IIa) as veins and Fe-bearing layers following altered volcano sedimentary strata. NW-striking actinolite-magnetite hydrothermal breccias, coeval with and part of the ESS, include apatite (stage IIb) crystallized at 127 ± 15 Ma (U-Pb, 2σ). The ESS was also the locus of subsequent alteration/mineralization represented by K-feldspar, epidote, and albite (stage IIIa) and Fe-Cu-rich (vermiculite-anhydrite-chalcopyrite, stage IIIb) mineral associations. Shallowly developed, NNE-striking, left-lateral structural elements defining the El Tofo Structural System (ETSS)—probably part of the Atacama Fault System—clearly crosscut the ESS. Minerals associated with alteration/mineralization stage IIIb also occur as veins and as part of hydrothermal breccias of the ETSS, marking the transition from the ESS to ETSS. Molybdenite associated with alteration/mineralization stage IIIb yielded a Re-Os age of 127.1 ± 0.7 Ma (2σ). Both the ESS and ETSS were cut by left-lateral, NW- to E-striking shallowly developed structural elements (Intermediate Structural System, ISS) on which a hematite-calcite assemblage (stage IV) occurs mostly as infill material of veins and fault veins. The ISS is cut by N-striking, left-lateral, and shallowly developed structural elements (Late Structural System, LSS) showing no evidence of alteration/mineralization. Estimated strain and stress fields indicate an overall NW-trending shortening/compression and NE-trending stretching/tension strike-slip regime

  5. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. 'Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degrees C constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 micromol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of

  6. Quartz sand as "blank" compound in rehabilitation experience of industrial barren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbacheva, T. T.; Ivanova, L. A.; Kikuchi, R.; Gerardo, R.

    2010-05-01

    During 2008 the field test was performed near the smelter complex Monchegorsk (67°51'N, 32°48'E) to estimate suitability of innovate method for site remediation in severe conditions such as in industrial barren. The method is based on cultivation of perennial grasses using hydroponics with thermally inflated vermiculite from local deposit (Kovdor) followed by rolled lawn placement on very contaminated sites near Monchegorsk. Growing in very contaminated ground resulted in 50% rolled lawn surface loss during first year but with biodiversity maintenance. Field experiment was carried out in three variants (1- mineral ground - flat site; 2- mineral ground- slope sites; 3- organogenic ground - flat site in depression in five replicates. More comprehensive results were received for mineral ground due to better natural washing compared to organogenic ground. In all variants we observed secondary roots formation. It seems obvious that plant roots choose the best zones of soils to grow, and that they avoided toxic zones. Observations continued during 2009 to follow freezing influence and nutrient loss rate. We observed grass survival of about 20-30% during second year of field test but grass roots proliferated very slowly in contaminated ground. Affinity to the ground is one of most important estimate of rolled lawn efficiency for grass cover creation. One of possible measure to improve rolled lawn affinity is to establish additional permeable barrier for grass roots isolation from toxic ground. Simultaneously with rolled lawn placement litterbag experiment was carried out with quartz sand as filling. Quartz was chosen as blank compound and as possible material for permeable barrier creation. Original quartz have some initial nutritional status: pH 6.87, available forms of K 1.9 mg g-1, Ca 9.5 mg g-1, Mg 2.8 mg g-1, P 0.4 mg g-1. There was both increasing and decreasing of quartz nutritional status during 2008-2009 period. Besides quartz is recognized to be some barrier

  7. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strain USDA 76T, isolated from Glycine max (L.) Merr

    DOE PAGES

    Reeve, Wayne; van Berkum, Peter; Ardley, Julie; ...

    2017-03-04

    Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76 T (INSCD = ARAG00000000), the type strain for Bradyrhizobium elkanii, is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Glycine max (L. Merr) grown in the USA. Because of its significance as a microsymbiont of this economically important legume, B. elkanii USDA 76 T was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria sequencing project. Here the symbiotic abilities of B. elkanii USDA 76 T are described, together with its genome sequence information and annotation. The 9,484,767 bpmore » high-quality draft genome is arranged in 2 scaffolds of 25 contigs, containing 9060 protein-coding genes and 91 RNA-only encoding genes. The B. elkanii USDA 76 T genome contains a low GC content region with symbiotic nod and fix genes, indicating the presence of a symbiotic island integration. A comparison of five B. elkanii genomes that formed a clique revealed that 356 of the 9060 protein coding genes of USDA 76 T were unique, including 22 genes of an intact resident prophage. A conserved set of 7556 genes were also identified for this species, including genes encoding a general secretion pathway as well as type II, III, IV and VI secretion system proteins. The type III secretion system has previously been characterized as a host determinant for Rj and/or rj soybean cultivars. Here we show that the USDA 76 T genome contains genes encoding all the type III secretion system components, including a translocon complex protein NopX required for the introduction of effector proteins into host cells. While many bradyrhizobial strains are unable to nodulate the soybean cultivar Clark (rj1), USDA 76 T was able to elicit nodules on Clark (rj1), although in reduced numbers, when plants were grown in Leonard jars containing sand or vermiculite. In these conditions, we postulate that the presence of NopX allows

  8. A Reactive Transport Model for Marcellus Shale Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Heidari, P.; Jin, L.; Williams, J.; Brantley, S.

    2017-12-01

    Shale formations account for 25% of the land surface globally. One of the most productive shale-gas formations is the Marcellus, a black shale that is rich in organic matter and pyrite. As a first step toward understanding how Marcellus shale interacts with water, we developed a reactive transport model to simulate shale weathering under ambient temperature and pressure conditions, constrained by soil chemistry and water data. The simulation was carried out for 10,000 years, assuming bedrock weathering and soil genesis began right after the last glacial maximum. Results indicate weathering was initiated by pyrite dissolution for the first 1,000 years, leading to low pH and enhanced dissolution of chlorite and precipitation of iron hydroxides. After pyrite depletion, chlorite dissolved slowly, primarily facilitated by the presence of CO2 and organic acids, forming vermiculite as a secondary mineral. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important controls on weathering include the presence of reactive gases (CO2 and O2), specific surface area, and flow velocity of infiltrating meteoric water. The soil chemistry and mineralogy data could not be reproduced without including the reactive gases. For example, pyrite remained in the soil even after 10,000 years if O2 was not continuously present in the soil column; likewise, chlorite remained abundant and porosity remained small with the presence of soil CO2. The field observations were only simulated successfully when the specific surface areas of the reactive minerals were 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than surface area values measured for powdered minerals, reflecting the lack of accessibility of fluids to mineral surfaces and potential surface coating. An increase in the water infiltration rate enhanced weathering by removing dissolution products and maintaining far-from-equilibrium conditions. We conclude that availability of reactive surface area and transport of H2O and gases are the most important

  9. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strain USDA 76T, isolated from Glycine max (L.) Merr

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reeve, Wayne; van Berkum, Peter; Ardley, Julie

    Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76 T (INSCD = ARAG00000000), the type strain for Bradyrhizobium elkanii, is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Glycine max (L. Merr) grown in the USA. Because of its significance as a microsymbiont of this economically important legume, B. elkanii USDA 76 T was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria sequencing project. Here the symbiotic abilities of B. elkanii USDA 76 T are described, together with its genome sequence information and annotation. The 9,484,767 bpmore » high-quality draft genome is arranged in 2 scaffolds of 25 contigs, containing 9060 protein-coding genes and 91 RNA-only encoding genes. The B. elkanii USDA 76 T genome contains a low GC content region with symbiotic nod and fix genes, indicating the presence of a symbiotic island integration. A comparison of five B. elkanii genomes that formed a clique revealed that 356 of the 9060 protein coding genes of USDA 76 T were unique, including 22 genes of an intact resident prophage. A conserved set of 7556 genes were also identified for this species, including genes encoding a general secretion pathway as well as type II, III, IV and VI secretion system proteins. The type III secretion system has previously been characterized as a host determinant for Rj and/or rj soybean cultivars. Here we show that the USDA 76 T genome contains genes encoding all the type III secretion system components, including a translocon complex protein NopX required for the introduction of effector proteins into host cells. While many bradyrhizobial strains are unable to nodulate the soybean cultivar Clark (rj1), USDA 76 T was able to elicit nodules on Clark (rj1), although in reduced numbers, when plants were grown in Leonard jars containing sand or vermiculite. In these conditions, we postulate that the presence of NopX allows

  10. Effects of water deficit on radicle apex elongation and solute accumulation in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Márquez, S; Conde-Martínez, V; Trejo, C; Delgado-Alvarado, A; Carballo, A; Suárez, R; Mascorro, J O; Trujillo, A R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of water deficit on the elongation of radicles of maize seedlings and on the accumulation of solutes in the radicle apices of two maize varieties: VS-22 (tolerant) and AMCCG-2 (susceptible). Sections of radicle corresponding to the first 2 mm of the primary roots were marked with black ink, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for 24, 48, and 72 h in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes filled with vermiculite at three different water potentials (Ψ(w), -0.03, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa). The radicle elongation, sugar accumulation, and proline accumulation were determined after each of the growth periods specified above. The Ψ(w) of the substrate affected the dynamics of primary root elongation in both varieties. In particular, the lowest Ψ(w) (-1.5 MPa) inhibited root development by 72% and 90% for the VS-22 and AMCCG-2 varieties, respectively. The osmotic potential (Ψ(o)) was reduced substantially in both varieties to maintain root turgor; however, VS-22 had a higher root turgor (0.67 MPa) than AMCCG-2 (0.2 MPa). These results suggest that both varieties possess a capacity for osmotic adjustment. Sugar began to accumulate within the first 24 h of radicle apex growth. The sugar concentration was higher in VS-22 root apices compared to AMCCG-2, and the amount of sugar accumulation increased with a decrease in Ψ(w). Significant amounts of trehalose accumulated in VS-22 and AMCCG-2 (29.8 μmol/g fresh weight [FW] and 5.24 μmol/g FW, respectively). Starch accumulation in the root apices of these two maize varieties also differed significantly, with a lower level in VS-22. In both varieties, the proline concentration also increased as a consequence of the water deficit. At 72 h, the proline concentration in VS-22 (16.2 μmol/g FW) was almost 3 times greater than that in AMCCG-2 (5.19 μmol/g FW). Trehalose also showed a 3-fold increase in the tolerant variety. Accumulation of these solutes in the root growth zone may indicate an osmotic

  11. Characterizing phosphorus speciation of Chesapeake Bay sediments using chemical extraction, 31P NMR, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Joshi, Sunendra R; Hou, Guangjin; Burdige, David J; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-01-06

    Nutrient contamination has been one of the lingering issues in the Chesapeake Bay because the bay restoration is complicated by temporally and seasonally variable nutrient sources and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. Differential reactivity of sedimentary phosphorus (P) pools in response to imposed biogeochemical conditions can record past sediment history and therefore a detailed sediment P speciation may provide information on P cycling particularly the stability of a P pool and the formation of one pool at the expense of another. This study examined sediment P speciation from three sites in the Chesapeake Bay: (i) a North site in the upstream bay, (ii) a middle site in the central bay dominated by seasonally hypoxic bottom water, and (iii) a South site at the bay-ocean boundary using a combination of sequential P extraction (SEDEX) and spectroscopic techniques, including (31)P NMR, P X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Results from sequential P extraction reveal that sediment P is composed predominantly of ferric Fe-bound P and authigenic P, which was further confirmed by solid-state (31)P NMR, XANES, and EXAFS analyses. Additionally, solution (31)P NMR results show that the sediments from the middle site contain high amounts of organic P such as monoesters and diesters, compared to the other two sites, but that these compounds rapidly decrease with sediment depth indicating remineralized P could have precipitated as authigenic P. Fe EXAFS enabled to identify the changes in Fe mineral composition and P sinks in response to imposed redox condition in the middle site sediments. The presence of lepidocrocite, vermiculite, and Fe smectite in the middle site sediments indicates that some ferric Fe minerals can still be present along with pyrite and vivianite, and that ferric Fe-bound P pool can be a major P sink in anoxic sediments. These results provide

  12. An AEM-TEM study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: II. Diagenetic modification of the sedimentary assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Jones, B.F.; Veblen, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares the mineralogy and chemistry of clay minerals in sediments from various depths and positions in Abert Lake and surrounding playa with those of the weathered materials entering the lake in order to reveal the nature and extent of post-depositional mineralogical modification. Analytical electron microscope (AEM) data from individual clay particles reveal that each sample is comprised of a highly inhomogeneous smectite assemblage. The thin clay flakes (commonly less than 10 nm wide) display a complete range in octahedral sheet compositions from nearly dioctahedral to nearly trioctahedral. The very abundant Mg-rich lake smectites with an estimated composition K0.29(Al0.23-Mg2.16Fe0.30)Si3.80Al0.20O10(OH)2 are not formed by weathering. This confirms the importance of diagenetic Mg uptake. Lattice-fringe imaging failed to reveal distinct brucite-like or vermiculite-like layers, suggesting that interstratifications of this type are rare or absent. Siliceous coatings on clay particles (identified by silica excess in smectite analyses) seem to favor topotactic overgrowth of stevensite rather than addition of brucite-like layers to the dioctahedral nuclei. The growth of K-stevensite dilutes the Al content of the crystal, and thus the increasing diagenetic modification reduces rather than supplements its illite component. Smectite compositions within individual samples were highly variable, yet source-related characteristics such as the abundance of Fe-rich smectite were apparent. Little evidence for systematic K or Mg enrichment with depth was identified in samples from depths of down to 16 feet below the sediment-water interface. The most magnesian assemblages are associated both with weathering sources of Mg-rich smectite and playa environments subjected to repeated wetting and drying cycles. Thus, the observations suggest that clay compositions primarily reflect changes in lake levels, brine composition, and source characteristics, rather than time and

  13. Broiler litter as a micronutrient source for cotton: concentrations in plant parts.

    PubMed

    Tewolde, H; Sistani, K R; Rowe, D E

    2005-01-01

    Analytically, poultry litter contains nearly all essential micronutrients but the extent of phytoavailability of these nutrients and whether cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and other crop plants can receive adequate amounts of these nutrients from litter is not fully known. The objective of this research was to determine whether cotton receives sufficient amounts of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn from litter and estimate the efficiency of cotton in extracting these metal nutrients from litter in the absence of any other source of the micronutrients. The greenhouse research used plastic pots filled with approximately 11 kg of a 2:1 (v/v) sand to vermiculite growing mix. Cotton (cv. Stoneville 474) was grown in the pots fertilized with broiler litter at rates of 30, 60, 90, or 120 g pot(-1) in a factorial combination with four supplemental nutrient solution (NS) treatments. The nutrient solutions consisted of full Hoagland's nutrient solution (NS-full); a solution of the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, and Mg (NS-macro); a solution of the micronutrients Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, B, and Mo (NS-micro); and water (NS-none). Based on tissue nutrient analysis, a one-time broiler litter application supplied adequate amounts of Fe, Cu, and Mn to bring the concentration of these nutrients in upper leaves within published sufficiency ranges. Zinc, with <17 mg kg(-1) concentration in the upper leaves, was the only micronutrient below the established sufficiency range regardless of the rate of applied litter. Cotton extracted Fe and Mn more efficiently than Cu or Zn, removing as much as 8.8% of Fe and 7.2% of Mn supplied by 30 g litter pot(-1). In contrast, the extraction efficiency was 1.7% for Cu and 1.9% for Zn. Roots accumulated 58% of the total absorbed Fe and 64% of Cu, and leaves accumulated 32% of the Fe and only 13% of the Cu supplied by litter. In contrast, only 16% of the total absorbed Mn and 23% of Zn accumulated in roots while leaves accumulated 64% of the total Mn and 37% of Zn. These

  14. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions in Damiao massif anorthosite complex, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Veksler, I. V.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Models for the nelsonite formation are currently highly contentious, with liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization as frequently proposed formation mechanisms. The nelsonites in the Damiao massif anorthosite complex in the North China Craton and experimental evidence are revisited for the existence of silica-free CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-TiO2-P2O5 immiscible nelsonitic liquids. Our results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrate that nelsonite with the composition of one-third apatite and two-thirds Fe-Ti oxides by weight completely melts well above 1450 ºC, which is in good agreement with numerous experimental studies of the CaO-P2O5-FexO system in connection to metallurgy. Thus, the composition cannot be molten at temperatures relevant for crystallization of the Damiao magma. A review of experimental studies of liquid immiscibility and analyses of natural immiscible glasses show that all the liquids on the Fe- and P-rich side of the miscibility gap have at least 20 wt. % of aluminosilicate components. Main results of this study come from the analyses of apatite-hosted melt inclusions in Damiao nelsonite. The inclusions range from ~3 to 200 μm in diameter. They are ubiquitous and meet all the morphological criteria of primary melt inclusions crystallised into assemblages of daughter minerals. Almost all of them contain vermiculite and chlorite, and some contain biotite, amphibole, phlogopite and Fe-Ti oxides. Out of dozens analysed inclusions, only three have high contents of SiO2 (62.1-73.8 wt. %) and low contents of FeO (0.25-2.35 wt. %). Bulk compositions of other inclusions show large variations in SiO2 (20.79-50.16 wt. %) and FeOt (13.44-32.78 wt. %). With a few exceptions, the inclusions are very low in CaO (0.04-1.51 wt. %, and high in Al2O3 (10-21.17 wt. %). Despite the high Fe content, the compositions differ from those of the typical immiscible Fe-rich melts. It appears that the cumulus apatite crystallised from Fe-rich, hydrated

  15. A reactive transport model for Marcellus shale weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Peyman; Li, Li; Jin, Lixin; Williams, Jennifer Z.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2017-11-01

    Shale formations account for 25% of the land surface globally and contribute a large proportion of the natural gas used in the United States. One of the most productive shale-gas formations is the Marcellus, a black shale that is rich in organic matter and pyrite. As a first step toward understanding how Marcellus shale interacts with water in the surface or deep subsurface, we developed a reactive transport model to simulate shale weathering under ambient temperature and pressure conditions, constrained by soil and water chemistry data. The simulation was carried out for 10,000 years since deglaciation, assuming bedrock weathering and soil genesis began after the last glacial maximum. Results indicate weathering was initiated by pyrite dissolution for the first 1000 years, leading to low pH and enhanced dissolution of chlorite and precipitation of iron hydroxides. After pyrite depletion, chlorite dissolved slowly, primarily facilitated by the presence of CO2 and organic acids, forming vermiculite as a secondary mineral. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important controls on weathering include the presence of reactive gases (CO2 and O2), specific surface area, and flow velocity of infiltrating meteoric water. The soil chemistry and mineralogy data could not be reproduced without including the reactive gases. For example, pyrite remained in the soil even after 10,000 years if O2 was not continuously present in the soil column; likewise, chlorite remained abundant and porosity remained small if CO2 was not present in the soil gas. The field observations were only simulated successfully when the modeled specific surface areas of the reactive minerals were 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than surface area values measured for powdered minerals. Small surface areas could be consistent with the lack of accessibility of some fluids to mineral surfaces due to surface coatings. In addition, some mineral surface is likely interacting only with equilibrated pore

  16. Developing suitable methods for effective characterization of electrical properties of root segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehosioke, Solomon; Phalempin, Maxime; Garré, Sarah; Kemna, Andreas; Huisman, Sander; Javaux, Mathieu; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    The root system represents the hidden half of the plant which plays a key role in food production and therefore needs to be well understood. Root system characterization has been a great challenge because the roots are buried in the soil. This coupled with the subsurface heterogeneity and the transient nature of the biogeochemical processes that occur in the root zone makes it difficult to access and monitor the root system over time. The traditional method of point sampling (root excavation, monoliths, minirhizotron etc.) for root investigation does not account for the transient nature and spatial variability of the root zone, and it often disturbs the natural system under investigation. The quest to overcome these challenges has led to an increase in the application of geophysical methods. Recent studies have shown a correlation between bulk electrical resistivity and root mass density, but an understanding of the contribution of the individual segments of the root system to that bulk signal is still missing. This study is an attempt to understand the electrical properties of roots at the segment scale (1-5cm) for more effective characterization of electrical signal of the full root architecture. The target plants were grown in three different media (pot soil, hydroponics and a mixture of sand, perlite and vermiculite). Resistance measurements were carried out on a single segment of each study plant using a voltmeter while the diameter was measured using a digital calliper. The axial resistance was calculated using the measured resistance and the geometric parameters. This procedure was repeated for each plant replica over a period of 75 days which enabled us to study the effects of age, growth media, diameter and length on the electrical response of the root segments of the selected plants. The growth medium was found to have a significant effect on the root electrical response, while the effect of root diameter on their electrical response was found to vary

  17. The Effects of Punctuated Warm and Wet Environments on Phyllosilicate Formation - or How Long was Early Mars Wet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Baker, L.; Rampe, E. B.; Velbel, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Abundant phyllosilicates and aqueous minerals are observed nearly everywhere we can see the ancient rocks on Mars [1,2]. Most bountiful among these is Fe/Mg-smectite. So, what can these smectite clays tell us about the early Martian environment? Studies of smectite formation [3,4] indicate that they form faster at elevated (>100 °C) temperatures. There is a trade-off between temperature and time such that lower temperatures require more time for smectite formation. We postulate that short-term warm and wet environments could have enabled formation of the observed smectite occurrences on Mars without requiring long-term bodies of water on the planet. Smectites form in weathering environments by transformation from primary silicates or by neoformation from allophane and related amorphous materials [3,5]. The highest smectite abundances are observed in low rainfall climates (<50 cm/yr), while kaolins and vermiculites require significantly higher rainfall levels [3]. Smectites formed in low temperature (<100 °C) waters are typically mixed with amorphous aluminosilicates [4], which implies incomplete reaction. Allophane and imogolite form in near neutral waters in well-drained environments as Al and Si are leached from volcanic ash and tephra [6]. In dry environments allophane and related nanophase materials can persist long-term. Allophane and imogolite have been identified in Martian surface material from orbit [7,8] and amorphous components have been found at Gale crater [9]. Because amorphous phases such as opal, ferrihydrite, allophane and imogolite are highly reactive and mobile in aqueous environments, finding these on the surface of Mars and in martian meteorites [10] suggests that the planet has been dry since their formation. In fact, Bishop & Rampe [7] suggest that the transition from smectite to allophane on Mars marks a change in climate. References: [1] Carter J. et al. (2015) Icarus, 248, 373. [2] Murchie S.L. et al. (2009) JGR, 114. [3] Eberl D.D. et

  18. Adsorption and Desorption of Cesium in Clay Minerals: Effects of Natural Organic Matter and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Ilgen, Anastasia; Mills, Melissa; Lee, Moo; Seol, Jeung Gun; Cho, Nam Chan; Kang, Hyungyu

    2017-04-01

    Cesium (Cs) released into the environment (e.g., Fukushima accident) poses significant environmental concerns and remediation challenges. A majority of Cs in the environment have remained within the surface soils due to the strong adsorption affinity of Cs towards clay minerals. Different clay minerals have different bonding sites, resulting in various adsorption mechanisms at nanometer scale. For example, the illite commonly has a basal spacing of 1.0 nm, but becomes wider to 1.4 nm once other cations exchange with K in the interlayer site. Cs adsorbs into these expanded wedged zone strongly, which can control its mobility in the environment. In addition, natural organic matter (NOM) in the surface soils can interact with clay minerals, which can modify the mechanisms of Cs adsorption on the clay minerals by blocking specific adsorption sites and/or providing Cs adsorption sites on NOM surface. In this work, three representative clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite) and humic acid (HA) are used to systematically investigate the adsorption and desorption behavior of Cs. We performed batch adsorption experiments over a range of Cs concentrations on three clay minerals with and without HA, followed by sequential desorption batch testing. We tested desorption efficiency as a function of initial adsorbed Cs concentration, HA content, sodium concentration, and pH. The sequential extraction results are compared to the structural changes in clay minerals, measured using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hence, this work aims to identify the mechanisms of Cs fixation at the nanometer (or atomic-) scale as a function of the clay mineral properties (e.g. expandability, permanent surface charge) and varying organic matter content at different pH values and to enhance our atomic-scale mechanistic understanding of

  19. Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, Juan; Alfonso, Pura

    2014-05-01

    The Chaparra IOCG, located in southern Peru, near Chala, is mined and exploited by small-scale miners for gold, however, it has not been studied until now. Here we present a preliminary geological and mineralogic study of this deposit. Powder X ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electron microprobe were used to characterize the mineralization. This deposit is hosted in magmatic rocks from the Coastal Batholith. Host rocks belong to the Linga Super-unit, of Upper Cretaceous age and are mainly constituted by monzonites, monzogabbros and diorites. Major alterations are the propylitic (chlorite - albite - quartz), advanced argillic (jarosite - natrojarosite) and sericitic (muscovite-sericite-quartz). Gypsum and other alteration minerals such as potassium feldspar and phlogopite, vermiculite and natrolite are widespread. Mineralization occurs mainly in quartz veins up to 1 m thick, emplaced filling fractures. Ore mineralogy is mainly composed of hematite, goethite, and sulphides (mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and covellite). Gold and REE-rich minerals also occur. Native gold can reach up to 1 mm in size, but usually is few μm in size. Its composition is 82-92 wt% Au, up to 12 wt% of Ag and Fe can reach up to 4 wt%. The paragenetic sequence in the Chaparra deposit was divided into three stages: (I) primary mineralization, (II) Fracture filling, and (III) supergene alteration. The sequence begins with the crystallization of magnetite, quartz, pyrrhotite and pyrite. Subsequently, native gold, native Bismuth and uraninite crystallices together with the former minerals, in which are enclosed. Later, monacite is formed, being enclosed in quartz. Pyrite also presents small grains of chalcopyrite inside. Galena, sphalerite and arsenopyrite also are formed, whether included in pyrite or outside. Scarce grains of sakuraiite also occur in this stage. Structural formula of sakuraiie from this deposit is Cu 01.78-1.90 Zn 0.07-12Fe 1.16-124In 0.22-0.26Sn 0.79-082S4). Indium

  20. Effects of simulated clay gouges on the sliding behavior of Tennessee sandston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Logan, John M.

    1981-06-01

    of a fault zone in understanding the effects of intrafault materials on the fault motion. Based on the present experimental results incorporated with some other experimental data, it is argued that although the stabilizing effect of montmorillonite and vermiculite is indeed remarkable at room temperature, the effect should be much less pronounced at elevated temperatures, due perhaps to the dewatering of the clays. In most geological environments where shallow earthquakes occur, the stabilizing effect of clays is probably not so conspicuous as to completely suppress the unstable motion of a fault.

  1. Origin Of Black Shale (Marl) Formation Aided By Continuous Volcanism For 10Ma Including Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE2 (93-93.5 Ma) In The Eagle Ford Formation In South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Basu, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons, petrography, major and trace elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of whole rock black shales(marls) from volcanic subsurface as well as surface exposure ash beds of the Eagle Ford and Boquillas Formations in South Texas. Zircons from the middle part of the 300ft long Eagle Ford cores yield ages of 93.2±1.66 Ma, 94.13±1.25 Ma and 93.7±1.9 Ma. These ages are consistent with the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) age of deposition in three contiguous cores with spatial separation of 140 miles. An approximate 10Ma duration of deposition of volcanic ash and marl, at a rate of 28ft/Ma for the Eagle Ford is suggested from the 85.76 to 95.5 Ma ages. These ages are from the Eagle Ford ash beds, below the Austin Chalk and above the Buda Limestone and cover the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 at the C-T boundary. Zircons from 7 ash beds in the surface exposures of the Boquillas Formation near Del Rio, yield ages between 84.63 Ma - 90.91 Ma, implying younger than C-T boundary ages for these samples. The mineralogy, major and trace elements of the ash beds suggest their source from nearby arc-derived calc-alkaline volcanism. The ɛHf(T) of the analyzed ash bed zircons yield values between 0 - +8 averaging at +3.5, clearly indicating a mantle component in the host magmas of the zircons. This initial range of ɛHf(T) is similar to arc-volcanism signatures such as the Quaternary andesitic volcanism in Central Mexico. Petrographic analyses of marls away from the visible tuff layer contain phenocrysts of biotite, alkali feldspar and andesitic rock fragments. The whole rock marl with high concentration of some transition metals (V, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mo) and relatively higher MgO and TiO2 contents indicate contemporaneous arc volcanic activity at the time of marl deposition. XRD of subsurface Eagle Ford bulk marl samples from different depths in 4 cores, show volcanogenic clays, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite, dickite and halloysite

  2. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Bish, David L.; Bristow, Thomas; Archer, Paul Douglas; Blake, David; Achilles, Cherie; Ming, Douglas W.; Vaniman, David; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help

  3. Acid-neutralizing potential of minerals in intrusive rocks of the Boulder batholith in northern Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, George A.; Briggs, Paul H.; Mazza, Nilah; Driscoll, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies show that fresh granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith in the Boulder River headwaters near Basin, Montana have significant acid-neutralizing potential and are capable of neutralizing acidic water derived from metal-mining related wastes or mine workings. Laboratory studies show that in addition to the acidneutralizing potential (ANP) of minor amounts of calcite in these rocks, biotite, tremolite, and feldspars will contribute significantly to long-term ANP. We produced 0.45 micrometer-filtered acidic (pH = 2.95) leachate for use in these ANP experiments by exposing metal-mining related wastes to deionized water in a waste:leachate ratio of 1:20. We then exposed these leachates to finely-ground and sized fractions of batholith rocks, and some of their mineral fractions for extended and repeated periods, for which results are reported here. The intent was to understand what reactions of metal-rich acidic water and fresh igneous rocks would produce. The reactions between the acidic leachates and the bulk rocks and mineral fractions are complex. Factors such as precipitation of phases like Fe-hydroxides and Alhydroxides and the balance between dissolved cations and anions that are sulfate dominated complicate analysis of the results. Research by others of acid neutralization by biotite and tremolite attributed a rise in pH to proton (H+) adsorption in sites vacated by K, Mg, and Ca. Destruction of the silicate framework and liberation of associated structural hydroxyl ions may contribute to ANP. Studies by others have indicated that the conversion of biotite to a vermiculite-type structure by removal of K at a pH of 4 consumes about six protons for every mole of biotite, but at a pH of 3 there is pronounced dissolution of the tetrahedral lattice. The ANP of fresh granitic rocks is much higher than anticipated. The three bulk Boulder igneous rock samples studied have minimum ANP equivalent to about 10-14 weight percent calcite. This ANP is in

  4. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  5. The source of dissolved silicon in soil surface solutions of a temperate forest ecosystem: Ge/Si and Si isotope ratios as biogeochemical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, J.; Delvaux, B.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Ranger, J.; Opfergelt, S.

    2010-12-01

    solutions evolve towards lighter values (-1.38 and -2.05 ‰) and higher Ge/Si ratios (2.7 µmol/mol) relative to granite bedrock. This suggests a partial dissolution of 28Si and Ge-enriched secondary clays minerals incorporated by bioturbation in organic-rich horizons, with a fractionation releasing preferentially light Si isotopes. Without considering that organic acids promote dissolution of minerals, clay minerals detected in the organic layer (vermiculite, chlorite, illite and Ca-montmorillonite) are not stable and could have been partially dissolved and transformed in the chemical environment of forest floor. Sources of H4SiO4 in forest floor solutions are influenced by tree species which control the extent of clay-sized minerals mixed in organic horizons by bioturbation and, to a lesser extent, the Si recycling by forest vegetation.

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Lokoundje alluvial clays from the Kribi deposits, Cameroonian Atlantic coast: Implications for their origin and depositional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndjigui, Paul-Désiré; Onana, Vincent Laurent; Sababa, Elisé; Bayiga, Elie Constantin

    2018-07-01

    The Lokoundje alluvial clay deposits are located at the left floodplain of the Lokoundje River, towards the estuary in the Kribi region. The mineralogical and geochemical features of the Lokoundje River fine-grained sediments have been reported using XRD, XRF, ICP-MS, and IR instruments in order to understand their provenance and depositional history. The Lokoundje watershed covers a surface area of about 5381 km2. The basement of this watershed is made up of gneisses, amphibolites, migmatites, charnockites, and pyroxenites from the Nyong and Ntem units, in the NW border of the Congo craton. The alluvial materials are about 100 cm thick and cover a total area of 1.4 km2. They are mainly plastic clays with silty-clayey texture and four colors (yellow, red yellow, white, and light grey). The mineral assemblage is composed of kaolinite, quartz, illite, gibbsite, goethite, rutile, and interstratified illite-vermiculite. The infra-red data associated with those of XRD portray the disordering of kaolinite. These materials are mostly constituted by SiO2 (44.33-69.19 wt%, av. = 51.17 wt% with n = 18) and Al2O3 (20.69-30.26 wt%, av. = 26.07 wt%) with very low Fe2O3 contents (1-7.71 wt%, av. = 3.35 wt%). The SiO2/Al2O3 ratio range between 1.46 and 4.1 (av. = 2.06). The alkali contents (Na2O + K2O) are below 5 wt%. ICV, CIA, PIA, and SiO2/Al2O3 portray high degree of chemical weathering in the source area as well as the maturity of sediments. The trace element behavior is quite different probably due to the mixed source rocks; Ba, Sr, Zn have high contents while several elements such as Th and U show low contents. The REE contents are also variable; their concentrations vary between 92 and 1065 ppm (av. = 307 ppm). The mineral assemblage associated with the geochemical data reveal that REE are mainly housed in clay minerals. The behavior of REE is also marked by the abundance of LREE (LREE/HREE = 19.69-34.62). The REE chondrite-normalized spectra confirm the LREE

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, David M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not

  8. Alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes on clay-water interfaces: Mechanisms for the retention of uranium by altered clay surfaces on the nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Michael; Legrand, Christine A.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2015-03-01

    Nano-scale processes on the solid-water interface of clay minerals control the mobility of metals in the environment. These processes can occur in confined pore spaces of clay buffers and barriers as well as in contaminated sediments and involve a combination of alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes of multiple species and phases. This study characterizes nano-scale processes on the interface between clay minerals and uranyl-bearing solution near neutral pH. Samples of clay minerals with a contact pH of ∼6.7 are collected from a U mill and mine tailings at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. The tailings material contains Cu-, As-, Co-, Mo-, Ni-, Se-bearing polymetallic phases and has been deposited with a surplus of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 slaked lime. Small volumes of mill-process solutions containing sulfuric acid and U are occasionally discharged onto the surface of the tailings and are neutralized after discharge by reactions with the slaked lime. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with the focused ion beam (FIB) technique and other analytical methods (SEM, XRD, XRF and ICP-OES) are used to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of phases within confined pore spaces of the clay minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite and in the surrounding tailings material. Alteration zones around the clay minerals are characterized by different generations of secondary silicates containing variable proportions of adsorbed uranyl- and arsenate-species and by the intergrowth of the silicates with the uranyl-minerals cuprosklodowskite, Cu[(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2](H2O)6 and metazeunerite, Cu[(UO2)(AsO4)2](H2O)8. The majority of alteration phases such as illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite and vermiculite have been most likely formed in the sedimentary basin of the U-ore deposit and contain low amounts of Fe (<5 at.%). Iron-enriched Al-silicates or illite-smectites (Fe >10 at.%) formed most likely in the limed tailings at high contact pH (∼10.5) and

  9. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  10. Biogeochemical cycling of Mg and its isotopes in a sugar maple forest in Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmig, Sara R.; Holmden, Chris; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    Mg value (-0.66‰, n = 2) as the litter layer and exchangeable leach of the forest floor, all soil solutions, and the stream (-0.63 ± 0.17‰ 2σ, n = 23). More revealing is the molar Mg/Ca ratio of the 1 N HNO3 treatment (0.17), which is nearly identical to the bulk Mg/Ca ratio of the aboveground biomass (0.14). We conclude that the 1 N HNO3 leach in this setting releases Mg from secondary minerals, such as vermiculite, other clays, and amorphous phases, which have taken up plant-recycled Mg and Ca that has filtered down through the soil from the litter layer of the forest floor. A single mineral, chlorite, with an estimated δ26Mg value of -0.78‰, appears to be responsible for supplying most of the Mg that is circulating between the forest and soils in this setting, which is weathered and cached over timescales of thousands of years.

  11. Loess stratigraphy of the Lower Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, E.M.; Guccione, M.J.; Markewich, H.W.; Wysocki, D.A.; Ward, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    . Clark et al. (1989) agreed on Crowley's Ridge, but suggested the Loveland/Sicily Island loess on Sicily Island was older. Mirecki and Miller (1994) and Millard and Maat (1994) suggested an Illinoian age for the Loveland/Sicily Island loess. Miller and co-workers suggested, as did Pye and Johnson (1988), an Illinoian age for the Crowley's Ridge loess. McKay and Follmer (1985) suggested it correlated with a loess under "Kansan" till. Stratigraphy indicates the Marianna is the older of the five loesses. Researchers identified loess on both the east and west side of the LMV as well as on higher terraces within the valley. Many researchers assumed unaltered loesses were commonly yellowish brown, and silts or silt loams (West et al., 1980; Miller et al., 1986). The nonclay fraction of unweathered LMV loesses was dominated by quartz followed by carbonates, mainly dolomites, followed by feldspars, and micas. Clays were dominated by montmorillonite followed by micaceous minerals, kaolinite and vermiculite (Miller et al., 1986). Soils in the Crowley's Ridge loess are most developed, followed by the soils in the Loveland/Sicily Island which are more developed than the modern soils in the Peoria Loess. Soils in the Roxana and Marianna loesses are least developed and the Farmdale Soil of the Roxana is the weaker of the two (Miller et al., 1986). There is certainly overlapping range in the degree of soil development in the various loesses.

  12. Fate and transport of radionuclides in soil-water environment. Review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, Aleksei

    2017-04-01

    The ease in which radionuclides move through the environment and are taken up by plants and animals is governed by their chemical forms and by site-specific environmental characteristics. The objective of this paper is to review basic mechanisms of the behavior of radiocesium and radiostrontium in the environment after the nuclear accident. Our understanding of radionuclide's speciation and migration processes seems to be adequate and explains similarities and differences of radiocesium (r-Cs) behavior in the environment after Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. Climate and geographical conditions in Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl's near-field zone are obviously different. In particular, precipitation differs substantially, with the annual average for Fukushima being about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The landscapes and soils also differ significantly. What is more, the speciation of r-Cs in the releases was distinct (large fraction of radionuclides was deposited as fuel particles in 30-km zone around Chernobyl NPP, while in Fukushima radiocesium is mostly part of condensation particles including glassy hot particles). Radiocesium (r-Cs) in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.), which is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. The r-Cs distribution coefficient Kd in Fukushima rivers was found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff of Chernobyl area. This is indicative of higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. Dissolved r-Cs wash-off for Fukushima river watersheds is essentially slower than those for Chernobyl. However, steeper slopes and higher precipitation in Fukushima area cause higher erosion and higher particulate r-Cs wash-off. For a comparable time after the accident the total r-Cs wash-off from contaminated catchments in Fukushima

  13. Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, andmore » hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols

  14. Evolution of the 1963 Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) from low and high velocity friction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, F.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Han, R.; Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The final slip at about 30 m/s of the Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) on 9th October 1963 was preceded by a long creeping phase which was monitored over about three years. Creep was localized in cm-thick clay-rich (50% Ca-montmorillonite + smectite + illite + vermiculite, 40% calcite and 10% quartz) gouge layers. The velocity results in thermoviscoplastic model of the landslide (Veveakis et al., 2007) suggested that during creep, compaction and frictional heating released water from the clay-rich layer and, by increasing the pore-pressure in the slipping zone, determined the final collapse of the landslide. Here we investigated the frictional evolution of the clay-rich layers and the transition towards the final collapse. Experiments were carried out on the clayey gouge from the slipping zone at atmospheric humidity conditions ("dry") and in the presence of excess water ("saturated"). High velocity friction experiments were performed in a rotary shear apparatus at 1 MPa normal stress (about the normal stress at the sliding surface of the Vajont landslide), velocity v from 0.006 m/s to 1.31 m/s and displacements up to 34 m. The 1 mm-thick clayey gouges were sandwiched between marble cylindrical specimens (24.95 mm in diameter) and confined by Teflon rings to avoid gouge expulsion during the experiments. The fluid release during the experiments was monitored with a humidity sensor. Low velocity friction experiments were performed in a biaxial apparatus at 5 MPa normal stress, v from 1.0 10E-7 m/s to 1.0 10E-4 m/s (within the range at which the slide became critical, 2.0 10E-7 m/s, Veveakis et al., 2007) and displacements up to 0.02 m. In dry experiments, friction is 0.43-0.47 at v < 1.0 10E-4 m/s and decreases to 0.21 at 1.31 m/s. Velocity-step runs evidenced a velocity-weakening behaviour with a (direct effect) - b (evolution effect) = -0.005 to -0.008. In saturated experiments, friction is 0.18 at v < 1.0 10E-4 m/s (in agreement with the experiments by Tika

  15. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    dikes of post-pegmatite age (Triassic?). The alaskite and pegmatite have similar bulk compositions, notably low in iron (0.3 percent). The major constituents in order of decreasing abundance are plagioclase, perthitic microcline, quartz, and muncovite. All of these minerals, as well as clay deposits derived from the weathering of alaskite under old terraces, have economic value. The zoned pegmatites contain fewer zones which are less complex mineralogically than those in the pegmatites of many other areas. These essentially unmetamorphosed bodies were intruded approximately at the peak of the regional metamorphism. Their emplacement was controlled by local structure and rock type. The source of this igneous material may have been the mobilized portions of the Cranberry gneiss which underlies the area. The dunite bodies were intruded early in the metamorphic cycle. The bodies are commonly zoned: from the wall rock inwards (1) talc-antrophyllite-serpentine fringe, (3) serpentinized dunite, (3) granular olivine core. Dunite, chromite, vermiculite, and anthophyllite are the major economic commodities. Extensive hydrothermal alteration of dunite bodies produced soapstone. The area is the northeast end of a southwest plunging synclinorium about 20 miles wide with the steeper limb on the northwest side. There are three structural zones: zone I on the northwest is characterized by the northeast-trending isoclinal folds with steep southeast dips; zone II on the southwest includes an area of rocks with low and variable dip; zone III is the complex central core. In the extreme northeast zones I and II have an indistinct boundary where they coalesce along the rim of the synclinorium. Six stratigraphic units are exposed totaling approximately 10,500 feet of metamorphic rocks. Small scale structural features include a foliation, and a lineation in the planes of the foliation. Minor folding reflects the trends of the major structures. There are randomly orient

  16. Composition and properties of the Pierre Shale and equivalent rocks, northern Great Plains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Leonard Gene; Tourtelot, H.A.; Gill, J.R.; Boerngen, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    -type layers, about 35 percent beidelite-type layers, and the remainder montmorillonite-type layers; chlorite or vermiculite layers are rare. Most bentonite differs from shale in its small quartz content, rarely more than a few percent, in the more calcic composition and hightemperature thermal state of its plagioclase, and in its rare kaolinite, near absence of chlorite, and lack of illite-either free or mixed layered with smectite. Bentonite commonly consists of more than 90 percent smectite in which montmorillonite is interlayered with a smaller amount of beidellite. The clay-mineral composition of marine rock, including proportions of layers in the dominant illite-smectite, averages about the same as in the nonmarine rock, though in the latter the composition is more variable. The average content of major chemical constituents also is closely similar, partly because the large clay content of fine-grained offshore-marine shale is balanced by the small clay content of nearshore-marine siltstone and sandstone. In addition, the alumina and alkalic elements in an average of 10 percent more clay in marine rock are partly balanced by these constituents in the 5 percent more feldspar in nonmarine rock. Much of the observed regional and stratigraphic variation in maj or constituents is the result of the three major east-west migrations of the depositional sites of nearshore-marine sandstone and siltstone. Dolomite is found almost exclusively in relatively coarse-grained rock, particularly in nearshore-marine siltstone where diagenetic dolomite is expected, but it is found almost as frequently in nonmarine siltstone. Amounts of minor constituents are nearly equal in marine and nonmarine rocks, except that pyrite and consequently sulfur are relatively sparse in nonmarine rock. Average amounts of organic matter found in marine and nonmarine rocks are nearly identical. However, organic matter in nonmarine rock occurs almost entirely in volumetric

  17. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    Pliocene time following deposition of the North Park formation. North Park strata in south-central North Park were folded into a northwest-trending syncline, and the central part of the Northgate district probably was warped up along a north- or northwestward-trending axis. Four north- to northwestward-trending faults cut the Precambrian rocks and White River formation on Pinkham Mountain and the area to the southeast. Similar faults 2½ and 15 miles west of the Northgate district cut rocks of the North Park formation, and all probably formed during the Pliocene period of deformation. The known commercial fluorspar deposits are localized along the two larger faults of the Northgate district, and they have been studied in detail. The White River formation in early Oligocene time covered a hilly terrain drained by southward-flowing streams. By late Miocene, the northward-flowing streams had cut to about the same levels reached by the pre-White River streams and had partly exhumed and modified the older terrain. During late Miocene and early Pliocene (?) time, the Northgate area was buried beneath the clays, sands, and gravels of the North Park formation. Subsequent erosion removed the higher part of the North Park formation, cut a surface of low relief across the exhumed Precambrian rocks, and removed all topographic evidence of the Pliocene period of deformation. The present courses of the major streams were superimposed across the buried terrains during this period of erosion. Rejuvenation during middle Pleistocene caused all major streams to become incised in sharp canyons. Copper minerals occur in small concentrations in some of the pegmatite masses in the gneiss complex. The copper-rich masses rarely exceed a few feet in diameter and constitute only a small part of the associated pegmatite body.Vermiculite is exposed in prospect pits and mine workings along the west margin of the Northgate district. All the venniculite that was seen is associated with small masses of