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Sample records for vertebral artery

  1. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  2. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign."

  3. Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

  4. Aberrant Origin of Vertebral Artery and its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant origin of vertebral artery is rare. The anatomical features and clinical significance of this lesion remain to be clarified. A comprehensive collection of the pertinent literature resulted in a cohort of 1286 cases involving 955 patients and 331 cadavers. There were more left than right and more unilateral than bilateral aberrant vertebral arteries. Patients with aberrant origin of vertebral artery were often asymptomatic and in only 5.5% of the patients their symptoms were probably related to the aberrant origin of vertebral artery. The acquired cardiovascular lesions were present in 9.5% of the patients, 20.9% of which were vertebral artery-associated lesions. Eight (0.8%) patients had a vertebral artery dissection. Logistic regression analysis showed significant regressions between bovine trunk and left vertebral artery (P=0.000), between the dual origins of vertebral artery and cerebral infarct/thrombus (P=0.041), between associated alternative congenital vascular variants and cervical/aortic dissection/atherosclerosis (P=0.008). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that side of the aberrant origin of vertebral artery (left vertebral artery) (P=0.014), arch branch pattern (direct arch origin) (P=0.019), presence of the common trunk (P=0.019), associated acquired vascular disorder (P=0.034) and the patients who warranted management (P=0.000) were significant risk predictors for neurological sequelea. The patients with neurological symptoms and those for neck and chest operations/ interventions should be carefully screened for the possibility of an aberrant origin of vertebral artery. The results from the cadaver metrology study are very helpful in the design of the aortic stent. The arch branch pattern has to be taken into consideration before any maneuver in the local region so as to avoid unexpected events in relation to aberrant vertebral artery. PMID:27074275

  5. Vertebral artery stenting by using coronary intervention techniques and devices.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Harun; Balci, Mustafa; Akdemir, Ramazan

    2009-04-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the vertebro/basilar vessels is an important cause of posterior circulation infarction. Commonly, the primary atheroma forms at the origin of the vertebral arteries. Although initial treatment is medical, arch and four-vessel studies (CTA, MRA, or DSA) are warranted if symptoms continue. Endovascular management of vertebral artery stenosis might be highlighted as a good option in selected patients. This is a case of endoluminal stenting of vertebral artery with a durable result. PMID:19476126

  6. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

    2005-01-01

    Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD. PMID:15937204

  7. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

    2014-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

  8. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  9. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel Chomlak, R; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%-4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. While rare, vertebral artery involvement is an important complication to consider in the setting of GCA due to the high rate of associated mortality, despite immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27279753

  10. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Daniel Chomlak, R.; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%–4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. While rare, vertebral artery involvement is an important complication to consider in the setting of GCA due to the high rate of associated mortality, despite immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27279753

  11. Bow hunter's syndrome secondary to bilateral dynamic vertebral artery compression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew T; Lee, Bryan S; Walsh, Kevin; Bain, Mark D; Krishnaney, Ajit A

    2015-01-01

    Bow hunter's syndrome is a condition in which vertebrobasilar insufficiency is resultant from head rotation, clinically manifested by presyncopal sensation, syncope, dizziness, and nausea. It is usually diagnosed clinically, with supporting vascular imaging demonstrating an occluded or at the very least compromised unilateral vertebral artery, while the dominant vertebral artery remains patent in the neutral position. Dynamic imaging is utilized to confirm the rotational compression of the dominant vertebral artery. We present the rare case of a patient with typical Bow hunter's symptoms, bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging, and bilateral compromise with head rotation. Our patient underwent posterior decompression of the culprit atlanto-axial transverse foramen and subaxial cervical fusion, with resolution of his symptoms. Our patient exemplifies the possibility of bilateral dynamic vertebral artery occlusion. We show that Bow hunter's syndrome cannot be ruled out in the setting of bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging and that severe cervical spondylosis should impart further clinical suspicion of this unusual phenomenon. PMID:25070633

  12. Extracranial Vertebral Artery Involvement in Neurofibromatosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, V.M.; Geiprasert, S.; Krings, T.; Caldas, J.G.M.P.; Toulgoat, F.; Ozanne, A.; Mercier, P.; Lasjaunias, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is one of the most common inherited diseases and as an autosomal dominant genetic disorder results from NF-1 gene mutation with 100% penetration and wide phenotypic variability. The disease can involve a wide variety of tissues derived from all three embryonic layers. NF-1 vasculopathy has been described primarily in peripheral arteries, but arteries supplying the CNS may also be involved. Of those, extracranial vertebral involvement is the commonest and most important. A series of four patients with NF-1 and vascular disease of the vertebral artery is described with a review of the pathophysiology, vascular phenotypes, their management and the pertinent literature. PMID:20566100

  13. Hemifacial spasm caused by a tortuous vertebral artery: MR demonstration.

    PubMed

    Tash, R R; Kier, E L; Chyatte, D

    1988-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm is a symptom complex comprising involuntary, painless spasms of the orbicularis muscle that may progress to involve all facial muscles. It is frequently the result of compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone from the brain stem by vascular loops or aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, vertebral artery, or cochlear artery. Coronal and axial T1-weighted images clearly depict the course of the facial nerve from the brain stem to the internal auditory canal and its relation to the vertebrobasilar system. This case demonstrates the magnetic resonance appearance of a tortuous vertebral artery and its relationship to the facial nerve in a patient with long standing hemifacial spasm. PMID:3366969

  14. Chiropractic Response to a Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tarola, Gary; Phillips, Reed B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which early detection and proper follow-up of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection led to satisfactory outcomes. Clinical Features A 34-year old white woman reported to a chiropractic clinic with a constant burning pain at the right side of her neck and shoulder with a limited ability to turn her head from side to side, periods of blurred vision, and muffled hearing. Dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, and balance difficulty abated within 1 hour of onset and were not present at the time of evaluation. A pain drawing indicated burning pain in the suboccipital area, neck, and upper shoulder on the right and a pins and needles sensation on the dorsal surface of both forearms. Turning her head from side-to-side aggravated the pain, and the application of heat brought temporary relief. The Neck Disability Index score of 44 placed the patient’s pain in the most severe category. Intervention and Outcome The patient was not treated on the initial visit but was advised of the possibility of a vertebral artery or carotid artery dissection and was recommended to the emergency department for immediate evaluation. The patient declined but later was convinced by her chiropractor to present to the emergency department. A magnetic resonance angiogram of the neck and carotid arteries was performed showing that the left vertebral artery was hypoplastic and appeared to terminate at the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. There was an abrupt moderately long segment of narrowing involving the right vertebral artery beginning near the junction of the V1 and V2 segments. The radiologist noted a concern regarding right vertebral artery dissection. Symptoms resolved and the patient was cleared of any medications but advised that if symptoms reoccurred she was to go for emergency care immediately. Conclusion Recognition and rapid response by the chiropractic physician provided the optimum outcome for

  15. Left hemibody myoclonus due to anomalous right vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel; Marti, Maria J; Valls-Solé, Josep; Pujol, Teresa; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with sporadic, sudden, brief, and involuntary jerks of his left limbs and trunk muscles. The electromyographic recordings showed short-lasting highly synchronized bursts, compatible with myoclonus limited to the left hemibody. Blink reflex, masseter silent period, cortical and spinal magnetic stimulation, somatosensory cortical evoked potentials, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal; the EEG back-averaging showed no spikes preceding the myoclonus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography showed the presence of an anomalous nonectasic right vertebral artery compressing the right side of ventral medulla oblongata. We hypothesize that the aberrant right vertebral artery induced abnormal activation of descending motor tracts responsible for the myoclonus.

  16. Vertebral artery thrombosis: a rare presentation of primary polycythaemia

    PubMed Central

    Gul, H L; Lau, S Y M; Chan-Lam, D; Ng, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Primary polycythaemia, also known as polycythaemia vera (PV), is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) which is associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and which can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Arterial thrombosis accounts for a large proportion of PV-related thrombotic events which may manifest as stroke and myocardial infarction. There is an abundance of literature documenting thrombosis arising in the cerebral vasculature secondary to PV. However, vertebral artery thrombosis associated with PV has not been previously described. We present a case of vertebral artery thrombosis as the presenting manifestation of PV. This case demonstrates the importance of recognising MPNs as a cause of an unusual presentation of thrombosis. PMID:24862411

  17. Vertebral artery thrombosis: a rare presentation of primary polycythaemia.

    PubMed

    Gul, H L; Lau, S Y M; Chan-Lam, D; Ng, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Primary polycythaemia, also known as polycythaemia vera (PV), is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) which is associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and which can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Arterial thrombosis accounts for a large proportion of PV-related thrombotic events which may manifest as stroke and myocardial infarction. There is an abundance of literature documenting thrombosis arising in the cerebral vasculature secondary to PV. However, vertebral artery thrombosis associated with PV has not been previously described. We present a case of vertebral artery thrombosis as the presenting manifestation of PV. This case demonstrates the importance of recognising MPNs as a cause of an unusual presentation of thrombosis. PMID:24862411

  18. Case report on vertebral artery dissection in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Slowey, Michael; Maw, Graeme; Furyk, Jeremy

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man presented to the ED with severe vertigo 2 days after a grappling injury while training in mixed martial arts. Imaging revealed a cerebellar infarct with complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery secondary to dissection. Management options are discussed as is the ongoing controversy regarding the safety of the sport. PMID:22487672

  19. Case report on vertebral artery dissection in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Slowey, Michael; Maw, Graeme; Furyk, Jeremy

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man presented to the ED with severe vertigo 2 days after a grappling injury while training in mixed martial arts. Imaging revealed a cerebellar infarct with complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery secondary to dissection. Management options are discussed as is the ongoing controversy regarding the safety of the sport.

  20. [Cerebellar infarction due to vertebral artery dissection in a girl].

    PubMed

    Ushida, M; Fukuda, K; Endo, S; Pu, T; Nakagawa, Y; Shiino, S; Otomune, T; Nakano, O

    1998-11-01

    We report here a case of vertebral artery dissection, which is rare in childhood. A 12-year-old, previous healthy girl was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, nausea and vomiting. Although there was neither higher cortical dysfunction, motor weakness, sensory disturbance nor slurred speech. She could not stand up because of severe vertigo. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a subacute cerebellar infarct. A left vertebral artery angiogram on the hospital day 3 demonstrated a sharp narrowing at the C1-C2 level. After an anticoagulant therapy for about 2 weeks, all the symptoms disappeared except for mild tinnitus. Two months later, a left vertebral artery angiogram showed an abrupt occlusion at the C1 level. MRI T1-weighted images demonstrated a thrombus within the false lumen of the dissected vessels. A flow void revealed the patency of the residual true lumen. From these findings, we made a diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection, which was considered to have caused cerebellar infarction. The patient was mostly normal at discharge, and 100 mg/day of aspirin has been given until present.

  1. Giant vertebral artery aneurysm in a child treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-Soo; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Wada, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hironaka, Yasuo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are extremely rare in the pediatric population and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes a case of a pediatric patient with giant vertebral artery aneurysm who presented with intracranial mass effect. This patient was successfully treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization. Case Description: A 7-year-old girl presented with tetraparesis, ataxia, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Cerebral angiography revealed intracranial giant aneurysm arising from the right vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular parent artery occlusion alone to facilitate aneurysmal thrombosis as an initial treatment. This was done to avoid a coil mass effect to the brainstem. However, incomplete thrombosis occurred in the vicinity of the vertebral artery union. Therefore, additional coil embolization for residual aneurysm was performed. Two additional coil embolization procedures were performed in response to recurrence. Mass effect and clinical symptoms gradually improved, and the patient had no associated morbidity or recurrence at 2 years after the last fourth coil embolization. Conclusion: Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and challenging in pediatric patients. Staged endovascular strategy can be a safe and effective treatment option. PMID:25071937

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Vertebral Artery Injury during Cervical Posterior Fusion (C1 Lateral Mass Screw)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Ko, Jung-Ho; Cho, Chun-Sung; Lee, Sang-Koo; Kim, Young-Joon; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Summary We describe two cases of vertebral artery injury during posterior cervical fusion. We treated both cases by an endovascular technique. The vertebral artery injury may result in catastrophic situations, such as, infarction, massive blood loss and even death. Our clinical outcome was good and we prove that endovascular treatment is an effective and less invasive way to treat vertebral artery injury. PMID:24070088

  3. Management strategy for bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Karagiozov, Kostadin L

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms (BCoVAAns) have no established strategy of management. We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unruptured BCoVAAns between January 2006 and December 2012. Considering surgical risks of lower cranial nerve (LCN) injuries and eventual growth of an opposite side lesion after unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion, we proposed a strategy of combined open and interventional treatment using revascularization. We applied the following several specific techniques: (1) proximal clipping and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) and/or superficial temporary artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses; (2) Distal blood pressure, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) monitoring after parent artery temporary occlusion for safe permanent occlusion of the proximal portions of VA and PICA; (3) V3 to V4 bypass using radial artery (RA) graft with proximal clipping or trapping, two of them combined with OA-PICA bypass; (4) VA fenestration as an opportunity to preserve the flow of the parent artery. Two patients were treated bilaterally and 3 unilaterally, with modified Rankin scale assessed at 39 months postoperatively in average 0 in 2, 1 in 2, and 2 in 1, respectively, and the untreated opposite side lesions without regrowth or bleeding. Two patients with patent V3-RA-V4 bypass complained of dysphagia due to LCN palsies. One of them however suffered a cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the OA-PICA bypass. When BCoVAAns require surgical treatment, revascularization or preservation of the VA should be considered at the first operation. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm can be effectively occluded by coil embolization, even with VA sacrifice if required. PMID:26564148

  4. Antegrade Recanalization of Parent Artery after Internal Trapping of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Hoon; Byun, Je Hoon

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with a ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm that was treated by internal trapping of the aneurysm and parent artery using detachable coils with subsequent antegrade recanalization of occluded vertebral artery during the follow-up period. A 38-year-old man was admitted with a ruptured right VA dissecting aneurysm just distal to origin of right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The dissected segment of the VA was occluded by coil embolization. The 14 months follow-up angiography showed that dissected aneurysm was completely occluded, but the parent artery was recanalized in an antegrade fashion. Based on this unique case, the authors suggest that careful angiographic follow-up of dissecting aneurysm is required, even in patients successfully treated with endovascular occlusion of the affected artery and aneurysm. PMID:22792429

  5. Simultaneous onset of anterior and middle cerebral artery dissections with an old vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Yagi, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Ogiwara, Masakazu; Horikoshi, Toru; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-01

    Multiple arterial dissections in the anterior circulation with simultaneous onset are extremely rare. We report a patient with infarctions caused by simultaneous arterial dissections in the right anterior cerebral artery and the left middle cerebral artery and discuss the characteristic feature of this vascular disorder. A 53-year-old woman presented with a severe headache and a mild aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple acute cerebral infarctions in the left temporal and right frontal lobes. The initial angiographic findings revealed arterial dissections of the anterior cerebral, left middle cerebral, and right vertebral arteries. The follow-up angiographic examination found improvement of the stenosis in both the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. We have concluded that the lesion of the vertebral artery was not in an acute stage, because no interval change was seen during the radiologic evaluation. She underwent conservative therapy, and her symptoms disappeared. Multiple arterial dissections are rare, especially those developing simultaneously in different arteries. This is the first case of multiple arterial dissections of the different arteries in the anterior circulation manifesting cerebral infarction simultaneously.

  6. Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized. PMID:25317310

  7. Atypical oculopalatal tremor as the presentation of vertebral artery dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Jindahra, Panitha; Lueangaram, Sirin; Padungkiatsagul, Tanyatuth

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation. Our case demonstrated a 50-year-old female who presented with 3-month history of oscillopsia. Examination showed binocular conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with a contraction of the soft palate, defined as an atypical OPT, resulting from dolichoectatic left vertebral artery compressing on medulla, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with palatal tremor, considering as an atypical OPT, should be included as one of the symptomatic presentations of vertebral artery dolichoectasia in spite of its rarity.

  8. Atypical oculopalatal tremor as the presentation of vertebral artery dolichoectasia.

    PubMed

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Jindahra, Panitha; Lueangaram, Sirin; Padungkiatsagul, Tanyatuth

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation. Our case demonstrated a 50-year-old female who presented with 3-month history of oscillopsia. Examination showed binocular conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with a contraction of the soft palate, defined as an atypical OPT, resulting from dolichoectatic left vertebral artery compressing on medulla, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with palatal tremor, considering as an atypical OPT, should be included as one of the symptomatic presentations of vertebral artery dolichoectasia in spite of its rarity. PMID:27660495

  9. Atypical oculopalatal tremor as the presentation of vertebral artery dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Jindahra, Panitha; Lueangaram, Sirin; Padungkiatsagul, Tanyatuth

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation. Our case demonstrated a 50-year-old female who presented with 3-month history of oscillopsia. Examination showed binocular conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with a contraction of the soft palate, defined as an atypical OPT, resulting from dolichoectatic left vertebral artery compressing on medulla, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with palatal tremor, considering as an atypical OPT, should be included as one of the symptomatic presentations of vertebral artery dolichoectasia in spite of its rarity. PMID:27660495

  10. Endovascular treatment of a symptomatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Inaraja Pérez, Gabriel Cristian; Rodríguez Morata, Alejandro; Reyes Ortega, Juan Pedro; Gómez Medialdea, Rafael; Cabezudo García, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    A 35-year-old patient was brought to the emergency department referring dysarthria, left ear tinnitus for 5 min, and short-lasting blindness, with headache in the 45 min before the clinical presentation. In the magnetic resonance imaging, an acute-subacute lesion in the cerebellum right-anterior lobe (in the territory of the cerebellum anterior artery) and a dilatation near the ostium of the right vertebral artery were seen. For a better assessment, an Angio-CT was done, showing a 9-mm saccular pseudoaneurysm of the right vertebral artery close to the origin of the vessel, without being able to determine if it had been caused because of a dissection. The rest of the study (cerebral vessels and supra-aortic vessels) showed no disorders. He was operated under local anesthesia and sedation a week after the onset of the symptoms. Through a 0.014 wire, a Biotronik PK Papyrus balloon-expandable covered cobalt-chromium stent was deployed covering the hole in the artery. Antiplatelet drugs were prescribed, and the patient was discharged 24 hr after surgery. He has remained symptom free since then. PMID:25770383

  11. Flow-area relationship in internal carotid and vertebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, J R; Castro, M A; Putman, C M; Alperin, N

    2009-01-01

    Subject-specific computational and experimental models of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms require the specification of physiologic flow conditions. Because patient-specific flow data is not always available, researchers have used “typical” or population average flow rates and waveforms. However, in order to be able to compare the magnitude of hemodynamic variables between different aneurysms or groups of aneurysms (e.g. ruptured vs. unruptured) it is necessary to scale the flow rates to the area of the inflow artery. In this work, a relationship between flow rates and vessel areas is derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance measurements in the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries of normal subjects. PMID:18460763

  12. Is vertebral artery hypoplasia a predisposing factor for posterior circulation cerebral ischemic events? A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Kosmidou, Maria; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral artery hypoplasia is not currently considered an independent risk factor for stroke. Emerging evidence suggest that vertebral artery hypoplasia may contribute to posterior circulation ischemic events, especially when other risk factors coexist. In the present literature review, we present published data to discuss the relationship between a hypoplastic vertebral artery and posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. Despite difficulties and controversies in the accurate definition and prevalence estimation of vertebral artery hypoplasia, ultrasound studies reveal that the reduced blood flow observed ipsilateral to the hypoplastic vertebral artery may result in local cerebral hypoperfusion and subsequent focal neurological symptomatology. That risk of cerebral ischemia is related to the severity of the hypoplasia, suggesting that the smaller of paired arteries are more vulnerable to occlusion. Existing cohort studies further support clinical observations that hypoplastic vertebral artery enhances synergistically the vascular risk for posterior circulation ischemic events and is closely associated with both atherosclerotic and prothrombotic processes.

  13. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population.

  14. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  15. Odontogenic Pain as the Principal Presentation of Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zenteno, Marco; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Lee, Angel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Dissection of the vertebral artery is an important but rare cause of cerebrovascular accidents. Here we report a 48-year-old man with toothache since 4 days before who presented to the emergency department with neck pain and final diagnosis of dissecting right vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm. To our knowledge, this maybe the first report of odontogenic pain as the first manifestation of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm in the literatures. PMID:26495399

  16. Treatment of an iatrogenic vertebral artery laceration with the Symbiot self expandable covered stent.

    PubMed

    Katsaridis, Vasilios; Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Violaris, Constantinos

    2007-07-01

    Vertebral artery laceration is difficult to treat surgically. Endovascular treatment with balloon expandable covered stents often fails due to their rigidity and poor navigability. We present a case of iatrogenic vertebral artery laceration where endovascular treatment with a balloon expandable covered stent failed. Eventually a self expandable symbiot covered stent was deployed over the laceration, securing hemostasis and preserving the vessel patency. The newer self expandable covered stents seem promising in the treatment of vertebral artery injury.

  17. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by the vertebral artery associated with primitive trigeminal artery and agenesis of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Kameyama, S; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, R

    1998-06-01

    A 69-year-old female presented with trigeminal neuralgia caused by tortuous vertebrobasilar artery associated with primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) and agenesis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). Left vertebral angiography showed marked elongation of the left vertebral artery and filling of the left ICA via the PTA. Bone window computed tomography suggested agenesis of the left ICA. Intraoperative findings showed that the vertebrobasilar junction had compressed the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve. The neuralgia improved immediately after microvascular decompression. There has been no recurrence for 20 months. Trigeminal neuralgia may be caused by a tortuous vertebrobasilar system due to hemodynamic stress associated with PTA and agenesis of the ICA. PMID:9689822

  18. Vertebral artery dissection in evolution found during chiropractic examination.

    PubMed

    Futch, Dan; Schneider, Michael J; Murphy, Donald; Grayev, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented to an emergency department with sudden onset of transient loss of left peripheral vision. Owing to a history of migraine headaches, she was released with a diagnosis of ocular migraine. Two days later, she sought chiropractic care for the chief symptom of severe neck pain. The chiropractor suspected the possibility of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). No manipulation was performed; instead, MR angiography (MRA) of the neck was obtained, which revealed an acute left VAD with early thrombus formation. The patient was placed on aspirin therapy. Repeat MRA of the neck 3 months later revealed resolution of the thrombus, without progression to stroke. This case illustrates the importance for all healthcare providers who see patients with neck pain and headache to be attentive to the symptomatic presentation of possible VAD in progress. PMID:26564115

  19. Bilateral Variation in the Origin and Course of the Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Aprajita; Jain, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the great vessels of the aortic arch and their variations is important for both the endovascular interventionist and the diagnostic radiologist. An understanding of the variability of the vertebral artery remains most important in angiography and surgical procedures where an incomplete knowledge of anatomy can lead to serious implications. In the present case, a bilateral variation in the origin and course of vertebral artery was observed. The left vertebral artery took origin from the arch of aorta and entered the foramen transversarium of the fourth cervical vertebra. The right vertebral artery took origin from the right subclavian artery close to its origin and entered the foramen transversarium of the third cervical vertebra. The literature on the variations of the artery is studied and its clinical significance and ontogeny is discussed. PMID:22720161

  20. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  1. Atypical Anterior Spinal Artery Infarction due to Left Vertebral Artery Occlusion Presenting with Bilateral Hand Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Jang, Mi-Hee; Choi, Mi-Song; Kang, Suk Yun; Kim, Joo Yong; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kang, Ik-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Infarct of the anterior spinal artery is the most common subtype of spinal cord infarct, and is characterized by bilateral motor deficits with spinothalamic sensory deficits. We experienced a case with atypical anterior-spinal-artery infarct that presented with bilateral hand weakness but without sensory deficits. Case Report A 29-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and bilateral weakness of the hands. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not reveal any lesion. His motor symptoms improved rapidly except for mild weakness in his left wrist and fingers. Magnetic resonance angiography showed proximal occlusion of the left vertebral artery; a spine MRI revealed left cervical cord infarction. Conclusions Bilateral or unilateral hand weakness can be the sole symptom of a cervical cord infarct. PMID:24829605

  2. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  3. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions. PMID:27172721

  4. Study on the correlation of vertebral artery dominance, basilar artery curvature and posterior circulation infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Fang; Dong, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Hong-Xuan; Zhao, He-Qing; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral artery dominance (VAD), which is a common congenital variation of vertebral artery, may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral posterior circulation infarction (PCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of VAD with incidence and laterality of PCI, and oblige the correlation of VAD and basilar artery (BA) curvature. Incidence of separate territory infarction in posterior circulation and incidence of BA curvature were compared between 78 VAD patients and 68 controls. VA dominance, laterality of BA curvature and separate territory infarction, and their directional relationships were observed in VAD group. The incidence of BA curvature in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.000). 89.7 % (35/39) of patients had an opposite directional relationship between dominant VA and BA curvature. The total incidence of PCI in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.001). The incidences of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and BA territory infarction were both significantly higher than those in controls [11.5 % (9/78) vs. 1.5 % (1/68), P = 0.016; 20.5 % (16/78) vs. 7.4 % (5/68), P = 0.024]. No differences were found in superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction between two groups. 77.8 % (7/9) of PICA infarction were on the opposite side of dominant VA. 75.0 % (12/16) of BA infarction were on the side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI in BA curvature patients was significantly higher than that in BA straight patients. The incidence of BA curvature is higher in VAD patients, and BA usually bends to the opposite side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI is higher in VAD patients, especially in PICA infarction and BA infarction patients.

  5. Automatic segmentation of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Jin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook

    2014-03-01

    We propose an automatic vessel segmentation method of vertebral arteries in CT angiography using combined circular and cylindrical model fitting. First, to generate multi-segmented volumes, whole volume is automatically divided into four segments by anatomical properties of bone structures along z-axis of head and neck. To define an optimal volume circumscribing vertebral arteries, anterior-posterior bounding and side boundaries are defined as initial extracted vessel region. Second, the initial vessel candidates are tracked using circular model fitting. Since boundaries of the vertebral arteries are ambiguous in case the arteries pass through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, the circle model is extended along z-axis to cylinder model for considering additional vessel information of neighboring slices. Finally, the boundaries of the vertebral arteries are detected using graph-cut optimization. From the experiments, the proposed method provides accurate results without bone artifacts and eroded vessels in the cervical vertebra.

  6. Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Avijit; Singh, Pankaj K.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken. PMID:27366277

  7. [A Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm Involving the Anterior Spinal Artery:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Tomura, Nagatsuki; Kono, Kenichi; Okada, Hideo; Yoshimura, Ryo; Shintani, Aki; Tanaka, Yuko; Terada, Tomoaki

    2016-07-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm(VADA)involving the anterior spinal artery(ASA). The ASA branched at the proximal component of the dissecting aneurysm. The rupture point was presumed to be the distal region of the dissecting aneurysm. We performed coil embolization of the distal part only in order to prevent rebleeding and preserve the ASA. The patient showed no neurological deficits. Six months after the procedure, an angiogram demonstrated occlusion of a distal portion of the right vertebral artery. However, the ASA was still patent. No rebleeding occurred, and the patient has remained neurologically symptom-free for 3 years from the treatment. ASA-involved VADAs are extremely rare. Treatment strategy is difficult because there are no options for bypass surgery and occlusion of the ASA may lead to quadriplegia unless there is collateral flow to the ASA. Although the outcome of the patient was good with partial coil embolization in this case, the treatment strategy should be carefully considered for ASA-involved VADAs. PMID:27384118

  8. Extensive bilateral vertebral artery remodeling following treatment of dissection using pipeline embolic device

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Bartley; Momin, Eric; Jou, Liang-Der; Shaltoni, Hashem; Morsi, Hesham; Mawad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral artery dissection remains a significant cause of stroke, and the mainstay of treatment has been medical management with anticoagulation, although flow-diverting stents have been used in some cases of arterial dissection resistant to medical management. Methods We present a case report of bilateral vertebral artery stenting using pipeline embolic device flow-diverting stents, after failed medical management of the dissection. Results This case demonstrated substantial subsequent vertebral arterial remodeling and good clinical outcome with maintenance of posterior circulation. The patient did not suffer any further strokes or posterior circulation symptoms following vertebral artery remodeling. Conclusion In cases where traditional management of arterial dissection has not been efficacious, flow-diverting stents may be useful in treating dissections of the posterior cerebral circulation, even with bilateral involvement. PMID:25566334

  9. Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Mimicking as Left Subclavian Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor II Mutation.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rana O; Dhillon, Baltej Singh; Sandhu, Harleen K; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Estrera, Anthony L; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We report successful endovascular repair of a left vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with transforming growth factor beta receptor II mutation. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left subclavian artery aneurysm on computed tomography angiography. The patient consented to publication of this report.

  10. Spontaneous Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection During a Basketball Game: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mas Rodriguez, Manuel F; Berrios, Rafael Arias; Ramos, Edwardo

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection accounts for 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur as a consequence of sports events. We present an unusual case of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a 30-year-old male patient during a basketball game. He developed severe dysphagia, right hemiparesis, and balance dysfunction. We also present a review of the pathology, diagnosis, symptomatology, treatment, prognosis, and occurrence of this entity in sports.

  11. Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Brodke, Darrel S; Lawrence, Brandon D

    2014-10-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:25364325

  12. Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2004-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

  13. Vertebral artery dominance contributes to basilar artery curvature and peri-vertebrobasilar junctional infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J M; Chung, C-S; Bang, O Y; Yong, S W; Joo, I S; Huh, K

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The diameters of the vertebral arteries (VAs) are very often unequal. Therefore, this study investigated if unequal VA flow contributes to the development of basilar artery (BA) curvature and if it is a link to the laterality of pontine or cerebellar infarcts occurring around the vertebrobasilar junction. Methods: Radiological factors were analysed (infarct laterality, VA dominance, BA curvature and their directional relationships) in 91 patients with acute unilateral pontine or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory infarcts. The “dominant” VA side was defined as either that the VA was larger in diameter or the VA was connected with the BA in more of a straight line, if both VAs looked similar in diameter on CT angiography. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict moderate to severe BA curvature. Results: The dominant VA was more frequent on the left side (p<0.01). Most patients had an opposite directional relationship between the dominant VA and BA curvature (p<0.01). Pontine infarcts were opposite to the side of BA curvature (p<0.01) and PICA infarcts were on the same side as the non-dominant VA side (p<0.01). The difference in VA diameters was the single independent predictor for moderate to severe BA curvature (OR per 1 mm, 2.70; 95% CI 1.22 to 5.98). Conclusions: Unequal VA flow is an important haemodynamic contributor of BA curvature and development of peri-vertebrobasilar junctional infarcts. PMID:19414436

  14. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Evan H.; Song, Linda H.; Villela, Natalia L. A.; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B.; Jacobs, Jonathan L.; Kim, Dolly O.; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B.; Peters, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice. PMID:27757404

  15. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized.

  16. Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Bora, Aydin; Yazmalar, Levent; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gülşen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because loss of cervical lordosis leads to disrupted biomechanics, the natural lordotic curvature is considered to be an ideal posture for the cervical spine. The vertebral arteries proceed in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Considering that the vertebral arteries travel in close anatomical relationship to the cervical spine, we speculated that the loss of cervical lordosis may affect vertebral artery hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the vertebral artery values between subjects with and without loss of cervical lordosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 30 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index were included in the study. Sixty vertebral arteries in patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 60 in controls without loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Vertebral artery hemodynamics, including lumen diameter, flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index, were measured, and determined values were statistically compared between the patient and the control groups. RESULTS The means of diameter (p=0.003), flow volume (p=0.002), and peak systolic velocity (p=0.014) in patients were significantly lower as compared to controls. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of the end-diastolic velocity (p=0.276) and resistive index (p=0.536) parameters. CONCLUSIONS The present study revealed a significant association between loss of cervical lordosis and decreased vertebral artery hemodynamics, including diameter, flow volume, and peak systolic velocity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to investigate their possible clinical implications. PMID:26876295

  17. Angioplasty and Stenting of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, R.; Sharifipour, E.; Mansourizadeh, R.; Sohrabi, B.; Nayebi, A.R; Haririan, S.; Farhoudi, M.; Charsouei, S.; Najmi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has recently become a noteworthy treatment option for significant stenosis involving the vertebral artery (VA) in selected patients. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and mid-term follow up results of 206 cases received PTA with or without stent implant to treat their symptomatic atherosclerotic VA stenosis in all segments (V1-V4). In a prospective mono-arm trial from October 2008 to July 2012 in a single center, 239 lesions affecting the intra or extracranial VA (171 in V1, 17 in V2, 14 in V3, 21 in V4 and 16 in combined segments) were treated by PTA with or without stent implant. Non-disabling stroke patients who had failed conservative medical treatment and had angiographic evidence of >50% stenosis in the dominant VA with clinical signs and symptoms of VB stenosis were included in this study. They were mean followed for 13.15±5.24 months after treatment. Overall, 206 patients underwent the procedure. A stent was implemented in 199 patients (96.6%). The periprocedural complication rate was 7.2%. The procedural (technical) success rate was 97.6%. Of the total 239 lesions, 223 were treated with stent implant. Clinical success was achieved in all 206 symptomatic patients after the procedure. Restenosis occurred in 15.9% after a mean 10.8 (6-24) months. Of those, 63.1% and 34.2% had mild and moderate stenosis that was treated medically, whereas one case (2.6%) with severe restenosis underwent balloon angioplasty. No deaths occurred during the follow-up period. The follow-up complication rate was 6.3%. TIA occurred in 4.4%, a minor stroke in 1.4% and a major stroke in one patient. The overall patient event-free survival was 92.4%. These results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of PTA with or without stent implant, with a high technical success rate, a low complication rate, a low restenosis rate and durable clinical success in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. This

  18. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, L.; Nygård, A.; Ovesen, C.; Christensen, A.; Rosenbaum, S.; Havsteen, I.; Christensen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%), atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%), possible dissections (2.6%), kinked arteries (2.6%) and coiling (32.0%). Eighteen patients (2.8%) with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5%) and 15 cases (2.3%) were possible dissections. Conclusion We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible dissection or

  19. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Banić, Tihomir; Banić, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bilić, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavić, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Kokić, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  20. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing.

  1. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing. PMID:24583591

  2. 1. Dissection of the vertebral artery during a basketball game: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, F; Vetrugno, G; De Mercurio, D; Pascali, V L; Rainio, J; Carbone, A; Fernandez, E

    2004-01-01

    Dissection of the vertebral artery represents a significant potential cause of strokes among young and middle-aged people. We present a case of dissection of the vertebral artery observed at the forensic autopsy of a professional basketball player who was suddenly taken ill during a practice game and died seven days after the event. A medico-legal autopsy was performed in order to establish an essential causal relationship between arterial dissection and basketball activity. No preceding trauma possibly contributing to the dissection was discovered. The histology of the arterial wall did not show specific alterations in the adventitia, the muscular layer, or the intima. In addition, the toxicological examination excluded any effects of drugs of abuse. We describe macroscopic and microscopic findings in the autopsy, and discuss possible mechanisms of the arterial rupture as well as the autopsy procedure in similar cases.

  3. A Case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Associated with Vertebral Artery Vasculitis Treated Successfully with Tocilizumab and Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kae; Rajderkar, Dhanashree A.; Modica, Renee F.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric polyarteritis nodosa is rare systemic necrotizing arteritis involving small- and medium-sized muscular arteries characterized by aneurysmal dilatations involving the vessel wall. Aneurysms associated with polyarteritis nodosa are common in visceral arteries; however intracranial aneurysms have also been reported and can be associated with central nervous system symptoms, significant morbidity, and mortality. To our knowledge extracranial involvement of the vertebral arteries has not been reported but has the potential to be deleterious due to fact that they supply the central nervous system vasculature. We present a case of a 3-year-old Haitian boy with polyarteritis nodosa that presented with extracranial vessel involvement of his vertebral arteries. After thorough diagnostic imaging, including a bone scan, ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Angiography, and Computed Tomography Angiography, he was noted to have vertebral artery vasculitis, periostitis, subacute epididymoorchitis, arthritis, and myositis. He met diagnostic criteria for polyarteritis nodosa and was treated with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and tocilizumab, which resulted in improvement of his inflammatory markers, radiographic findings, and physical symptoms after treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of vertebral artery vasculitis in polyarteritis nodosa as well as successful treatment of the condition using the combination cyclophosphamide and tocilizumab for this condition. PMID:27018080

  4. A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments.

  5. Bilateral vertebral artery dissection possibly precipitated in delayed fashion as a result of roller coaster rides.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Michael; Simionescu, Monica; Bijari, Armita

    2008-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of persistent vertigo after multiple roller coaster rides, followed by neck pain for 1 month and then 2 weeks of blurred vision related to diplopia. She was ultimately found to have bilateral cervical vertebral artery dissection. The images are described and the literature is reviewed regarding late diagnosis of vertebral dissection and prior cases of roller coaster-associated dissection. PMID:18190821

  6. Successful treatment of a ruptured aneurysm at the vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery junction and simultaneous treatment of the stenotic vertebral artery with a single flow-diverting stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first report on the simultaneous successful treatment of a large ruptured saccular aneurysm and stenotic parent artery with a single flow-diverting stent. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man with occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery-left vertebral artery that was successfully treated by the deployment of a single flow-diverting stent in the stenotic left vertebral artery. Stent deployment was complicated by thrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery, which was successfully reopened. The patient recovered completely, and follow-up angiography at 4 months and 1 year showed patent vertebral artery with gradual shrinkage of the aneurysm. Conclusions This report contributes to the literature on treatment of large ruptured aneurysms localized in stenotic arteries and in areas of the endocranium where a mass of embolic material in the aneurysm (coils) might compromise the circulation in the parent blood vessel or compress vital brain structures. PMID:24886040

  7. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  8. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided.

  9. Two case reports of bilateral vertebral artery tortuosity and spiral twisting in vascular vertigo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tortuous blood vessels are commonly seen in the cerebral arteries. The association between vertebrobasilar artery tortuosity and vascular vertigo remains obscure. Case presentation We describe two patients with vascular vertigo who had bilateral curving and spiral looping in multiple segments of the vertebral arteries and also exhibited basilar artery tortuosity. Both patients had cerebrovascular risk factors and exhibited clinical features of vertigo with high severity, slow recovery, and recurrent tendencies. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed bilateral tortuosity in the V2 segments and spiral twisting in the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries, and basilar artery curving. No obvious sign of atherosclerotic stenosis was found in the vertebrobasilar arteries and no abnormalities were observed in the internal carotid arteries. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound showed decreased blood flow in tortuous vertebrobasilar arteries. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials showed that the interpeak latencies (IPL) of waves III-IV were prolonged, with a ratio of IPL III-V/IPL I-III > 1. Conclusions Vertebrobasilar tortuosity in combination with cerebrovascular risk factors may lead to vascular vertigo in these patients. PMID:24428889

  10. Endothelium dependency of contractile activity differs in infant and adult vertebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Charpie, J R; Schreur, K D; Papadopoulos, S M; Webb, R C

    1994-01-01

    Contractions to serotonin (5-HT) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infant (0-2 yr) and adult (38-71 yr) vertebral arteries were examined in the presence of either the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide production. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were characterized in arteries contracted with agonist. The results showed that: (a) Contractions of infant arteries to 5-HT or ET-1 decreased to 44 +/- 8% and 27 +/- 13%, respectively, within 10 min. Indomethacin or removal of endothelium abolished this decreased response, whereas L-NMMA had no effect. (b) Adult arteries produced sustained contractions to 5-HT or ET-1 that were unaffected by indomethacin, endothelium denudation, or L-NMMA. (c) Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in infant than adult arteries and were abolished by indomethacin (but not L-NMMA) in infants and L-NMMA (but not indomethacin) in adults. Thus, endothelium-dependent responses in infant arteries are attenuated because of increased prostaglandin activity not observed in adult tissues. Additionally, there is an age-dependent change in the primary mechanism responsible for acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Apparently, endothelium dependency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation is highly dependent on cyclooxygenase activity in the infant vertebral artery, but in the adult artery, nitric oxide is linked to the vasodilator response. Images PMID:8132776

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug User

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Doriforou, Ortansia; Skiadas, Vasilios Koutoulidis, Vasilios; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros

    2006-08-15

    A 26-year-old drug abuser who presented with sepsis was found to have a pseudoaneurysm in the left vertebral artery. This aneurysm was presumed to be post-traumatic, since the patient reported multiple attempts to inject drugs in the left jugular vein 15 days prior to admission. The pseudoaneurysm was treated effectively with stent-graft placement.

  12. Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries and surrounding bony structures using virtual reality technology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Wenbo; Yang, DeLin; Gu, Shixin; Xu, Qi-Wu; Che, Xiaoming; Wu, Jin-Song; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) technology in neurosurgical anatomy through a comparison of the virtual 3D microanatomy of the suboccipital vertebral arteries and their bony structures as part of the resection of tumors in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) of 20 patients compared to the actual microanatomy of the vertebral arteries of 15 cadaveric headsets. Material/Methods The study was conducted with 2 groups of data: a VR group composed of 20 clinical cases and a physical body group (PB group) composed of 15 cadaveric headsets. In the VR group, the dissection and measurements of the vertebral arteries were simulated on a Dextroscope. In the PB group, the vertebral arteries in the cadaver heads were examined under a microscope and anatomical measurements of VA and bony structures were performed. The length and course of the vertebral arteries and its surrounding bony structures in each group were compared. Results The distances from the inferior part of the transverse process foramen (TPF) of C1 to the inferior part of TPF of C2 were 17.68±2.86 mm and 18.4±1.82 mm in the PB and VR groups, respectively. The distances between the middle point of the posterior arch of the atlas and the medial intersection of VA on the groove were 17.35±2.23 mm in the PB group and 18.13±2.58 mm in the VR group. The distances between the middle line and the entrance of VA to the lower rim of TPF of Atlas were 28.64±2.67 mm in PB group and 29.23±2.89 mm in VR group. The diameters of the vertebral artery (VA) at the end of the groove and foramen of C2 transverse process were 4.02±046 mm and 4.25±0.51 mm, respectively, in the PB group and 3.54±0.44 mm and 4.47±0.62 mm, respectively, in VR group. The distances between the VA lumen center and midline of the foramen magnum at the level of dural penetration was 10.4±1.13 mm in the PB group and 11.5±1.34 mm in the VR group (P>0.05). Conclusions VR technology can accurately simulate the

  13. Trends in the Diagnosis and Outcomes of Traumatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissections among Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Newhall, Karina; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Stone, David H.; Goodney, Philip P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of carotid and vertebral artery dissections has been advocated to reduce stroke among trauma patients. We sought to characterize trends in the diagnosis of traumatic carotid and vertebral artery dissections and association changes in stroke rate among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods Using Medicare claims, we created a cohort of 5,961 beneficiaries admitted with a new traumatic carotid or vertebral artery dissection from 2001 to 2012. We calculated rates of stroke during hospitalization and 90 days of discharge. We calculated rates of carotid imaging using computed tomography-angiography, carotid duplex, and plain angiography index hospitalization. To study concurrent secular trends, we created a secondary cohort of patients admitted after any traumatic injury from 2001 to 2012 and determined rates of stroke and carotid imaging within this cohort. Results From 2001 to 2012, incidence of traumatic carotid dissection increased 72% among Medicare beneficiaries (1.1–1.76 per 100,000 patients; rate ratio [RR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.6–1.9, P < 0.001). Among patients diagnosed with traumatic carotid or vertebral artery dissections, the combined in-hospital and 90-day stroke rate did not change significantly (4.9% in 2001; 5.2% in 2012; RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.93–1.20; P = 0.094). Likewise, there was little change in mortality (10.3%; RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95–1.06; P = 0.88). Among all trauma patients, the use of computed tomography angiography has increased 16-fold (2–35 per 100,000 patients; RR, 16.7; 95% CI, 13–19; P < 0.0001). Conclusions Despite increased diagnosis of carotid or vertebral artery dissection, there has been little change in stroke risk among trauma patients. Efforts to more effectively target imaging and treatment for these patients are necessary. PMID:27371360

  14. Vertebral artery dissection due to indirect neck trauma : an underrecognised entity.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, S; Bhatia, R; Khandelwal, N; Lal, V; Das, C P

    2001-12-01

    Vertebral artery dissection is an important cause of brain stem stroke, especially in the young. Dissections of carotid and vertebral arteries in neck account for about 20% of strokes in young compared with 2.5% in the elderly. Three patients of vertebral artery dissection related to indirect neck trauma are described. The first patient developed the symptoms while dancing, the second after a trivial fall and the third while he was on a dental chair. None of them had a direct severe neck trauma or concomitant risk factor like hypertension, connective tissue disease or migraine. Clinical symptomatology was similar in all the patients and included occipito-nuchal pain, headache and brain stem dysfunction chiefly in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory. One of the patients also had associated ischaemic myelopathy. MRA and DSA confirmed dissection in all with a predominant steno-occlusive picture. Cases of so called trivial neck movement/torsion related dissection have been described previously but have not received any major importance. Usually classified as 'spontaneous' or 'traumatic', there is a possible ambiguity in literature about appropriate terminology. We emphasise that a history of such subtle precipitating events be taken while diagnosing young patients with brain stem strokes, to recognise this clinical entity. Although mechanisms are not absolutely clear, yet there seems to be an important relationship between arterial dissection and neck movements or minor trauma. PMID:11799413

  15. Successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis using intravascular ultrasound virtual histology.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Katsutoshi; Taoka, Toshiaki; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Myouchin, Kaoru; Wada, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Fukusumi, Akio; Iwasaki, Satoru; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2007-06-01

    This is the first report of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of an intracranial artery applying intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH), which has been recently developed for tissue characterization of coronary artery plaque. We report a case of successful PTA and stenting for symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis using IVUS-VH.

  16. Vertebral artery origin angioplasty and primary stenting: safety and restenosis rates in a prospective series

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, G; Crawley, F; Clifton, A; McCabe, D; Brown, M; Markus, H

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To report a single centre ongoing experience of endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic vertebral artery origin stenosis in a series of symptomatic patients, with follow up imaging to determine the incidence of restenosis. Methods: 14 patients with vertebral artery origin stenosis on catheter angiography were treated. Angioplasty without stenting was undertaken in the first four patients, all of whom had follow up catheter angiography at one year. Subsequently, patients were treated by primary stenting and followed up with colour Doppler ultrasound examination. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all treated arteries, with no immediate complications. The degree of stenosis was reduced from (mean (SD)) 73 (18)% before treatment to 21 (26)% immediately after treatment in the angioplasty alone group (p = 0.059). In the primary stenting patients, the severity of stenosis was reduced from 82 (8)% to 13 (13)% immediately after treatment (p < 0.001). Restenosis to 70% or greater occurred at one year in all four patients initially treated by angioplasty without stenting. One patient subsequently developed further symptoms and was retreated by stenting. One of the 10 patients treated by primary stenting developed restenosis. None of the remaining patients had further posterior circulation ischaemic symptoms during a mean follow up period of 33.6 months (range 1 to 72 months). Conclusions: Restenosis occurs often after vertebral artery origin balloon angioplasty without stenting but is uncommon after stenting. Primary stenting is therefore recommended to maintain patency at this site, and had a low complication rate in this series. PMID:12700299

  17. Partially thrombosed vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm presenting as delayed bulbar compression after lateral medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuji; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kohyama, Shinya; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Uchino, Akira; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man experienced lateral medullary infarction resulting from spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Minimal fusiform dilatation was noted on basi-parallel anatomic scanning-magnetic resonance imaging; therefore, the patient was treated conservatively. Eight months later, he experienced deterioration of dysphagia and the onset of gait ataxia. Repeated imaging studies showed enlargement of the VA aneurysm with bulbar compression. Parent artery occlusion on the proximal side of the VA affected by the dissection relieved the patient's symptoms. Although the majority of dissected lesions stabilize within a few months, studies with longer observation periods and more frequent neuroimaging examinations are required.

  18. Distal Embolization After Stenting of the Vertebral Artery: Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat; Arat, Anil Cil, Barbaros E.; Turkbey, Baris; Saatci, Isil; Cekirge, Saruhan; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. We retrospectively evaluated our experience with stenting of the vertebral artery in an effort to determine the risk of distal embolization associated with the procedure. Methods. Between June 2000 and May 2005, 35 patients with 38 stenting procedures for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral origin in our institution were identified. The average age of the patients was 60.3 years (range 32-76 years). Sixteen of these patients (with 18 stents) had MR imaging of the brain with diffusion-weighted imaging and an apparent diffusion coefficient map within 2 days before and after procedure. Results. On seven of the 16 postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images, a total of 57 new hyperintensities were visible. All these lesions were focal in nature. One patient demonstrated a new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormality in the anterior circulation without MR evidence of posterior circulation ischemia. Six of 16 patients had a total of 25 new lesions in the vertebrobasilar circulation in postprocedural diffusion-weighted MR images. One patient in this group was excluded from the final analysis because the procedure was complicated by basilar rupture during tandem stent deployment in the basilar artery. Hence, new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities were noted in the vertebrobasilar territory in 5 of 15 patients after 17 stenting procedures, giving a 29% rate of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities per procedure. No patient with bilateral stenting had new diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities. Conclusion. Stenting of stenoses of the vertebral artery origin may be associated with a significant risk of asymptomatic distal embolization. Angiography, placement of the guiding catheter, inflation of the stent balloon, and crossing the lesion with guidewires or balloon catheters may potentially cause distal embolization. Further studies to evaluate measures to increase the safety of vertebral artery stenting, such as the use of distal protection devices or

  19. Combined use of intraoperative indocyanine green and dynamic angiography in rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Ambekar, Sudheer; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Nogueira, Raul G; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-08-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a well-documented surgically amenable cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Traditionally, patients have been imaged using dynamic rotational angiography. The authors sought to determine whether intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography could reliably assess the adequacy of surgical decompression of the vertebral artery (VA). The authors report two patients who presented with multiple transient episodes of syncope provoked by turning their head to the right. Rotational dynamic angiography revealed a dominant VA that became occluded with head rotation to the right side. The patients underwent successful surgical decompression of the VA via an anterior cervical approach. Intraoperative ICG angiography demonstrated patency of the VA with head rotation. This was further confirmed by intraoperative dynamic catheter angiography. To our knowledge, we present the first two cases of the use of ICG combined with intraoperative dynamic rotational angiography to document the adequacy of surgical decompression of the VA in a patient with rotational vertebral artery occlusion. Intraoperative ICG angiography is a useful adjunct and may potentially supplant the need for intraoperative catheter angiography. PMID:27041076

  20. Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Adrian C.; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Hami, Danyal; Santoro, Massimo M.; Torres, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In chick and mouse embryogenesis, a population of cells described as the secondary heart field (SHF) adds both myocardium and smooth muscle to the developing cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Following this addition, at approximately HH stage 22 in chick embryos, for example, the SHF can be identified architecturally by an overlapping seam at the arterial pole, where beating myocardium forms a junction with the smooth muscle of the arterial system. Previously, using either immunohistochemistry or nitric oxide indicators such as diaminofluorescein 2-diacetate, we have shown that a similar overlapping architecture also exists in the arterial pole of zebrafish and some shark species. However, although recent work suggests that development of the zebrafish OFT may also proceed by addition of a SHF-like population of cells, the presence of a true SHF in zebrafish and in many other developmental biological models remains an open question. We performed a comprehensive morphological study of the OFT of a wide range of vertebrates. Our data suggest that all vertebrates possess three fundamental OFT components: a proximal myocardial component, a distal smooth muscle component, and a middle component that contains overlapping myocardium and smooth muscle surrounding and supporting the outflow valves. Because the middle OFT component of avians and mammals is derived from the SHF, our observations suggest that a SHF may be an evolutionarily conserved theme in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:21040422

  1. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides. PMID:21341139

  2. Vertebrojugular arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm formation due to penetrating vertebral artery injury: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Donmez, Halil; Tonge, Mehmet; Senol, Serkan; Tekiner, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury including thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula (AVF), pseudo-aneurysm and hemorrhage may be iatrogenic or due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Although mostly asymptomatic, vertebral artery injury may also present with vertebrobasilar insufficiency findings, cephalgia, radicular pain or myelopathy due to blockade of arterial flow, arterial steal phenomenon and venous hypertension. The gold standard for diagnosis is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance-angiography and computerized tomography-angiography are also helpful. Endovascular treatment is now used more commonly. We present a case with sharp bread knife injury of the vertebral artery that was also complicated with a vertebrojugular fistula and pseudo-aneurysm together with the diagnostic and management options and a review of the current literature. PMID:25640560

  3. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K.; Youssef, Ali A.; Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J.

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  4. [Skin collagen abnormalities in a Japanese patient with extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by extracranial vertebral artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Renpei; Sato, Hironori; Honda, Hidehiko; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Ono, Seiitsu

    2006-02-01

    A 41-year-old man with hypertension and hyperlipidemia who complained of left hemiparesis after a temporal headache was admitted to our hospital. A cervical MRI with gadolinium enhancement revealed an intramural hematoma is compatible with right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Two weeks later, he complained of sudden onset of pain in the right side of his neck. The right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by the right extracranial vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed. Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (SCAD) is one of the causes of stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis of SCAD remains unknown. Minor trauma like an excessive sneeze, migraine, and connective tissue disorders such as fibromuscular dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are well-known as risk factors for SCAD. Pathologically skin collagen abnormalities have been seen in German patients with SCAD without clinical evidence for any specific connective tissue disorder. We examined the ultrastructural morphology of the Japanese patient's dermal connective tissue components by electron microscopy. The patient's collagen fibers contained fibrils with highly variable diameters, and there were other ultrastructural abnormalities, including flower-like fibrils and large-diameter composite fibrils. This is the first report of a case of ultrastructural abnormalities of dermal connective tissue in a Japanese patient with SCAD. PMID:16619839

  5. A Case of Lateral Medullary Infarction after Endovascular Trapping of the Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In Yong

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of lateral medullary infarction after successful embolization of the vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). A 49-year-old man who had no noteworthy previous medical history was admitted to our hospital with a severe headache. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, located in the basal cistern and posterior fossa. Cerebral angiography showed a VADA, that did not involve the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated this aneurysm via endovascular trapping of the vertebral artery distal to the PICA. After operation, CT revealed post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, which we resolved with a permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. Postoperatively, the patient experienced transient mild hoarsness and dysphagia. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small infarction in the right side of the medulla. The patient recovered well, though he still had some residual symptom of dysphagia at discharge. Such an event is uncommon but can be a major clinical concern. Further investigation to reveal risk factors and/or causative mechanisms for the medullary infarction after successful endovascular trapping of the VADA are sorely needed, to minimize such a complication. PMID:22639714

  6. During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a

  7. Vertebral artery dissection: an unusual cause of transient ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Touil, Leila L; Watson, Glen James; Small, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 33-year-old man who was admitted with intermittent ataxia, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss as a result of a vertebral artery dissection following minor neck trauma. Our aim is to highlight the importance of obtaining magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and/or duplex color-flow imaging when presented with a case of fluctuating vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss with side-specific ataxia. Likewise, it is important to obtain the input of neurologists to optimize a patient's prognosis and minimize long-term sequelae.

  8. Retrograde Embolization of the Left Vertebral Artery in a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Thoracic Rupture: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rabellino, Martin; Garcia Nielsen, L.; Baldi, S.; Zander, T.; Arnaiz, L.; Llorens, R.; Zerolo, I.; Maynar, M.

    2009-01-15

    Endoleak is a frequent complication after endovascular repair of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a female patient with traumatic aortic injury, treated with endograft, who developed a type II endoleak through the left subclavian and vertebral arteries. Both arteries originated independently from the aortic arch, and were managed with coil embolization of each vessel. We also report our experience with treating the left vertebral artery by placing a microcatheter through the right vertebral one.

  9. Vertebral artery dissection caused by swinging a golf club: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shoko M; Goto, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Matsuno, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) dissection caused by swinging a golf club is extremely rare, and the mechanism of the dissection has not been elucidated. A 39-year-old man suddenly felt sharp neck pain and dizziness when he swung a driver while playing golf and visited our clinic. Imaging studies showed acute right cerebellar infarction and complete occlusion of the right VA at the C2 (axis) level. After 1 month of 100 mg aspirin treatment, the occluded right VA was completely recanalized and the patient became totally asymptomatic. Professional golfers look at the position of the ball on the ground or tee until completion of their follow-through. However, some amateur golfers look in the direction that the ball travels at the beginning of their follow-through. It is hypothesized that this rapid disproportionate head rotation produces VA elongation and distortion, mainly at the C2 level, causing stenosis or occlusion of the artery.

  10. Dolichoectasia of the vertebral basilar and internal carotid arteries: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Alkherayf, Fahad; Lesiuk, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dolichoectasia is a rare disorder of the cerebral vasculature consisting of vascular elongation, widening, and tortuosity, usually involving the vertebral and basilar arteries. Its neurological symptoms and signs are highly variable. Case Description: We present a case of dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar system in a patient with a long standing history of multiple falls. Repeat neuroimaging revealed an increase in size of the dolichoectatic segment. In addition, a new fusiform dilatation of the contralateral petrous segment of the internal carotid artery and isolated ventriculomegaly had developed. Conclusion: Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia can cause multiple clinical manifestations, with hydrocephalus being less common. In addition, having dolichoectasia of both posterior and anterior circulation is extremely rare. PMID:24381796

  11. [Ruptured fenestrated aneurysm of vertebral artery union successfully treated by endovascular surgery with GDC].

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Mitsuhisa; Sugiu, Kenji; Ohmoto, Takashi; Saijyo, Toshikazu; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-08-01

    It is difficult to operate on ruptured basilar artery aneurysms in the acute phase because of the anatomical complexity, brain swelling, patients' medical condition, etc., but because there is some risk of rebleeding and/or vasospasm if surgery is delayed, early surgery is recommended. We encountered a rare case of ruptured fenestrated aneurysm of the vertebral artery (VA) union, treated it safely by endovascular surgery with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) in the acute phase, and obtained a good outcome after intensive care. We therefore conclude that endovascular surgery with GDCs is a first-line therapy for fenestrated aneurysms of the VA union in the acute phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fenestrated aneurysms of the VA union are very rare, and long-term follow-up is mandatory.

  12. Bioglue-Coated Teflon Sling Technique in Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Involving the Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) involving the vertebral artery (VA) can be technically challenging. We investigated the therapeutic effects of a bioglue-coated Teflon sling technique on the VA during MVD in 42 cases. Methods A bioglue-coated Teflon sling was crafted by the surgeon and applied to patients in whom neurovascular compression was caused by the VA. The radiologic data, intra-operative findings with detailed introduction of the procedure, and the clinical outcomes of each patient were reviewed and analyzed. Results The 42 patients included in the analysis consisted of 22 females and 20 males, with an average follow-up duration of 76 months (range 24–132 months). Intraoperative investigation revealed that an artery other than the VA was responsible for the neurovascular compression in all cases : posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 23 patients (54.7%) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in 11 patients (26.2%). All patients became symptom-free after MVD. Neither recurrence nor postoperative neurological deficit was noted during the 2-year follow-up, except in one patient who developed permanent deafness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in three patients, and one required dural repair. Conclusion Transposition of the VA using a bioglue-coated Teflon sling is a safe and effective surgical technique for HFS involving the VA. A future prospective study to compare clinical outcomes between groups with and without use of this novel technique is required. PMID:27651870

  13. Bioglue-Coated Teflon Sling Technique in Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Involving the Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) involving the vertebral artery (VA) can be technically challenging. We investigated the therapeutic effects of a bioglue-coated Teflon sling technique on the VA during MVD in 42 cases. Methods A bioglue-coated Teflon sling was crafted by the surgeon and applied to patients in whom neurovascular compression was caused by the VA. The radiologic data, intra-operative findings with detailed introduction of the procedure, and the clinical outcomes of each patient were reviewed and analyzed. Results The 42 patients included in the analysis consisted of 22 females and 20 males, with an average follow-up duration of 76 months (range 24–132 months). Intraoperative investigation revealed that an artery other than the VA was responsible for the neurovascular compression in all cases : posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 23 patients (54.7%) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in 11 patients (26.2%). All patients became symptom-free after MVD. Neither recurrence nor postoperative neurological deficit was noted during the 2-year follow-up, except in one patient who developed permanent deafness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in three patients, and one required dural repair. Conclusion Transposition of the VA using a bioglue-coated Teflon sling is a safe and effective surgical technique for HFS involving the VA. A future prospective study to compare clinical outcomes between groups with and without use of this novel technique is required.

  14. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  15. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  16. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Distal to the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery: Stenting or Trapping?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yi-Bin Zhao, Kai-Jun Wu, Yi-Na Zhou, Yu Li, Qiang Yang, Peng-Fei Huang, Qing-Hai Zhao, Wen-Yuan Xu, Yi Liu, Jian-Min

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) continues to be controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) for ruptured VADAs distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (supra-PICA VADAs), which is the most common subset.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted of 39 consecutive ruptured supra-PICA VADAs treated with internal trapping (n = 20) or with SAC (n = 19) at our institution. The clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively compared.ResultsThe immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was 80 % in the trapping group, which improved to 88.9 % at the follow-ups (45 months on average). Unwanted occlusions of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were detected in three trapped cases. Incomplete obliteration of the VADA or unwanted occlusions of the PICA were detected primarily in the VADAs closest to the PICA. In the stenting group, the immediate total occlusion rate was 47.4 %, which improved to 100 % at the follow-ups (39 months on average). The immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was higher in the trapping group (p < 0.05), but the later total occlusion was slightly higher in the stenting group (p > 0.05).ConclusionsOur preliminary results showed that internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling are both technically feasible for treating ruptured supra-PICA VADAs. Although not statistically significant, procedural related complications occurred more frequently in the trapping group. When the VADAs are close to the PICA, we suggest that the lesions should be treated using SAC.

  17. Dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Hinse, P; Thie, A; Lachenmayer, L

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of cervical vertebral artery (VA) dissection are reported. In three patients VA dissection was associated with neck trauma. All patients were young or middle-aged (range 27 to 49 years). In two there was a history of migraine. Pain preceded neurological symptoms from hours to six weeks. Three patients had neurological deficits including elements of the lateral medullary syndrome, and one experienced recurrent transient ischaemic attacks in the vertebrobasilar territory. Angiographic findings included irregular stenosis, occlusion and pseudoaneurysm; in two patients VA abnormalities were bilateral. All patients were treated with anticoagulants and improved. In a review of 28 cases with traumatic dissection and 29 cases with spontaneous dissection of the VA reported in the literature, distinct clinical and angiographic features emerge. Aetiology remains obscure in most cases of spontaneous dissection and management is still controversial. Images PMID:1744639

  18. Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

  19. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  20. Endovascular coil trapping of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery using detachable coils and micro-tornado® coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Soo

    2013-06-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization.

  1. Endovascular Coil Trapping of a Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery Using Detachable Coils and Micro-Tornado® Coils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We experienced a patient with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery who was treated by trapping of the lesion using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) with micro-tornado® coils (MTCs). An 80-year-old male was transferred with a ruptured left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). The dissected portion of the vertebral artery was effectively trapped using GDCs and MTCs. The MTCs used for neurointervention were comprised of various types of coils and we successfully placed them into the parent artery of the dissected segment. The author suggests that this case demonstrates the usefulness of endovascular coil trapping of VADAs using MTCs in achievement of embolization. PMID:23844353

  2. Frequency and potential consequences of origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junlin; Guileyardo, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are findings in a 58-year-old man in whom necropsy disclosed origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch. No functional consequences resulted. Study of previous publications disclosed the frequency of this anomaly in adults to be approximately 3.5%. Dissection has been reported to be more frequent in the left vertebral artery when it arises directly from the aorta than when it arises from the left subclavian artery.

  3. Inadvertent Complication of a Pipeline Embolization Device for Treatment with Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm : Distal Tip Fracture of Delivery Wire

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Myong

    2016-01-01

    Use of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) has increased based on studies about its safety and effectiveness, and new reports that describe peri- or postprocedural complications are now emerging. We report a rare periprocedural device-related complication that occurred during endovascular treatment with the pipeline embolization device for a dissecting aneurysm on the vertebral artery. A 55-year old woman was admitted due to left medullary infarction, and angiography showed a fusiform dilatation in the left vertebral artery that was suspicious for dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular treatment with PED was planned. Under general anesthesia, the procedure was performed without significant problems and a PED was deployed in an appropriate position. However, in the final step of the procedure, the distal tip of the PED delivery wire became engaged within a small branch of the posterior cerebral artery and fractured. Fortunately, imaging studies after the procedure revealed neither hemorrhagic nor ischemic stroke, and the patient recovered without neurological morbidities except initial symptoms.

  4. Inadvertent Complication of a Pipeline Embolization Device for Treatment with Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm : Distal Tip Fracture of Delivery Wire.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jong Myong

    2016-09-01

    Use of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) has increased based on studies about its safety and effectiveness, and new reports that describe peri- or postprocedural complications are now emerging. We report a rare periprocedural device-related complication that occurred during endovascular treatment with the pipeline embolization device for a dissecting aneurysm on the vertebral artery. A 55-year old woman was admitted due to left medullary infarction, and angiography showed a fusiform dilatation in the left vertebral artery that was suspicious for dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular treatment with PED was planned. Under general anesthesia, the procedure was performed without significant problems and a PED was deployed in an appropriate position. However, in the final step of the procedure, the distal tip of the PED delivery wire became engaged within a small branch of the posterior cerebral artery and fractured. Fortunately, imaging studies after the procedure revealed neither hemorrhagic nor ischemic stroke, and the patient recovered without neurological morbidities except initial symptoms.

  5. Inadvertent Complication of a Pipeline Embolization Device for Treatment with Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm : Distal Tip Fracture of Delivery Wire

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Myong

    2016-01-01

    Use of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) has increased based on studies about its safety and effectiveness, and new reports that describe peri- or postprocedural complications are now emerging. We report a rare periprocedural device-related complication that occurred during endovascular treatment with the pipeline embolization device for a dissecting aneurysm on the vertebral artery. A 55-year old woman was admitted due to left medullary infarction, and angiography showed a fusiform dilatation in the left vertebral artery that was suspicious for dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular treatment with PED was planned. Under general anesthesia, the procedure was performed without significant problems and a PED was deployed in an appropriate position. However, in the final step of the procedure, the distal tip of the PED delivery wire became engaged within a small branch of the posterior cerebral artery and fractured. Fortunately, imaging studies after the procedure revealed neither hemorrhagic nor ischemic stroke, and the patient recovered without neurological morbidities except initial symptoms. PMID:27651873

  6. Inadvertent Complication of a Pipeline Embolization Device for Treatment with Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm : Distal Tip Fracture of Delivery Wire.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jong Myong

    2016-09-01

    Use of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) has increased based on studies about its safety and effectiveness, and new reports that describe peri- or postprocedural complications are now emerging. We report a rare periprocedural device-related complication that occurred during endovascular treatment with the pipeline embolization device for a dissecting aneurysm on the vertebral artery. A 55-year old woman was admitted due to left medullary infarction, and angiography showed a fusiform dilatation in the left vertebral artery that was suspicious for dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular treatment with PED was planned. Under general anesthesia, the procedure was performed without significant problems and a PED was deployed in an appropriate position. However, in the final step of the procedure, the distal tip of the PED delivery wire became engaged within a small branch of the posterior cerebral artery and fractured. Fortunately, imaging studies after the procedure revealed neither hemorrhagic nor ischemic stroke, and the patient recovered without neurological morbidities except initial symptoms. PMID:27651873

  7. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  8. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy. A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs. Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  9. [Case of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction presenting with acute brachial diplegia due to right vertebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Santa, Yo; Akutagawa, Noriko; Nagano, Sukehisa; Yoshimura, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of sudden onset of dizziness, bilateral shoulder pain, and brachial diplegia. Neurological examination revealed severe bilateral weakness of the triceps brachii, wrist flexor, and wrist extensor muscles. There was no paresis of the lower limbs. His gait was ataxic. Pinprick and temperature sensations were diminished at the bilateral C6-C8 dermatomes. Vibration and position senses were intact. An MRI of the head revealed a right cerebellar infarction and occlusion of the right vertebral artery. An MRI of the cervical spine on T₂ weighted imaging (T₂WI) showed cord compression at the C3/4-C5/6 level secondary to spondylotic degeneration without any intramedullary signal changes of the cord. On the following day, however, high-signal lesions on T₂WI appeared in the C5-C6 spinal cord, suggesting cord infarction. Unilateral vertebral artery occlusion does not usually result in cervical cord infarction because of anastomosis of arteries. Because of the long-term mechanical compression in our case, it was likely that cervical cord ischemia was present before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of chronic cord compression, our case suggests that occlusion of a unilateral vertebral artery could cause cervical cord infarction.

  10. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm.

  11. Therapeutic Progress in Treating Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Kan; Sun, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jinlu

    2016-01-01

    Among the variations of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VDAs), VDAs involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), especially ruptured and high-risk unruptured aneurysms, are the most difficult to treat. Because the PICA is an important structure, serious symptoms may occur after its occlusion. Retained PICAs are prone to re-bleeding because VDAs are difficult to completely occlude. There is therefore confusion regarding the appropriate treatment for VDAs involving the PICA. Here, we used the PubMed database to review recent research concerning VDAs that involve the PICA, and we found that treatments for VDAs involving the PICA include (i) endovascular treatment involving the reconstruction of blood vessels and blood flow, (ii) occluding the aneurysm using an internal coil trapping or an assisted bypass, (iii) inducing reversed blood flow by occluding the proximal VDA or forming an assisted bypass, or (iv) the reconstruction of blood flow via a craniotomy. Although the above methods effectively treat VDAs involving the PICA, each method is associated with both a high degree of risk and specific advantages and disadvantages. The core problem when treating VDAs involving the PICA is to retain the PICA while occluding the aneurysm. Therefore, the method is generally selected on a case-by-case basis according to the characteristics of the aneurysm. In this study, we summarize the various current methods that are used to treat VDAs involving the PICA and provide schematic diagrams as our conclusion. Because there is no special field of research concerning VDAs involving the PICA, these cases are hidden within many multiple-cases studies. Therefore, this study does not review all relevant documents and may have some limitations. Thus, we have focused on the mainstream treatments for VDAs that involve the PICA. PMID:27429591

  12. Radical surgical treatment for recurrent giant fusiform thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled

    PubMed Central

    J-O’Shanahan, Aruma; Noda, Kosumo; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Ota, Nakao; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Tanikawa, Rokuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fusiform aneurysms are rare (<1%) and the underlying pathophysiology is not well known. Endovascular coiling is the standard of treatment; however, a surgical procedure with vascular reconstruction by excluding the pathological segment of the vessel and restoring the blood flow, seems to be the most effective and definitive treatment. Case Description: We report a patient who presented a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled which developed a giant enlargement and a new contralateral fusiform aneurysm. Hemodynamic changes resulting in the formation of contralateral aneurysm might be the result of aneurysm occlusion without revascularization. In addition, continued blood flow to the aneurysmal wall through the vasa vasorum might result in aneurysm recanalization or regrowth. In order to account for these possible sources of complications, we performed a vascular reconstruction with high and low flow bypasses after trapping the aneurysm. Conclusions: We hypothesize that, in this and similar cases, surgical vascular reconstruction should be the first and definitive treatment under experienced cerebrovascular surgeons. PMID:27127714

  13. Delayed Brain Infarction due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Occlusion Which Occurred 5 Days after Cervical Trauma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Jiha

    2014-08-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) injuries usually accompany cervical trauma. Although these injuries are commonly asymptomatic, some result in vertebrobasilar infarction. The symptoms of VA occlusion have been reported to usually manifest within 24 hours after trauma. The symptoms of bilateral VA occlusions seem to be more severe and seem to occur with shorter latencies than those of unilateral occlusions. A 48-year-old man had a C3-4 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord compression that resulted from a traffic accident. After surgery, his initial quadriparesis gradually improved. However, he complained of sudden headache and dizziness on the 5th postoperative day. His motor weakness was abruptly aggravated. Radiologic evaluation revealed an infarction in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. Cerebral angiography revealed complete bilateral VA occlusion. We administered anticoagulation therapy. After 6 months, his weakness had only partially improved. This case demonstrates that delayed infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion can occur at latencies as long as 5 days. Thus, we recommend that patients with cervical traumas that may be accompanied by bilateral VA occlusion should be closely observed for longer than 5 days.

  14. Comparison of Vertebral Artery and Middle Cerebral Artery Monitoring for Right-to-left Shunt Detection by Contrast-enhanced Transcranial Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Zhu; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Niu, Peng-Peng; Yang, Yi; Xing, Ying-qi

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is a reliable and reproducible method for right-to-left shunt (RLS) detection, with high sensitivity. Monitoring the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an optimal choice, yet for patients with insufficient temporal bone windows or severe stenosis of carotid arteries, an alternative should be established. The aim of the present study was to further establish whether c-TCD with vertebral artery (VA) monitoring is as effective as MCA monitoring for RLS detection. We evaluated 194 subjects for RLS detection with VA and MCA monitoring simultaneously. There was no significant difference between the positive rates of VA and MCA monitoring for RLS detection. c-TCD with VA monitoring could be an alternative for RLS detection, with high sensitivity and specificity both at rest and during the Valsalva manoeuvre. PMID:27098054

  15. Frequency and potential consequences of origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junlin; Guileyardo, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are findings in a 58-year-old man in whom necropsy disclosed origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch. No functional consequences resulted. Study of previous publications disclosed the frequency of this anomaly in adults to be approximately 3.5%. Dissection has been reported to be more frequent in the left vertebral artery when it arises directly from the aorta than when it arises from the left subclavian artery. PMID:27695186

  16. A Case of Anomalous Origin and Course of Vertebral Artery in a Patient with Klippel Feil Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Hadi; Barlas, Sezgi Burçin; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sasani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) have an increased incidence of vascular anomalies as well as vertebral artery (VA) anomalies. In this article, we presented imaging findings of a 15-year-old female patient with KFS with a rare association of extraforaminal cranially ascending right VA that originated from the ipsilateral carotid bulb. Trifurcation of the carotid bulb with VA is a very unusual variation and to the best of our knowledge, right-sided one has not been reported in the literature. PMID:27390547

  17. Effect of rheological property on blood flow in vertebral artery branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Taegee; Kim, Myungjoon; Kim, Taesung; Kwon, O.-Ki

    2011-11-01

    Blocking of an artery is one of mechanisms for cerebral stroke development. If an important cerebral artery is occluded by any reason and if there is no sufficient collaterals, tissue ischemia occurs at brain tissues distal to the occluded artery, which is a well known clinical situation. However, in practice, ischemia or hypoperfusion has also been observed through the branches proximal to the occluded artery. The unexpected ``proximal ischemia'' is not yet known, from which patients could suffer serious complications. In the present study, two patient cases are presented to elucidate this phenomenon from the view point of fluid dynamics, especially with emphasis on the role of rheology in hemodynamics.

  18. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  19. Comparison of Endovascular Treatments of Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysms of the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Vertebral Artery with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Choi, Kyu Sun; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneuryesm is rare. Various treatment strategies have been used for ruptured intracranial dissections. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical and angiographic characteristics and outcomes of endovascular treatment for ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial ICA and VA. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of patients with SAH caused by ruptured intracranial ICA and VA dissecting aneurysms from March 2009 to April 2014. The relevant demographic and angiographic data were collected, categorized and analyzed with respect to the outcome. Results Fifteen patients were identified (6 ICAs and 9 VAs). The percentage of patients showing unfavorable initial clinical condition and a history of hypertension was higher in the VA group. The initial aneurysm detection rate and the percentage of fusiform aneurysms were higher in the VA group. In the ICA group, all patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling, and showed favorable outcomes. In the VA group, 2 patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling and 7 with endovascular trapping. Two patients died and 1 patient developed severe disability. Conclusion Clinically, grave initial clinical condition and hypertension were more frequent in the VA group. Angiographically, bleb-like aneurysms were more frequent in the ICA group and fusiform aneurysms were more frequent in the VA group. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms is feasible and the result is acceptable in most instances.

  20. Comparison of Endovascular Treatments of Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysms of the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Vertebral Artery with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Choi, Kyu Sun; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneuryesm is rare. Various treatment strategies have been used for ruptured intracranial dissections. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical and angiographic characteristics and outcomes of endovascular treatment for ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial ICA and VA. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of patients with SAH caused by ruptured intracranial ICA and VA dissecting aneurysms from March 2009 to April 2014. The relevant demographic and angiographic data were collected, categorized and analyzed with respect to the outcome. Results Fifteen patients were identified (6 ICAs and 9 VAs). The percentage of patients showing unfavorable initial clinical condition and a history of hypertension was higher in the VA group. The initial aneurysm detection rate and the percentage of fusiform aneurysms were higher in the VA group. In the ICA group, all patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling, and showed favorable outcomes. In the VA group, 2 patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling and 7 with endovascular trapping. Two patients died and 1 patient developed severe disability. Conclusion Clinically, grave initial clinical condition and hypertension were more frequent in the VA group. Angiographically, bleb-like aneurysms were more frequent in the ICA group and fusiform aneurysms were more frequent in the VA group. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms is feasible and the result is acceptable in most instances. PMID:27651862

  1. Complex aortic arch anomaly: Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, fenestrated proximal right and duplicated proximal left vertebral arteries—CT angiography findings and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elizabeth; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2015-01-01

    Congenital aortic arch and vertebral artery anomalies are a relatively rare finding discovered on imaging either incidentally or for evaluation of entities like dysphagia or subclavian steal. Right aortic arch is an uncommon anatomical anomaly that occurs in less than 0.1% of the population, and in half of these cases the left subclavian artery is also aberrant.1 Unilateral vertebral artery (VA) duplication is rare with an observed prevalence of 0.72% in cadavers.2 Fenestration of the VA is more common than duplication, with a prevalence of approximately 0.23%–1.95%.3,4 We describe the case of a 25-year-old female who was found to have a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, duplicated left vertebral artery and a fenestrated right vertebral artery on CT angiography performed for evaluation of dysphagia. This combination of findings has not been reported before, to the best of our knowledge. We review the embryologic mechanism for the development of the normal aortic arch, right aortic arch, vertebral artery duplication and vertebral artery fenestration. The incidence of these entities, resultant symptoms and clinical implications are also reviewed. The increased associated incidence of aneurysm formation, dissection, arteriovenous malformations and thromboembolic events with fenestration is also discussed. PMID:26306929

  2. Use of Self-Expanding Stents for the Treatment of Vertebral Artery Ostial Stenosis: a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Woo; Choi, Byung Se; In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Sun Mi; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Suh, Dae Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate our early experience using self-expanding stents to treat atherosclerotic vertebral artery ostial stenosis (VAOS), with respect to technical feasibility and clinical and imaging follow-up results. Materials and Methods A total of 20 lesions in 20 patients underwent stenting of the VAOS using a self-expanding stent (Precise RX; Cordis Neurovascular, Miami Lakes, FL). Two patients were asymptomatic. We analyzed the technical success rate, causes of technical failure, occurrence of any vascular or neurological event, and the occurrence of any neurological abnormality or in-stent restenosis (ISR) seen on follow-up. The imaging follow-up was performed with Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as a primary screening modality. Results One instance of technical failure was caused by failure of the guidewire passage. The stent diameter was 5 mm, and post-stenting balloon dilatations were necessary in all cases. Stent misplacement requiring placement of an additional stent occurred in four cases. Following a 14.8 month average clinical follow-up time, two patients showed anterior circulation ischemia, which was not attributed to the VAOS we treated. Following a 13.7 month average DUS follow-up, five patients showed a mild degree of diffuse or focal intimal thickening in the stent lumen; however, none of the stenosis showed luminal loss of more than 50% and no stent fracture was noted. Conclusion The use of self-expanding stents for treating VAOS was technically feasible and helped to improve artery patency during our limited follow-up interval. PMID:20191062

  3. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

  4. Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Ross; Smith, Linda W.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented to a chiropractic physician for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Clinical features A 45-year-old otherwise healthy female presented for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Within minutes, non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms progressed to neurological deficits, including limb ataxia and cognitive disturbances. Suspicion was raised for cerebrovascular ischemia and emergent referral was initiated. Intervention and outcome Paramedics were immediately summoned and the patient was transported to a local hospital with a working diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular ischemia. Multiplanar computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed vertebral artery dissection of the V2 segment in the right vertebral artery. Anticoagulation therapy was administered and the patient was discharged without complications after 5 days in the hospital. Conclusion This case highlights the potential for patients with vertebral artery dissection to present with nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints. Neurological symptoms may not manifest initially, but their sudden onset indicates the possibility of an ischemic cerebrovascular event. We suggest that early recognition and emergent referral for this patient avoided potential exacerbation of an evolving pre-existing condition and resulted in timely anticoagulation treatment. PMID:25685116

  5. Predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography for ischemic stroke-related vertigo.

    PubMed

    Liou, Li-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, I-Fang; Chang, Yang-Pei; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2013-12-01

    Vertigo can be a major presentation of posterior circulation stroke and can be easily misdiagnosed because of its complicated presentation. We thus prospectively assessed the predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) for the prediction of ischemic stroke-related vertigo. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a sensation of whirling (vertigo); (2) intractable vertigo for more than 1 hour despite appropriate treatment; and (3) those who could complete cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vertebral artery (V2 segment) ECCS studies. Eventually, 76 consecutive participants with vertigo were enrolled from Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 2010 and August 2011. Demographic data, neurological symptoms, neurologic examinations, and V2 ECCS were assessed. We chose the parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), PSV/EDV, mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) to represent the hemodynamics. Values from both sides of V2 segments were averaged. We then calculated the average RI (aRI), average PI (aPI), average PSV (aPSV)/EDV, and average (aMV). Axial and coronal diffusion-weighted MRI findings determined the existence of acute ischemic stroke. We grouped and analyzed participants in two ways (way I and way II analyses) based on the diffusion-weighted MRI findings (to determine whether there was acute stroke) and neurological examinations. Using way I analysis, the "MRI (+)" group had significantly higher impedance (aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio) and lower velocity (aPSV, aEDV, and aMV(PSV + EDV/2)), compared to the "MRI (-)" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aPSV, aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) and MRI (-) groups were 41.15/61.5/66.0 (p = 0.0101), 14.55/69.2/72.0 (p = 0.0003), 29.10/92.1/38.0 (p = 0.0013), 1.07/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0066), 0.62/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0076), and 2.69/80.8/66.0 (p = 0

  6. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes.

  7. Spontaneous Bilateral Cervical Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Japanese Patient without Collagen Vascular Disease with Special Reference to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Abe, Arata; Nito, Chikako; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nogami, Akane; Hokama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shiro; Kirita, Kumiko; Ueda, Masayuki; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Frequently, sCAD involves multiple neck arteries, accounting for 13%-28% of the total sCAD cases. However, little is known about factors related to multiple sCAD. In this case, a 52-year-old man was admitted due to headache without aura. There was a personal history of migraine with aura and a family history of similar symptoms. The patient's younger brother had a left vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysm and underwent endovascular occlusion of his parent artery at the age of 48. Magnetic resonance imaging of our admitted patient showed hyperintensities in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) without acute infarction, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed a narrowing of the right ICA. Angiography was then performed, which showed a trace of dissection of the left ICA and both VAs as well as the right ICA. The patient did not fulfill any major criteria of collagen vascular disease such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. The data in our patient are quite similar to those reported in patients with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PHACTR1. Obtaining the patient's informed consent, we analyzed a common SNP variation in the rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1), which has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of sCAD. PMID:27216377

  8. Reconstructive Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Aneurysms: Long-Term Results and Predictors of Unfavorable Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing-Hai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Min; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Deng, Ben-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies focused on predictors of unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 2–6) after reconstructive treatment of the ruptured intracranial spontaneous vertebral artery dissection aneurysms (ris-VADAs), which was evaluated based on 57 reconstructed lesions in this study. Methods Results of 57 consecutive patients (M:F = 29∶28; median age, 48 years; range, 27 to 69 years) harboring 57 ris-VADAs, which were treated with coils combined with single stent(n = 32), double overlapping stents (n = 16), and triple overlapping stents (n = 9) between October 2000 to March 2011, were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results The available (n = 54) mean durations of angiographic and clinical follow-ups were 27 months (range, 12 to 78) and 62 months (range, 12 to 132), respectively. The involvement of PICA (p = 0.004), size of lesions (p = 0.000), quantity of stent (p = 0.001), and coil type (p = 0.002) affected the immediate obliteration grade, which was only risk factor for angiographic recurrences (p = 0.031). Although the post-treatment outcomes did not differ between single stent and multiple stents (p = 0.434), 5 angiographic recurrences, 1 rebleeding and 1 suspected rebleeding, all occurred in partial obliteration after single-stent-assisted coiling. Progressive thrombosis and in-stent obliteration were not detected on follow-up angiograms. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.090; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.184; p = 0.040) and unfavorable Hunt-Hess scale (OR = 4.289; 95%CI, 1.232–14.933; p = 0.022) were independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in the reconstructed ris-VADAs. Conclusions Immediate obliteration grade was only risk factor for angiographic recurrence after reconstructive treatment. Unfavorable Hunt-Hess grade and older age were independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in ris-VADAs. PMID:23840616

  9. Permanent endovascular balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery as an adjunct to the surgical resection of selected cervical spine tumors: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Vivien; Choi, David; Robertson, Fergus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Complete surgical resection of cervical spine tumors is often challenging when there is tumor encasement of major neck vessels. Pre-operative endovascular sacrifice of the major vessels can facilitate safe tumor resection. The use of transarterial detachable coils has been described in this setting, but it can be time-consuming and costly to occlude a patent parent vessel using this method. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of our endovascular detachable balloon occlusion technique, performed without prior balloon test occlusion in the pre-operative management of these tumors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 18 consecutive patients undergoing pre-operative unilateral permanent endovascular balloon occlusion of tumor-encased vertebral arteries in our institution. Procedure-related ischemic or thromboembolic complication was defined as focal neurologic deficit attributable to the endovascular occlusion which occurs before subsequent surgical resection. Results Successful pre-operative endovascular vertebral artery sacrifice using detachable balloons was achieved in 100% (n = 18) of cases without prior balloon test occlusion. Procedural complication rate was 5.6% as one patient developed transient focal neurology secondary to a delayed cerebellar infarct at home on day 11 and subsequently made a full recovery. There were no cases of distal balloon migration. Complete macroscopic resection of tumor as reported by the operating surgeon was achieved in 89% of cases. Conclusion Pre-operative endovascular sacrifice of the vertebral artery using detachable balloons and without prior balloon test occlusion is a safe procedure with low complication rates and good surgeon reported rates of total resection. PMID:26092437

  10. A single microvascular decompression surgery cures a patient with trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, tinnitus, hypertension, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by the compression of a vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yin; Wenhua, Wang; Quanbin, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a 72-year-old woman with posterior cranial fossa neurovascular compression syndrome that included paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the posterior cranial fossa, and a gross left vertebral artery was identified as the offending vessel. The neurovascular conflicts were associated with the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, IX, and X. The patient experienced significant postoperative relief. Probably this is the first report of a single microvascular decompression, having cured such a high number of syndromes, including paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

  11. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  12. Vertebral artery dissect injury with brown-séquard syndrome by a neural foramen penetrated electric screw driver bit : a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Noh, Sung Hyun; Shin, Dong Ah; Ji, Gyu Yeul

    2013-12-01

    There are few reports in the literature of complete obstruction of the vertebral artery (VA) due to an electric screw driver bit penetration through the neural foramen into the spinal canal with Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a penetrated neck injury by an electric screw driver bit after a struggle. The patient presented the clinical features of BSS. Computed tomography scan revealed that the electric screw driver bit penetrated through the right neural foramen at the level of C3-4, and it caused an injury to the right half of the spinal cord. Emergent angiography revealed VA dissection, which was managed by immediate coil embolization at both proximal and distal ends of the injury site. After occlusion of the VA, the electric screw driver bit was extracted under general anesthesia. Bleeding was minimal and controlled without difficulties. No postoperative complications, such as wound dehiscence, CSF leakage, or infection, were noted. Endovascular approaches for occlusion of vertebral artery lesions are safe and effective methods of treatment.

  13. Neurological Deterioration after Decompressive Suboccipital Craniectomy in a Patient with a Brainstem-compressing Thrombosed Giant Aneurysm of the Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woosung; Choo, Yeon Soo; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-01-01

    We experienced a case of neurological deterioration after decompressive suboccipital craniectomy (DSC) in a patient with a brainstem-compressing thrombosed giant aneurysm of the vertebral artery (VA). A 60-year-old male harboring a thrombosed giant aneurysm (about 4 cm) of the right vertebral artery presented with quadriparesis. We treated the aneurysm by endovascular coil trapping of the right VA and expected the aneurysm to shrink slowly. After 7 days, however, he suffered aggravated symptoms as his aneurysm increased in size due to internal thrombosis. The medulla compression was aggravated, and so we performed DSC with C1 laminectomy. After the third post-operative day, unfortunately, his neurologic symptoms were more aggravated than in the pre-DSC state. Despite of conservative treatment, neurological symptoms did not improve, and microsurgical aneurysmectomy was performed for the medulla decompression. Unfortunately, the post-operative recovery was not as good as anticipated. DSC should not be used to release the brainstem when treating a brainstem-compressing thrombosed giant aneurysm of the VA. PMID:27790402

  14. Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography Detection of Duplication of the Vertebral Artery in a Large Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhua; Li, Yunyun; Bai, Min; Zhang, Chuanchen

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate duplication of the vertebral artery (VA) using three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in a large study population to further our understanding of vascular variations. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 3D TOF-MRA data in 12 826 cases was performed. The occurrence rate of VA duplication was calculated and accompanied vascular anomalies were recoded. Results Twenty-one VA duplication patients were found, with an occurrence rate of 0.164%; 12 of them had left VA duplication with 2 branches initially arising from the aortic arch and left subclavian artery; 9 of them were right VA duplication with the branches originating from the right subclavian artery. In the 21 cases, 11 had other vascular abnormalities. Conclusions VA duplication is very rare and often associated with other vascular abnormalities. 3D TOF-MRA can accurately display the duplication variation. Better understanding of the variation is instrumental for disease diagnosis, interventional therapy, and surgical operation. PMID:27749814

  15. Endovascular implantation of covered stents in the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Covered stents are used endovascularly to seal arterial wall defects while preserving vessel patency. This report describes our experience with the use of covered stents to treat cervical pathology, and a review of the literature in regards to this topic is presented. Case Description: Two patients presenting with the carotid blowout syndrome and one patient with a vertebrojugular fistula were treated with covered stents. This allowed for preservation of the vessel and was a treatment alternative to cerebral bypass. Conclusion: Covered stents provide a viable means of preserving the cervical vessels in selected patients; however, long-term follow-up is necessary to determine stent patency and permanency of hemostasis. PMID:21697983

  16. Traumatic C6-7 subluxation with anomalous course of vertebral arteries treated with pedicle screw/rod fixation. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Koshi, Takana; Mannoji, Chikato; Okawa, Akihiko; Koda, Masao

    2007-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 62-year-old woman who suffered an accidental fall and complained of severe neck pain and right C-7 radiculopathy. A right C6-7 facet fracture-subluxation was diagnosed. Bone fragments impinged on the right C-7 nerve root at the neural foramen. The bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs) ascended at the anterior aspect of C-6 and C-5 and entered the transverse foramen at the C-4 level. Based on findings of anomalous VAs, the authors applied a pedicle screw (PS)/rod system to effect surgical correction of the deformity. Intraoperatively, they successfully performed reduction of the subluxation, decompression of the impinged nerve root, and minimum single-segment fusion involving the placement of a PS/rod system. After surgery, the patient's neurological deficit dramatically improved and spinal fusion was completed without any loss of deformity correction. Prior to surgery for cervical injuries, the possible presence of an abnormal VA course should be considered. Preoperative detection of anomalous VAs will affect decisions on the appropriate corrective surgery option in cases of cervical spine injuries. PMID:17633490

  17. Computed tomography-guided cervical selective transforaminal epidural block for a patient with bilateral anatomical variations of vertebral artery -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hoon; Lim, Jung A; Park, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seong Wook; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Jun-Mo

    2013-11-01

    A 56-year-old woman complained of radiating pain to the left arm. She was diagnosed with left-sided foraminal stenosis at the C5-6 level. The neurosurgeon requested a left C6 cervical selective transforaminal epidural block (CSTE). Cervical MRI showed a left-sided large tortuous vertebral artery (VA) at the C5-6 level. Before performing CSTE, a CT angiogram was carried out and showed bilateral tortuous VAs. To minimize adverse events, CSTE was performed with non-particulated steroids and under CT guidance. Following the procedure, the patient's symptoms were relieved completely. Although complication rates of CSTE are generally low, if it occurs, disastrous situation could be. Additionally, if the patient has anatomical variations, the possibility of a complication occurring is greatly increased. It is therefore important to determine whether the patient has any anatomical variations of the VA before performing procedures such as CSTE, and to ensure that needle placement is correct during the procedure and an appropriate drug, such as a non-particulated steroid, is selected.

  18. L1 burst fracture with associated vertebral angioma.

    PubMed

    Armaganian, G; Adetchessi, T; Pech-Gourg, G; Blondel, B; Dufour, H; Fuentes, S

    2013-04-01

    Vertebral angioma is a common bone tumor. We report a case of L1 vertebral angioma revealed by type A3.2 traumatic pathological fracture of the same vertebra. Management comprised emergency percutaneous osteosynthesis and, after stabilization of the multiple trauma, arterial embolization and percutaneous kyphoplasty.

  19. [Gas dissection of the vertebral body or the vertebral intrasomatic space phenomenon. Physiopathological arguments].

    PubMed

    Michel, J L; Bouzat, J; Rivoal, A; de Pradel de Lamaze, P; Viallet, J F; Belin, J; Merle, P

    1982-01-01

    Some features concerning the ischemic origin of the gaseous dissection of the vertebral body and the physiopathology of the necrose, are considered in the adult: --in the way, the anterior topography of vaccum phenomenon is on the model of the arterial distribution in the vertebral body, implying ischemic origin of gaseous dissection; --further, two cases of intravertebral vaccum cleft, noticed after minor trauma, suggest the major role of fractures at the origin of ischemia.

  20. Effects of hypoxia on vertebrate blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J; Dombkowski, Ryan A; Olson, Kenneth R

    2008-03-01

    Hypoxia contracts mammalian respiratory vessels and increases vascular resistance in respiratory tissues of many vertebrates. In systemic vessels these responses vary, hypoxia relaxes mammalian vessels and contracts systemic arteries from cyclostomes. It has been proposed that hypoxic vasoconstriction in cyclostome systemic arteries is the antecedent to mammalian hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, however, phylogenetic characterization of hypoxic responses is lacking. In this study, we characterized the hypoxic response of isolated systemic and respiratory vessels from a variety of vertebrates using standard myography. Pre-gill/respiratory (ventral aorta, afferent branchial artery, pulmonary artery) and post-gill/systemic (dorsal and thoracic aortas, efferent branchial artery) from lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), chicken (Gallus domesticus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to hypoxia at rest or during pre-stimulation (elevated extracellular potassium, epinephrine or norepinephrine). Hypoxia produced a relaxation or transient contraction followed by relaxation in all pre-gill vessels, except for contraction in lamprey, and vasoconstriction or tri-phasic constriction-dilation-constriction in all pulmonary vessels. Hypoxia contracted systemic vessels from all animals except shark and rat and in pre-contracted rat aortas it produced a transient contraction followed by relaxation. These results show that while the classic "systemic hypoxic vasodilation and pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction" may occur in the microcirculation, the hypoxic response of the vertebrate macrocirculation is quite variable. These findings also suggest that hypoxic vasoconstriction is a phylogenetically ancient response. PMID:18214862

  1. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms.

  2. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  3. Management of Vertebral Stenosis Complicated by Presence of Acute Thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat; Arat, Anil Cil, Barbaros E.; Sahin, Gurdal; Turkbey, Baris; Elibol, Bulent

    2007-04-15

    A 44-year-old male presented with multiple punctate acute infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation and a computed tomographic angiogram showing stenosis of the right vertebral origin. A digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a new intraluminal filling defect at the origin of the stenotic vertebral artery where antegrade flow was maintained. This filling defect was accepted to be an acute thrombus of the vertebral origin, most likely due to rupture of a vulnerable plaque. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin. A control angiogram revealed dissolution of the acute thrombus under anticoagulation and the patient was treated with stenting with distal protection. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no additional acute ischemic lesions. We were unable to find a similar report in the English literature documenting successful management of an acute vertebral ostial thrombus with anticoagulation. Anticoagulation might be considered prior to endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenoses complicated by the presence of acute thrombus.

  4. Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

  5. Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm Treated with Wingspan Stent Deployment and Detachable Coils

    PubMed Central

    Lv, M.; Lv, X.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe the first documented endovascular treatment of vertebral dissecting aneurysm using a Wingspan stent and detachable coils. A 54-year-old man presented with a nonruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Because of the dissecting nature of the vertebral aneurysms, a 3x15-mm Wingspan stent was placed in the left vertebral artery. One month later, several detachable coils were introduced into the aneurysm. Six-month follow-up angiogram confirmed the obliteration. Vertebral dissecting aneurysm can be treated with Wingspan stent placement and detachable coils. PMID:20465940

  6. [Vertebral vacuum phenomena].

    PubMed

    Hamzé, B; Leaute, F; Wybier, M; Laredo, J D

    1995-01-01

    The spinal vacuum phenomenon is a collection of gas within the disk space, the vertebral body, the apophyseal joint or the spinal canal. The intradiscal vacuum phenomenon is frequently observed in degenerative disk disease and crystal-induced diskopathy. This has obvious significance to the radiologist, who, on observing a narrowed disk space or collapsed vertebral body, might otherwise consider infectious or neoplastic spondylitis, a likely possibility. The presence of vacuum phenomenon militates against the diagnosis of infection or tumor.

  7. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures redux.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Gordon, P; Ward, L

    2008-02-01

    Osteoporosis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. This fact is largely due to fractures of the proximal femur and spine. As recently recognized, vertebral fractures are as much a threat to health and longevity as fractures of the proximal femur. In recent decades, the development of tools to evaluate fracture risk as well as medications to treat osteoporosis has altered the management of people who are at fracture risk. At the same time identification and management procedures concerning spinal fracturing are not very clear. Besides there is not even clear consensus about what exactly constitutes a vertebral fracture, particularly those of minor degree. While height loss is a simple and valuable tool to detect vertebral fractures, it is neither sensitive nor specific enough to replace radiographs. Some 65% of fractures cause no symptoms. Often vertebral fractures are misdiagnosed, especially if they have occurred silently and if the opportunity for diagnosis arises fortuitously. It is to the patient's benefit that radiologists report and physicians identify vertebral fractures evident on a chest or other radiograph, no matter how incidental to the immediate clinical indication for the examination. Technological evolution now allows dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry machines to be used to take spine images while doing a densitometry. The images are adequate, even if not of high radiographic quality, and, more important, the patient undergoes a smaller radiation dose than with conventional spinal radiographs. Such technology may promote fracture recognition. The recognition of vertebral fractures, as well as the prevention and treatment of further fractures, will likely do much to reduce both the burden of osteoporosis-related morbidity and mortality, as well as fracture-related costs to healthcare systems.

  8. Vascular Microanatomy of the Pontomedullary Junction, Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Arteries, and the Lateral Spinal Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, PH.; Brassier, G.; Fournier, H-D; Picquet, J.; Papon, X.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary This study of 25 brains at the pontomedullary junction defined the different possible origins of the perforating arteries and lateral spinal arteries in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICAs). - If the PICA emerges from the common trunk of the AICA-PICA coming from the basilar artery, it never gives perforating arteries or a lateral spinal artery on the lateral surface of the brain stem but supplies blood to a part of the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere. - If the PICA arises extradurally at C1, it never gives perforating arteries for the lateral surface of the brain stem, but it gives pial branches for the posterior surface of the medulla oblongata and is always the origin of the lateral spinal artery. - If the PICA emerges in the intradural vertebral artery, it is the source of the perforating arteries for the lateral surface of the brain stem and of the blood supply of the ipsilateral cerebellum. PMID:20557786

  9. Subclavian artery aneurysm in a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shota; Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Uranaka, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-02-01

    We describe our experience of surgical treatment in a 28-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A right subclavian artery aneurysm was detected. The right vertebral artery arose from the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography showed interruption of the left vertebral artery. The aneurysm was excised and the right vertebral artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the right common carotid artery under deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The patient remained very well 4 years after surgery, with no late vascular complication.

  10. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature. PMID:20689689

  11. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  12. [Vertebral hydatidosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Santelices, J P; Cuzmar, D; Aldunate, J T; Plaza-Guzmán, N; Lizama-Calvo, P

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis caused by echinococcus granulosus may affect any organ in the body, with the lungs and the liver as the most commonly affected organs. Vertebral compromise resulting from echinococcus granulosus has a low prevalence and accounts for less than 1% of bone compromise. We report the case of a 50 year-old female who presented at the Trauma Service with progressive low back pain with 5 months of duration that irradiated to the right lower limb, and led to neurologic compromise of the limb. Imaging studies showed spondylodiscitis at T12-L1, confirmed by a biopsy. Treatment of this condition is both orthopedic and surgical. The recurrence rate is high, between 30 and 40%. The objective of describing this case is to propose the differential diagnosis of a vertebral mass of unknown origin and provide details as to how to manage this condition. PMID:27012085

  13. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  14. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  15. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  16. Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae.

  17. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  18. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures.

  19. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. PMID:26412139

  20. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  1. Mixing during intravertebral arterial infusions in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Robert J; Warren, Kathy; Balis, Frank; Patronas, Nicholas; Dedrick, Robert L

    2002-06-01

    Regional delivery of drugs can offer a pharmacokinetic advantage in the treatment of localized tumors. One method of regional delivery is by intra-arterial infusion into the basilar/vertebral artery network that provides local access to infratentorial tumors, which are frequent locations of childhood brain cancers. Proper delivery of drug by infused solutions requires adequate mixing of the infusate at the site of infusion within the artery lumen. Our mixing studies with an in vitro model of the vertebral artery network indicate that streaming of drug solution is likely to occur at low, steady infusion rates of 2 ml/min. Streaming leads to maldistribution of drug to distal perfused brain regions and may result in toxic levels in some regions while concurrently yielding subtherapeutic levels in adjacent regions. According to our model findings, distribution to both brain hemispheres is not likely following infusion into a single vertebral artery even if the infusate is well-mixed at the infusion site. This outcome results from the unique fluid flow properties of two converging channels, which are represented by the left and right vertebral branches converging into the basilar. Fluid in the model remains stratified on the side of the basilar artery served by the infused vertebral artery. Careful thought and planning of the methods of intravertebral drug infusions for treating posterior fossa tumors are required to assure proper distribution of the drug to the desired tissue regions. Improper delivery may be responsible for some noted toxicities or for failure of the treatments. PMID:12164691

  2. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  3. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  4. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  5. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression.

  6. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  7. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ≈450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  8. Pediatric traumatic carotid, vertebral and cerebral artery dissections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Martin M; Verma, Ketan; Tubbs, R Shane; Harrigan, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic cerebral dissections are rare but potentially dangerous conditions that through improved diagnostics have recently gained increased interest. However, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the natural history, as well as on the best treatment options. Most of the literature on this topic consists of case reports and retrospective studies with no prospective randomized controlled studies. In our review, we highlight the fact that there is no level 1 evidence for the natural history of cerebral dissections or for the best treatment. We present 26 case studies derived from 70 pediatric patients affected by dissections, occlusions, and pseudoaneurysms.

  9. Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D

    1997-08-18

    People with vertebral fractures have greater pain, disability, and healthcare utilization, on average, than those without fractures. Most studies of acute pain and disability have been limited to patients with clinically diagnosed fractures (a subset of all symptomatic patients), representing about one third of all patients with fractures identified radiographically. Acute symptoms vary widely. Some patients experience intolerable pain that can be completely debilitating for several weeks or months, whereas about half of all patients with radiographically identified fractures report having had no symptoms. The reasons for this variability are unknown. Chronic pain and disability among patients with vertebral fractures are significantly greater on average than among people without fractures, even after adjusting for comorbid conditions that are common among the elderly. Similar to acute symptoms, chronic symptoms vary widely and often persist for at least several years. The risk of pain and disability increases progressively with the number and severity of vertebral deformities: the risk is multiplied several times with each additional fracture. On average, physical function is impaired among people with vertebral fractures, whether or not they currently report back pain. Declines in physical function and changes in appearance contribute to social isolation and loss of self-esteem, impairing quality of life. The cumulative impact of vertebral fractures on quality of life may rival that of hip fractures because hip fractures are less frequent and occur later in life. As many as 40% of symptomatic vertebral fractures are initially misdiagnosed, signaling a need for greater awareness among physicians and patients. Prevention of initial vertebral fractures should be actively encouraged; even if the initial fracture is asymptomatic, it indicates a greatly increased risk of subsequent fractures, pain, and physical impairment. PMID:9302895

  10. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  11. Subclavian Steal Syndrome with or without Arterial Stenosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kargiotis, Odysseas; Siahos, Simos; Safouris, Apostolos; Feleskouras, Agisilaos; Magoufis, Georgios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2016-09-01

    The subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome (SSS) is the hemodynamic phenomenon of blood flow reversal in the vertebral artery due to significant stenosis or occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery or the innominate artery. Occasionally, SSS is diagnosed in patients not harboring arterial stenosis. With the exception of arterial congenital malformations, the limited case reports of SSS with intact subclavian artery are attributed to dialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Interestingly, these cases are more frequently symptomatic than those with the classical atherosclerotic SSS forms. On the other hand, the disclosure of SSS due to subclavian/innominate artery atherosclerotic stenosis, even in the absence of accompanying symptoms, should prompt a thorough cardiovascular work-up for the early detection of coexisting coronary, carotid, or peripheral artery disease. Herein, we review the incidence, clinical presentation, sonographic findings, and therapeutic interventions related to SSS with and without subclavian/innominate artery stenosis. We also review the currently available data in the literature regarding the association of SSS and dialysis AVF. In addition, we present a patient with bilateral symptomatic SSS as the result of an arteriovenous graft (AVG) that was introduced after the preexisting AVF in the contralateral arm became nonfunctional. SSS due to subclavian or innominate artery stenosis/occlusion is rarely symptomatic warranting interventional treatment. In contrast, when it is attributed to AVF, surgical correction is frequently necessary. PMID:27301069

  12. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  13. Medical treatment of vertebral osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, K

    2003-10-01

    Although osteoporosis is a systemic disease, vertebral fractures due to spinal bone loss are a frequent, sometimes early and often neglected complication of the disease, generally associated with considerable disability and pain. As osteoporotic vertebral fractures are an important predictor of future fracture risk, including at the hip, medical management is targeted at reducing fracture risk. A literature search for randomized, double-blind, prospective, controlled clinical studies addressing medical treatment possibilities of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Caucasian women was performed on the leading medical databases. For each publication, the number of patients with at least one new vertebral fracture and the number of randomized patients by treatment arm was retrieved. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT, i.e. the number of patients to be treated to avoid one radiological vertebral fracture over the duration of the study), together with the respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for each study. Treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis in men were reviewed separately, based on the low number of publications available. Forty-five publications matched with the search criteria, allowing for analysis of 15 different substances tested regarding their anti-fracture efficacy at the vertebral level. Bisphosphonates, mainly alendronate and risedronate, were reported to have consistently reduced the risk of a vertebral fracture over up to 50 months of treatment in four (alendronate) and two (risedronate) publications. Raloxifene reduced vertebral fracture risk in one study over 36 months, which was confirmed by 48 months' follow-up data. Parathormone (PTH) showed a drastic reduction in vertebral fracture risk in early studies, while calcitonin may also be a treatment option to reduce fracture risk. For other substances published data are conflicting (calcitriol, fluoride) or insufficient

  14. Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Thomas E.; Dichgans, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Birnbaum, Tobias; Mueller-Schunk, Stephanie; Hamann, Gerhard F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot

    2008-11-15

    Two patients with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated by continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion via a catheter placed in the internal carotid artery or vertebral artery for 3 and 12 days, respectively. Recovery of the neurological deficits, normalization of MR perfusion, a decrease in the elevated mean flow velocity measured by transcranial duplex sonography, and angiographic recanalization were observed. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine might be a treatment option in severe refractory vasospasm following SAH.

  15. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  16. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  17. Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, Yoshinori Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2006-10-15

    We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  18. [Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries].

    PubMed

    Plouin, Pierre-François; Fiquet, Béatrice; Bobrie, Guillaume; Jeunemaître, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia is non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the medium caliber arteries causing segmental stenosis, and sometimes aneurysm and/or dissection. Renal involvement is either asymptomatic or revealed by hypertension, rarely acute complications (renal infarction/hemorrhage). Cross-sectional imaging or angiography differentiates multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (pearl necklace appearance) and focal fibromuscular dysplasia (tubular stenosis). Several differential diagnoses are to be mentioned. Carotid and vertebral involvement are possible. Smoking cessation must be encouraged. Selected patients benefit from renal revascularization. The best indications are recent or resistant hypertension, and progressive renal atrophy. Angioplasty without stent revascularization is the technique of choice in purely stenotic forms. PMID:26968476

  19. Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery (PPHA) - A Rare Anomaly with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, M R; Vedaraju, K S; Manjappa, B H; Nagaraj, B R

    2016-01-01

    Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a rare embryonic carotid vertebrobasilar artery anastomosis. Hypoglossal artery arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) between the C1 and C2 vertebral levels and traverses through the hypoglossal canal to join the vertebro-basilar system. We present a rare case of an anomalous right sided PPHA as a sole supply to posterior circulation of brain with absent/hypoplastic bilateral vertebral arteries in a two year child who had presented with acute left sided haemiplegia. Three dimensional time of flight magnetic resonance angiography identified an anomalous vessel arising from the right internal carotid artery at the level of axis vertebra and joining the vertebra-basilar arterial system after coursing through the right hypoglossal canal. This anomaly when present may predispose the person to aneurysm formation, ischaemia in the posterior circulation and atherosclerotic disease of the intracranial vessels. PMID:26894148

  20. Persistent Primitive Hypoglossal Artery (PPHA) – A Rare Anomaly with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vedaraju, KS; Manjappa, BH; Nagaraj, BR

    2016-01-01

    Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a rare embryonic carotid vertebrobasilar artery anastomosis. Hypoglossal artery arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) between the C1 and C2 vertebral levels and traverses through the hypoglossal canal to join the vertebro-basilar system. We present a rare case of an anomalous right sided PPHA as a sole supply to posterior circulation of brain with absent/hypoplastic bilateral vertebral arteries in a two year child who had presented with acute left sided haemiplegia. Three dimensional time of flight magnetic resonance angiography identified an anomalous vessel arising from the right internal carotid artery at the level of axis vertebra and joining the vertebra-basilar arterial system after coursing through the right hypoglossal canal. This anomaly when present may predispose the person to aneurysm formation, ischaemia in the posterior circulation and atherosclerotic disease of the intracranial vessels. PMID:26894148

  1. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  2. Morphological castes in a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    O'Riain, M J; Jarvis, J U; Alexander, R; Buffenstein, R; Peeters, C

    2000-11-21

    Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

  3. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  4. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species.

  5. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  6. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord.

  7. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  8. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  9. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  10. Rupture and Migration of an Endovascular Stent in the Brachiocephalic Trunk Causing a Vertebral Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Periard, D. Haesler, E.; Hayoz, D.; Von Segesser, L. K.; Qanadli, S. D.

    2008-07-15

    Delayed stent fracture has been observed in many different arteries and may represent a risk factor for restenosis. We describe the case of a delayed rupture of an endovascular brachiocephalic trunk stent. The complete fracture allowed a fragment to migrate distally and tilt, resulting in a hemodynamic pattern similar to that of a prevertebral stenosis with complete inversion of the homolateral vertebral blood flow. The induced vertebral steal syndrome as well as the risk of cerebral embolism was corrected by an aortobrachiocephalic bypass and resection of the ruptured stent.

  11. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  12. Intracranial arterial variations: A comprehensive evaluation using CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Jelena Djokić; Stanković, Ana; Stanković, Danilo; Kovač, Bojan; Šaranović, Djordjije

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracranial arterial variations are a frequent finding in the general population. Knowledge of these vascular variations has significant clinical impact because some of them predispose patients to development of an aneurysm or cerebrovascular ischemic disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of intracranial vascular variations and associated vascular lesions on computed tomography angiography (CTA) examinations. Material/Methods CTA examinations performed by 16-detector computed tomography were prospectively reviewed in 455 patients for the presence of fenestrations, duplications, hypoplasia, aplasia, aneurysms, and other vascular lesions. Results Arterial fenestrations were found in 2.4% of patients, with the vertebrobasilar system as the most common location. The remaining fenestrations were located on the middle cerebral artery M1 segment (0.2%), anterior communicating artery (0.4%), and anterior cerebral artery A1 segment (0.6%). No associated aneurysms were noted in these patients. The prevalence of an azygos anterior cerebral artery was 1.5%. Bihemispheric anterior cerebral artery was found in 0.9%, hypoplastic A1 segment in 17.6%, and congenital absence of A1 segment in 0.4% of patients. Fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery was found in 37% of cases. Hypoplastic vertebral artery terminating as posterior inferior cerebellar artery was observed in 9 patients, while transversal anastomosis between vertebral arteries was seen in only 1 patient. Conclusions CTA precisely demonstrates the diversity of intracranial arterial variations, whose overall frequency in this study is similar to previous radiological reports. Furthermore, our results do not show significant association between the frequency of aneurysms and cerebral arterial anomalies. PMID:24625840

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; ...

  14. Evolution of vertebrate colour vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Rowe, Mickey P

    2004-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in learning how colour vision has evolved. This trend has been fuelled by an enhanced understanding of the nature and extent of colour vision among contemporary species, by a deeper understanding of the paleontological record and by the application of new tools from molecular biology. This review provides an assessment of the progress in understanding the evolution of vertebrate colour vision. In so doing, we offer accounts of the evolution of three classes of mechanism important for colour vision--photopigment opsins, oil droplets and retinal organisation--and then examine details of how colour vision has evolved among mammals and, more specifically, among primates.

  15. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  16. Anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction with sudden deafness and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Mitsuru; Fukada, Yasuyo; Hayashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Takeo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    We report a patient with anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction, which manifested as profound deafness, transient vertigo, and minimal cerebellar signs. We suspect that ischaemia of the left internal auditory artery, which originates from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, caused the deafness and transient vertigo. A small lesion in the middle cerebellar peduncle in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory and no lesion in the dentate nucleus in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory are thought to explain the minimal cerebellar signs despite the relatively large size of the infarction. Thus a relatively large infarction of the vertebral-basilar territory can manifest as sudden deafness with vertigo. Neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, is strongly recommended for patients with sudden deafness and vertigo to exclude infarction of the vertebral-basilar artery territory.

  17. Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

  18. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  19. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  20. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  1. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  2. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning.

  3. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  4. Vertebral fracture assessment in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Miguel; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Torres, Carolina Hammes; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; de Farias, Maria Lúcia Fleiuss

    2013-01-01

    Most vertebral fractures (VFs) are asymptomatic and incidentally found on X-rays. The effects of acromegaly on bone mineral density (BMD) are still controversial, and the prevalence of VFs in this specific population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess VFs in acromegaly through vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy-five acromegalic patients from the same center (53 female; age: 48.9±14.5yr) were enrolled in this study. None of them referred previous fragility fracture. They were divided according to the presence or absence of moderate or severe VFs on VFA, a densitometric spine imaging. Age, gender, estimated duration of disease, insulin-like growth factor I levels, disease control and gonadal status, as well as BMD and body composition (analyzed by DXA) were compared between these 2 groups. A prevalence of 10.6% of clinically unapparent VFs was observed. Eight patients had 13 moderate or severe VFs, and only one of them had osteoporosis at densitometry. There was a trend to longer duration of acromegaly before diagnosis, higher prevalence of hypogonadism, and higher BMD Z-score at lumbar spine and femoral neck in fractured patients, without reaching statistical significance. There is a significant prevalence of moderate and severe VFs in acromegalic patients, independently of BMD. More longitudinal and controlled studies are needed to recommend the use of VFA in all acromegalic patients submitted to DXA scan. VFA is simple, practical, uses low radiation, and may provide important information in the management of acromegaly.

  5. Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

  6. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  7. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhu, Si-Wei; Li, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-18

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  8. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    PubMed Central

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  9. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  10. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhu, Si-Wei; Li, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-18

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research.

  11. Extracellular Matrix and the Mechanics of Large Artery Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey K.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large, elastic arteries, as their name suggests, provide elastic distention and recoil during the cardiac cycle in vertebrate animals. The arteries are distended from the pressure of ejecting blood during active contraction of the left ventricle (LV) during systole, and recoil to their original dimensions during relaxation of the LV during diastole. The cyclic distension occurs with minimal energy loss, due to the elastic properties of one of the major structural extracellular matrix (ECM) components, elastin. The maximum distension is limited to prevent damage to the artery by another major ECM component, collagen. The mix of ECM components in the wall largely determines the passive mechanical behavior of the arteries and the subsequent load on the heart during systole. While much research has focused on initial artery formation, there has been less attention on the continuing development of the artery to produce the mature composite wall complete with endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the necessary mix of ECM components for proper cardiovascular function. This review focuses on the physiology of large artery development, including SMC differentiation and ECM production. The effects of hemodynamic forces and ECM deposition on the evolving arterial structure and function are discussed. Human diseases and mouse models with genetic mutations in ECM proteins that affect large artery development are summarized. A review of constitutive models and growth and remodeling theories is presented, along with future directions to improve understanding of ECM and the mechanics of large artery development. PMID:22584609

  12. Fetal development of the mesonephric artery in humans with reference to replacement by the adrenal and renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Ryoji; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Miyake, Hideaki; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-11-01

    According to the classical ladder theory, the mesonephric arteries (MAs) have a segmental arrangement and persist after regression of the mesonephros, with some of these vessels becoming definitive renal arteries. To avoid interruption of blood flow, such a vascular switching would require an intermediate stage in which two or more segmental MAs are connected to a definitive renal artery. To examine developmental changes, especially changes in the segmental distribution of MAs, we studied serial paraffin sections of 26 human embryos (approximately 5-7 weeks). At 5-6 weeks, 1-2 pairs of MAs ran anterolaterally or laterally within each of the lower thoracic vertebral segments, while 2-5 pairs of MAs were present in each of the lumbar vertebral segments, but they were usually asymmetrical. The initial metanephros, extending along the aorta from the first lumbar to first sacral vertebra, had no arterial supply despite the presence of multiple MAs running immediately anterior to it. Depending on increased sizes of the adrenal and metanephros, the MAs were reduced in number and restricted in levels from the twelfth thoracic to the second lumbar vertebra. The elimination of MAs first became evident at a level of the major, inferior parts of the metanephros. Therefore, a hypothetical arterial ladder was lost before development of glomeruli in the metanephros. At 7 weeks, after complete elimination of MAs, a pair of symmetrical renal arteries appeared near the superior end of the metanephros. In conclusion, the MAs appear not to persist to become a definitive renal artery.

  13. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity.

  14. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  15. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back.

  16. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  17. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  18. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  19. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  20. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  1. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  2. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  3. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Anas; Abduljabbar, Fahad H.; Abduljabbar, Ahmed H.; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism. PMID:26221556

  4. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study

    PubMed Central

    Jaremko, Jacob Lester; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N.; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin; O’Brien, Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and growing awareness has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiologic beaking, and spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid’s bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  5. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory B; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin H; O'Brien, Mary Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and growing awareness of this has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly, which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiological beaking, or spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid's bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  6. Side predilections of offending arteries in hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moonyoung; Han, Inbo; Chung, Sang-Sup; Huh, Ryoong

    2016-07-01

    The side predilections of various offending arteries in hemifacial spasm (HFS) have not been well studied. The relationship between clinical and radiological features of HFS and offending arteries were investigated in the present study. A retrospective analysis of 370 patients who underwent microvascular decompression for HFS was performed. The patients were divided into four groups based on the offending arteries, namely anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), vertebral artery, and multiple offending arteries. Affected side, age at onset, presence of hypertension, and sigmoid sinus area and dominance were compared between groups. The mean age of patients with a left HFS was significantly greater than that of patients with a right HFS (P=0.009). The AICA affected primarily the right side and PICA and multiple offending arteries the left side (P<0.001). Side of sigmoid sinus dominance was significantly different among groups (P<0.001). The offending arteries in HFS may be related to these differences. AICA was associated with right-sided symptoms, younger age at onset, and presence of left dominant sigmoid sinus, while PICA was associated with left-sided symptoms, older age at onset, and smaller right sigmoid sinus area.

  7. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  8. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:26069429

  9. Sleep and orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Although a precise definition of "sleep" has yet to be established, sleep-like behaviors have been observed in all animals studied to date including mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of many physiological functions, including feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular control, as well as the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. To date, the knowledge on the functions of orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates is still limited, but the similarity of the structures of orexins and their receptors among vertebrates suggest that they have similar conserved physiological functions. This review describes our current knowledge on sleep in nonmammalian vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and the possible role of orexins in the regulation of their energy homeostasis and arousal states. PMID:22640621

  10. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  11. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  12. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  13. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  14. Role of Transpedicular Percutaneous Vertebral Biopsy for Diagnosis of Pathology in Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Sunil; Hardikar, Sharad Moreshwar; Hardikar, Madan Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To identify the role of percutaneous vertebral biopsy in histopathological diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures and to identify the frequency of unexpected malignancy in vertebral compression fractures. Overview of Literature Vertebral compression fractures are common in the Indian population. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging have some limitations in the diagnosis of definitive pathology of vertebral compression fractures. Therefore, histological confirmation is necessary for definitive diagnosis and to plan appropriate management for patient. Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted involving 84 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral biopsy between 2010 and 2014. We performed C-arm guided percutaneous transpedicular core vertebral biopsy of vertebral compression fractures under combination of local anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation. Results Sufficient biopsy material was obtained in 79 of the 84 cases. In the other five cases, biopsy material was not sufficient for reporting. Out of the 79 cases, osteoporotic pathology was detected in 69 patients, malignancy was detected in 8 patients and no pathology was found in 2 patients. Two patients with distant metastases to vertebra were identified. Primary spinal malignancy was detected in 6 patients (1 unsuspected plasmacytoma, 5 diagnosed malignancy preoperatively). So, the frequency of unsuspected malignancy of this study was 1.19% (1/84). None of the patients had any complications. Conclusions C-arm guided percutaneous transpedicular vertebral biopsy is useful in obtaining definitive histopathological diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures, especially in differentiating malignant and non-malignant vertebral compression fractures and helping plan appropriate management of patients. The rate of unexpected malignancy in vertebral compression fracture was 1.19%. PMID:27790322

  15. Retroviral Diversity and Distribution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth; Martin, Joanne; Miller, Karen; Cook, James; Wilkinson, Mark; Tristem, Michael

    1998-01-01

    We used the PCR to screen for the presence of endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of 18 vertebrate orders across eight classes, concentrating on reptilian, amphibian, and piscine hosts. Thirty novel retroviral sequences were isolated and characterized by sequencing approximately 1 kb of their encoded protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Isolation of novel viruses from so many disparate hosts suggests that retroviruses are likely to be ubiquitous within all but the most basal vertebrate classes and, furthermore, gives a good indication of the overall retroviral diversity within vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that viruses clustering with (but not necessarily closely related to) the spumaviruses and murine leukemia viruses are widespread and abundant in vertebrate genomes. In contrast, we were unable to identify any viruses from hosts outside of mammals and birds which grouped with the other five currently recognized retroviral genera: the lentiviruses, human T-cell leukemia-related viruses, avian leukemia virus-related retroviruses, type D retroviruses, and mammalian type B retroviruses. There was also some indication that viruses isolated from individual vertebrate classes tended to cluster together in phylogenetic reconstructions. This implies that the horizontal transmission of at least some retroviruses, between some vertebrate classes, occurs relatively infrequently. It is likely that many of the retroviral sequences described here are distinct enough from those of previously characterized viruses to represent novel retroviral genera. PMID:9621058

  16. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

  17. The origins of colour vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P; Trezise, Ann E O

    2004-07-01

    The capacity for colour vision is mediated by the comparison of the signal intensities from photoreceptors of two or more types that differ in spectral sensitivity. Morphological, physiological and molecular analyses of the retina in an agnathan (jawless) fish, the lamprey Geotria australis, may hold important clues to the origins of colour vision in vertebrates. Lampreys are extant representatives of an ancient group of vertebrates, the origins of which are thought to date back to at least the early Cambrian, approximately 540 million years ago. G. australis possesses five photoreceptor types, each with cone-like ultrastructural features and different spectral sensitivities. Recent molecular genetic studies have also revealed that five visual pigment (opsin) genes are expressed in the retina, each of which is orthologous to the major classes of vertebrate opsin genes. These findings reveal that multiple opsin genes originated very early in vertebrate evolution, prior to the separation of the jawed and jawless vertebrate lineages, thereby providing the genetic basis for colour vision in all vertebrates.

  18. [Spontaneous occlusion of PICA-involved dissecting aneurysm with development of a collateral channel from the posterior meningeal artery].

    PubMed

    Arai, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Hirohito; Ashida, Noriaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2012-11-01

    A 53-year-old man suffered severe headache, which continued for three days. No abnormality was shown on CT scan, and a dissecting aneurysm of the right vertebral artery was suspected on MRI. Cerebral angiography revealed a dissection aneurysm of the right vertebral artery involved with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) as pearl and string sign. The patient was conservatively managed under careful blood pressure control, and was followed by serial MRI. He presented with Wallenberg syndrome three weeks later. Second angiography revealed the occlusion of the PICA-involved dissecting aneurysm and the lateral medullary segment of the PICA supplied by a newly arising vessel from the right posterior meningeal artery (PMA). For the conservative treatment of a vertebral dissection aneurysm involved with PICA presenting with only pain, observation of the course by MRI was effective, and the PMA could develop as the collateral channel to the PICA territory.

  19. Thoracic aorta dissection associated with aberrant right subclavian artery: treatment with endovascular stent-graft placement.

    PubMed Central

    Baccin, Carlos E.; Montenegro, Maria A.; Mourão, Guilherme S.

    2004-01-01

    Dissecting aneurysm is the condition produced by separation of the layers of the arterial wall by circulating blood. Although rare, the coexistence of aortic dissection and aberrant right subclavian artery may be catastrophic. In this study we report the endovascular treatment of a patient with thoracic aorta dissection associated with aberrant right subclavian artery. Aortic clamping proximal to the left subclavian artery in a patient with an aberrant right subclavian artery slows or eliminates flow to both vertebral arteries. Endovascular repair eliminates the complications associated with aortic clamping during surgical repair in the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery; therefore, it should be considered the treatment of choice in this situation. PMID:15829146

  20. Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Sole Patent Cerebral Artery in Two Patients with Takayasu’s Aortoarteritis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Kiron; Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M.

    2016-01-01

    We report two female patients with Takayasu’s aortoarteritis, who presented with symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to critical stenosis of the sole patent cerebral artery. Both had occlusion of both vertebral arteries and one carotid artery with critical stenosis of the other carotid artery and presented with hemiparesis contralateral to the patent but stenosed cerebral artery. They also had transient ischemic attacks attributable to the culprit vessel. In the first patient, balloon angioplasty alone was not successful, and hence, a self-expanding stent was deployed in the right common carotid artery. In the second patient, successful balloon angioplasty was performed for the left common carotid artery. Distal protection devices were not used, and neither patient experienced any periprocedural neurological event. Clinical follow-up at six months revealed no significant cerebral events. PMID:27042151

  1. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  2. Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

  3. Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee; Park, Sang-Jin

    2014-11-01

    We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified.

  4. Dolichoectasia of the circle of Willis arteries and fusiform aneurysm of basilar artery – case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Bogusława; Kornafel, Olga; Guziński, Maciej; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is a rare arteriopathy characterized by elongation and widening of the arteries and disturbance of the laminar blood flow. It involves mostly vertebral and basilar arteries. In advanced cases, formation of a fusiform aneurysm is possible. Case Report: A sixty-four-year-old female with hypertension was admitted to the hospital with severe non-systemic vertigo and dysarthria, which had lasted for a couple of weeks. Imaging of the brain revealed dolichoectasia of arteries of the circle of Willis coexisting with a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial dolichoectasia may be asymptomatic for a long time. However, in many cases it leads to neurological symptoms associated with haemodynamic disturbance (due to unstable wall clots) and mass effect caused by the widened vessel. PMID:22844310

  5. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Qi; Sun, Taicun; Wu, Yan; Li, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are common in the elderly population and often involve the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Clinical symptoms of OVCFs include severe pain, loss of vertebral height, progressive kyphosis and increased mortality. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a recently developed OVCFs treatment modality, with few systematic studies present in the literature. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treating thoracolumbar OVCFs. Sixteen elderly patients (55-85 years) with solitary thoracolumbar OVCFs were treated with this procedure and followed-up (10-27 months). The amount of injected bone cement and operative time, preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scores, anterior and middle vertebral body heights, local kyphosis angle, and complications was analysed. The results showed that the method provided long-term pain relief and restoration of the vertebral body height and spinal alignment. No serious complications occurred, but two patients experienced recompression of the vertebral body, and one patient experienced cement leakage into a disc. In conclusion, Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of OVCFs.

  6. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index.

  7. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals.

  8. Developmental mechanisms of vertebrate limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M J

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, our understanding of the evolution of limbs has been improved by important new discoveries in the fossil record. Additionally, rapid progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. It is now possible to integrate these two areas of research in order to identify the molecular developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of paired appendages in vertebrates. After the origin of paired appendages, several vertebrate lineages reduced or eliminated fins and limbs and returned to the limbless condition. Examples include eels, caecilians, snakes, slow worms and several marine mammals. Analyses of fossil and extant vertebrates show that evolution of limblessness frequently occurred together with elongation of the trunk and loss of clear morphological boundaries in the vertebral column. This may be suggestive of a common developmental mechanism linking these two processes. We have addressed this question by analysing python embryonic development at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and we have identified a developmental mechanism which may account for evolution of limb loss in these animals. PMID:11277086

  9. Gravity and the Adaptation of Form and Function in Lower Vertebrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative data emphasizing lower vertebrates will be used to justify the following generalized conclusions or expectations: 1) Gravitational stress produces adaptive increases in arterial pressure. 2) Gravitational stress produces adaptive reorganization of anatomy. 3) Natural selection favors small body size in high G-stress environments. 4) Gravitational stress produces low-compliant perivascular tissues (morphological antigravity suit). 5) Gradients or regional zonation of vascular characters evolve along the length of elongate vertebrates living in high G-stress environments. Presentation of information will include new data gathered by the author and Dr. Alan Hargens while the author was a NRC Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. While there is no published abstract provided at the meeting, a symposium manuscript will be published in a special volume of Journal of Experimental Zoology.

  10. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  11. [Abnormal popliteal arteries].

    PubMed

    Elbaz, C

    1975-01-01

    Arteriopathy restricted to the popliteal artery, except in cases of atheroma, must indicate three of four unusual diagnoses: the trapped popliteal artery and the dessicating haematoma are anatomo-clinical entities that have been identified only relatively recently. The popliteal artery may be trapped by the medial gastrocnomius muscle, round the tendon of which the artery passes (totally or partially). This results in compression of the artery and eventually in thrombosis. Clinically, intermittent claudication is seen that may deteriorate and lead to gangrene of the toes. Arteriography makes it possible to diagnose the condition as the condition as the artery is considerably displaced inwards. Surgical correction is simple: sectioning of the tendon and repositioning of the artery. Dessicating haematoma of the popliteal artery is due essentially to atheroma, associated with medianecrosis. A "egg-timer" stenosis is found by arteriography and this condition also progresses towards thrombosis. Arterial restoration is called for, usually by bridging. PMID:1230799

  12. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton.

  13. Hedgehog Secretion and Signal Transduction in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kaitlyn E.; Chiang, Chin

    2012-01-01

    Signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is essential for proper embryonic patterning and development. Dysregulation of Hh signaling is associated with a variety of human diseases ranging from developmental disorders such as holoprosencephaly to certain forms of cancer, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Genetic studies in flies and mice have shaped our understanding of Hh signaling and revealed that nearly all core components of the pathway are highly conserved. Although many aspects of the Drosophila Hh pathway are conserved in vertebrates, mechanistic differences between the two species have begun to emerge. Perhaps the most striking divergence in vertebrate Hh signaling is its dependence on the primary cilium, a vestigial organelle that is largely absent in flies. This minireview will provide an overview of Hh signaling and present recent insights into vertebrate Hh secretion, receptor binding, and signal transduction. PMID:22474285

  14. [Amphioxus: how to become a vertebrate].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Camasses, Alain; Escriva, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Evo-devo is a young disciplin, which aims to explain the morphological evolution of organisms through developmental mechanisms and genes networks. A major question within this discipline is the origin of vertebrates. It seems now admitted that vertebrates derive from an invertebrate chordate ancestor. Several models among living chordate representatives are used today to answer this question. The small world of evo-evo interested in the emergence of vertebrates is ebullient about the advent of several totally sequenced genomes allowing comparative analyses to become evermore reliable. Furthermore "non classical" models are developed which can be submitted to refined developmental analysis. One of these is amphioxus (genus Branchyostoma), "a peaceful anchory fillet to illuminate chordate evolution" (Garcia-Fernandez, 2006a, b). The features of this model are described in this review.

  15. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  16. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  17. Three Distinct Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a widely conserved signaling molecule that in animals has been adapted as a neurotransmitter. GABA is synthesized from the amino acid glutamate by the action of glutamate decarboxylases (GADs). Two vertebrate genes, GAD1 and GAD2, encode distinct GAD proteins: GAD67 and GAD65, respectively. We have identified a third vertebrate GAD gene, GAD3. This gene is conserved in fishes as well as tetrapods. We analyzed protein sequence, gene structure, synteny, and phylogenetics to identify GAD3 as a homolog of GAD1 and GAD2. Interestingly, we found that GAD3 was lost in the hominid lineage. Because of the importance of GABA as a neurotransmitter, GAD3 may play important roles in vertebrate nervous systems. PMID:27461130

  18. The efficacy of radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, L; Ficek, K; Trela, K; Spindel, J

    2001-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign, slowly growing tumors sometimes causing local pain in the spine and/or neurologic disorders. The present paper includes 14 cases of painful vertebral hemangiomas treated by radiotherapy. All patients were irradiated using standard fractionation scheme with a total dose 20-30 Gy. One month after the treatment complete pain relief was noted in 36% of cases, five months later in 67% of cases, but in the remaining cases partial pain relief was noted. No correlation between treatment outcome and different biological and technical factors was found. No dose-response relationship was noted. The results suggest that anti-inflamatory effect of radiation plays the major role in this kind of treatment and that radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas is easy, short and highly effective analgetic treatment modality.

  19. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  20. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joel J.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi, and is an important structural molecule. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin, however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

  1. The evolution of early vertebrate photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P; Davies, Wayne L; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M

    2009-10-12

    Meeting the challenge of sampling an ancient aquatic landscape by the early vertebrates was crucial to their survival and would establish a retinal bauplan to be used by all subsequent vertebrate descendents. Image-forming eyes were under tremendous selection pressure and the ability to identify suitable prey and detect potential predators was thought to be one of the major drivers of speciation in the Early Cambrian. Based on the fossil record, we know that hagfishes, lampreys, holocephalans, elasmobranchs and lungfishes occupy critical stages in vertebrate evolution, having remained relatively unchanged over hundreds of millions of years. Now using extant representatives of these 'living fossils', we are able to piece together the evolution of vertebrate photoreception. While photoreception in hagfishes appears to be based on light detection and controlling circadian rhythms, rather than image formation, the photoreceptors of lampreys fall into five distinct classes and represent a critical stage in the dichotomy of rods and cones. At least four types of retinal cones sample the visual environment in lampreys mediating photopic (and potentially colour) vision, a sampling strategy retained by lungfishes, some modern teleosts, reptiles and birds. Trichromacy is retained in cartilaginous fishes (at least in batoids and holocephalans), where it is predicted that true scotopic (dim light) vision evolved in the common ancestor of all living gnathostomes. The capacity to discriminate colour and balance the tradeoff between resolution and sensitivity in the early vertebrates was an important driver of eye evolution, where many of the ocular features evolved were retained as vertebrates progressed on to land.

  2. Vertebral fractures in males with prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Porcelli, Teresa; Mormando, Marilda; De Menis, Ernesto; Bianchi, Antonio; Mejia, Carola; Mancini, Tatiana; De Marinis, Laura; Giustina, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Data on osteoporotic fractures in hyperprolactinemia are limited. An increased prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures was recently observed in women with prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma, whereas it is unknown whether this observation may reflect a more general increased risk of fractures in this disease and whether the prevalence of fractures in males is affected by gonadal status. Thirty-two males (median age 47 years, range: 22-79) with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma (10 with microadenoma and 22 with macroadenoma) and 64 control males, with normal PRL values and with comparable age to patients with hyperprolactinemia, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a morphometric approach and for bone mineral density (BMD) by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Vertebral fractures were shown in 12 patients with PRL-secreting adenoma (37.5%) and in 5 controls (7.8%, P < 0.001). Fractured patients had lower BMD T-score (P = 0.007) and longer duration of disease (P < 0.001) as compared to patients who did not fracture. Fractures occurred more frequently (P = 0.03) in patients with untreated hyperprolactinemia versus patients treated with cabergoline whose frequency of vertebral fractures was still higher than control subjects. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly different between eugonadal and hypogonadal patients (33.3% vs. 38.5%; P = 0.8). Moreover, no significant (P = 0.4) difference in serum testosterone values was found between fractured and not fractured males. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with high prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in men with PRL-secreting adenoma. These findings would also suggest that PRL excess may produce negative skeletal effects independently of hypogonadism.

  3. The evolution of vertebrate color vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2012-01-01

    Color vision is conventionally defined as the ability of animals to reliably discriminate among objects and lights based solely on differences in their spectral properties. Although the nature of color vision varies widely in different animals, a large majority of all vertebrate species possess some color vision and that fact attests to the adaptive importance this capacity holds as a tool for analyzing the environment. In recent years dramatic advances have been made in our understanding of the nature of vertebrate color vision and of the evolution of the biological mechanisms underlying this capacity. In this chapter I review and comment on these advances.

  4. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  5. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  6. Cortex-sparing infarction in triple cervical artery dissection following chiropractic neck manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Melikyan, Gayane; Kamran, Saadat; Akhtar, Naveed; Deleu, Dirk; Miyares, Francisco Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multivessel cervical dissection with cortical sparing is exceptional in clinical practice. Case presentation: A 55-year-old man presented with acute-onset neck pain with associated sudden onset right-sided hemiparesis and dysphasia after chiropractic manipulation for chronic neck pain. Results and Discussion: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral internal carotid artery dissection and left extracranial vertebral artery dissection with bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarctions and large cortical-sparing left middle cerebral artery infarction. This suggests the presence of functionally patent and interconnecting leptomeningeal anastomoses between cerebral arteries, which may provide sufficient blood flow to salvage penumbral regions when a supplying artery is occluded. Conclusion: Chiropractic cervical manipulation can result in catastrophic vascular lesions preventable if these practices are limited to highly specialized personnel under very specific situations. PMID:26835412

  7. Transposon-mediated Genome Manipulations in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ivics, Zoltán; Li, Meng Amy; Mátés, Lajos; Boeke, Jef D.; Bradley, Allan; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements are segments of DNA with the unique ability to move about in the genome. This inherent feature can be exploited to harness these elements as gene vectors for diverse genome manipulations. Transposon-based genetic strategies have been established in vertebrate species over the last decade, and current progress in this field indicates that transposable elements will serve as indispensable tools in the genetic toolkit of vertebrate models. In particular, transposons can be applied as vectors for somatic and germline transgenesis, and as insertional mutagens in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function forward mutagenesis screens. The major advantage of using transposons as genetic tools is that they facilitate analysis of gene function in an easy, controlled and scalable manner. Transposon-based technologies are beginning to be exploited to link sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. In this article, we provide an overview of transposon-based methods used in vertebrate model organisms, and highlight the most important considerations concerning genetic applications of the transposon systems. PMID:19478801

  8. Vertebral choristoma in lipomyelomeningocele: a case report.

    PubMed

    Joshua, S P; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Mahapatra, A K

    2012-01-01

    Lipomeningocele is a type of occult spinal dysraphism characterized by a subcutaneous lipomatous mass that protrudes through a midline bony defect. We report a rare presentation of this condition--a vertebral choristoma wherein the lipomatous mass displaced the normally formed posterior elements--lamina and spinous process of L4 vertebra dorsally to an abnormal location in the absence of a bony defect.

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D R; Everts, R J; Chambers, S T; Cowan, I A

    1996-01-01

    We present the first reported case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The infection occurred in an 80-year-old woman who had been taking glucocorticosteroids. S. lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus with considerable potential as a human pathogen. Isolation of this organism should be regarded as significant unless evidence suggests otherwise. PMID:8815128

  10. [Sex inversion and epigenetic regulation in Vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Trukhina, A V; Lukina, N A; Nekrasova, A A; Smirnov, A F

    2015-03-01

    This review discusses issues related to the regulation of sex determination and differentiation in various groups of Vertebrates. Special attention was paid to factors of external and internal control for various genetic systems of sex determination, as well as to the epigenetic control of this process. Opportunities for sex inversion in various animals were also discussed.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27386723

  12. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  13. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  14. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (∼420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ∼505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07166.001 PMID:26095697

  15. A comparative analysis of vertebrate sex determination.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Andrew; Smith, Craig; Western, Patrick; McClive, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Sex determination in vertebrates is controlled by a variety of mechanisms. We compared the expression of SF1, DAX1, DMRT1, SOX9 and AMH during gonadogenesis in the mouse, chicken and alligator embryo. In contrast to the expression profile of Sf1 in mouse embryos, chicken and alligator embryos show higher levels of Sf1 expression in the developing ovaries compared to testes. This may reflect the higher level of sex hormone synthesis in the ovary compared to the testis in chickens and alligators. The DAX1 gene has a similar expression profile in all three vertebrate species but appears to have different gene structure. As in mouse, DMRT1 was expressed at very high levels in the chicken and alligator male gonad. The male-specific up-regulation of SOX9 expression appears to be a common feature in all three vertebrates. In the chicken and alligator AMH is expressed prior to SOX9, suggesting that in these species SOX9 cannot initiate AMH expression as it does in mammals. SOX9 acts at multiple points in the vertebrate testis pathway but it appears that only some of these functions have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11990786

  16. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  17. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  18. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  19. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...

  20. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  1. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates. PMID:27672529

  2. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates.

  3. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ahmad S; Hussain, Namath S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates. PMID:27672529

  4. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  5. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography of aberrant subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Büyükbayraktar, Fatma Gül; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of 16-slice multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography for identifying anatomic features of aberrant subclavian arteries. Seventeen patients with aberrant subclavian arteries were assessed by MDCT angiography. The aortic arch position, the presence of a Kommerell's diverticulum, aneurysm, vascular compression of trachea and oesophagus and associated cardiovascular abnormalities were evaluated. MDCT findings were confirmed by surgery in eight patients but in the other nine patients no further evaluation or management was warranted as the aberrant subclavian artery had no significant clinical consequence. Eleven patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery arising from the left aortic arch and six patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from the right aortic arch. Kommerell's diverticulum was identified in three patients with an aberrant right subclavian artery and in five patients with an aberrant left subclavian artery. In two patients it was aneurysmal. Oesophageal compression was detected in eight patients, and tracheal compression was identified in only one paediatric patient. An aberrant subclavian artery was associated with complex congenital heart disease in one patient, intracardiac defects in two patients, aortic coarctation in two patients, patent ductus arteriosus in two patients and an aberrant vertebral artery in one patient. In conclusion, MDCT angiography is superior to digital subtraction angiography for the assessment of aberrant subclavian arteries since digital subtraction angiography has only a poor ability to visualize adjacent structures completely and is invasive in nature. MDCT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography are the current standard in the initial evaluation of thoracic vascular anomalies.

  6. Dislodgement and gastrointestinal tract penetration of bone cement used for spinal reconstruction after lumbosacral vertebral tumor excision

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Masateru; Mikami, Yasuo; Mizuno, Kentaro; Harada, Tomohisa; Ikeda, Takumi; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Takatori, Ryota; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is useful for spinal reconstruction, but can cause complications including new vertebral fractures, neurological disorders and pulmonary embolism. We report a case in PMMA cement used for spinal reconstruction after tumor curettage dislodged and penetrated the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor at age 27 years. After chemotherapy and tumor resection, the tumor remained. It gradually increased in size and infiltrated lumbosacral vertebrae, causing him to present at age 35 years with increased low back pain. Image findings showed bone destruction in the vertebral bodies accompanied by neoplastic lesions. The left and right common iliac arteries and inferior vena cava were enclosed in the tumor on the anterior side of the vertebral bodies. Lumbosacral bone tumor due to direct extragonadal germ cell tumor infiltration was diagnosed. A 2-step operation was planned; first, fixation of the posterior side of the vertebral bodies, followed by tumor resection using an anterior transperitoneal approach, and spinal reconstruction using PMMA cement. After surgery, the PMMA cement gradually dislodged towards the anterior side and, 2 years 9 months after surgery, it had penetrated the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently developed nausea and abdominal pain and was readmitted to hospital. The diagnosis was intestinal blockage with dislodged PMMA cement, and an operation was performed to remove the cement present in the small intestine. There was strong intra-abdominal adhesion, the peritoneum between the vertebral bodies and intestine could not be identified, and no additional treatment for vertebral body defects could be performed. After surgery, gastrointestinal symptoms resolved. Conclusion: Although this was a rare case, when using bone cement for vertebral body reconstruction, the way of anchoring for the cement must be thoroughly

  7. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean ± SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 ± 6.2; VBS: 3.7 ± 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 ± 9.4; VBS: 13.3 ± 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation. PMID:20191393

  8. Determination of vertebral pose in 3D by minimization of vertebral asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The vertebral pose in three dimensions (3D) may provide valuable information for quantitative clinical measurements or aid the initialization of image analysis techniques. We propose a method for automated determination of the vertebral pose in 3D that, in an iterative registration scheme, estimates the position and rotation of the vertebral coordinate system in 3D images. By searching for the hypothetical points, which are located where the boundaries of anatomical structures would have maximal symmetrical correspondences when mirrored over the vertebral planes, the asymmetry of vertebral anatomical structures is minimized. The method was evaluated on 14 normal and 14 scoliotic vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT). For each vertebra, 1000 randomly initialized experiments were performed. The results show that the vertebral pose can be successfully determined in 3D with mean accuracy of 0.5mm and 0.6° and mean precision of 0.17mm and 0.17. according to the 3D position and 3D rotation, respectively.

  9. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  10. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  11. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  12. Fatal case of cervical blunt vascular injury with cervical vertebral fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Okura, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Ukai, Junichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is usually caused by neck trauma that predominantly occurs in high-impact injuries. BCVI may occur due to damage to both the vertebral and carotid arteries, and may be fatal in the absence of appropriate treatment and early diagnosis. Here, we describe a case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery by a direct blunt external force in a 52-year-old man. Initially, there was no effect on consciousness, but 6 hours later loss of consciousness occurred due to traumatic dissection of the carotid artery that resulted in a cerebral infarction. Brain edema was so extensive that decompression by emergency craniectomy and internal decompression were performed by a neurosurgeon, but with no effect, and the patient died on day 7. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery. The case suggests that cervical vascular injury should be considered in a patient with a blunt neck trauma and that additional imaging should be performed. PMID:26412898

  13. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidural Injection: A Rare Event

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara M; Chitturi, Chandrika; Lange, Michael; Suh, Jin S; Slim, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vertebral infections have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinal and epidural abscesses as well as concomitant bacteremia following epidural injection. This will be the second case in the literature reporting pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis related to epidural manipulation. PMID:27621563

  14. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidural Injection: A Rare Event.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tamara M; Chitturi, Chandrika; Lange, Michael; Suh, Jin S; Slim, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vertebral infections have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinal and epidural abscesses as well as concomitant bacteremia following epidural injection. This will be the second case in the literature reporting pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis related to epidural manipulation. PMID:27621563

  15. The variety of vertebrate mechanisms of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Trukhina, Antonina V; Lukina, Natalia A; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D; Smirnov, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with features of sex determination in vertebrates. The mechanisms of sex determination are compared between fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds, and mammals. We focus on structural and functional differences in the role of sex-determining genes in different vertebrates. Special attention is paid to the role of estrogens in sex determination in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24369014

  16. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. Results The base case considered each of

  17. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancers that metastasize to the spine and primary cancers such as multiple myeloma can result in vertebral compression fractures or instability. Conservative strategies, including bed rest, bracing, and analgesic use, can be ineffective, resulting in continued pain and progressive functional disability limiting mobility and self-care. Surgery is not usually an option for cancer patients in advanced disease states because of their poor medical health or functional status and limited life expectancy. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous image-guided vertebral augmentation techniques, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, for palliation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures. Methods We performed a systematic literature search for studies on vertebral augmentation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures published from January 1, 2000, to October 2014; abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Owing to the heterogeneity of the clinical reports, we performed a narrative synthesis based on an analytical framework constructed for the type of cancer-related vertebral fractures and the diversity of the vertebral augmentation interventions. Results The evidence review identified 3,391 citations, of which 111 clinical reports (4,235 patients) evaluated the effectiveness of vertebroplasty (78 reports, 2,545 patients) or kyphoplasty (33 reports, 1,690 patients) for patients with mixed primary spinal metastatic cancers, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. Overall the mean pain intensity scores often reported within 48 hours of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty), were significantly reduced. Analgesic use, although variably reported, usually involved parallel decreases, particularly in opioids, and mean pain-related disability scores were also significantly improved. In a randomized controlled

  18. Conservative management in a young woman affected by isolated left subclavian artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Vincenzo; Alberto Pegorer, Matteo; Bissacco, Daniele; Di Gregorio, Sara; Dallatana, Raffaello; Settembrini, Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Subclavian Artery Dissection (SAD) is a rare condition, generally due to arterial catheterization, blunt trauma or connective tissue disease. Spontaneous or minimally traumatic cases have also been reported. Clinical manifestations are usually chest and/or back pain, pulse loss and paresthesia, whereas nausea, dizziness and vomiting are present in case of involvement of the vertebral artery. We report an unusual case of a young woman presenting isolated left SAD after traffic accident, minimally symptomatic, and treated with medical therapy alone. A conservative management and a closed follow-up appear to be a safe approach in patients affected by uncomplicated SAD without other comorbidities.

  19. Pulsatile blood velocity in human arteries displayed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D.A.; Crooks, L.; Hoenninger, J. III.; Arakawa, M.; Watts, J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors describe a new method for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of flowing protons which can illustrate relative blood velocity in the arteries supplying the brain. The magnetic gradient pulse sequence was synchronized to the cardiac cycle at 100-msec. increments to check pulsatile blood flow perpendicular to the image plane. The magnitude of the signal increased with the velocity of blood in major arteries flowing in the direction of the spatially offset refocusing plane. The blood velocity in the vertebral and internal carotid arteries varied as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle, and the velocity profiles across the vascular lumina were compatible with laminar flow.

  20. Double Origin of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Diagnosed by MR Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Naoko; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) frequently arises from the fenestrated segment of the intracranial vertebral artery (VA), and this common variation can be misinterpreted as or confused with a PICA of double origin. Rarely, a PICA of true double origin occurs when two branches of the PICA arise separately from the intracranial VA and fuse to form an arterial ring. We discovered this rare variation incidentally while interpreting images of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. This is the first report of MR angiographic findings of this rare variation. PMID:25923681

  1. Nitric oxide control of lower vertebrate blood vessels by vasomotor nerves.

    PubMed

    Donald, John A; Broughton, Brad R S

    2005-10-01

    In mammals, much is understood about the endothelial and neural NO control mechanisms in the vasculature. In contrast, NO control of blood vessels in lower vertebrates is poorly understood, with the majority of research focusing on the presence of an endothelial NO system; however, its presence remains controversial. This study examined the mechanisms by which NO regulates the large blood vessels of non-mammalian vertebrates. In all species examined, the arteries and veins contained a plexus of NOS-positive perivascular nerves that included nerve bundles and fine, varicose nerve terminals. However, in the large arteries and veins of various species of fishes and amphibians, no anatomical evidence was found for endothelial NOS using both NADPH-diaphorase and eNOS immunohistochemistry. In contrast, perinuclear NOS staining was readily apparent in blue-tongue lizard, pigeon and rat, which suggested that eNOS first appeared in reptiles. Physiological analysis of NO signalling in the vascular smooth muscle of short-finned eel and cane toad could not find any evidence for endothelial NO signalling. In contrast, it appears that activation of the nitrergic vasomotor nerves is responsible for NO control of the blood vessels.

  2. Vertebral destruction due to abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Viseu Pinheiro, J.F.; Blanco Blanco, J.F.; Pescador Hernández, D.; García García, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a common cause of medical consultation, and usually supposes a non-malignant prognostic. Presentation of case We report an atypical appearance of low back pain associated to shock and pulsatile abdominal mass that made us diagnose an abdominal aortic aneurysm as reason of vertebral lysis and pain. Discusion Surgical repair of contained AAA should be directed to secondary re-rupture prevention, with an approximate survival near to 100% at selected patients for elective surgery. Consequently, orthopedic surgery for back spine stabilization has to be elective in those cases when vertebral destruction is above 30% and clinic is directly related to spine instability. Conclusion We should consider AAA as other cause of low back pain and routinely examine the abdomen and seek complementary imaging proves when risk factors for AAA are present. PMID:25569196

  3. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  4. Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

    2014-04-28

    A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation.

  5. Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Miocene vertebrates and North Florida shorelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, S.J.

    1968-01-01

    Vertebrate fossils from ten localities, spread across northern Florida, give evidence of shorelines and deltas that have previously been established on geologic evidence or invertebrates alone. Terrestrial mammal remains, in association with shallow-water forms, indicate a deltaic assemblage and in several instances specific animals suggest restricted water depths at the time of sediment deposition. Fortunately diagnostic fragments of Miocene horses, Merychippus and Parahippus, are present in these beds, allowing for a rather close age evaluation of these sediments. Adequate fossil material has been collected from these localities to suggest the past environment and ecological conditions for the forms represented. By utilizing a suggested course of experiments with stream table apparatus it is possible to use the orientation of the fossil vertebrate remains as aids in determining past conditions of sediment accumulation. ?? 1968.

  7. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2007-01-01

    The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

  9. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  10. Dynamic epithelia of the developing vertebrate face

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Chong Pyo; Crump, J. Gage

    2015-01-01

    A segmental series of endoderm-derived pouch and ectoderm-derived cleft epithelia act as signaling centers in the developing face. Their precise morphogenesis is therefore essential for proper patterning of the vertebrate head. Intercellular adhesion and polarity are highly dynamic within developing facial epithelial cells, with signaling from the adjacent mesenchyme controlling both epithelial character and directional migration. Endodermal and ectodermal epithelia fuse to form the primary mouth and gill slits, which involves basement membrane dissolution, cell intercalations, and apoptosis, as well as undergo further morphogenesis to generate the middle ear cavity and glands of the neck. Recent studies of facial epithelia are revealing both core programs of epithelial morphogenesis and insights into the coordinated assembly of the vertebrate head. PMID:25748249

  11. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  12. Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gary E.; de Grip, Willem J.; Turton, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Foster, Russell G.; Douglas, Ron H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that melanopsin is localised in cells around the central pore of lateral line neuromasts in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Since melanopsin is a known photoreceptor pigment with diverse functions in vertebrates, we suggest that the lateral line of Xenopus laevis, which is primarily a mechanoreceptor, might also be light sensitive. Potential functions of such photosensitivity are discussed, including its role in mediating locomotor responses following dermal illumination. PMID:26206352

  13. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2′paralogs, the 2′ isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  14. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  15. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-11-24

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species.

  16. The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

    2014-11-01

    The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors. PMID:25312375

  17. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  18. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Pyott, S J; Duncan, R K

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the sensory hair cells of the inner ear are intrinsically electrically tuned to a narrow band of acoustic frequencies. This electrical tuning relies on the interplay between BK channels and voltage-gated calcium channels. Systematic variations in BK channel density and kinetics establish a gradient in electrical resonance that enables the coding of a broad range of acoustic frequencies. In contrast, mammalian hair cells are extrinsically tuned by mechanical properties of the cochlear duct. Even so, mammalian hair cells also express BK channels. These BK channels play critical roles in various aspects of mammalian auditory signaling, from developmental maturation to protection against acoustic trauma. This review summarizes the anatomical localization, biophysical properties, and functional contributions of BK channels in vertebrate inner ears. Areas of future research, based on an updated understanding of the biology of both BK channels and the inner ear, are also highlighted. Investigation of BK channels in the inner ear continues to provide fertile research grounds for examining both BK channel biophysics and the molecular mechanisms underlying signal processing in the auditory periphery. PMID:27238269

  19. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  20. T-cell receptors in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S; De Guerra, A; Kerfourn, F; Partula, S

    1998-12-01

    The structure and expression of genes encoding molecules homologous to mammalian T-cell receptors (TCR) have been recently studied in ectothermic vertebrate species representative of chondrychthians, teleosts, and amphibians. The overall TCR chain structure is well conserved in phylogeny: TCR beta- and TCR alpha-like chains were detected in all the species analyzed; TCR gamma- and TCR delta-like chains were also present in a chondrychthian species. The diversity potential of the variable (V) and joining (J) segments is rather large and, as in mammals, conserved diversity (D) segments are associated to the TCR beta and TCR delta chains. An important level of junctional diversity occurred at the V-(D)-J junctions, with the potential addition of N- and P-nucleotides. Thus, the conservation of the structure and of the potential of diversity of TCR molecules have been under a permanent selective pressure during vertebrate evolution. The structure of MHC class I and class II molecules was also well conserved in jawed vertebrates. TCR and MHC molecules are strongly functionally linked and play a determinant role in the initiation and the regulation of the specific immune responses; thus, it is not surprising that their structures have been reciprocally frozen during evolution. PMID:9914905

  1. Nestedness of Ectoparasite-Vertebrate Host Networks

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Sean P.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks—including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns—using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same “generalized” hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations) can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PMID:19924299

  2. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification

    PubMed Central

    O′Guinn, Devon J.; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Discussion Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. PMID:26692163

  3. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  4. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  5. The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

    2014-11-01

    The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors.

  6. Ischemia as a potential etiologic factor in idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Analysis of posterior circulation arteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Jang, Min Uk; Hong, Sung-Kwang; Lee, Joong-Seob; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Hui-Chul; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and the radiologic characteristics of the vertebrobasilar artery is unclear. We hypothesized that the degree and direction of vertebrobasilar artery curvature in the posterior circulation contribute to the occurrence of ISSNHL. We consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL in two tertiary hospitals. Magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients to exclude specific causes of ISSNHL, such as vestibular schwannoma, chronic mastoiditis, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct. We measured the following parameters of posterior circulation: vertebral and basilar artery diameter, the degree of basilar artery curvature (modified smoker criteria), and vertebral artery dominance. Pure tone audiometries were performed at admission and again 1 week and 3 months later. A total of 121 ISSNHL patients (mean age, 46.0 ± 17.3 years; 48.8% male) were included in these analyses. The proportion of patients with the left side hearing loss was larger than the proportion with the right side hearing loss (left, 57.9%; right, 42.1%). The majority of patients were characterized by a left dominant vertebral artery and right-sided basilar artery curvature. The direction of the basilar artery curvature was significantly associated with hearing loss lateralization (p = 0.036). Age and sex matched multivariable analyses revealed the absence of diabetes and right-sided basilar artery curvature as significant predictors for left sided hearing loss. There was no statistical difference between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk score (high versus low) and hearing outcomes at 3 months. In ISSNHL, the laterality of hearing loss was inversely associated with the direction of basilar artery curvature. Our results, therefore, indicate the importance of vascular assessment when evaluating ISSNHL.

  7. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  8. FRAX and the effect of teriparatide on vertebral and non-vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Kanis, John A; Odén, Anders; Burge, Russel T; Mitlak, Bruce H; Johansson, Helena; McCloskey, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    Summary Daily teriparatide injections have been shown to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of fracture risk reduction is independent of baseline fracture probability assessed by FRAX. Background Daily administration of 20μg or 40μg teriparatide has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture compared with placebo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fracture risk assessed at baseline using the FRAX® tool and to determine the efficacy of teriparatide as a function of baseline fracture risk. Methods 1637 postmenopausal women in the pivotal phase 3 trial, randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=544), teriparatide 20 μg per day (n=541) or teriparatide 40 μg per day (n=552), were studied. Baseline clinical risk factors were entered into country-specific FRAX models to compute the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures with or without input of femoral neck BMD. Because there was no difference in effect of 20 and 40μg teriparatide daily on fracture occurrence, the two active groups were merged. The interaction between probability of a major fracture and treatment efficacy was examined by Poisson regression. Results The 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (with BMD) ranged from 2.2-67.2%. Treatment with teriparatide was associated with a 37% decrease in all non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:10-56 %) and a 56% decrease in low energy non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:24-75%) compared with placebo. The risk of morphometric vertebral fractures decreased significantly by 66% (95% CI:50-77%). Hazard ratios for the effect of teriparatide on the fracture outcome did not change significantly with increasing fracture probability (p>0.30). Similar findings were noted for the interaction when BMD was excluded from the FRAX model, or when probability of hip fracture was used as the marker of baseline risk. Conclusion We conclude that teriparatide

  9. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Gordini, Veliano; Collice, Massimo; Fedriga, Emanuele; Moreo, Antonella; Morello, Marco; Porrini, Annamaria; Donatelli, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted for treatment of an aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm that had been diagnosed 5 years earlier and had recently begun to enlarge. The aneurysm, which involved the right subclavian artery from its origin, measured 47 mm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Because of the lesion's size and friability, a 2-stage operation was performed. In the 1st stage, the right subclavian and right vertebral arteries were revascularized with double bypass grafts via a right cervical approach. In the 2nd stage, the patient was repositioned and a left thoracotomy incision was made. With the aid of left-heart bypass, the aorta was cross-clamped proximal and distal to the lesion, and the aneurysmal orifice was closed with a Dacron patch. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 17th postoperative day and remains asymptomatic 24 months later. We recommend the 2-stage technique for similar cases because it prevents limb ischemia and reduces the risk of hemorrhagic and embolic complications. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:76-9) Images PMID:15227513

  10. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  11. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  12. A Classification System for the Spread of Polymethyl Methacrylate in Vertebral Bodies Treated with Vertebral Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Frankl, Joseph; Sakata, Michael P.; Choudhary, Gagandeep; Hur, Seung; Peterson, Andrew; Hennemeyer, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a classification system for describing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spread in vertebral bodies after kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and for assessing whether PMMA spread varies between operators, VCF etiology, or vertebral level. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images of 198 vertebral levels were reviewed in 137 patients (women, 84; men, 53; mean age, 75.8 ± 12.5; and those with a diagnosis of osteoporosis, 63%) treated with kyphoplasty between January 01, 2015 and May 31, 2015 at a single center to create a 5-class descriptive system. PMMA spread patterns in the same images were then classified by 2 board-certified radiologists, and a third board-certified radiologist resolved conflicts. A total of 2 primary PMMA spread patterns were identified, namely, acinar and globular, with subtypes of localized acinar, diffuse globular, and mixed, to describe an equal combination of patterns. Interrater reliability using the system was moderate (κ = 0.47). After resolving conflicts, the most common spread class was globular (n = 63), followed by mixed (n = 58), diffuse globular (n = 30), acinar (n = 27), and localized acinar (n = 20). The spread class after treatment by the 2 most frequent operators differed significantly (n1 = 63, n2 = 70; P < .0001). There was no difference in the spread class between VCF etiologies or vertebral levels. PMMA spread may, therefore, be a modifiable parameter that affects kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty efficacy and adverse events. PMID:27795998

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - ...

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, T.; Tanabe, T.; Muraoka, K.; Terada, K.; Hirotsune, N.; Nishino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cases of aneurysm associated with the occlusion of both common carotid arteries are very rare. We present a case of ruptured aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation and posterior cerebral artery coexisting with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization with a double-balloon remodeling technique. Finally, we review the literature. A 62-year-old woman presented with severe headache; a computed tomography scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed that the bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded. The muscle branches of the vertebral arteries had anastomosed to the bilateral external carotid arteries. Bilateral posterior communicating arteries had developed and supplied the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Two aneurysms (a saccular aneurysm of the P1 portion of the left posterior cerebral artery and a wide-necked aneurysm of the basilar bifurcation) were also observed. Endovascular embolization of the aneurysms was successfully performed using a double-balloon remodeling technique. The patient made a full recovery after treatment, and the aneurysms remained obliterated 12 months after embolization. We believe that this is the first report of ruptured aneurysms associated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion successfully treated by endovascular coiling. The double-balloon remodeling technique was useful for treatment of wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm. PMID:20557745

  15. Vertebrate MitBASE: a specialised database on vertebrate mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Carone, A; Malladi, S B; Attimonelli, M; Saccone, C

    1999-01-01

    Vertebrate MitBASE is a specialized database where all the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA entries from primary databases are collected, revised and integrated with new information emerging from the literature. Variant sequences are also analyzed, aligned and linked to reference sequences. Data related to the same species and fragment can be viewed over the WWW. The database has a flexible interface and a retrieval system to help non-expert users and contains information not currently available in the primary databases. Vertebrate MitBASE is now available through the MitBASE home page at URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/htbin/Mitbase/mitb ase.pl. This work is part of a larger project, MitBASE which is a network of databases covering the full panorama of knowledge on mitochondrial DNA from protists to human sequences.

  16. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. R.; Taylor, I.

    1997-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and controversial form of upper intestinal obstruction in which the third part of the duodenum is compressed by the overlying superior mesenteric artery. Any disease process decreasing the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta can result in the external compression of the duodenum and subsequent intestinal obstruction. The aetiology, presentation, investigation and management of this unusual condition are discussed. PMID:9497945

  17. [Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Musumeci, S; Iuppa, A; Beneventano, G; Rinella, P; Mammano, M; Cinquegrani, E

    1986-12-15

    Trapped popliteal artery syndrome is relatively uncommon: the literature reports some 60 cases. The clinical picture is linked to compression of the popliteal artery by the gastrocnemius as it contracts, thus distorting the arterial route. The result is an interruption in the blood flow distally to the area involved due to stenosis of the blood vessel that is at first functional but becomes organic. PMID:3808379

  18. Comparative anatomical studies on the thyroid and thymic arteries. VI. Diprotodont marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    The thyroid and thymic arteries in 44 specimens from 18 species belonging to the diprotodont marsupials were investigated. The results were compared with those of polyprotodont marsupials, suncuses, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and man. The superior thyroid artery was constant in three superfamily groups. The inferior thyroid artery was extremely rare. The superior thymic artery arising from the thyrocervical trunk was observed in 1 phalangeroid and 2 macropodoids, and that arising from the vertebral artery occurred in 1 macropodoid. The middle thymic artery occurred in 1 phalangeroid, but was abundant in macropodoids. The inferior thymic artery was constant in koalas and phalangeroids, but was absent in half of the macropodoids. The thyroid ima, middle thymothyroid, and the supreme thymic arteries were absent in all diprotodonts. In addition to the usual thymus, diprotodonts have the superficial cervical thymus, which is only shared with guinea pigs. The superior superficial cervical thymic artery was absent in koalas and in half of the macropodoids, but was abundant in the phalangeroids. Conversely, the inferior superficial cervical thymic artery was constant in koalas and was dominant in the macropodoids. These results show that variations in the arterial patterns for both organs were much more prevalent in macropodoids than in phalangeroids, while the arterial patterns in koalas were characteristic. As a whole, the arteries for both organs were more complex in diprotodonts than in polyprotodonts or rats, but more simple than those in rabbits or man. The superior superficial cervical thymic arteries, which showed various patterns, were compared with those in guinea pigs. PMID:26472114

  19. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability.

  20. The middle suprarenal artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Honma, Satoru; Kudo, Motoi

    2012-01-01

    We observed a rare case of the middle suprarenal artery branching out from the superior mesenteric artery in a 78-year-old male. This atypical artery enters the right suprarenal gland that was also supplied by the superior and the inferior suprarenal arteries as usual. In embryonic stages, vasculature of the vitelline system and the gonadal system is differentially organized. The superior mesenteric artery has been generally thought to be pure vitelline, since there has been no evidence that the superior mesenteric artery supplies other organs than digestive. We then speculate that the present middle suprarenal artery is a remnant of the embryonic gonadal artery from the superior mesenteric artery, whereas a stem artery to the testis disappeared. Surgeons should take notice of the middle suprarenal artery when operations are conducted around the superior mesenteric artery.

  1. Early Bone Marrow Edema Pattern of the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture : Can Be Predictor of Vertebral Deformity Types and Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Kim, Sung Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether an early bone marrow edema pattern predicts vertebral deformity types and prognosis in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 64 patients with 75 acute OVCFs who underwent early MRI and followed up MRI. On early MRI, the low SI pattern of OVCF on T1WI were assessed and classified into 3 types (diffuse, globular or patchy, band-like). On followed up MRI, the vertebral deformity types (anterior wedge, biconcave, crush), degree of vertebral body height loss, incidence of vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis were assessed for each vertebral fracture types. Results According to the early bone marrow edema pattern on T1WI, 26 vertebrae were type 1, 14 vertebrae were type 2 and 35 vertebrae were type 3. On followed up MRI, the crush-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 1 OVCFs, the biconcave-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 2 OVCFs and the anterior wedge-type vertebral deformity was most frequent among the type 3 OVCFs (p<0.001). In addition, type 1 early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI were associated with higher incidence of severe degree vertebral body height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis and spinal stenosis on the follow up MRI. Conclusion Early bone marrow edema pattern of OVCF on T1WI, significant correlated with vertebral deformity types on the follow up MRI. The severe degree of vertebral height loss, vertebral osteonecrosis, and spinal stenosis were more frequent in patients with diffuse low SI pattern. PMID:26962419

  2. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.; Hunt, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. PMID:27189541

  3. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C; Davies, Wayne I L; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Hunt, David M

    2016-08-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. PMID:27189541

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RÜCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  5. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  6. Evaluation and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Alexandru, Daniela; So, William

    2012-01-01

    Compression fractures affect many individuals worldwide. An estimated 1.5 million vertebral compression fractures occur every year in the US. They are common in elderly populations, and 25% of postmenopausal women are affected by a compression fracture during their lifetime. Although these fractures rarely require hospital admission, they have the potential to cause significant disability and morbidity, often causing incapacitating back pain for many months. This review provides information on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of compression fractures, as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options. Among the available treatment options, kyphoplasty and percutaneous vertebroplasty are two minimally invasive techniques to alleviate pain and correct the sagittal imbalance of the spine. PMID:23251117

  7. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  8. Molecular evolution of color vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shozo

    2002-10-30

    Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify amino acid changes that have modified the absorption spectra of visual pigments. These hypotheses can then be tested using the in vitro assay. This approach has been a powerful tool in elucidating not only the molecular bases of color vision, but the processes of adaptive evolution at the molecular level.

  9. Vertebral pathology in the afar australopithecines.

    PubMed

    Cook, D C; Buikstra, J E; DeRousseau, C J; Johanson, D C

    1983-01-01

    Ten vertebral elements from the AL-288 partial hominid skeleton and 11 elements from the AL-333 collection are described. The AL-288 column presents a marked kyphosis at the level of thoracic vertebrae 6 through 10, with pronounced new bone formation on the ventral surfaces of these vertebrae. These features, associated with narrowed disc space and minor osteophytosis, resemble Scheuermann disease in the human. Even though this diagnosis is consistent with a basically human, bipedal locomotor repertoire, the presence of Scheuermann disease suggests that lifting, climbing, or acrobatic activities may have been important in early hominids.

  10. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  11. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  12. Diagnosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    KANOTO, Masafumi; HOSOYA, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial dissection is defined as a hematoma in the wall of a cervical or an intracranial artery. Cerebral arterial dissection causes arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm, resulting in acute infarction and hemorrhage. Image analysis by such methods as conventional angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on plays an important role in diagnosing cerebral arterial dissection. In this study, we explore the methods and findings involved in the diagnosis of cerebral arterial dissection. PMID:27180630

  13. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  14. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  15. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  16. [Transposition of Great Artery].

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takeshi; Shimpo, Hideto

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great artery is one of common congenital cardiac disease resulting cyanosis. Death occurs easily in untreated patients with transposition and intact ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy at a few days of age when posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) closed. Since there are 2 parallel circulations, flow from pulmonary to systemic circulation is necessary for systemic oxygenation, and Balloon atrial septostomy or prostaglandin infusion should be performed especially if patient do not have VSD. Although the advent of fetal echocardiography, it is difficult to diagnose the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) as abnormality of great vessels is relatively undistinguishable. The diagnosis of transposition is in itself an indication for surgery, and arterial switch procedure is performed in the case the left ventricle pressure remains more than 2/3 of systemic pressure. Preoperative diagnosis is important as associated anomalies and coronary artery branching patterns are important to decide the operative indication and timing of surgery.

  17. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  18. HOVERGEN: a database of homologous vertebrate genes.

    PubMed Central

    Duret, L; Mouchiroud, D; Gouy, M

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of homologous genes is a major step for many studies related to genome structure, function or evolution. Similarity search programs easily find genes homologous to a given sequence. However, only very tedious manual procedures allow the retrieval of all sets of homologous genes sequenced for a given set of species. Moreover, this search often generates errors due to the complexity of data to be managed simultaneously: phylogenetic trees, alignments, taxonomy, sequences and related information. HOVERGEN helps to solve these problems by integrating all this information. HOVERGEN corresponds to GenBank sequences from all vertebrate species, with some data corrected, clarified, or completed, notably to address the problem of redundancy. Coding sequences have been classified in gene families. Protein multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees have been calculated for each family. Sequences and related information have been structured in an ACNUC database which permits complex selections. A graphical interface has been developed to visualize and edit trees. Genes are displayed in color, according to their taxonomy. Users have directly access to all information attached to sequences and to multiple alignments simply by clicking on genes. This graphical tool gives thus a rapid and simple access to all data necessary to interpret homology relationships between genes. HOVERGEN allows the user to easily select sets of homologous vertebrate genes, and thus is particularly useful for comparative sequence analysis, or molecular evolution studies. Images PMID:8036164

  19. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  20. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Marjorie; Reynaert, Nicole; Chávez, Myra N; Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L; Egaña, José T

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  1. Flexible device for vertebral body replacement.

    PubMed

    Main, J A; Wells, M E; Spengler, D M; Strauss, A M; Keller, T S

    1989-03-01

    A novel vertebral prosthesis is presented. The prosthesis was developed for surgical procedures requiring the resection of a complete vertebral body and the adjacent intervertebral discs, the design objective being to develop a flexible implant that would be robust enough to withstand the in vivo stress environment of the human spine. In theory, a flexible implant should preserve a more normal range of motion and apply less stress to surrounding tissue than a rigid implant. A prototype implant was constructed so as to combine a rigid stainless steel structure with flexible silicon rubber elements in order to form an implant with static and dynamic mechanical characteristics similar to those of the anterior spinal column. Implant flexibility characteristics were determined from ex vivo stress-strain behaviour during bending and compressive creep testing. Results from the bending tests indicated good agreement for the lateral and sagittal bending characteristics in comparison with in vitro bending tests of human lumbar motion segments. Comparison of the implant compressive creep response with similar in vitro tests on human lumbar intervertebral discs also demonstrated similarities in the time-dependent mechanical parameters. PMID:2704210

  2. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.

  3. Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Geraldine; Araya, Francisco; Hopfner, Ursula; Fernández, Juan; Allende, Miguel L.; Egaña, José T.

    2015-01-01

    The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered. PMID:26126202

  4. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  5. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  6. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  7. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G.; Prosser, Haydn M.; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P.; Tabin, Clifford J.; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-01-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3′ UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. PMID:26283362

  8. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  9. "To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alzimami, Khalid S; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Almagli, Babikir; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of “to-and-fro” waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of “to-and-fro” waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and “to-and-fro” flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional “to-and-fro” waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the “to-and-fro” waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative. PMID:26029351

  10. Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2015-04-23

    The interrelationships between major living vertebrate, and even chordate, groups are now reasonably well resolved thanks to a large amount of generally congruent data derived from molecular sequences, anatomy and physiology. But fossils provide unexpected combinations of characters that help us to understand how the anatomy of modern groups was progressively shaped over millions of years. The dawn of vertebrates is documented by fossils that are preserved as either soft-tissue imprints, or minute skeletal fragments, and it is sometimes difficult for palaeontologists to tell which of them are reliable vertebrate remains and which merely reflect our idea of an ancestral vertebrate.

  11. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns.

  12. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  13. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. PMID:25943906

  14. Candidal Vertebral Osteomyelitis in the Midst of Renal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Rao, Srivatsa Nagaraja; Kumar, Krishna; Karim, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis also known as discitis/pyogenic spondylitis refers to inflammation of the vertebral disc space. It is commonly seen in men and adults more than 50 years of age. Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare scenario compared to its bacterial counterpart. Spinal epidural abscess is a dangerous complication associated with vertebral osteomyelitis. Here, we report two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Candida tropicalis in patients with renal disorders (stage 5 chronic kidney disease and nephropathy). One of the case discussed here presented with spinal epidural abscess. Both the patients were started on antifungal therapy. One patient responded to treatment while the other was lost to follow up. PMID:27190806

  15. Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Christine; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between developmental genes and phenotypic variation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. An excellent example is the role of Hox genes in the anteroposterior regionalization of the vertebral column in vertebrates. Archosaurs (crocodiles, dinosaurs including birds) are highly variable both in vertebral morphology and number. Nevertheless, functionally equivalent Hox genes are active in the axial skeleton during embryonic development, indicating that the morphological variation across taxa is likely owing to modifications in the pattern of Hox gene expression. By using geometric morphometrics, we demonstrate a correlation between vertebral Hox code and quantifiable vertebral morphology in modern archosaurs, in which the boundaries between morphological subgroups of vertebrae can be linked to anterior Hox gene expression boundaries. Our findings reveal homologous units of cervical vertebrae in modern archosaurs, each with their specific Hox gene pattern, enabling us to trace these homologies in the extinct sauropodomorph dinosaurs, a group with highly variable vertebral counts. Based on the quantifiable vertebral morphology, this allows us to infer the underlying genetic mechanisms in vertebral evolution in fossils, which represents not only an important case study, but will lead to a better understanding of the origin of morphological disparity in recent archosaur vertebral columns. PMID:26085583

  16. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of

  17. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  18. Incidence of Ischemic Complications after Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Dissecting Vertebral Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, T.; Iihara, K.; Satow, T.; Murao, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2007-01-01

    Summary We analyzed the incidence of ischemic complications after internal trapping for ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms. Between April 2001 and August 2005, nine cases of ruptured VA dissecting aneurysms, five in women, "proximal" or distal (distal type) to the origin of the PICA, were treated by internal trapping in the acute stage after SAH. There were four cases of proximal type and five of distal type. The demographics of the patients were reviewed in the medical charts and radiological findings were evaluated by neuroradiologists. The dissected site was completely obliterated and PICA was preserved in all cases. Follow-up angiography performed five to 19 days after treatment revealed complete obliteration of the aneurysm and patency of the PICA. The incidence of perioprocedural ischemic complications for the PICA-distal type (75%) was higher than that for the PICA-proximal type (20%). Here we retrospectively analyzed and discussed the incidence and mechanisms of ischemic complications. PMID:20566095

  19. Morphogenesis and evolution of vertebrate appendicular muscle

    PubMed Central

    HAINES, LYNN; CURRIE, PETER D.

    2001-01-01

    Two different modes are utilised by vertebrate species to generate the appendicular muscle present within fins and limbs. Primitive Chondricthyan or cartilaginous fishes use a primitive mode of muscle formation to generate the muscle of the fins. Direct epithelial myotomal extensions invade the fin and generate the fin muscles while remaining in contact with the myotome. Embryos of amniotes such as chick and mouse use a similar mechanism to that deployed in the bony teleost species, zebrafish. Migratory mesenchymal myoblasts delaminate from fin/limb level somites, migrate to the fin/limb field and differentiate entirely within the context of the fin/limb bud. Migratory fin and limb myoblasts express identical genes suggesting that they possess both morphogenetic and molecular identity. We conclude that the mechanisms controlling tetrapod limb muscle formation arose prior to the Sarcopterygian or tetrapod radiation. PMID:11523824

  20. Morphogenesis and evolution of vertebrate appendicular muscle.

    PubMed

    Haines, L; Currie, P D

    2001-01-01

    Two different modes are utilised by vertebrate species to generate the appendicular muscle present within fins and limbs. Primitive Chondricthyan or cartilaginous fishes use a primitive mode of muscle formation to generate the muscle of the fins. Direct epithelial myotomal extensions invade the fin and generate the fin muscles while remaining in contact with the myotome. Embryos of amniotes such as chick and mouse use a similar mechanism to that deployed in the bony teleost species, zebrafish. Migratory mesenchymal myoblasts delaminate from fin/limb level somites, migrate to the fin/limb field and differentiate entirely within the context of the fin/limb bud. Migratory fin and limb myoblasts express identical genes suggesting that they possess both morphogenetic and molecular identity. We conclude that the mechanisms controlling tetrapod limb muscle formation arose prior to the Sarcopterygian or tetrapod radiation. PMID:11523824

  1. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  2. Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

  3. Cement augmentation in vertebral burst fractures.

    PubMed

    Zaryanov, Anton V; Park, Daniel K; Khalil, Jad G; Baker, Kevin C; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    As a result of axial compression, traumatic vertebral burst fractures disrupt the anterior column, leading to segmental instability and cord compression. In situations with diminished anterior column support, pedicle screw fixation alone may lead to delayed kyphosis, nonunion, and hardware failure. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty) have been used in an effort to provide anterior column support in traumatic burst fractures. Cited advantages are providing immediate stability, improving pain, and reducing hardware malfunction. When used in isolation or in combination with posterior instrumentation, these techniques theoretically allow for improved fracture reduction and maintenance of spinal alignment while avoiding the complications and morbidity of anterior approaches. Complications associated with cement use (leakage, systemic effects) are similar to those seen in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures; however, extreme caution must be used in fractures with a disrupted posterior wall.

  4. Cell fate determination in the vertebrate retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cepko, C L; Austin, C P; Yang, X; Alexiades, M; Ezzeddine, D

    1996-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, the retina has been a useful model for studies of cell fate determination. Recent results from studies conducted in vitro and in vivo suggest a model of retinal development in which both the progenitor cells and the environment change over time. The model is based upon the notion that the mitotic cells within the retina change in their response properties, or "competence", during development. These changes presage the ordered appearance of distinct cell types during development and appear to be necessary for the production of the distinct cell types. As the response properties of the cells change, so too do the environmental signals that the cells encounter. Together, intrinsic properties and extrinsic cues direct the choice of cell fate. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8570600

  5. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications.

  6. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  7. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  8. Planar Cell Polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the vertebrate limb development have contributed significantly to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying growth, patterning and morphogenesis of a complex multicellular organism. In the limb, well-defined signaling centers interact to coordinate limb growth and patterning along the three axes. Recent analyses of live imaging and mathematical modeling have provided evidence that polarized cell behaviors governed by morphogen gradients play an important role in shaping the limb bud. Furthermore, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical for directional morphogenesis in the developing limb. Directional information coded in the morphogen gradient may be interpreted by responding cells through regulating the activities of PCP components in a Wnt morphogen dose-dependent manner. PMID:23747034

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Vertebrate Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a cell membrane phospholipid metabolite that can act as an extracellular signal. Its effects are mediated through at least five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-5, and likely others as well. Studies in multiple species including LPA receptor-deficient mice and humans have identified or implicated important roles for receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of vertebrate reproduction. These include ovarian function, spermatogenesis, fertilization, early embryo development, embryo implantation, embryo spacing, decidualization, pregnancy maintenance, and parturition. LPA signaling may also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Here we review recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to female and male reproduction. PMID:19836970

  10. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  11. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

  12. Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

    2008-03-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

  13. Somitomeres: mesodermal segments of vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A G

    1988-01-01

    Well before the somites form, the paraxial mesoderm of vertebrate embryos is segmented into somitomeres. When newly formed, somitomeres are patterned arrays of mesenchymal cells, arranged into squat, bilaminar discs. The dorsal and ventral faces of these discs are composed of concentric rings of cells. Somitomeres are formed along the length of the embryo during gastrulation, and in the segmental plate and tail bud at later stages. They form in strict cranial to caudal order. They appear in bilateral pairs, just lateral to Hensen's node in the chick embryo. When the nervous system begins to form, the brain parts and neuromeres are in a consistent relationship to the somitomeres. Somitomeres first appear in the head, and the cranial somitomeres do not become somites, but disperse to contribute to the head the same cell types contributed by somites in the trunk region. In the trunk and tail, somitomeres gradually condense and epithelialize to become somites. Models of vertebrate segmentation must now take into account the early presence of these new morphological units, the somitomeres. Somitomeres were discovered in the head of the chick embryo (Meier, 1979), with the use of stereo scanning electron microscopy. The old question of whether the heads of the craniates are segmented is now settled, at least for the paraxial mesoderm. Somitomeres have now been identified in the embryos of a chick, quail, mouse, snapping turtle, newt, anuran (Xenopus) and a teleost (the medaka). In all forms studied, the first pair of somitomeres abut the prosencephalon, but caudal to that, for each tandem pair of somitomeres in the amniote and teleost, there is but one somitomere in the amphibia. The mesodermal segments of the shark embryo are arranged like those of the amphibia.

  14. [Ultrasound imaging of coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shigeto

    2014-09-01

    Coronary arterial anatomy and the terminology were reviewed. There is a specific portion of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease. To investigate coronary arterial lesion, ultrasound imaging is useful because of non-invasive, high special and time resolu tion method. I explained the patient posture, the approaching method to the coronary arter ies, ultrasound setting, measurement of coronary arterial diameter and diastolic measurement.

  15. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  16. Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual complication of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Olushola; Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Iqbal, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Crohn's disease is a rare occurrence and mostly occurred in patients with Crohn's disease complicated by an abscess or fistulising disease. We report a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, occurring in a refractory Crohn's disease without contiguous abscess or fistula with the bowel. PMID:24916975

  17. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  18. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  19. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gai, Zhikun; Donoghue, Philip C J; Zhu, Min; Janvier, Philippe; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-08-17

    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, we describe the cranial anatomy of galeaspids, a 435-370-million-year-old 'ostracoderm' group from China and Vietnam. The paired nasal sacs of galeaspids are located anterolaterally in the braincase, and the hypophyseal duct opens anteriorly towards the oral cavity. These three structures (the paired nasal sacs and the hypophyseal duct) were thus already independent of each other, like in gnathostomes and unlike in cyclostomes and osteostracans (another 'ostracoderm' group), and therefore have the condition that current developmental models regard as prerequisites for the development of jaws. This indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.

  20. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  2. Coronary artery anomalies.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P

    2006-12-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon findings but can be of significant clinical importance in a small number of individuals. Clinical presentation depends on the specific anomaly. Most coronary artery anomalies are benign and clinically insignificant, however, some anomalies are potentially significant and can lead to heart failure and even death. Noninvasive imaging has emerged as the preferred way to image coronary anomalies. Both electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are useful for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. Recently, MDCT has also proven to be very useful in the detection and characterization of anomalous coronary arteries. This chapter will review the appearance of the most commonly encountered coronary anomalies on MDCT. PMID:17709086

  3. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  4. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  6. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Duker JS. Retinal arterial ... M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 6.18. Reiss GR, Sipperley ...

  7. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve started to help the medicine work. Other Organizations American Heart Association Questions to Ask Your Doctor Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)? What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of ...

  8. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean {+-} standard error cement volume was 5.1 {+-} 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of <0.75 (group 2). A total of 83 vertebral bodies of 30 patients (7 men, 23 women, age 70.7 {+-} 9.7 years, range 40-82 years) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 24 months. In the moderate compression group (group 1), the vertebral heights were stabilized over time at the preinterventional levels. Compared with group 1, group 2 showed a greater anterior height gain (+2.8 {+-} 2.2 mm vs. +0.8 {+-} 2.0 mm, P < 0.001), better reduction of end plate angle (-4.9 {+-} 4.8{sup o} vs. -1.0 {+-} 2.7{sup o}, P < 0.01), and improved CI (+0.12 {+-} 0.13 vs. +0.02 {+-} 0.07, P < 0.01) and demonstrated preserved anterior height gain at 2 years (+1.2 {+-} 3.2 mm, P < 0.01) as well as improved end plate angles (-5.2 {+-} 5.0{sup o}, P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 {+-} 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU

  9. Nuisance arthropods, nonhost odors, and vertebrate chemical aposematism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes, ticks, and other ectoparasitic arthropods use chemoreception to avoid vertebrates that are known or presumed to be dangerous or otherwise unprofitable hosts. Nonhosts may belong to a species that is regularly unaccepted or one that includes both accepted and unaccepted individuals. A diverse array of qualities including immunocompetence, vigilant grooming behavior, mechanical inaccessibility, and toxicity have been proposed as the features that render vertebrate chemical emitters unsuitable as hosts for arthropods. In addition to advantages accrued by ectoparasitic arthropods that avoid nonhosts, vertebrates that are not accepted as hosts benefit by evading injurious ectoparasites and the infectious agents they transmit. The conferral of advantages to both chemical receivers (ectoparasitic arthropods) and emitters (unpreferred vertebrates) in these interactions renders nonhost odors aposematic. Chemical aposematism involving ectoparasites selects for vertebrates that emit distinctive odors. In addition, chemical mimicry, where vulnerable organisms benefit when misidentified as nonhosts, may be accommodated by duped ectoparasites.

  10. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  11. Evolution of the Vertebrate Cranium: Viewed from Hagfish Developmental Studies.

    PubMed

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G

    2016-06-01

    Our knowledge of vertebrate cranium evolution has relied largely on the study of gnathostomes. Recent evolutionary and developmental studies of cyclostomes have shed new light on the history of the vertebrate skull. The recent ability to obtain embryos of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri, has enabled new studies which have suggested an embryonic morphological pattern (the "cyclostome pattern") of craniofacial development. This pattern is shared by cyclostomes, but not by modern jawed vertebrates. Because this pattern of embryonic head development is thought to be present in some stem gnathostomes (ostracoderms), it is possible that the cyclostome pattern represents the vertebrate ancestral pattern. The study of cyclostomes may thus lead to an understanding of the most ancestral basis of craniofacial development. In this review, we summarize the development of the hagfish chondrocranium in light of the cyclostome pattern, present an updated comparison of the cyclostome chondrocranium, and discuss several aspects of the evolution and development of the vertebrate skull. PMID:27268976

  12. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  13. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with multivessel cervical artery dissections and a double aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Ruland, Sean; Schneck, Michael J; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

    2014-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has been associated with exposure to vasoactive substances and few reports with cervical arterial dissections (CADs). We evaluated a 32-year-old woman with history of depression, migraines without aura, and cannabis use who presented with a thunderclap headache unresponsive to triptans. She was found to have bilateral occipital infarcts, bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissections, bilateral internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysms, and extensive distal multifocal segmental narrowing of the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation with a "sausage on a string-like appearance" suggestive of RCVS. Subsequently, she was found to have a distal thrombus of the basilar artery, was anticoagulated, and discharged home with no residual deficits. We highlight the potential association of CADs and RCVS. The association of RCVS and a double aortic arch has not been previously reported. PMID:24103665

  15. Acute bilateral cerebellar infarction in the territory of the medial branches of posterior inferior cerebellar arteries.

    PubMed

    Gurer, G; Sahin, G; Cekirge, S; Tan, E; Saribas, O

    2001-10-01

    The most frequent type of cerebellar infarcts involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery territories but bilateral involvement of lateral or medial branches of PICA is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 55-year-old male who admitted to hospital with vomiting, nausea and dizziness. On examination left-sided hemiparesia and ataxic gait were detected. Infarct on bilateral medial branch of PICA artery territories was found out with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique and 99% stenosis of the left vertebral artery was found out with digital subtraction arteriography. The patient was put on heparin treatment. After 3 weeks, his complaints and symptoms had disappeared except for mild gait ataxia. PMID:11532563

  16. The vertebral venous plexuses: the internal veins are muscular and external veins have valves.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Mark D; Restieaux, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda L; Crosado, Brynley

    2012-07-01

    The internal and external vertebral venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP. The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26, mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP. The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts (P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels. Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation or other homeostatic processes. PMID:21976364

  17. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  18. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates.

  19. Growth of basilar artery aneurysm after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Oh, Chang-Wan; Han, Dae Hee

    2002-11-01

    We report upon two cases of obstructive hydrocephalus produced by giant basilar artery aneurysms. They initially presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, and were managed by a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt with good symptomatic improvement. With time, however, both showed a gradual deterioration of clinical symptoms due to increased aneurysm size. One, with a basilar tip aneurysm was treated by direct neck-clipping of the aneurysm, and was able to return to work. In the other patient, with a basilar trunk aneurysm, endovascular occlusion of one vertebral artery was attempted in an effort to decrease the aneurysm size, but the aneurysm enlarged precipitating brain stem failure. In conclusion, these cases reveal the risk of the VP shunt, which may induce aneurysmal growth, leading to clinical devastation, and emphasize the importance of definitive treatment for giant cerebral aneurysms whenever possible.

  20. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  1. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  2. Vertebral fracture after aircraft ejection during Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Osborne, R G; Cook, A A

    1997-04-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, 21 United States and 2 Italian military personnel were held in Iraq as prisoners of war. Of these, 18 had ejected from fixed-wing, ejection seat-equipped, combat aircraft prior to their capture. Of the 18, 6 (33%) had sustained vertebral fractures; 4 of these were compression fractures. This fracture rate is comparable to that of previously studied groups. Fractures were noted to be at several different vertebral sites and after ejecting from a variety of aircraft. Apart from contusions and abrasions, vertebral fractures were the most common injuries discovered in this repatriated population. None of the vertebral fractures produced recognizable neurological disability. The development of vertebral fractures was neither associated with the use of any particular ejection system or aircraft nor did the development of vertebral fractures appear dependent on the age, height or length of service of the affected personnel. Ejected aircrew with low altitude mission profiles seemed more predisposed to vertebral fracture than those at high altitudes, but with a small sample population, this relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.25). Reliable data were unavailable on aircrew positioning and preparation time for ejection. PMID:9096832

  3. Thyroglobulin Represents a Novel Molecular Architecture of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Guillaume; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Lorin, Thibault; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Tohmé, Marie; Deléage, Gilbert; Demeneix, Barbara; Arvan, Peter; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate not only multiple functions in vertebrates (energy metabolism, central nervous system function, seasonal changes in physiology, and behavior) but also in some non-vertebrates where they control critical post-embryonic developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Despite their obvious biological importance, the thyroid hormone precursor protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), has been experimentally investigated only in mammals. This may bias our view of how thyroid hormones are produced in other organisms. In this study we searched genomic databases and found Tg orthologs in all vertebrates including the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We cloned a full-size Tg coding sequence from western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparisons between the representative mammal, amphibian, teleost fish, and basal vertebrate indicate that all of the different domains of Tg, as well as Tg regional structure, are conserved throughout the vertebrates. Indeed, in Xenopus, zebrafish, and lamprey Tgs, key residues, including the hormonogenic tyrosines and the disulfide bond-forming cysteines critical for Tg function, are well conserved despite overall divergence of amino acid sequences. We uncovered upstream sequences that include start codons of zebrafish and Xenopus Tgs and experimentally proved that these are full-length secreted proteins, which are specifically recognized by antibodies against rat Tg. By contrast, we have not been able to find any orthologs of Tg among non-vertebrate species. Thus, Tg appears to be a novel protein elaborated as a single event at the base of vertebrates and virtually unchanged thereafter. PMID:27311711

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  5. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution. PMID:23746908

  6. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review. PMID:19126758

  7. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  8. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  9. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  10. Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, J K

    1998-01-01

    The expression of five major families of visual pigments occurred early in vertebrae evolution, probably about 350-400 million years ago, before the separation of the major vertebrate classes. Phylogenetic analysis of opsin gene sequences suggests that the ancestral pigments were cone pigments, with rod pigments evolving last. Modern teleosts, reptiles and birds have genera that possess rods and four spectral classes of cone each representing one of the five visual pigment families. The complement of four spectrally distinct cone classes endows these species with the potential for tetrachromatic colour vision. In contrast, probably because of their nocturnal ancestry, mammals have rod-dominated retinas with colour vision reduced to a basic dichromatic system subserved by only two spectral classes of cone. It is only within primates, about 35 millions years ago, that mammals 're-evolved' a higher level of colour vision: trichromacy. This was achieved by a gene duplication within the longer-wave cone class to produce two spectrally distinct members of the same visual pigment family which, in conjunction with a short-wavelength pigment, provide the three spectral classes of cone necessary to subserve trichromacy.

  11. Molecular evolution of vertebrate visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S

    2000-07-01

    Dramatic improvement of our understanding of the genetic basis of vision was brought by the molecular characterization of the bovine rhodopsin gene and the human rhodopsin and color opsin genes (Nathans and Hogness, 1983; Nathans et al., 1984, 1986a,b). The availability of cDNA clones from these studies has facilitated the isolation of retinal and nonretinal opsin genes and cDNA clones from a large variety of species. Today, the number of genomic and cDNA clones of opsin genes isolated from different vertebrate species exceeds 100 and is increasing rapidly. The opsin gene sequences reveal the importance of the origin and differentiation of various opsins and visual pigments. To understand the molecular genetic basis of spectral tuning of visual pigments, it is essential to establish correlations between a series of the sequences of visual pigments and their lambda(max) values. The potentially important amino acid changes identified in this way have to be tested whether they are in fact responsible for the lambda(max)-shifts using site-directed mutagenesis and cultured cells. A major goal of molecular evolutionary genetics is to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in functional adaptations of organisms to different environments, including the mechanisms of the regulation of the spectral absorption. Therefore, both molecular evolutionary analyses of visual pigments and vision science have an important common goal.

  12. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Jepsen-Grant, K; Pollard, R E; Johnson, L R

    2013-01-01

    The vertebral heart score (VHS) measurement is commonly used to provide a more objective measurement of cardiomegaly in canines. However, several studies have shown significant breed variations from the value previously established by Buchanan and Bücheler (9.7 ± 0.5). This study describes VHS measurements in Pug, Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, Dachshund, Bulldog, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Boston Terrier dog breeds. Dogs with two or three view thoracic radiographs, no subjective radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly, and no physical examination findings of heart murmurs or gallop rhythms were included in the study. The Pug, Pomeranian, Bulldog, and Boston Terrier groups were found to have a VHS significantly greater than 9.7 ± 0.5 (P < 0.00001, P = 0.0014, P < 0.0001, P < 0.00001, respectively). Body condition score (BCS) was found to have a significant effect on the VHS of Lhasa Apso group. Anomalous vertebrae in the thoracic column were associated with a significant increase in VHS of the Bulldog (P = 0.028) and Boston Terrier (P = 0.0004) groups. Thoracic depth to width ratio did not have a significant effect on VHS.

  13. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  15. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  16. Microtubules, polarity and vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cearns, Michael D; Escuin, Sarah; Alexandre, Paula; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular components, long known to participate in morphogenetic events that shape the developing embryo. However, the links between the cellular functions of MTs, their effects on cell shape and polarity, and their role in large-scale morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, these relationships were examined with respect to two strategies for generating the vertebrate neural tube: bending and closure of the mammalian neural plate; and cavitation of the teleost neural rod. The latter process has been compared with 'secondary' neurulation that generates the caudal spinal cord in mammals. MTs align along the apico-basal axis of the mammalian neuroepithelium early in neural tube closure, participating functionally in interkinetic nuclear migration, which indirectly impacts on cell shape. Whether MTs play other functional roles in mammalian neurulation remains unclear. In the zebrafish, MTs are important for defining the neural rod midline prior to its cavitation, both by localizing apical proteins at the tissue midline and by orienting cell division through a mirror-symmetric MT apparatus that helps to further define the medial localization of apical polarity proteins. Par proteins have been implicated in centrosome positioning in neuroepithelia as well as in the control of polarized morphogenetic movements in the neural rod. Understanding of MT functions during early nervous system development has so far been limited, partly by techniques that fail to distinguish 'cause' from 'effect'. Future developments will likely rely on novel ways to selectively impair MT function in order to investigate the roles they play.

  17. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light–dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23 kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light–dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish. PMID:26257705

  18. Earth orbital variations and vertebrate bioevolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Dewey M.

    1988-01-01

    Cause of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition mammalian extinctions at the end of the last age is the subject of debate between those advocating human predation and climate change. Identification of an ambient air temperature (AAT)-uterine blood flow (UBF) coupling phenomenon supports climate change as a factor in the extinctions, and couples the extinctions to earth orbital variations that drive ice age climatology. The AAT-UBF phenomenon couples mammalian bioevolution directly to climate change via effects of environmental heat upon blood flow to the female uterus and damage to developing embryos. Extinctions were in progress during climatic warming before the Younger Dryas event, and after, at times when the AAT-UBF couple would have been operative; however, impact of a sudden short-term cooling on mammals in the process of adapting to smaller size and relatively larger S/V would have been severe. Variations in earth's orbit, and orbital forcing of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, were causes of the succession of Pleistocene ice ages. Coincidence of mammalian extinctions with terminations of the more intense cold stages links mammalian bioevolution to variations in earth's orbit. Earth orbital variations are a driving source of vertebrate bioevolution.

  19. [Splenic artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Davidović, L; Bilanović, D; Krivokapić, Z; Grubor, N; Cvetković, S; Radak, V; Marković, M

    2006-01-01

    Although the third most frequent aneurysm in the abdomen, after aneurysms of the aorta and iliac arteries, and most frequent aneurisms of visceral arteries, splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but not very rare. Thanks to the new imaging techniques, first of all ultrasonography, they have been discovered with increasing frequency. We present a series of 9 splenic artery aneurysms. Seven patients were female and two male of average age 49 years (ranging from 28 to 75 years). The majority of afected women were multiparae, with average 3 children (ranging from 1 to 6). One patient had a subacute rupture, and 2 had ruptures into the splenic vein causing portal hypertension. The spleen was enlarged in 7 out of 9 patients. The average size of aneurysms was 3,2 cm (ranging from 2 to 8 cm). The preoperative diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm was established in 6 patients while in 3 patients aneurism was accidentally found during other operations, during splenectomy in 2, and during the excision of a retroperitoneal tumour in 1 patient. Aneurysmectomy was carried out in 7 patients, while a ligation of the incoming and outcoming wessels was performed in 2 patients with arteriovenous fistula. Splenectomy was performed in 6 patients, while pancreatic tail resection, cholecystectomy and excision of the retroperitoneal tumor were performed in 3 patients. Additional resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with reconstruction of aortoiliac segment was performed in 2 patients. There were no mortality and the postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. PMID:16989145

  20. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  1. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  2. Young thrombocytes initiate the formation of arterial thrombi in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Thattaliyath, Bijoy; Cykowski, Matthew; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2005-01-01

    The zebrafish system is an excellent vertebrate genetic model to study hemostasis and thrombosis because saturation mutagenesis screens can identify novel genes that play a role in this vital physiologic pathway. To study hemostatic mutations, it is important to understand the physiology of zebrafish hemostasis and thrombosis. Previously, we identified zebrafish thrombocytes and have shown that they participate in arterial thrombus formation. Here, we recognized 2 populations of thrombocytes distinguishable by DiI-C18 (DiI) staining. DiI+ thrombocytes have a high density of adhesive receptors and are functionally more active than DiI– thrombocytes. We classified DiI+ thrombocytes as young and DiI– thrombocytes as mature thrombocytes. We found young and mature thrombocytes each formed independent clusters and that young thrombocytes clustered first. We have also shown that young thrombocytes initiate arterial thrombus formation. We propose that due to the increased adhesive receptor density on young thrombocytes, they adhere first to the subendothelial matrix, get activated rapidly, release agonists, and recruit more young thrombocytes, which further release more agonists. This increase in agonists activates the less active mature thrombocytes, drawing them to the growing thrombus. Since arterial thrombus formation is a fundamental hemostatic event, this mechanism may be conserved in mammals and may open new avenues for prevention of arterial thrombosis. PMID:15769888

  3. Extraordinary diversity of chemosensory receptor gene repertoires among vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Shi, P; Zhang, J

    2009-01-01

    Chemosensation (smell and taste) is important to the survival and reproduction of vertebrates and is mediated by specific bindings of odorants, pheromones, and tastants by chemoreceptors that are encoded by several large gene families. This review summarizes recent comparative genomic and evolutionary studies of vertebrate chemoreceptor genes. It focuses on the remarkable diversity of chemoreceptor gene repertoires in terms of gene number and gene sequence across vertebrates and the evolutionary mechanisms that are responsible for generating this diversity. We argue that the great among-species variation of chemoreceptor gene repertoires is a result of adaptations of individual species to their environments and diets. PMID:19145414

  4. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  5. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  7. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  8. Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

  9. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Robert S; Gabbott, Sarah E; Purnell, Mark A

    2011-04-22

    The timing and sequence of events underlying the origin and early evolution of vertebrates remains poorly understood. The palaeontological evidence should shed light on these issues, but difficulties in interpretation of the non-biomineralized fossil record make this problematic. Here we present an experimental analysis of decay of vertebrate characters based on the extant jawless vertebrates (Lampetra and Myxine). This provides a framework for the interpretation of the anatomy of soft-bodied fossil vertebrates and putative cyclostomes, and a context for reading the fossil record of non-biomineralized vertebrate characters. Decay results in transformation and non-random loss of characters. In both lamprey and hagfish, different types of cartilage decay at different rates, resulting in taphonomic bias towards loss of 'soft' cartilages containing vertebrate-specific Col2α1 extracellular matrix proteins; phylogenetically informative soft-tissue characters decay before more plesiomorphic characters. As such, synapomorphic decay bias, previously recognized in early chordates, is more pervasive, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the anatomy of any non-biomineralized fossil vertebrate, such as Haikouichthys, Mayomyzon and Hardistiella.

  10. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  11. Prominent gastroduodenal artery: Endosonographic sign of celiac artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Can; Sürmelioğlu, Ali; Tilki, Metin; Kiliçoğlu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Celiac artery (CA) stenosis is a relatively common finding in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). In the presence of CA stenosis, arterial blood supply to the celiac territory is usually sustained from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) through well-developed collaterals. In this paper, the authors report endosonographically identified prominent gastroduodenal artery as the sign of CA stenosis for the first time. Uncovering previously unidentified vascular abnormality, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved patient management. The patient had uneventful collateral preserving PD. PMID:27803908

  12. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  13. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  14. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc).

  15. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years. PMID:26982721

  16. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  17. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  18. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  19. Experiment K307: Vertebral body strength of rat spinal columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight on vertebral body bone strength excised were investigated. Comparative biomechanical investigations of vertebral body strength for flight, synchronous, and vivarium rats following spacecraft recovery (R+0), at R+6 and R+29 days post flight recovery are presented. Statistical analyses are presented for the mechanical properties of stiffness, ultimate load, displacement to ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load. At R+0 all of the above properties show that the vertebral body exhibits an increasing susceptibility to fracture. The reduction of bone strength is inhomogeneous and dependent on vertebral level. The R+6 recovery data was inconclusive since it varied above and below the R+0 data. At R+29 ultimate load values showed a statistically significant increase in bone strength approaching that of the vivarium or control group.

  20. A common fold mediates vertebrate defense and bacterial attack.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Carlos J; Buckle, Ashley M; Law, Ruby H P; Butcher, Rebecca E; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A; Faux, Noel G; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J; Pike, Robert N; Ellisdon, Andrew M; Pearce, Mary C; Bottomley, Stephen P; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A; Bird, Phillip I; Dunstone, Michelle A; Whisstock, James C

    2007-09-14

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  1. Do Vertebrate Gut Metagenomes Confer Rapid Ecological Adaptation?

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Antton; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Bohmann, Kristine; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-09-01

    During times of rapid environmental change, survival of most vertebrate populations depends on their phenomic plasticity. Although differential gene-expression and post-transcriptional processes of the host genome receive focus as the main molecular mechanisms, growing evidence points to the gut microbiota as a key driver defining hosts' phenotypes. We propose that the plasticity of the gut microbiota might be an essential factor determining phenomic plasticity of vertebrates, and that it might play a pivotal role when vertebrates acclimate and adapt to fast environmental variation. We contemplate some key questions and suggest methodological approaches and experimental designs that can be used to evaluate whether gut microorganisms provide a boost of plasticity to vertebrates' phenomes, thereby increasing their acclimation and adaptation capacity.

  2. Understanding Balloon Kyphoplasty and Myeloma-Induced Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... back and the ribs. More often than not, back pain and generalized weakness are what bring many undiagnosed ... the doctor in the first place. Sudden severe back pain can indicate that the vertebral body *Words appearing ...

  3. [About evolution of sleep-wakefulness cycle in vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Oganesian, G A; Aristakesian, E A; Vataev, S I

    2012-10-01

    Data about behavioral, somato-vegetative and neurophysiological parameters of sleep and wakefulness in insects, cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are provided. Hypotheses existing now about evolutionary formation of separate sleep phases and stages in vertebrates are considered. In the review are shown the data about correlations of quantitative characteristics of sleep and wake in some mammals with basic metabolic rate, lifestyle, environmental habits. The original experimental results at formation of neurophysiological characteristics of sleep and wake in vertebrates, phylogeny and in ontogeny of mature and immature mammals are provided in detail. On the basis of own concepts about evolutionary development of sleep-wakefulness cycle in vertebrates the interactions of telencephalic, diencephalic and rhombencepalic parts of brain in the processes of cycle wakefulness cycle integration are discussed. PMID:23401913

  4. Explaining large-scale patterns of vertebrate diversity.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J

    2015-07-01

    The major clades of vertebrates differ dramatically in their current species richness, from 2 to more than 32,000 species each, but the causes of this variation remain poorly understood. For example, a previous study noted that vertebrate clades differ in their diversification rates, but did not explain why they differ. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogenetic comparative methods, I show that most variation in diversification rates among 12 major vertebrate clades has a simple ecological explanation: predominantly terrestrial clades (i.e. birds, mammals, and lizards and snakes) have higher net diversification rates than predominantly aquatic clades (i.e. amphibians, crocodilians, turtles and all fish clades). These differences in diversification rates are then strongly related to patterns of species richness. Habitat may be more important than other potential explanations for richness patterns in vertebrates (such as climate and metabolic rates) and may also help explain patterns of species richness in many other groups of organisms. PMID:26202428

  5. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  6. Explaining large-scale patterns of vertebrate diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The major clades of vertebrates differ dramatically in their current species richness, from 2 to more than 32 000 species each, but the causes of this variation remain poorly understood. For example, a previous study noted that vertebrate clades differ in their diversification rates, but did not explain why they differ. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogenetic comparative methods, I show that most variation in diversification rates among 12 major vertebrate clades has a simple ecological explanation: predominantly terrestrial clades (i.e. birds, mammals, and lizards and snakes) have higher net diversification rates than predominantly aquatic clades (i.e. amphibians, crocodilians, turtles and all fish clades). These differences in diversification rates are then strongly related to patterns of species richness. Habitat may be more important than other potential explanations for richness patterns in vertebrates (such as climate and metabolic rates) and may also help explain patterns of species richness in many other groups of organisms. PMID:26202428

  7. The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2012-12-21

    How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

  8. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal.

  9. Duplications of hox gene clusters and the emergence of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soshnikova, Natalia; Dewaele, Romain; Janvier, Philippe; Krumlauf, Robb; Duboule, Denis

    2013-06-15

    The vertebrate body plan is characterized by an increased complexity relative to that of all other chordates and large-scale gene amplifications have been associated with key morphological innovations leading to their remarkable evolutionary success. Here, we use compound full Hox clusters deletions to investigate how Hox genes duplications may have contributed to the emergence of vertebrate-specific innovations. We show that the combined deletion of HoxA and HoxB leads to an atavistic heart phenotype, suggesting that the ancestral HoxA/B cluster was co-opted to help in diversifying the complex organ in vertebrates. Other phenotypic effects observed seem to illustrate the resurgence of ancestral (plesiomorphic) features. This indicates that the duplications of Hox clusters were associated with the recruitment or formation of novel cis-regulatory controls, which were key to the evolution of many vertebrate features and hence to the evolutionary radiation of this group.

  10. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INSECT AND VERTEBRATE VISUAL SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal’s view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers - retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus) and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates, and retina, lamina and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles, and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. PMID:20399726

  11. Do Vertebrate Gut Metagenomes Confer Rapid Ecological Adaptation?

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Antton; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Bohmann, Kristine; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-09-01

    During times of rapid environmental change, survival of most vertebrate populations depends on their phenomic plasticity. Although differential gene-expression and post-transcriptional processes of the host genome receive focus as the main molecular mechanisms, growing evidence points to the gut microbiota as a key driver defining hosts' phenotypes. We propose that the plasticity of the gut microbiota might be an essential factor determining phenomic plasticity of vertebrates, and that it might play a pivotal role when vertebrates acclimate and adapt to fast environmental variation. We contemplate some key questions and suggest methodological approaches and experimental designs that can be used to evaluate whether gut microorganisms provide a boost of plasticity to vertebrates' phenomes, thereby increasing their acclimation and adaptation capacity. PMID:27453351

  12. Prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Abdolhamid; Niknam, Leila; Izadi, Sadegh; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke in Iran. Methods: A total of 169 patients with acute ischemic stroke were eligible to participate and were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to February 2013. All the patients were admitted to the Nemazee ‎Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. Mean flow velocity (MFV) of basilar artery, vertebral artery, middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated. Results: A mean of patients’ age was 67.80 ± 8.14 years. There were 83 men (49.1%) and 86 women (50.9%). Overall, 43 patients (25.4%), with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.2 years, had intracranial stenosis. The number of men and women with intracranial stenosis was comparable (52.4% men vs. 47.6% women). Hypertension (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001) were major risk factors for intracranial stenosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke is 25.4% which is comparable with previous reports from Iran and other Middle East countries. PMID:27648174

  13. [Complex forms of behavior in a series of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Maliukova, I V

    1978-01-01

    Within evolutionary line of vertebrates, correlation between the degree of differentiation of the brain and peculiarities of the formation of complex behavioural acts may be observed. Gradual evolution in the organization of complex motor food-searching conditioned reflexes and the capacity to visual discrimination was revealed in phylogenetic line of vertebrates: elasmobranchs (rays and sharks), marine teleosts, reptiles (terrestrial tortoises), insectivores (hedgehogs), rodents (rats) and primates (lower monkeys).

  14. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Due to Granulicatella Adiacens, a Nutritionally Variant Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    York, Jonathan; Chapman, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a common pathology affecting the spine. We present the case of a 46-year-old male who was diagnosed with progressive L2 vertebral osteomyelitis due to a rare pathogen, Granulicatella adiacens. Granulicatella adiacens is part of the normal body flora and is often difficult to culture on traditional mediums. The patient required a lateral corpectomy and posterior fixation for spinal stabilization and source control. PMID:27800289

  15. The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the evolution of the vertebrate heart.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Holly A; Galli, Gina L J

    2014-11-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is crucial for contraction and relaxation of the mammalian cardiomyocyte, but its role in other vertebrate classes is equivocal. Recent evidence suggests differences in SR function across species may have an underlying structural basis. Here, we discuss how SR recruitment relates to the structural organization of the cardiomyocyte to provide new insight into the evolution of cardiac design and function in vertebrates.

  16. Functionally conserved enhancers with divergent sequences in distant vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Song; Oksenberg, Nir; Takayama, Sachiko; Heo, Seok -Jin; Poliakov, Alexander; Ahituv, Nadav; Dubchak, Inna; Boffelli, Dario

    2015-10-30

    To examine the contributions of sequence and function conservation in the evolution of enhancers, we systematically identified enhancers whose sequences are not conserved among distant groups of vertebrate species, but have homologous function and are likely to be derived from a common ancestral sequence. In conclusion, our approach combined comparative genomics and epigenomics to identify potential enhancer sequences in the genomes of three groups of distantly related vertebrate species.

  17. Acute Ischemic Stroke Involving Both Anterior and Posterior Circulation Treated by Endovascular Revascularization for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion via Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute ischemic stroke involving both the anterior and posterior circulation associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA), treated by endovascular revascularization for acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion via the PPTA. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man experienced sudden loss of consciousness and quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extensive acute infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography showed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and BA. Because the volume of infarction in the territory of the right MCA was extensive, we judged the use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator to be contraindicated. Cerebral angiography revealed hypoplasia of both vertebral arteries and the presence of a PPTA from the right internal carotid artery. A microcatheter was introduced into the BA via the PPTA and revascularization was successfully performed using a Merci Retriever with adjuvant low-dose intraarterial urokinase. After treatment, his consciousness level and right motor weakness improved. Although persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses such as a PPTA are relatively rare vascular anomalies, if the persistent primitive artery is present, it can be an access route for mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27446523

  18. Ancient deuterostome origins of vertebrate brain signalling centres.

    PubMed

    Pani, Ariel M; Mullarkey, Erin E; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Assimacopoulos, Stavroula; Grove, Elizabeth A; Lowe, Christopher J

    2012-03-14

    Neuroectodermal signalling centres induce and pattern many novel vertebrate brain structures but are absent, or divergent, in invertebrate chordates. This has led to the idea that signalling-centre genetic programs were first assembled in stem vertebrates and potentially drove morphological innovations of the brain. However, this scenario presumes that extant cephalochordates accurately represent ancestral chordate characters, which has not been tested using close chordate outgroups. Here we report that genetic programs homologous to three vertebrate signalling centres-the anterior neural ridge, zona limitans intrathalamica and isthmic organizer-are present in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Fgf8/17/18 (a single gene homologous to vertebrate Fgf8, Fgf17 and Fgf18), sfrp1/5, hh and wnt1 are expressed in vertebrate-like arrangements in hemichordate ectoderm, and homologous genetic mechanisms regulate ectodermal patterning in both animals. We propose that these genetic programs were components of an unexpectedly complex, ancient genetic regulatory scaffold for deuterostome body patterning that degenerated in amphioxus and ascidians, but was retained to pattern divergent structures in hemichordates and vertebrates.

  19. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of β-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate β-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of β-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact β-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the β-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of β-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact β-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The β-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of β-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate β-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how β-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  20. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  1. A central role for the notochord in vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Keynes, Roger; Tannahill, David

    2004-02-01

    The vertebrates are defined by their segmented vertebral column, and vertebral periodicity is thought to originate from embryonic segments, the somites. According to the widely accepted 'resegmentation' model, a single vertebra forms from the recombination of the anterior and posterior halves of two adjacent sclerotomes on both sides of the embryo. Although there is supporting evidence for this model in amniotes, it remains uncertain whether it applies to all vertebrates. To explore this, we have investigated vertebral patterning in the zebrafish. Surprisingly, we find that vertebral bodies (centra) arise by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord rather than somites; centra do not form via a cartilage intermediate stage, nor do they contain osteoblasts. Moreover, isolated, cultured notochords secrete bone matrix in vitro, and ablation of notochord cells at segmentally reiterated positions in vivo prevents the formation of centra. Analysis of fss mutant embryos, in which sclerotome segmentation is disrupted, shows that whereas neural arch segmentation is also disrupted, centrum development proceeds normally. These findings suggest that the notochord plays a key, perhaps ancient, role in the segmental patterning of vertebrae.

  2. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of β-Defensin Peptides in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jianbo; Li, Diyan; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Fan, Xiaolan; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate β-defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides that protect organisms from a diverse spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Previous studies have shown a marked variation in the number of β-defensins among species, but the underlying reason is unclear. To address this question, we performed comprehensive computational searches to study the intact β-defensin genes from 29 vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the β-defensin genes in vertebrates identified frequent changes in the number of β-defensin genes and multiple species-specific gene gains and losses that have been occurring throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The number of intact β-defensin genes varied from 1 in the western clawed frog to 20 in cattle, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The β-defensin gene number in a species is relevant to the ever-changing microbial challenges from the environment that they inhabit. Selection pressure analysis shows there exist three amino acid sites under significant positive selection. Protein structural characteristics analysis suggests that structural diversity determines the diverse functions of β-defensins. Our study provides a new perspective on the relationships among vertebrate β-defensin gene repertoires and different survival circumstances, which helps explain how β-defensins have evolved. PMID:26056425

  3. Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Fujimoto, Satoko; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-01-10

    Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates. Although the monophyly of cyclostomes has been supported by recent molecular analyses, the phenotypic traits of hagfishes, especially the lack of some vertebrate-defining features and the reported endodermal origin of the adenohypophysis, have been interpreted as hagfishes exhibiting a more ancestral state than those of all other vertebrates. Furthermore, the adult anatomy of hagfishes cannot be compared easily with that of lampreys. Here we describe the craniofacial development of a series of staged hagfish embryos, which shows that their adenohypophysis arises ectodermally, consistent with the molecular phylogenetic data. This finding also allowed us to identify a pan-cyclostome pattern, one not shared by jawed vertebrates. Comparative analyses indicated that many of the hagfish-specific traits can be explained by changes secondarily introduced into the hagfish lineage. We also propose a possibility that the pan-cyclostome pattern may reflect the ancestral programme for the craniofacial development of all living vertebrates.

  4. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. PMID:26258298

  5. Audiological findings in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  6. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  7. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates: reproductive error or chance?

    PubMed

    Lampert, K P

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenesis, the development of an embryo from a female gamete without any contribution of a male gamete, is very rare in vertebrates. Parthenogenetically reproducing species have, so far, only been found in the Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Facultative parthenogenesis, switching between sexual and clonal reproduction, although quite common in invertebrates, e.g. Daphnia and aphids, seems to be even rarer in vertebrates. However, isolated cases of parthenogenetic development have been reported in all vertebrate groups. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates has only been found in captive animals but might simply have been overlooked in natural populations. Even though its evolutionary impact is hard to determine and very likely varies depending on the ploidy restoration mechanisms and sex-determining mechanisms involved, facultative parthenogenesis is already discussed in conservation biology and medical research. To raise interest for facultative parthenogenesis especially in evolutionary biology, I summarize the current knowledge about facultative parthenogenesis in the different vertebrate groups, introduce mechanisms of diploid oocyte formation and discuss the genetic consequences and potential evolutionary impact of facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates.

  8. Audiological Findings in Patients with Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  9. Morphological Assessment of Cadaveric Radial, Brachial and Subclavian Arteries: A Neurointerventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ali; Ozkul, Ayca; Shin, Dong Seong; Im, Soo-Bin; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transradial catheterization (TRC) is becoming widespread, primarily for neurointerventions. Therefore, the evaluation of radial artery puncture in clinical practice and a better understanding of the anatomy are important to improve the safety of neuroendovascular surgery. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult Korean cadavers were dissected to expose radial artery (RA), brachial artery (BrA) and subclvian artery (ScA), bilaterally. Vessel lengths and diameters were meaured using a caliper and distance between the specific point of vessels and the anatomical landmarks including the radial styloid process, the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the sternoclavicular joint, and the vertebral artery orifice were also measured. Results The average length between the radial (RAPS) and the BrA puncture sites (BrAPS) and between the vertebral artery orifice (VAO) and the BrA bifurcation (BrAB) did not differ between sides (p>0.05). The average length between the radial styloid process (RSP) and the RAPS was 13.41±2.19 mm, and the RSP was 26.85±2.47 mm from the median nerve (MN). The mean length between the medial epicondyle (ME) and the BrAPS as 44.23±5.47 mm, whereas the distance between the ME and the MN was 42.23±4.77 mm. The average VAO-ScA angle was 70.94±6.12°, and the length between the ScA junction (SCJ) and the VAO was 60.30±8.48 mm. Conclusion This study provides basic anatomical information about the radial artery and the brachial route and can help improving new techniques, selection of size and shape of catheters for TRC. This can help neurointerventionists who adopt a transradial neuroendovascular approach and offers comprehensive and safe care to their patients. PMID:26819682

  10. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in metatherians and monotremes with non-human eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of the internal diameters of cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) and the aorta in developing non-human eutherians, metatherians and monotremes has been made, with the aim of determining if there are differences in cerebral arterial flow between the three infraclasses of mammals such as might reflect differences in metabolism of the developing brain. There were no significant differences between eutherians and metatherians in the internal radius of the aorta or the thickness of the aortic wall, but aortic internal radius was significantly smaller in developing monotremes than therians at the < 10 mm body length range. Aortic thickness in the developing monotremes also rose at a slower rate relative to body length than in metatherians or eutherians. The sums of the internal calibres of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries were significantly lower in metatherians as a group and monotremes compared with non-human eutherians at body lengths up to 20 mm and in metatherians at > 20 mm body length. The internal calibre of the internal carotids relative to the sum of all cerebral feeder arteries was also significantly lower in monotremes at < 10 mm body length compared with eutherians. It was noted that dasyurids differed from other metatherians in several measures of cerebral arterial calibre and aortic internal calibre. The findings suggest that: (i) both aortic outflow and cerebral arterial inflow may be lower in developing monotremes than in therians, particularly at small body size (< 20 mm); (ii) cerebral inflow may be lower in some developing metatherians than non-human eutherians; and (iii) dasyurids have unusual features of cerebral arteries possibly related to the extreme immaturity and small size at which they are born. The findings have implications for nutritional sourcing of the developing brain in the three infraclasses of mammals.

  11. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in metatherians and monotremes with non-human eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative comparison of the internal diameters of cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) and the aorta in developing non-human eutherians, metatherians and monotremes has been made, with the aim of determining if there are differences in cerebral arterial flow between the three infraclasses of mammals such as might reflect differences in metabolism of the developing brain. There were no significant differences between eutherians and metatherians in the internal radius of the aorta or the thickness of the aortic wall, but aortic internal radius was significantly smaller in developing monotremes than therians at the < 10 mm body length range. Aortic thickness in the developing monotremes also rose at a slower rate relative to body length than in metatherians or eutherians. The sums of the internal calibres of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries were significantly lower in metatherians as a group and monotremes compared with non-human eutherians at body lengths up to 20 mm and in metatherians at > 20 mm body length. The internal calibre of the internal carotids relative to the sum of all cerebral feeder arteries was also significantly lower in monotremes at < 10 mm body length compared with eutherians. It was noted that dasyurids differed from other metatherians in several measures of cerebral arterial calibre and aortic internal calibre. The findings suggest that: (i) both aortic outflow and cerebral arterial inflow may be lower in developing monotremes than in therians, particularly at small body size (< 20 mm); (ii) cerebral inflow may be lower in some developing metatherians than non-human eutherians; and (iii) dasyurids have unusual features of cerebral arteries possibly related to the extreme immaturity and small size at which they are born. The findings have implications for nutritional sourcing of the developing brain in the three infraclasses of mammals. PMID:26644330

  12. Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2015-09-01

    The embryonic and early fetal human brain is known to undergo extraordinary expansion of its cellular population during embryonic and early fetal life, and is critically dependant on a steady supply of nutrients and oxygen for proper brain development. Quantitative analysis of the internal radius of the aorta and cerebral arteries in a range of eutherian mammals has been used to compare arterial flow to the developing human brain with that to the brains of non-human eutherians. Human embryos showed a much steeper rise of internal radius of the aorta with increasing body size than the embryos of non-human eutherians, but the thickness of the aorta rose at the same pace relative to body size in both humans and non-humans, suggesting that aortic pressure is similar in all eutherian embryos of a similar size. The sums of internal radii of both the internal carotids and vertebral arteries of human embryos raised to the fourth power were much lower at embryonic stages (less than 22 mm body length) than in non-human eutherians, were similar between humans and non-humans at 22-30 mm body length, and exceeded the non-humans at body lengths of more than 30 mm. The relative size of the internal calibre of the cerebral feeder arteries (internal carotid and vertebral) to the aorta did not change between embryonic and fetal sizes in either humans or non-humans. The findings suggest that the developing human brain may actually receive less blood flow at embryonic sizes (less than 22 mm body length) than do other mammalian embryos of a similar body size, but that internal carotid and vertebral flow is higher in human fetuses (body length greater than 30 mm) than in developing non-humans of the same body size. Increased flow to the developing human brain relative to non-humans is achieved by simultaneous increases in both aortic and cerebral feeder artery internal calibre.

  13. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  14. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  15. Arterial Stiffness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stiffness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in various clinical conditions. The aim of this review is to focus on the arterial stiffness gradient, to discuss the integrated role of medium-sized muscular conduit arteries in the regulation of pulsatile pressure and organ perfusion and to provide a rationale for integrating their mechanical properties into risk prediction. Summary The physiological arterial stiffness gradient results from a higher degree of vascular stiffness as the distance from the heart increases, creating multiple reflective sites and attenuating the pulsatile nature of the forward pressure wave along the arterial tree down to the microcirculation. The stiffness gradient hypothesis simultaneously explains its physiological beneficial effects from both cardiac and peripheral microcirculatory points of view. The loss or reversal of stiffness gradient leads to the transmission of a highly pulsatile pressure wave into the microcirculation. This suggests that a higher degree of stiffness of medium-sized conduit arteries may play a role in protecting the microcirculation from a highly pulsatile forward pressure wave. Using the ratio of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) to carotid-radial PWV, referred to as PWV ratio, a recent study in a dialysis cohort has shown that the PWV ratio is a better predictor of mortality than the classical carotid-femoral PWV. Key Messages Theoretically, the use of the PWV ratio seems more logical for risk determination than aortic stiffness as it provides a better estimation of the loss of stiffness gradient, which is the unifying hypothesis that explains the impact of aortic stiffness both on the myocardium and on peripheral organs. PMID:27195235

  16. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates. PMID:26419477

  17. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  18. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  19. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  20. Development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S

    2005-11-15

    Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has emerged from studies with the North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). A major advantage of bullfrogs as a comparative model for respiratory rhythm generation is that respiratory output may be measured at all stages of development, both in vivo and in vitro. An emerging view of recent studies in developing bullfrogs is that many of the mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation are very similar to those seen in birds and mammals. The overall conclusion from these studies is that respiratory rhythm generation during development may be highly conserved during evolution. The development of respiratory rhythm generation in mammals may, therefore, reflect the antecedent mechanisms seen in ectothermic vertebrates. The main focus of this brief review is to discuss recent data on the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates, with particular emphasis on the North American bullfrog (R. catesbeiana) as a model. PMID:15914099