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Sample records for vertical gradient freeze

  1. EL2 distributions in vertical gradient freeze GaAs crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.L.; Sargent, L.; Blakemore, J.S.; Parsey J.M. Jr.; Clemans, J.E.

    1988-06-15

    Spatial distributions of EL2 in undoped, semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by a novel vertical gradient freeze (VGF) method are reported. As a result of the low-temperature gradients present during growth and post-solidification cooling, these crystals exhibit lower EL2 concentrations and lower dislocation densities than liquid-encapsulated Czochralski crystals. Both the EL2 distribution and dislocation density over the area of a wafer do not display the fourfold symmetric pattern prevalent for LEC-grown GaAs. The radial distributions of EL2 in as-grown VGF crystals have been found to be independent of the dislocation density. Axial and radial Hall-effect measurements are included. Thermal activation energies are also presented and the compensation mechanism for this material is discussed.

  2. Crystal Growth and Characterization of CdTe Grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts by the unseeded vertical gradient freeze method. The quality of grown crystal were studied by various characterization techniques including Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT), chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and Hall measurements. The SWBXT images from various angles show nearly strain-free grains, grains with inhomogeneous strains, as well as twinning nucleated in the shoulder region of the boule. The GDMS chemical analysis shows the contamination of Ga at a level of 3900 ppb, atomic. The low temperature PL measurement exhibits the characteristic emissions of a Ga-doped sample. The Hall measurements show a resistivity of 1 x l0(exp 7) ohm-cm at room temperature to 3 x 10(exp 9) ohm-cm at 78K with the respective hole and electron concentration of 1.7 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -3) and 3.9 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3) at room temperature.

  3. Synthesis and crystal growth of Mg2Si by the liquid encapsulated vertical gradient freezing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Reo; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of Mg2Si bulk crystals was performed by the vertical gradient freezing method using a KCl-MgCl2 eutectic liquid encapsulant. Stoichiometric polycrystalline Mg2Si bulk crystals were successfully grown by changing the composition ratio of starting Mg and Si powders (Mg/Si) from 2.0 to 3.5. A chemical reaction between Mg2Si and the crucible materials was inhibited using encapsulant materials, and the contamination by K or Cl originating from the encapsulant materials was not detected in almost all the samples. However, Mg evaporation could not be prevented completely during the synthesis and crystal growth. The optical band-gap energy of Mg2Si bulk crystals became minimal (0.79 eV) at a Mg/Si ratio of 2.5, at which the maximum electron mobility of 202 cm2·V-1·s-1 was obtained. These results indicate that the composition ratio of Mg/Si = 2.5 for starting Mg and Si powders was optimal for synthesizing Mg2Si bulk crystals with high crystalline quality.

  4. Investigation on the growth and characterization of 4-aminobenzophenone single crystal by the vertical dynamic gradient freeze technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, SP.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Sukumar, M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-03-01

    Growth of bulk single crystal of 4-Aminobenzophenone (4-ABP) from the vertical dynamic gradient freeze (VDGF) setup designed with eight zone furnace was investigated. The experimental parameters for the growth of 4-ABP single crystal with respect to the design of VDGF setup are discussed. The eight zones were used to generate multiple temperature gradients over the furnace, and video imaging system helped to capture the real time growth and solid-liquid interface. 4-ABP single crystal with the size of 18 mm diameter and 40 mm length was grown from this investigation. Structural and optical quality of grown crystal was examined by high resolution X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectral analysis, respectively and the blue emission was also confirmed from the photoluminescence spectrum. Microhardness number of the crystal was estimated at different loads using Vicker's microhardness tester. The size and quality of single crystal grown from the present investigation are compared with the vertical Bridgman grown 4-ABP.

  5. The growth of a cubic, single phase, Cd 0.6Mn 0.4Te single crystal by the vertical gradient freeze method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, M.; Raizman, A.; Weingarten, R.; Shacham, H.; Feldstein, H.

    1993-03-01

    The growth of CdMnTe single crystals faces some difficulties due to the phase transition in the solid state at high temperatures, just after solidification. To overcome this problem, it has been suggested to grow the crystals from a Te-rich solution by the traveling heater method at a lower temperature than that of growth from the melt, or alternatively to grow the crystal from the melt at high axial thermal gradient near the interface. In this paper, we present for the first time the growth of cubic, single phase, CdxMn1-xTe single crystals by the vertical gradient freeze technique under a very low axial thermal gradient in the melt (3°C/cm) and high manganese content (x ≈ 40%). The solidification stage is characterized by a rapid cooling of the crystal through the phase transition temperature region, followed by annealing at about 800°C. The crystal exhibits a very high crystalline perfection, as measured by the double-crystal X-ray rocking curves with a full width at half maximum of 30 arc sec and low optical losses of about 1 dB/mm between 650 and 820 nm with λ-cutoff at 630 nm. Further magneto-optical properties are currently examined for a possible application in devices.

  6. Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations . Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000°C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te

  7. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Kai-hui; zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Dongliang; Zeng, Yu-Ping

    2011-04-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  8. Semiconductor apparatus utilizing gradient freeze and liquid-solid techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry F. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Transition metals of Group VIII (Co, Rh and Ir) have been prepared as semiconductor compounds with the general formula TSb.sub.3. The skutterudite-type crystal lattice structure of these semiconductor compounds and their enhanced thermoelectric properties results in semiconductor materials which may be used in the fabrication of thermoelectric elements to substantially improve the efficiency of the resulting thermoelectric device. Semiconductor materials having the desired skutterudite-type crystal lattice structure may be prepared in accordance with the present invention by using vertical gradient freezing techniques and/or liquid phase sintering techniques. Measurements of electrical and thermal transport properties of selected semiconductor materials prepared in accordance with the present invention, demonstrated high Hall mobilities (up to 1200 cm.sup.2.V.sup.-1.s.sup.-1) and good Seebeck coefficients (up to 150 .mu.VK.sup.-1 between 300.degree. C. and 700.degree. C.). Optimizing the transport properties of semiconductor materials prepared from elemental mixtures Co, Rh, Ir and Sb resulted in a substantial increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at temperatures as high as 400.degree. C. for thermoelectric elements fabricated from such semiconductor materials.

  9. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  10. Investigation of crucible materials in gradient freeze gallium arsenide crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    Undoped synthesized GaAs and crystals grown by the gradient freeze method were analyzed by room temperature Hall effect for net carrier density, secondary ion mass spectroscopy for Si and residual impurity concentrations, localized vibrational mode spectroscopy for C concentration, and optical absorption for neutral EL2 concentration. Impurity compensation was examined to determine limits for Si content in semi-insulating GaAs. Boules synthesized in various materials are used to determine the residual impurity densities contributing to compensation. Shallow donor densities below the residual acceptor concentration resulted in semi-insulating electronic properties for two synthesis boules. The Si incorporation rate in gradient freeze crystals is quantified through the deviation of net donor concentration from the normal freeze distribution. Crystals grown As-rich, Ga-rich and near-stoichiometric composition in SiO/sub 2/ crucibles show order-of-magnitude differences of Si incorporation rate. Crystals grown in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and graphite crucibles have <10/sup -2/ and >3 times the incorporation rates of gradient freeze GaAs grown in SiO/sub 2/ crucibles. Crystals grown in a vertical gradient freeze configuration have <1/7 the incorporation rate of those grown horizontally. A vapor mechanism for incorporation of Si is indicated that contributes enough Si to preclude semi-insulating properties. At high values of net donor density, an acceptor density is seen that may be of native defect origin and is positively correlated with net donor density. 63 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Temperature gradient osmometer and anomalies in freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Arav, A; Rubinsky, B

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a new device that measures freezing and melting temperatures in nanoliter volume samples and can be used as a "freezing point osmometer" with a resolution many orders of magnitude greater than that of existing freezing point osmometers. Using this device we found anomalies in the depression of the freezing temperature and thermal hysteresis in aqueous solutions of hydrophilic amino acids, polyamino acids, and lectins. These anomalies would not have been possible to detect with currently used technology. The compounds that produce anomalies in freezing temperature were reported in the literature as having the ability to bind to cell membranes. This suggests a relation between a molecule's ability to bind to cell membranes and its anomalous freezing temperature depression. The new freezing point osmometer and our results could be important for studying and understanding organic molecules and their interaction with membranes and water.

  12. Polymer Membranes with Vertically Oriented Pores Constructed by 2D Freezing at Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong-Qing; Ji, Ke-Jia; Zha, Li-Yun; Hu, Wen-Bing; Ou, Yang; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-06-08

    Polymer membranes with well-controlled and vertically oriented pores are of great importance in the applications for water treatment and tissue engineering. On the basis of two-dimensional solvent freezing, we report environmentally friendly facile fabrication of such membranes from a broad spectrum of polymer resources including poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(l-lactic acid), polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene, polysulfone and polypropylene. Dimethyl sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and arachidic acid are selected as green solvents crystallized in the polymer matrices under two-dimensional temperature gradients induced by water at ambient temperature. Parallel Monte Carlo simulations of the lattice polymers demonstrate that the directional process is feasible for each polymer holding suitable interaction with a corresponding solvent. As a typical example of this approach, poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes exhibit excellent tensile strength, high optical transparence, and outstanding separation performance for the mixtures of yeasts and lactobacilli.

  13. Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

  14. Estimating Vertical Groundwater Velocities Using Groundwater Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, M. A.; Leap, D. I.; Petruccione, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    An understanding of vertical groundwater flow through unconsolidated deposits is a component for predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the saturated zone. Groundwater movement through heterogeneous glacial deposits common to northern Indiana (USA) provided a test setting for determining if measured vertical groundwater thermal gradients could aid in calculating vertical groundwater velocity estimates. Field procedure was conducted by collecting stratified groundwater temperatures from a series of cased monitoring wells previously advanced through glacial till and outwash sedimentary sequences. Groundwater thermal gradients (temperature-depth profiles) were plotted and matched using automated computer modeling software (Microsoft Excel Solver) with published type curves to derive a dimensionless parameter for estimating vertical groundwater velocities. Data results matched predictions, to include an increase in vertical groundwater velocities during the seasonally wetter Spring; and, higher calculated vertical groundwater velocities for the finer-grained till aquitards when compared to aquifers comprised of coarser-grained outwash deposits. This study shows promise and has gathered interest both in the scientific community and environmental consulting practice for estimating vertical migration rates of contaminants (specifically those affected by advection) within the saturated zone. Government agencies or consultants, for instance, could also potentially apply this estimation technique to measure and map localized recharge rates for developing more accurate wellhead protection zones.

  15. Vertical magnetic field gradient in the photospheric layers of sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant; Lagg, Andreas; Hirzberger, Johann; Solanki, Sami K.; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the vertical gradient of the magnetic field of sunspots in the photospheric layer. Methods: Independent observations were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP) on board the Hinode spacecraft and with the Tenrife Infrared Polarimeter-2 (TIP-2) mounted at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). We apply state-of-the-art inversion techniques to both data sets to retrieve the magnetic field and the corresponding vertical gradient along with other atmospheric parameters in the solar photosphere. Results: In the sunspot penumbrae we detected patches of negative vertical gradients of the magnetic field strength, i.e., the magnetic field strength decreases with optical depth in the photosphere. The negative gradient patches are located in the inner and partly in the middle penumbrae in both data sets. From the SOT/SP observations we found that the negative gradient patches are restricted mainly to the deep photospheric layers and are concentrated near the edges of the penumbral filaments. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations also show negative gradients in the inner penumbrae, also at the locations of filaments. In the observations and the simulation negative gradients of the magnetic field vs. optical depth dominate at some radial distances in the penumbra. The negative gradient with respect to optical depth in the inner penumbrae persists even after averaging in the azimuthal direction in the observations and, to a lesser extent, in the MHD simulations. If the gradients in the MHD simulations are determined with respect to geometrical height, then the azimuthal averages are always positive within the sunspot (above log τ = 0), corresponding to magnetic field increasing with depth, as generally expected. Conclusions: We interpret the observed localized presence of negative vertical gradient of the magnetic field strength in the observations as a consequence of stronger field from spines expanding with height and

  16. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  17. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  18. Small scale vertical gradients of Arctic ice algal photophysiological properties.

    PubMed

    Manes, Sarah Story; Gradinger, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and sea ice algae from landfast sea ice of the Chukchi Sea off Point Barrow, Alaska, were assessed in spring 2005 and winter through spring 2006 using Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry including estimates of maximum quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETR(max)), photosynthetic efficiency (alpha), and the photoadaptive index (E(k)). The use of centrifuged brine samples allowed to document vertical gradients in ice algal acclimation with 5 cm vertical resolution for the first time. Bottom ice algae (0-5 cm from ice-water interface) expressed low F(v)/F(m) (0.331-0.426) and low alpha (0.098-0.130 (micromol photons m(-2)s(-1))(-1)) in December. F(v)/F(m) and alpha increased in March and May (0.468-0.588 and 0.141-0.438 (micromol photons m(-2)s(-1))(-1), respectively) indicating increased photosynthetic activity. In addition, increases in rETR(max) (3.3-16.4 a.u.) and E(k) (20-88 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) from December to May illustrates a higher potential for primary productivity as communities become better acclimated to under-ice light conditions. In conclusion,photosynthetic performance by ice algae (as assessed by PAM fluorometry) was tightly linked to sea ice salinity, temperature, and inorganic nutrient concentrations (mainly nitrogen).

  19. Crystal Growth of CdTe by Gradient Freeze in Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Li, C.; Knuteson, D.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Barczy, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of unsealed melt growth of an array of II-VI compounds, namely, CdTe, CdZnTe and ZnSe, there is a tremendous amount of experimental data describing the correlations between melt conditions and crystal quality. The results imply that the crystallinity quality can be improved if the melt was markedly superheated or long-time held before growth. It is speculated that after high superheating the associated complex dissociate and the spontaneous nucleation is retarded. In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts which have undergone different thermal history by the unseeded gradient freeze method using the Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC). The effects of melt conditions on the quality of grown crystal were studied by various characterization techniques, including Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWSXT), infrared microscopy, chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), electrical conductivity and Hall measurements.

  20. How important are internal temperature gradients in french straws during freezing of bovine sperm in nitrogen vapor?

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2013-01-01

    The subject of present work was to predict internal temperature gradients developed during freezing of bovine sperm diluted in extender, packaged in 0.5 ml French plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor at -100 degree C. For this purpose, a mathematical heat transfer model previously developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) of semen/extender packaged in straw was extended to predict internal temperature gradients during the cooling/freezing process. Results showed maximum temperature differences between the centre and the periphery of semen/extender "liquid" column was 1.5 degree C for an external heat transfer coefficient, h = 15 W per (m(2) K), and only 0.5 degree C for h = 5 W per (m(2) K). It is concluded that if a thermocouple wire were inserted in a 0.5 ml plastic straw to monitor the freezing process in nitrogen vapor, its radial position would have little importance since expected internal gradients may be safely neglected. This finding facilitates the interpretation of freezing rates in 0.5 ml plastic straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen, a widely used method for cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa.

  1. Retained functional integrity of bull spermatozoa after double freezing and thawing using PureSperm density gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, W M C; Parrilla, I; Caballero, I; Garcia, E; Roca, J; Martinez, E A; Vazquez, J M; Rath, D

    2007-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the motility and functional integrity of bull spermatozoa after single and double freezing and thawing. The viability and morphological integrity of spermatozoa selected by PureSperm density gradient centrifugation after cryopreservation of bovine semen in two commercial extenders (Experiment 1) and the function of bull spermatozoa before and after a second freezing and thawing assisted by PureSperm selection (Experiment 2) were examined. On average, 35.8 +/- 12.1% of sperm loaded onto the PureSperm density gradient were recovered after centrifugation. In Experiment 1, post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were higher for spermatozoa frozen in Tris-egg yolk extender than in AndroMed, whether the assessments were made immediately after thawing [80.4 +/- 12.7 vs 47.6 +/- 19.0% motile and 78.8 +/- 8.3 vs 50.1 +/- 19.5% normal apical ridge (NAR), p < 0.05] or after preparation on the gradient (83.3 +/- 8.6 vs 69.4 +/- 15.9% motile and 89.5 +/- 7.2 vs 69.1 +/- 11.4% NAR, p < 0.05). For semen frozen in Tris-egg yolk extender, selection on the PureSperm gradient did not influence total motility but significantly improved the proportion of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. After the gradient, both the total motility and percentage of normal acrosomes increased for spermatozoa frozen in AndroMed (Minitüb Tiefenbach, Germany). In Experiment 2, there was no difference in sperm motility after the first and second freeze-thawing (82.9 +/- 12.7 vs 68.8 +/- 18.7%). However, the proportion of acrosome-intact spermatozoa was significantly improved by selection through the PureSperm gradient, whether measured by phase contrast microscopy (78.9 +/- 9.7 vs 90.4 +/- 4.0% NAR, p < 0.05) or flow cytometry (53.4 +/- 11.7 vs 76.3 +/- 6.0% viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa, p < 0.001). The improvement in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosomes was maintained after resuspension in the cooling extender and cooling to 4 degrees C (88

  2. Shoot biomass growth is related to the vertical leaf nitrogen gradient in Salix canopies.

    PubMed

    Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästjung, Ann-Christin

    2007-11-01

    Plant canopy optimization models predict that leaf nitrogen (N) distribution in the canopy will parallel the vertical light gradient, and numerous studies with many species have confirmed this prediction. Further, it is predicted that for a given canopy leaf area, a low vertical light extinction coefficient will promote rapid growth. Therefore, the ideal canopy of fast-growing plants should combine high leaf area index with a low light extinction coefficient; the latter being reflected in a flat vertical leaf N gradient throughout the canopy. Based on data from an experimental Salix stand (six varieties) grown on agricultural land in central Sweden, we tested the hypothesis that shoot growth is correlated with vertical leaf N gradient in canopies of hybrid willows bred for biomass production, which could have implications for Salix breeding. Tree improvement research requires screening of growth-related traits in large numbers of plants, but assessment of canopy leaf N gradients by chemical analysis is expensive, time-consuming and destructive. An alternative to analytical methods is to estimate leaf N gradients nondestructively with an optical chlorophyll meter (SPAD method). Here we provide a specific calibration for interpreting SPAD data measured in hybrid willows grown in biomass plantations on fertile agricultural land. Based on SPAD measurements, a significant and inverse relationship (r(2) = 0.88) was found between shoot biomass growth and vertical leaf N gradient across canopies of six Salix varieties.

  3. Estimating object depth using a vertical gradient metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian; Reidy, Denis

    2008-04-01

    Object depth is a simple characteristic that can indicate an object's type. Popular instruments like radar, metal detectors, and magnetometers are often used to detect the presence of a subsurface object. The next question is often, "How deep is it?" Determining the answer, however, is not as straight forward as might be expected. This paper explores the determination of depth using metal detectors. More specifically, it looks at a popular metal detector (the Geonics EM61) and makes use of its vertically separated coils to generate a depth estimate. Estimated depths are shown for UXO and small surface clutter from flush buried down to 48". Ultimately a statistical depth resolution is determined. An alternative approach is then considered that casts the depth determination problem as one of classification. Only two classes are considered important "deep" and "shallow". Results are shown that illustrate the utility of the classifier approach. The traditional estimator can provide a depth estimate of the object, but the classifier approach can distinguish between small shallow, large deep, and large shallow object classes.

  4. Importance of closely spaced vertical sampling in delineating chemical and microbiological gradients in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in groundwater studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume

  5. Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a

  6. Does vertical temperature gradient of the atmosphere matter for El Niño development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Huang, Bohua; Tseng, Yu-heng; Wang, Wanqiu; Kumar, Arun; Zhu, Jieshun; Jha, Bhaskar

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we examine the connection of vertical temperature gradient of the tropospheric atmosphere along the equator with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the possible impact of the long-term change of the gradient. It is suggested that when the temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere are relatively warmer (cooler) than in the upper troposphere, the atmosphere is less (more) stable and favors an El Niño (a La Niña) event to develop. ENSO evolutions in 1997-1998 and 2014-2015 events are good examples of this relationship. They started from similar ocean anomaly states in the springs of 1997 and 2014, but developed into an extreme El Niño in 1997-1998 and a borderline El Niño in 2014-2015. That may be partially due to differences in the evolutions of the vertical temperature anomaly gradient in troposphere. Thus, in addition to the significant atmospheric response to ENSO, the preconditioning of vertical gradient of the tropospheric temperature due to internal atmospheric processes to some extent may play an active role in affecting ENSO evolution. The long-term trend with more pronounced warming in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere causes a reduction in the vertical temperature gradient in the troposphere. Moreover, unlike almost homogenous warm anomalies in the upper troposphere, the lower troposphere shows remarkable regional features along the equator during 1979-2014, with cold anomaly trends over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean associated with the so-called hiatus and some warm anomalies on its two sides in the east and west. This vertical and zonal distribution of the air temperature trends in the troposphere over the Pacific Ocean is consistent with the convection suppression over the central Pacific since 2000, implying a weakening of atmosphere and ocean coupling.

  7. Does vertical temperature gradient of the atmosphere matter for El Niño development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Huang, Bohua; Tseng, Yu-heng; Wang, Wanqiu; Kumar, Arun; Zhu, Jieshun; Jha, Bhaskar

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we examine the connection of vertical temperature gradient of the tropospheric atmosphere along the equator with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the possible impact of the long-term change of the gradient. It is suggested that when the temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere are relatively warmer (cooler) than in the upper troposphere, the atmosphere is less (more) stable and favors an El Niño (a La Niña) event to develop. ENSO evolutions in 1997-1998 and 2014-2015 events are good examples of this relationship. They started from similar ocean anomaly states in the springs of 1997 and 2014, but developed into an extreme El Niño in 1997-1998 and a borderline El Niño in 2014-2015. That may be partially due to differences in the evolutions of the vertical temperature anomaly gradient in troposphere. Thus, in addition to the significant atmospheric response to ENSO, the preconditioning of vertical gradient of the tropospheric temperature due to internal atmospheric processes to some extent may play an active role in affecting ENSO evolution. The long-term trend with more pronounced warming in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere causes a reduction in the vertical temperature gradient in the troposphere. Moreover, unlike almost homogenous warm anomalies in the upper troposphere, the lower troposphere shows remarkable regional features along the equator during 1979-2014, with cold anomaly trends over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean associated with the so-called hiatus and some warm anomalies on its two sides in the east and west. This vertical and zonal distribution of the air temperature trends in the troposphere over the Pacific Ocean is consistent with the convection suppression over the central Pacific since 2000, implying a weakening of atmosphere and ocean coupling.

  8. Vertical gradient in soil temperature stimulates development and increases biomass accumulation in barley.

    PubMed

    Füllner, K; Temperton, V M; Rascher, U; Jahnke, S; Rist, R; Schurr, U; Kuhn, A J

    2012-05-01

    We have detailed knowledge from controlled environment studies on the influence of root temperature on plant performance, growth and morphology. However, in all studies root temperature was kept spatially uniform, which motivated us to test whether a vertical gradient in soil temperature affected development and biomass production. Roots of barley seedlings were exposed to three uniform temperature treatments (10, 15 or 20°C) or to a vertical gradient (20-10°C from top to bottom). Substantial differences in plant performance, biomass production and root architecture occurred in the 30-day-old plants. Shoot and root biomass of plants exposed to vertical temperature gradient increased by 144 respectively, 297%, compared with plants grown at uniform root temperature of 20°C. Additionally the root system was concentrated in the upper 10cm of the soil substrate (98% of total root biomass) in contrast to plants grown at uniform soil temperature of 20°C (86% of total root biomass). N and C concentrations in plant roots grown in the gradient were significantly lower than under uniform growth conditions. These results are important for the transferability of 'normal' greenhouse experiments where generally soil temperature is not controlled or monitored and open a new path to better understand and experimentally assess root-shoot interactions.

  9. Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients: Effect of viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Da Hlaing, Nan; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat; Wilkes, James O.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of liquid viscosity on the flow regimes and the corresponding pressure gradients along the vertical two-phase flow was investigated. Experiment was carried out in a vertical transparent tube of 0.019 m in diameter and 3 m in length and the pressure gradients were measured by a U-tube manometer. Water and a 50 vol.% glycerol solution were used as the working fluids whose kinematic viscosities were 0.85 x 10{sup -6} and 4.0 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. In our air-liquid annular two-phase flow, the liquid film of various thicknesses flowed adjacent to the wall and the gas phase flowed at the center of the tube. The superficial air velocity, j{sub air}, was varied between 0.0021 and 58.7 m/s and the superficial liquid velocity, j{sub liquid}, was varied between 0 and 0.1053 m/s. In the bubble, the slug and the slug-churn flow regimes, the pressure gradients decreased with increasing Reynolds number. But in the annular and the mist flow regimes, pressure gradients increased with increasing Reynolds number. Finally, the experimentally measured pressure gradient values were compared and are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (author)

  10. Characteristics of high resolution hydraulic head profiles and vertical gradients in fractured sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Accurately identifying the position of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) contrasts is critical to the delineation of hydrogeologic units that serve as the basis for conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. High resolution head profiles have identified the position and thickness of Kv contrasts in clayey aquitards but this potential has not yet been thoroughly evaluated in sedimentary rocks. This paper describes an experiment in which head profiles with the highest, technically feasible resolution were obtained using Westbay® multilevel systems (MLS) installed in 15 cored holes at three sedimentary rock research sites with contrasting geologic and flow system conditions. MLSs were installed to maximum depths between 90 and 260 m with 2-5 monitoring zones per 10 m. Head profiles were measured over multiyear periods. The vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) was calculated for each pair of adjacent monitoring intervals in every MLS and then categorized based on its repeatability to facilitate interpretation of Kv contrasts and comparisons within boreholes, between boreholes at the same site, and between sites. The head and vertical gradient profiles from all three sites display systematic (i.e., simple, geometric) shapes defined by repeatable intervals of no to minimal vertical gradient, indicating relatively high Kv units, bounded by shorter depth intervals with large (up to -50 m/m) vertical gradients, indicating relatively low Kv units. The systematic nature of the profiles suggests flow in regular and interconnected fracture networks rather than dominated by a few key fractures with irregular orientations. The low Kv units were typically thin, with their positions and thicknesses not predicted by lithostratigraphy or detailed lithologic, geophysical, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity data. Hence, the position and thickness of units with contrasting Kv would not be evident if MLSs with the conventional number of

  11. The effect of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient on sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    It is observed in some experimental studies on canine vocal folds (VFs) that the inferior aspect of the vocal fold (VF) is much stiffer than the superior aspect under relatively large strain. Such vertical difference is supposed to promote the convergent-divergent shape during VF vibration and consequently facilitate the production of sound. In this study, we investigate the effect of vertical variation of VF stiffness on sound production using a numerical model. The vertical variation of stiffness is produced by linearly increasing the Young's modulus and shear modulus from the superior to inferior aspects in the cover layer, and its effect on phonation is examined in terms of aerodynamic and acoustic quantities such as flow rate, open quotient, skewness of flow wave form, sound intensity and vocal efficiency. The flow-induced vibration of the VF is solved with a finite element solver coupled with 1D Bernoulli equation, which is further coupled with a digital waveguide model. This study is designed to find out whether it's beneficial to artificially induce the vertical stiffness gradient by certain implanting material in VF restoring surgery, and if it is beneficial, what gradient is the most favorable.

  12. Convection in rotating flows with simultaneous imposition of radial and vertical temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ayan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Balasubramanian, Sridhar

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments, with a rotating cylindrical annulus and thermal gradient in both radial and vertical directions (so that radial temperature difference decreases with the elevation), were conducted to study the convection dynamics and heat transport. Temperature data captured using thermocouples, combined with ANSYS Fluent simulation hinted at the co-existence of thermal plume and baroclinicity (inclined isotherms). Presence of columnar plume structure parallel to the rotation axis was found, which had a phase velocity and aided in vertical heat transport. Nusselt number (Nu) plotted as a function of Taylor number (Ta) showed the effect of rotation on heat transport in such systems, where the interplay of plumes and baroclinic waves control the scalar transport. Laser based PIV imaging at a single vertical plane also showed evidence of such flow structures.

  13. Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Holland, K. Todd; Reed, Allen H.; Abelev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Sediment characteristics largely govern tidal flat morphologic evolution; however, conventional methods of investigating spatial variability in lithology on tidal flats are difficult to employ in these highly dynamic regions. In response, a series of laboratory experiments was designed to investigate the use of temperature diffusion toward sediment characterization. A vertical thermistor array was used to quantify temperature gradients in simulated tidal flat sediments of varying compositions. Thermal conductivity estimates derived from these arrays were similar to measurements from a standard heated needle probe, which substantiates the thermistor methodology. While the thermal diffusivities of dry homogeneous sediments were similar, diffusivities for saturated homogeneous sediments ranged approximately one order of magnitude. The thermal diffusivity of saturated sand was five times the thermal diffusivity of saturated kaolin and more than eight times the thermal diffusivity of saturated bentonite. This suggests that vertical temperature gradients can be used for distinguishing homogeneous saturated sands from homogeneous saturated clays and perhaps even between homogeneous saturated clay types. However, experiments with more realistic tidal flat mixtures were less discriminating. Relationships between thermal diffusivity and percent fines for saturated mixtures varied depending upon clay composition, indicating that clay hydration and/or water content controls thermal gradients. Furthermore, existing models for the bulk conductivity of sediment mixtures were improved only through the use of calibrated estimates of homogeneous end-member conductivity and water content values. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed observations of water content and thermal diffusivity could only be used to qualitatively estimate tidal flat sediment characteristics.

  14. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function.

  15. Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients under the influence of SDS surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Duangprasert, Tanabordee; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat; Wilkes, James O.

    2008-01-15

    Two-phase gas/liquid flows in vertical pipes have been systematically investigated. Water and SDS surfactant solutions at various concentrations were used as the working fluids. In particular, we focus our work on the influence of surfactant addition on the flow regimes, the corresponding pressure gradients, and the bubble sizes and velocity. Adding the surfactant lowers the air critical Reynolds numbers for the bubble-slug flow and the slug flow transitions. The pressure gradients of SDS solutions are lower than those of pure water especially in the slug flow and the slug-churn flow regimes, implying turbulent drag reduction. At low Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the surfactant solution are lower than those of pure water due to the increase in viscosity. With increasing and at high Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the SDS solution become greater than those of pure water which is attributed to the effect of surface tension. (author)

  16. Generalized model for a Moho inversion from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhourun; Tenzer, Robert; Sneeuw, Nico; Liu, Lintao; Wild-Pfeiffer, Franziska

    2016-10-01

    Seismic data are primarily used in studies of the Earth's lithospheric structure including the Moho geometry. In regions, where seismic data are sparse or completely absent, gravimetric or combined gravimetric-seismic methods could be applied to determine the Moho depth. In this study, we derive and present generalized expressions for solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy for a Moho depth determination from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data. By solving the (non-linear) Fredholm's integral equation of the first kind, the linearized observation equations, which functionally relate the (given) gravity/gravity-gradient data to the (unknown) Moho depth, are derived in the spectral domain. The VMM gravimetric results are validated by using available seismic and gravimetric Moho models. Our results show that the VMM Moho solutions obtained by solving the VMM problem for gravity and gravity-gradient data are almost the same. This finding indicates that in global applications, using the global gravity/gravity-gradient data coverage, the spherical harmonic expressions for the gravimetric forward and inverse modelling yield (theoretically) the same results. Globally, these gravimetric solutions have also a relatively good agreement with the CRUST1.0 and GEMMA GOCE models in terms of their rms Moho differences (4.7 km and 4.1 km, respectively).

  17. A SPATIALLY RESOLVED VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IN THE HD 163296 DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Qi, Chunhua; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2013-09-01

    We analyze sensitive, sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA science verification observations of CO emission lines in the protoplanetary disk hosted by the young, isolated Ae star HD 163296. The observed spatial morphology of the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission line is asymmetric across the major axis of the disk; the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 line features a much less pronounced, but similar, asymmetry. The J = 2-1 emission from {sup 12}CO and its main isotopologues have no resolved spatial asymmetry. We associate this behavior with the direct signature of a vertical temperature gradient and layered molecular structure in the disk. This is demonstrated using both toy models and more sophisticated calculations assuming non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. A model disk structure is developed to reproduce both the distinctive spatial morphology of the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 line as well as the J = 2-1 emission from the CO isotopologues assuming relative abundances consistent with the interstellar medium. This model disk structure has {tau} = 1 emitting surfaces for the {sup 12}CO emission lines that make an angle of {approx}15 Degree-Sign with respect to the disk midplane. Furthermore, we show that the spatial and spectral sensitivity of these data can distinguish between models that have sub-Keplerian gas velocities due to the vertical extent of the disk and its associated radial pressure gradient (a fractional difference in the bulk gas velocity field of {approx}> 5%)

  18. Thermal stratification patterns in urban ponds and their relationships with vertical nutrient gradients.

    PubMed

    Song, Keunyea; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Buttle, James M; Marsalek, Jiri; Wagner, Nicole D; Pick, Frances R; Frost, Paul C

    2013-09-30

    Ponds that collect and process stormwater have become a prominent feature of urban landscapes, especially in areas recently converted to residential land use in North America. Given their increasing number and their tight hydrological connection to residential catchments, these small aquatic ecosystems could play an important role in urban biogeochemistry. However, some physicochemical aspects of urban ponds remain poorly studied. Here we assessed the frequency and strength of water column stratification, using measurements of vertical water temperature profiles at high spatial and temporal frequency, in 10 shallow urban stormwater management ponds in southern Ontario, Canada. Many of the ponds were well stratified during much of the summer of 2010 as indicated by relatively high estimates of thermal resistance to mixing (RTRM) indices. Patterns of stratification reflected local weather conditions but also varied among ponds depending on their morphometric characteristics such as maximum water depth and surface area to perimeter ratio. We found greater vertical nutrient gradients and more phosphorus accumulation in bottom waters in ponds with strong and persistent stratification, which likely results from limited particle resuspension and more dissolved phosphorus (P) release from sediments. However, subsequent mixing events in the fall diminished vertical P gradients and possibly accelerated internal loading from the sediment-water interface. Our results demonstrate that stormwater ponds can experience unexpectedly long and strong thermal stratification despite their small size and shallow water depth. Strong thermal stratification and episodic mixing in ponds likely alter the quantity and timing of internal nutrient loading, and hence affect water quality and aquatic communities in downstream receiving waters.

  19. Longitudinal and Vertical Spatial Gradients in the Distribution of Fish within a Canyon-shaped Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaek, Mojmír; Kubeka, Jan; Peterka, Jií; Ech, Martin; Dratík, Vladislav; Hladík, Milan; Prchalová, Marie; Frouzová, Jaroslava

    2004-09-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution of fish was investigated within a morphometrically simple canyon-shaped reservoir with a single major tributary and a longitudinal trophic gradient (ímov Reservoir, Czech Republic). Samples of fish were taken by Nordic survey gill nets (several mesh sizes from 8 to 70 mm knot to knot) installed as surface nets at several offshore areas located along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir. Surveys were carried out in late summer during 1999-2003. An obvious distribution gradient of fish was revealed along the longitudinal axis of the ímov Reservoir. The total relative fish abundance and biomass (catch per unit effort) decreased considerably from the upstream end of the reservoir toward the dam. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and bream (Abramis brama) comprised the bulk of catches at all areas. Enhanced dominance of bream was observed in the fish assemblage at the uppermost, more eutrophic area of the reservoir. The highest number of fish species and the highest abundance of young-of-the-year fish were also observed in the tributary area. In the downstream part of the reservoir, gill net surveys along the vertical depth profiles indicated that offshore fish occupied mostly the epilimnion. Extreme flood events affected the ímov Reservoir, however, it seemed they had no significant impact on the gradients described. (

  20. Use of sinkhole and specific capacity distributions to assess vertical gradients in a karst aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, K.J.; Kozar, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer in the Great Valley, West Virginia, USA, was evaluated using a database of 687 sinkholes and 350 specific capacity tests to assess structural, lithologic, and topographic influences on the groundwater flow system. The enhanced permeability of the aquifer is characterized in part by the many sinkholes, springs, and solutionally enlarged fractures throughout the valley. Yet, vertical components of subsurface flow in this highly heterogeneous aquifer are currently not well understood. To address this problem, this study examines the apparent relation between geologic features of the aquifer and two spatial indices of enhanced permeability attributed to aquifer karstification: (1) the distribution of sinkholes and (2) the occurrence of wells with relatively high specific capacity. Statistical results indicate that sinkholes (funnel and collapse) occur primarily along cleavage and bedding planes parallel to subparallel to strike where lateral or downward vertical gradients are highest. Conversely, high specific capacity values are common along prominent joints perpendicular or oblique to strike. The similarity of the latter distribution to that of springs suggests these fractures are areas of upward-convergent flow. These differences between sinkhole and high specific capacity distributions suggest vertical flow components are primarily controlled by the orientation of geologic structure and associated subsurface fracturing. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Impacts of a flaring star-forming disc and stellar radial mixing on the vertical metallicity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Grand, Robert J. J.; Gibson, Brad K.; Casagrande, Luca; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Brook, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Using idealized N-body simulations of a Milky Way-sized disc galaxy, we qualitatively study how the metallicity distributions of the thin disc star particles are modified by the formation of the bar and spiral arm structures. The thin disc in our numerical experiments initially has a tight negative radial metallicity gradient and a constant vertical scaleheight. We show that the radial mixing of stars drives a positive vertical metallicity gradient in the thin disc. On the other hand, if the initial thin disc is flared, with vertical scaleheight increasing with galactocentric radius, the metal-poor stars, originally in the outer disc, become dominant in regions above the disc plane at every radii. This process can drive a negative vertical metallicity gradient, which is consistent with the current observed trend. This model mimics a scenario where the star-forming thin disc was flared in the outer region at earlier epochs. Our numerical experiment with an initial flared disc predicts that the negative vertical metallicity gradient of the mono-age relatively young thin disc population should be steeper in the inner disc, and the radial metallicity gradient of the mono-age population should be shallower at greater heights above the disc plane. We also predict that the metallicity distribution function of mono-age young thin disc populations above the disc plane would be more positively skewed in the inner disc compared to the outer disc.

  2. The imprints of bars on the vertical stellar population gradients of galactic bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaeinezhad, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Vazdekis, A.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series aimed to study the stellar kinematics and population properties of bulges in highly-inclined barred galaxies. In this work, we carry out a detailed analysis of the stellar age, metallicity and [Mg/Fe] of 28 highly-inclined (i > 65o) disc galaxies, from S0 to S(B)c, observed with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. The sample is divided into two clean samples of barred and unbarred galaxies, on the basis of the correlation between the stellar velocity and h3 profiles, as well as the level of cylindrical rotation within the bulge region. We find that while the mean stellar age, metallicity and [Mg/Fe] in the bulges of barred and unbarred galaxies are not statistically distinct, the [Mg/Fe] gradients along the minor axis (away from the disc) of barred galaxies are significantly different than those without bars. For barred galaxies, stars that are vertically further away from the midplane are in general more [Mg/Fe]-enhanced and thus the vertical gradients in [Mg/Fe] for barred galaxies are mostly positive, while for unbarred bulges the [Mg/Fe] profiles are typically negative or flat. This result, together with the old populations observed in the barred sample, indicates that bars are long-lasting structures, and therefore are not easily destroyed. The marked [Mg/Fe] differences with the bulges of unbarred galaxies indicate that different formation/evolution scenarios are required to explain their build-up, and emphasizes the role of bars in redistributing stellar material in the bulge dominated regions.

  3. Numerical simulation of supercritical heat transfer under severe axial density gradient in a narrow vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Y. Y.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W.

    2012-07-01

    A number of computational works have been performed so far for the simulation of heat transfer in a supercritical fluid. The simulations, however, faced a lot of difficulties when heat transfer deteriorates due either to buoyancy or by acceleration. When the bulk temperature approaches the pseudo-critical temperature the fluid experiences a severe axial density gradient on top of a severe radial one. Earlier numerical calculations showed, without exception, unrealistic over-predictions, as soon as the bulk temperature exceeded the pseudo-critical temperature. The over-predictions might have been resulted from an inapplicability of widely-used turbulence models. One of the major causes for the difficulties may probably be an assumption of a constant turbulent Prandtl number. Recent research, both numerical and experimental, indicates that the turbulent Prandtl number is never a constant when the gradient of physical properties is significant. This paper describes the applicability of a variable turbulent Prandtl number to the numerical simulation of heat transfer in supercritical fluids flowing in narrow vertical tubes. (authors)

  4. Reconstructing the Vertical 14C Gradient of the Baja Margin during the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C. M.; Lehman, S. J.; Marchitto, T. M.; Ortiz, J. D.; van Geen, A.

    2011-12-01

    The radiocarbon activity (Δ14C) of the atmosphere decreased in two steps during the last deglaciation, coinciding with the well-known Heinrich 1 (H1) and Younger Dryas (YD) stadials. A leading explanation for these periods of decline involves the release of 14C-depleted carbon from a deep, isolated ocean reservoir- a mechanism that may also help to explain the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Reconstructions of intermediate water Δ14C near Baja California, Mexico (Marchitto et al., 2007 Science) and in the Arabian Sea (Bryan et al., 2010 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.) document two intervals of extreme depletion relative to the coeval atmosphere during H1 and the YD that are interpreted as evidence of the return of this aged carbon from the deep reservoir to the upper ocean and atmosphere. Here we report on 14C measurements in additional cores from the Baja margin that expand the depth range of our observations and enable reconstruction of the vertical Δ14C gradient. Calendar ages were determined by (1) correlation of diffuse spectral reflectance (DSR, a proxy related to local productivity) with the layer-counted age model in the GISP2 ice core and (2) correlation of raw planktic G. ruber 14C ages to new measurements in core PC08 previously studied by Marchitto et al. (2007). Together these provide a common and consistent calendar age model for margin core PCO8 (depth 705 m), core PC13 from Soledad Basin (sill depth 290 m) and margin core GC38 (depth 1270 m). In preliminary results, G. ruber Δ14C data from PC08 exhibit a record of deglacial depletion events that is consistent with partial upward mixing of the intermediate-depth signal to the surface. Δ14C at 1270 meters showed relatively little change during H1 and YD, indicating that anomalously depleted water did not penetrate to this depth. The vertical gradient collapsed to within observational uncertainties at the start of the Bølling-Allerød/Antarctic Climate Reversal. Taken together the results support

  5. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Carney, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The northern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Despite the aquifer's importance to the regional economy, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the northern High Plains aquifer were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and other parameters to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Chemical data and tritium and radiocarbon ages show that water in the aquifer was chemically and temporally stratified in the study area, with a relatively thin zone of recently recharged water (less than 50 years) near the water table overlying a thicker zone of older water (1,800 to 15,600 radiocarbon years). In areas where irrigated agriculture was an important land use, the recently recharged ground water was characterized by elevated concentrations of major ions and nitrate and the detection of pesticide compounds. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica. In general, the chemistry of ground water throughout the aquifer was of high quality. None of the approximately 90 chemical constituents analyzed in each sample exceeded primary drinking-water standards. Mass-balance models indicate that changes in ground-water chemistry along flow paths in the aquifer can be accounted for by small amounts of feldspar and calcite dissolution; goethite and

  6. Vertical distribution of the soil microbiota along a successional gradient in a glacier forefield.

    PubMed

    Rime, Thomas; Hartmann, Martin; Brunner, Ivano; Widmer, Franco; Zeyer, Josef; Frey, Beat

    2015-03-01

    Spatial patterns of microbial communities have been extensively surveyed in well-developed soils, but few studies investigated the vertical distribution of micro-organisms in newly developed soils after glacier retreat. We used 454-pyrosequencing to assess whether bacterial and fungal community structures differed between stages of soil development (SSD) characterized by an increasing vegetation cover from barren (vegetation cover: 0%/age: 10 years), sparsely vegetated (13%/60 years), transient (60%/80 years) to vegetated (95%/110 years) and depths (surface, 5 and 20 cm) along the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland). The SSD significantly influenced the bacterial and fungal communities. Based on indicator species analyses, metabolically versatile bacteria (e.g. Geobacter) and psychrophilic yeasts (e.g. Mrakia) characterized the barren soils. Vegetated soils with higher C, N and root biomass consisted of bacteria able to degrade complex organic compounds (e.g. Candidatus Solibacter), lignocellulolytic Ascomycota (e.g. Geoglossum) and ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota (e.g. Laccaria). Soil depth only influenced bacterial and fungal communities in barren and sparsely vegetated soils. These changes were partly due to more silt and higher soil moisture in the surface. In both soil ages, the surface was characterized by OTUs affiliated to Phormidium and Sphingobacteriales. In lower depths, however, bacterial and fungal communities differed between SSD. Lower depths of sparsely vegetated soils consisted of OTUs affiliated to Acidobacteria and Geoglossum, whereas depths of barren soils were characterized by OTUs related to Gemmatimonadetes. Overall, plant establishment drives the soil microbiota along the successional gradient but does not influence the vertical distribution of microbiota in recently deglaciated soils.

  7. Long-term continuous observation of vertical gradient of water temperature on the deep seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Hino, R.; Ito, Y.; Kubota, T.; Inazu, D.

    2015-12-01

    We have conducted ocean bottom pressure observations near the Japan Trench and the Kuril Trench using self-pop-up type instruments to detect seafloor vertical displacement accompanied by slip events along the plate boundary faults. Recently, we have started similar observation campaigns in the Hikurangi subduction zone, off the North Island of New Zealand since 2013. As a result of the observations, we have observed an uplift of 5 m due to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Ito et al., 2011) and transient crustal deformations accompanied by slow slip events preceding the earthquake (Ito et al., 2013). Precision thermometer, usually used for temperature compensation of the pressure readings, occasionally recorded strange temperature changes related to occurrence of submarine earthquakes or tsunamis. Arai et al. (2013) interpreted noticeable temperature changes observed after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and interpreted it as the result of the turbidity current induced by massive tsunami. Inazu et al. (2015) pointed out a possibility that the temperature disturbance recorded just after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake above the large coseismic slip zone was due to the discharged of submarine groundwater associated with the earthquake. In order to describe these strange temperature signals more quantitatively, we started trial observations allowing investigation of water temperature field on the deep seafloor. In this study, we installed two precision temperature loggers top and bottom of the ocean bottom pressure recorders, with ~ 60 cm in height, to measure vertical gradients of seawater temperature as well as the ocean bottom pressures. Here, we report about 1-year continuous records retrieved from the Japan Trench and off New Zealand. During the observation off New Zealand, an evident slow slip event was identified by the onshore geodetic observations near the locations of our seafloor pressure-temperature monitoring. We are now exploring possible thermal and pressure

  8. Prediction of vertical gradient of gravity and its significance for volcano monitoring - example from Teide volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahorec, Pavol; Vajda, Peter; Papčo, Juraj; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Pereda De Pablo, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the topographic contribution to the vertical gradient of gravity (VGG) based on high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and new developed software (Toposk) for the purpose of predicting the actual VGGs in the field. The calculations presented here were performed for the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife. We aimed at identifying the most extreme VGGs within the CVC, as well as predicting the VGGs at benchmarks of the former microgravity/deformation network set up to monitor the 2004/5 unrest. We have carried out an observational campaign in June 2016 to verify the predicted VGG values, both the extreme ones and those at the benchmarks. The comparison between the predicted and the in-situ verified VGGs is presented here. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the VGG prediction to the choice of the topo-rock density, which is inherent to the volcanic areas with high variability of rock densities. We illustrate the significance of the use of actual VGG in volcano monitoring microgravimetric surveys on a couple of benchmarks of the CVC network.

  9. THE EFFECT OF VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT ON THE PROPAGATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL WAVES IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Gu, Pin-Gao

    2015-11-20

    Excitation and propagation of waves in a thermally stratified disk with an arbitrary vertical temperature profile are studied. Previous analytical studies of three-dimensional waves had been focused on either isothermal or polytropic vertical disk structures. However, at the location in a protoplanetary disk where the dominant heating source is stellar irradiation, the temperature gradient may become positive in the vertical direction. We extend the analysis to study the effects of the vertical temperature structure on the waves that are excited at the Lindblad resonances. For a hotter disk atmosphere, the f-mode contributes less to the torque and remains confined near the midplane as it propagates away from the resonances. On the other hand, the excitation of the g-modes is stronger. As they propagate, they channel to the top of disk atmosphere and their group velocities decrease. The differences compared to previous studies may have implications in understanding the wave dynamics in a realistic disk structure.

  10. Weak vertical canopy gradients of photosynthetic capacities and stomatal responses in a fertile Norway spruce stand.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of carbon (C) assimilation to within-canopy nitrogen (N) allocation and of stomatal conductance (g s) to environmental variables were investigated along a vertical canopy gradient in a fertile Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand. Maximum rates of ribulose bisphosphate-saturated carboxylation (V (cmax)) and electron transport (J (max)) exhibited weak relationships with needle N content. Using these relationships together with a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model, it was found that the sensitivity of C assimilation of 12 1-year old shoots to within-canopy N allocation pattern was very weak. Modelled C assimilation based on optimal compared to observed N allocation pattern increased by only 1-2 %, and altering total needle N content by ± 30 % resulted in a 2-4 % change in modelled C assimilation. C assimilation was more sensitive to water use and changed by 8-12 % in response to ± 30 % altered stomatal conductance. No indications of significant limitations of photosynthesis by other nutrients or non-optimal within-canopy allocation of water were detected. The sensitivity of g s to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was found to be stronger in the lower canopy, while no significant within-canopy variation was observed in light-saturated g( s) or stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The results of this study show that, at this N rich site, photosynthesis integrated for shoots at different canopy positions is only marginally affected by N allocation pattern and that increased stand-scale N availability would only be truly beneficial to canopy photosynthesis if it resulted in increased leaf area.

  11. Vertical canopy gradient in photosynthesis and monoterpenoid emissions: An insight into the chemistry and physiology behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Bloemen, J.; Vanhaecke, L.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, E.; Pokorska, O.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Steppe, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that vertical canopy gradients and varying sky conditions influence photosynthesis (Pn), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf thickness (LT) and leaf pigments (lutein, â-carotene and chlorophyll). In contrast, little is known about these effects on monoterpenoid (MT) emissions. Our study examines simultaneously measured Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio along the canopy of an adult European beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) in natural forest conditions. Dynamic branch enclosure systems were used at four heights in the canopy (7, 14, 21 and 25 m) in order to establish relationships and better understand the interaction between Pn and MT emissions under both sunny and cloudy sky conditions. Clear differences in Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio were detected within the canopy. The highest Pn rates were observed in the sun leaves at 25 m due to the higher intercepted light levels, whereas MT emissions (and the MT/Pn ratio) were unexpectedly highest in the semi-shaded leaves at 21 m. The higher Pn rates and, apparently contradictory, lower MT emissions in the sun leaves may be explained by the hypothesis of Owen and Peñuelas (2005), stating synthesis of more photo-protective carotenoids may decrease the emissions of volatile isoprenoids (including MTs) because they both share the same biochemical precursors. In addition, leaf traits like SLA, LT and leaf pigments clearly differed with height in the canopy, suggesting that the leaf's physiological status cannot be neglected in future research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) when aiming at developing new and/or improved emission algorithms.

  12. Combining high resolution vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy to delineate hydrogeologic units for a contaminated sedimentary rock aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologic units (HGUs), representing subsurface contrasts in hydraulic conductivity, form the basis for all conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. However, conventionally, delineation of these units relies heavily on data sets indirect with respect to hydraulic properties. Here, we use the spatial and temporal characteristics of the vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) as the primary line of evidence for delineating HGUs for Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks at a site in Dane County, Wisconsin. The site includes a 16 km2 area encompassing a 3 km long mixed organic contaminants plume. The vertical gradients are derived from hydraulic head profiles obtained using high resolution Westbay multilevel systems installed at 7 locations along two, orthogonal 4 km long cross-sections and monitoring to depths between 90 and 146 m with an average of 3-4 monitoring zones per 10 m. These vertical gradient cross-sections reveal 11 laterally extensive HGUs with contrasting vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv). The position and thickness of the Kv contrasts are consistently associated with sequence stratigraphic features (maximum flooding intervals and sequence boundaries) distinguished at the site using cores and borehole geophysical logs. The same sequence stratigraphic features are also traceable across much of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system of the Midwest US. The vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy were arrived at independently and when combined provide a hydraulically calibrated sequence stratigraphic framework for the site. This framework provides increased confidence in the precise delineation and description of the nature of HGU contacts in each borehole, reduced uncertainty in interpolation of the HGUs between boreholes, and some capability to predict HGU boundaries and thickness in offsite areas where high resolution hydraulic data sets are not available. Consequently, this HGU conceptual model will

  13. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Texas, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Lehman, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The southern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of New Mexico and Texas. Despite the aquifer's importance to the overall economy of the southern High Plains, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the southern High Plains aquifer at two locations (Castro and Hale Counties, Texas) were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, and dissolved gases to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Tritium measurements indicate that recent (post-1953) recharge was present near the water table and that deeper water was recharged before 1953. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were largest (2.6 to 5.6 milligrams per liter) at the water table and decreased with depth below the water table. The smallest concentrations were less than 0.5 milligram per liter. The largest major-ion concentrations generally were detected at the water table because of the effects of overlying agricultural activities, as indicated by postbomb tritium concentrations and elevated nitrate and pesticide concentrations at the water table. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions and mixing with water from the underlying aquifer in rocks of Cretaceous age. The concentration increases primarily were accounted for by dissolved sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations at the water table were 2.0 to 6.1 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, and concentrations substantially decreased with depth in the aquifer to a

  14. Steering compensation for strong vertical refraction gradients in a long-distance free-space optical communication link over water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suite, M. R.; Moore, C. I.; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Wasiczko, L.; Stell, M. F.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Scharpf, W. J.; Gilbreath, G. C.

    2005-08-01

    It is important to be able to characterize and compensate for refraction effects in free-space optical laser communication (FSO lasercom). The refractive index depends on various properties of the propagation medium such as temperature, pressure, and moisture, with temperature having the largest affect. Very strong but slow-varying thermal gradients have been observed at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed, which offers a 16 km one-way (32 km round-trip) FSO lasercom link over water. Thermal gradients affect the elevation-pointing angle, and their magnitudes are a function of the time of day and year and also the weather conditions. These vertical refraction errors are corrected by the use of a fiber positioner controlled by a position-sensing detector (PSD). This system is implemented into the receiver at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed. System test results will be presented.

  15. Dynamic impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind on the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ninghao; Xu, Xin; Song, Lili; Bai, Lina; Ming, Jie; Wang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fiveforce balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria's model, under different VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial inflow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifies. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial inflow is significantly suppressed, even with divergent outflow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensification of TC.

  16. Natural convection in binary gases driven by combined horizontal thermal and vertical solutal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of natural convection is presented to examine the influence of a horizontal temperature gradient and a concentration gradient occurring from the bottom to the cold wall in a cavity. As the solutal buoyancy force changes from augmenting to opposing the thermal buoyancy force, the fluid motion switches from unicellular to multicellular flow (fluid motion is up the cold wall and down the hot wall for the bottom counterrotating flow cell). Qualitatively, the agreement between predicted streamlines and smoke flow patterns is generally good. In contrast, agreement between measured and predicted temperature and concentration distributions ranges from fair to poor. Part of the discrepancy can be attributed to experimental error. However, there remains considerable discrepancy between data and predictions due to the idealizations of the mathematical model, which examines only first-order physical effects. An unsteady flow, variable thermophysical properties, conjugate effects, species interdiffusion, and radiation were not accounted for in the model.

  17. Denitrification in nitrate-contaminated groundwater: Occurrence in steep vertical geochemical gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Duff, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    A relatively narrow vertical zone (5-6 m thick) of NO3- containing groundwater was identified using multilevel sampling devices in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, USA. The aquifer has been chronically contaminated by surface disposal of treated sewage 0.3 km upgradient from the study area. The NO3- zone was anoxic and contained high concentrations of N2O (16.5 ??M), suggesting that it was a zone of active denitrification. Denitrifying activity was confirmed with direct measurement using acetylene block incubations with aquifer core material; the peak rate was 2.4 nmol N reduced (g sed)-1 day-1. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and N2 were close to atmospheric equilibrium in uncontaminated groundwater, but were more than 2 times higher within the contaminant plume. Excess CO2 and N2 suggested in situ formation with a stoichiometry of C and N mineralized via denitrification of 0.8 (C/N). Denitrification within the aquifer resulted in an increase in the natural ??15N of NO3- (from +13.6 to +42.0%.) and the N2 produced, with an isotopic enrichment factor, ??{lunate}, of -13.9%.. Vertical profiles of NH4+ and ??15N of NH4+ indicated that dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to NH4+ was also occurring but mass balance calculations indicated that denitrification was the predominant process. These results demonstrate that a combination approach using field mass balance, stable isotope analysis, and laboratory incubations yields useful insight as to the significance of denitrification in aquifer sediments and that closely spaced vertical sampling is necessary to adequately quantify the processes controlling C and N transport and transformation within these environments. ?? 1991.

  18. Variation in Community Structure across Vertical Intertidal Stress Gradients: How Does It Compare with Horizontal Variation at Different Scales?

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Nelson; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Molis, Markus; Knox, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    In rocky intertidal habitats, the pronounced increase in environmental stress from low to high elevations greatly affects community structure, that is, the combined measure of species identity and their relative abundance. Recent studies have shown that ecological variation also occurs along the coastline at a variety of spatial scales. Little is known, however, on how vertical variation compares with horizontal variation measured at increasing spatial scales (in terms of sampling interval). Because broad-scale processes can generate geographical patterns in community structure, we tested the hypothesis that vertical ecological variation is higher than fine-scale horizontal variation but lower than broad-scale horizontal variation. To test this prediction, we compared the variation in community structure across intertidal elevations on rocky shores of Helgoland Island with independent estimates of horizontal variation measured at the scale of patches (quadrats separated by 10s of cm), sites (quadrats separated by a few m), and shores (quadrats separated by 100s to 1000s of m). The multivariate analyses done on community structure supported our prediction. Specifically, vertical variation was significantly higher than patch- and site-scale horizontal variation but lower than shore-scale horizontal variation. Similar patterns were found for the variation in abundance of foundation taxa such as Fucus spp. and Mastocarpus stellatus, suggesting that the effects of these canopy-forming algae, known to function as ecosystem engineers, may explain part of the observed variability in community structure. Our findings suggest that broad-scale processes affecting species performance increase ecological variability relative to the pervasive fine-scale patchiness already described for marine coasts and the well known variation caused by vertical stress gradients. Our results also indicate that experimental research aiming to understand community structure on marine shores

  19. A finite element study on the cause of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2016-11-01

    Vertical stiffness variation (VSV) on the vocal fold medial surface was recently reported and was hypothesized to be an important feature for phonation as it can promote the divergent angle during vibration. However, the underlying mechanism of such feature remains unclear. In our opinion, there are three primary mechanisms that could contribute to the overall stiffness variation, including the material variation in the cover layer, the superior-inferior asymmetry of the vocal fold structure and the presence of the conus elasticus. The current study aims to use the finite element method to quantify the contribution of these three mechanisms to the VSV. The preliminary results showed that the material variation and structural asymmetry can have a significant effect on the VSV, however, the presence conus elasticus had nearly negligible effect. The structural asymmetry due to the subglottal angle caused about 15% 20% increase in VSV when the subglottal angle beyond 40°, and its effect was more significant at small subglottal angles.

  20. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  1. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  2. Measurement of the vertical gradient of the semidiurnal tidal wind phase in winter at the 95 km level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-05-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  3. Asymptotic theory of two-phase gas-solid flow through a vertical tube at moderate pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Y. A.; Zhurov, A. I.

    1997-02-01

    Based on the equations, constitutive relations and boundary conditions of the kinetic theory of colliding particles in a gas-solid suspension, the approximate theory of the steady, developed vertical flow of a gas-particulate mixture is developed for the case of moderate gas pressure gradient in a vertical tube. The basic equations and boundary conditions show a singular behaviour of the solution of the problem at the wall. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to develop a boundary layer-type theory for the flow parameters of the particulate phase. The basic equations in the bulk flow are reduced to a system of two ordinary integrodifferential equations for the particle-phase concentration and mean kinetic energy of particle velocity fluctuations (particle-phase pseudotemperature). The distributions of the particle concentration and velocity are found in both the bulk and the boundary layer. The solutions shows the bifurcation of flow parameters, and an explicit criterion is derived to identify a range of the given macroscopic parameters corresponding to upward or downward particulate flow. The integrated parameters (total fluxes of the gas and particle phase) are calculated.

  4. Measurement of the Vertical Gradient of the Semidiurnal Tidal Wind Phase in Winter at the 95 Km Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-01-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  5. Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

    2008-05-15

    Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

  6. Fluid motions and compositional gradients produced by crystallization or melting at vertical boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. Stewart; Gustafson, Lewis B.

    1981-12-01

    The results of a continuing series of laboratory experiments, designed to model the fluid motions which accompany crystallization, are both described and related in a preliminary way to prototype flows in magma chambers. Previous experiments have demonstrated the importance of compositional inhomogeneity, produced by crystallization and melting in a thermal gradient and coupled with double-diffusive effects, in driving convective flows which result in thermal and compositional stratification in an originally homogeneous fluid. The present experiments examine effects produced in tanks cooled at the side, by the upward flow of a less dense boundary layer depleted in the crystallizing component as crystals grow on the side wall. These processes are examined in simple two and three component aqueous systems (H 2O-Na 2CO 3, H 2O-Na 2CO 3-K 2CO 3, H 2O-CuSO 4-Na 2SO 4) with one and two crystallizing phases. In each of these systems, an initially downward flow of a cooled boundary layer against the side wall is reversed as crystallization commences and depletes the boundary layer in the crystallizing component. Accumulation of this cooler but lighter depleted fluid at the top of the chamber produces thermal and compositional layering by a "filling box" mechanism, partly modified by interchange between the boundary layer and the convecting layers outside. When more than one component is present in the solution, the crystallization process produces a differentiated fluid column, i.e. one with compositional gradients which are different for each of the components. The compositional and thermal distributions within the fluid change with time, but finally appear to reach a steady state. These distributions are the integrated result of compositional changes produced by crystallization from a thin boundary layer, a small proportion of the bulk fluid which evolves in composition and temperature independently of the bulk fluid, in a manner controlled by the dynamics of the system

  7. Fine-scale horizontal and vertical micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae along a narrow Fen/Bog gradient.

    PubMed

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Mitchell, Edward A D; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The ecology of peatland testate amoebae is well studied along broad gradient from very wet (pool) to dry (hummock) micro-sites where testate amoebae are often found to respond primarily to the depth to water table (DWT). Much less is known on their responses to finer-scale gradients, and nothing is known of their possible response to phenolic compounds, which play a key role in carbon storage in peatlands. We studied the vertical (0-3, 3-6, and 6-9 cm sampling depths) micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae in the same microhabitat (Sphagnum fallax lawn) along a narrow ecological gradient between a poor fen with an almost flat and homogeneous Sphagnum carpet (fen) and a "young bog" (bog) with more marked micro-topography and mosaic of poor fen and bog vegetation. We analyzed the relationships between the testate amoeba data and three sets of variables (1) "chemical" (pH, Eh potential, and conductivity), (2) "physical" (water temperature, altitude, i.e., Sphagnum mat micro-topography, and DWT), and (3) phenolic compounds in/from Sphagnum (water-soluble and primarily bound phenolics) as well as the habitat (fen/bog) and the sampling depth. Testate amoeba Shannon H' diversity, equitability J of communities, and total density peaked in lower parts of Sphagnum, but the patterns differed between the fen and bog micro-sites. Redundancy analyses revealed that testate amoeba communities differed significantly in relation to Eh, conductivity, water temperature, altitude, water-soluble phenolics, habitat, and sampling depth, but not to DWT, pH, or primarily bound phenolics. The sensitivity of testate amoebae to weak environmental gradients makes them particularly good integrators of micro-environmental variations and has implications for their use in paleoecology and environmental monitoring. The correlation between testate amoeba communities and the concentration of water-soluble phenolic suggests direct (e.g., physiological) and/or indirect (e.g., through impact on

  8. The Effect of Pre-Impact Porosity and Vertical Density Gradients on the Gravity Signature of Lunar Craters as Seen by GRAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbury, C.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Collins, G. S.; Blair, D. M.; Soderblom, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Phillips, R. J.; Bierson, C. J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-09-01

    We use iSALE to model complex crater formation on the Moon. We vary initial target porosity and model vertical density/porosity gradients in the crust. We calculate the Bouguer anomaly associated with the craters and match them to GRAIL observations.

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution of the timing of start and end of growing season along vertical and horizontal gradients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Shin; Saitoh, Taku M; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Suzuki, Rikie

    2015-01-01

    We detected the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of start (SGS) and end of growing season (EGS) in Japan from 2003 to 2012 by analyzing satellite-observed daily green-red vegetation index with a 500-m spatial resolution. We also examined the characteristics of SGS and EGS timing in deciduous broadleaf and needleleaf forests along vertical and horizontal gradients and then evaluated the relationship between their timing and daily mean air temperature. We found that for the timing of SGS and EGS, changes along the vertical gradient in deciduous broadleaf forest tended to be larger than those in deciduous needleleaf forest. For both forest types, changes along the vertical and horizontal gradients in the timing of EGS tended to be smaller than those of SGS. Finally, in both forest types, the sensitivity of the timing of EGS to air temperature was much less than that of SGS. These results suggest that the spatio-temporal variability in the timing of SGS and EGS detected by satellite data, which may be correlated with leaf traits, photosynthetic capacity, and environment conditions, provide useful ground-truthing information along vertical and horizontal gradients.

  10. An electromagnetic sounding experiment in Germany using the vertical gradient of geomagnetic variations observed in a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Ulrich; Spitzer, Klaus; Steveling, Erich

    2009-09-01

    We have recorded for 13 d, geomagnetic variations simultaneously on the Earth's surface and in a borehole at 832 m depth straight below, with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. In addition, geoelectric variations were observed at the same site near Bad Königshofen in Frankonia, Germany. The penetrated moderately conductive Triassic sediments lie above highly resistive Permian deposits. A presumably crystalline basement begins at 1500-1900 m depth. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the skin effect of geomagnetic variations and to derive from it the equivalent to the magnetotelluric (MT) surface impedance, using the vertical gradient (VG) method of electromagnetic (EM) sounding. In this way, we were able to reproduce all four elements of the MT impedance tensor, except for an unexplained but consistent downward shift of VG phases against MT phases by roughly 15° for the two off-diagonal elements. Hence, our tensor evaluation goes beyond the common practice, to express the skin effect by a single VG transfer function in response to a layered structure. The otherwise good agreement of VG and MT results implies that at our test site, the MT impedance tensor is largely distortion-free and that, for example, its pronounced anisotropy should be regarded as a genuine characteristic of the EM response for a laterally non-uniform or possibly anisotropic deep structure. The drilling site lies within the range of a widespread induction anomaly. We have observed the resulting variations of the vertical magnetic component at the surface and in the borehole and found them to be identical. The thus established absence of a skin effect for the vertical component allows us to treat the sedimentary layer down to the depth of the borehole instrument as a thin sheet, and the pertinent thin-sheet approximation for EM induction forms the basis of our analysis. We have derived the required estimate of conductance from the skin effect of horizontal components, noting that this estimate

  11. [FeFe]-hydrogenase abundance and diversity along a vertical redox gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Swanson, Kevin D; Howells, Alta E; Baxter, Bonnie K; Meuser, Jonathan E; Posewitz, Matthew C; Peters, John W

    2014-11-28

    The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  12. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite

  13. The Effect of Pre-Impact Porosity and Vertical Density Gradients on the Gravity Signature of Lunar Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbury, Colleen; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth S.; Blair, David M.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Nimmo, Francis; Phillips, Roger J.; Bierson, Carver J.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-11-01

    overall porosity, but higher vertical gradients, giving craters within SPA more-negative BAs than those within the highlands crust. These simulations demonstrate that the BA and porosities reported here are valid for determining general trends only.

  14. [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Swanson, Kevin D.; Howells, Alta E.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Meuser, Jonathan E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Peters, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

  15. Meteorological determinants of spider ballooning: the roles of thermals vs. the vertical windspeed gradient in becoming airborne.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, M H

    1990-09-01

    Spiders disperse by ballooning, a form of aeronautic behavior which they initiate by launching themselves into thermals. An attempt was made to define meteorological variables related to production and maintenance of thermals and use them as predictors of the number of aeronauts. Ballooning spiders were collected throughout a full growing season at an agricultural site and a native tall grass prairie 25 km distant, and numbers of ballooners were regressed against variables derived from meteorological data taken at locations near each site. The variables were the proportions of cloud cover and of possible sunshine, differences between maximum and minimum daily temperature (DT), wind speed, and a modification of the aeronautic index of Vugts and van Wingerden (1976). Ballooner numbers and meteorological variables used in the regressions were all weekly means. Significant one-step models were derived for both sites, but the addition of a second variable did not significantly increase the proportion of variation explained in either model. The modified aeronautic index explained 23% of the variation in ballooner numbers at the prairie site, while the proportion of possible sunshine explained 82% of the variation at the agricultural site. However the signs of the partial regression coefficients were contrary to expected. This may be due to the masking of short term meteorological and behavioral events by the averaging of meteorological variables and aeronaut numbers over a week. Alternatively it may indicate that the source of updrafts used by aeronauts may not always be thermals, but may sometimes be the vertical gradient in windspeed, a model which is consistent with the contrary signs of the regression coefficients.

  16. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des

  17. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing ES (ESb) during counter equatorial electrojet events: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, C. V.; Jyoti, N.; Subbarao, K. S. V.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Reddi, C. Raghava; Sridharan, R.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde, and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip latitude 0.5°N, geographic latitude 8.5°N, geographic longitude 77°E), India. The presence of blanketing type ES (ESb) in the ionograms with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon Counter Equatorial Electrojet (CEEJ) events. ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric field and/or with distortions present in the altitude profile of the drift velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinated study indicate the possible role of vertical electron density gradients in ESb layers in addition to providing evidence for the local winds to be responsible for the vertical gradients themselves.

  18. Highly efficient organic solar cells with improved vertical donor-acceptor compositional gradient via an inverted off-center spinning method

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiang; Carpenter, Joshua H.; Li, Chang -Zhi; Yu, Jun -Sheng; Ade, Harald; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-12-02

    A novel, yet simple solution fabrication technique to address the trade-off between photocurrent and fill factor in thick bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is described. Lastly, the inverted off-center spinning technique promotes a vertical gradient of the donor–acceptor phase-separated morphology, enabling devices with near 100% internal quantum efficiency and a high power conversion efficiency of 10.95%.

  19. In situ modulation of the vertical distribution in a blend of P3HT and PC60BM via the addition of a composition gradient inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Joon; Lee, Gang-Young; Im, Min Jeong; Song, Seulki; Park, Taiho

    2014-01-01

    2,2,3,3,4,4,4-Heptafluoro-N-phenyl-butyr-amide (F-ADD) was synthesized and shown to induce a composition gradient in a blend of P3HT and PC60BM. The addition of small amounts (ca. 0.5 wt%) of F-ADD modulated the chemical distribution in the blend along the vertical direction by controlling the blend component interface energy through selective interactions between F-ADD and PC60BM. A homogeneous compositional distribution along the vertical direction in the nanostructured bulk heterojunction (BHJ) increased the interfacial area, which shortened the exciton path length to the donor-acceptor interface and improved the photovoltaic performance.2,2,3,3,4,4,4-Heptafluoro-N-phenyl-butyr-amide (F-ADD) was synthesized and shown to induce a composition gradient in a blend of P3HT and PC60BM. The addition of small amounts (ca. 0.5 wt%) of F-ADD modulated the chemical distribution in the blend along the vertical direction by controlling the blend component interface energy through selective interactions between F-ADD and PC60BM. A homogeneous compositional distribution along the vertical direction in the nanostructured bulk heterojunction (BHJ) increased the interfacial area, which shortened the exciton path length to the donor-acceptor interface and improved the photovoltaic performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05312a

  20. Nocturnal Vertical Gradients of O3, NO2, NO3, HONO, HCHO, and SO2 in Los Angeles, CA, during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, J.; Pikelnaya, O.; Hurlock, S. C.; Wong, K.; Cheung, R.; Haman, C. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Stutz, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nocturnal chemistry, through the conversion and removal of air pollutants, plays an important role in determining the initial condition for photochemistry during the following day. In the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) the interplay between suppressed vertical mixing and surface emissions of NOx and VOCs can result in pronounced vertical trace gas profiles. The resulting altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry makes the interpretation of ground observations challenging. In particular, the quantification of the nocturnal loss of NOx, due to NO3 and N2O5 chemistry, requires observations throughout the entire vertical extent of the NBL. The formation of daytime radical precursors, such as HONO, is also altitude dependent. An accurate assessment of their impact on daytime chemistry requires measurements of their profiles during the night and morning. Here we present observations from the CalNex-LA experiment, which took place from May 15 to June 15, 2010 on the east side of the Los Angeles Basin, CA. A Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (LP-DOAS) was set up on the roof of the Millikan library (265 m asl, 35m agl) on the campus of the California Institute of Technology. Four retroreflector arrays were mounted about 5 -7 km North-East of the instrument at 310m, 353m, 487m and 788 m asl. The vertical profiles of NO3, HONO, NO2, O3, HCHO, and SO2 were retrieved at altitude intervals of 35-78m, 78-121m, 121-255m and 255-556m above the ground. During many nights vertical gradients were observed, with elevated NO2 and HONO concentrations near the surface and larger ozone and NO3 concentrations aloft. Simultaneous ceilometer observations of the NBL structure show the impact of meteorology on the vertical trace gas distributions. We will discuss the consequences of trace gases gradients on the nocturnal NOx budget.

  1. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiqing; Lu, Joann J.; Rao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently) after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S) method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types. PMID:27668122

  2. Steering Compensation for Strong Vertical Refraction Gradients in a Long-Distance Free-Space Optical Communication Link Over Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    The receiver is a 16” Meade telescope with a focal length of four meters. A round-trip FSO lasercom link over the Chesapeake Bay is used to test...characterize and compensate for refraction effects in free-space optical laser communication ( FSO lasercom). The refractive index depends on various...varying thermal gradients have been observed at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed, which offers a 16 km one-way (32 km round-trip) FSO lasercom

  3. Large vertical δ13CDIC gradients in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton: Implications for oceanographic changes related to Siberian Traps volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Horacek, Micha; Qiu, Haiou; Song, Haijun; Tian, Li; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Vertical gradients in the δ13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (Δδ13CDIC) can be estimated for paleomarine systems based on δ13Ccarb data from sections representing a range of depositional water depths. An analysis of eight Lower Triassic sections from the northern Yangtze Platform and Nanpanjiang Basin, representing water depths of ~ 50 to 500 m, allowed reconstruction of Δδ13CDIC in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton for seven time slices representing four negative (N) and three positive (P) carbon-isotope excursions: 8.5‰ (N1), 5.8‰ (P1), 3.5‰ (N2), 6.5‰ (P2), 7.8‰ (N3), - 1.9‰ (P3), and 2.2‰ (N4). These values are much larger than vertical δ13CDIC gradients in the modern ocean (~ 1-3‰) due to intensified stratification and reduced vertical mixing in Early Triassic seas. Peaks in Δδ13CDIC around the PTB (N1) and in the early to mid-Smithian (P2-N3) coincided with episodes of strong climatic warming, reduced marine productivity, and expanded ocean anoxia. The Dienerian-Smithian boundary marks the onset of a major mid-Early Triassic disturbance, commencing ~ 1 Myr after the latest Permian mass extinction, that we link to a second eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps. Inhospitable oceanic conditions generally persisted until the early Spathian, when strong climatic cooling caused re-invigoration of global-ocean circulation, leading to an interval of negative Δδ13CDIC values and a sharp increase in δ13Ccarb driven by upwelling of nutrient-rich deepwaters. These developments marked the end of the main eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps.

  4. Eddy covariance fluxes and vertical concentration gradient measurements of NO and NO2 over a ponderosa pine ecosystem: observational evidence for within canopy removal of NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    Exchange of NOx (NO+NO2) between the atmosphere and biosphere is important for air quality, climate change, and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. There are few direct ecosystem scale measurements of the direction and rate of atmosphere-biosphere exchange of NOx. As a result, a complete description of the processes affecting NOx following emission from soils and/or plants as they transit from within the plant/forest canopy to the free atmosphere remains poorly constrained and debated. Here, we describe measurements of NO and NO2 fluxes and vertical concentration gradients made during the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2009. In general, during daytime we observe upward fluxes of NO and NO2 with counter-gradient fluxes of NO. We find that NOx fluxes from the forest canopy are smaller than calculated using observed flux-gradient relationships for conserved tracers and also smaller than measured soil NO emissions. We interpret these differences as evidence for the existence of a "canopy reduction factor". We suggest that at this site it is primarily due to chemistry converting NOx to higher nitrogen oxides within the forest canopy.

  5. Eddy covariance fluxes and vertical concentration gradient measurements of NO and NO2 over a ponderosa pine ecosystem: observational evidence for within-canopy chemical removal of NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Cohen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    Exchange of NOx (NO+NO2) between the atmosphere and biosphere is important for air quality, climate change, and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. There are few direct ecosystem-scale measurements of the direction and rate of atmosphere-biosphere exchange of NOx. As a result, a complete description of the processes affecting NOx following emission from soils and/or plants as they transit from within the plant/forest canopy to the free atmosphere remains poorly constrained and debated. Here, we describe measurements of NO and NO2 fluxes and vertical concentration gradients made during the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2009. In general, during daytime we observe upward fluxes of NO and NO2 with counter-gradient fluxes of NO. We find that NOx fluxes from the forest canopy are smaller than calculated using observed flux-gradient relationships for conserved tracers and also smaller than measured soil NO emissions. We interpret these differences as primarily due to chemistry converting NOx to higher nitrogen oxides within the forest canopy, which might be part of a mechanistic explanation for the "canopy reduction factor" applied to soil NOx emissions in large-scale models.

  6. When hot water freezes before cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2009-01-01

    I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is due to freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. The solutes are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reducing the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reducing the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the freezing front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

  7. Tailored Height Gradients in Vertical Nanowire Arrays via Mechanical and Electronic Modulation of Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Otte, M A; Solis-Tinoco, V; Prieto, P; Borrisé, X; Lechuga, L M; González, M U; Sepulveda, B

    2015-09-02

    In current top-down nanofabrication methodologies the design freedom is generally constrained to the two lateral dimensions, and is only limited by the resolution of the employed nanolithographic technique. However, nanostructure height, which relies on certain mask-dependent material deposition or etching techniques, is usually uniform, and on-chip variation of this parameter is difficult and generally limited to very simple patterns. Herein, a novel nanofabrication methodology is presented, which enables the generation of high aspect-ratio nanostructure arrays with height gradients in arbitrary directions by a single and fast etching process. Based on metal-assisted chemical etching using a catalytic gold layer perforated with nanoholes, it is demonstrated how nanostructure arrays with directional height gradients can be accurately tailored by: (i) the control of the mass transport through the nanohole array, (ii) the mechanical properties of the perforated metal layer, and (iii) the conductive coupling to the surrounding gold film to accelerate the local electrochemical etching process. The proposed technique, enabling 20-fold on-chip variation of nanostructure height in a spatial range of a few micrometers, offers a new tool for the creation of novel types of nano-assemblies and metamaterials with interesting technological applications in fields such as nanophotonics, nanophononics, microfluidics or biomechanics.

  8. Spatial and vertical gradients in the stable carbon isotope composition of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water over the last 900 thousand years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Smith, J.; Hodell, D. A.; Frederichs, T.; Allen, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) recorded in benthic foraminiferal calcite reflect that of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of ambient seawater, and thus are used to reconstruct past changes in water mass mixing. Records of benthic foraminiferal δ13C from the Atlantic Ocean have revealed the development of a sharp vertical δ13C gradient between 2300-2500m water depth during successive glacial periods throughout the Late Quaternary, with extremely negative δ13C values recorded below this depth. It had been hypothesised that this gradient resulted from an increased stratification of water masses within the glacial Atlantic Ocean, and that these extreme δ13C values originated in the Southern Ocean. However the mechanisms behind the formation of this gradient and extreme δ13C depletion have remained unclear. This is in part due to the poor preservation of calcareous microfossils in the corrosive waters below 2500-3000m found in the Southern Ocean, which hampers our understanding of this key region. Here we present a unique new δ13C deep water record measured on benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) from a sediment core recovered from 2100m water depth in the Amundsen Sea, south-eastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The site is bathed in Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) today, and combined palaeomagnetic and oxygen isotope stratigraphy show that the sediments continuously span at least the last 890 ka. A comparison of this new δ13C data with other LCDW records from ODP Sites 1089/1090 in the South Atlantic and ODP Site 1123 in the Southwest Pacific demonstrate a clear spatial gradient in circum-Antarctic LCDW during glacial periods. The pool of extremely depleted glacial deep marine δ13C is restricted to the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean, with increasingly positive δ13C values found in the Southwest Pacific and the south-eastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This implies that the δ13C depletion in the deep glacial

  9. Comparisons of refractive index gradient and stability profiles measured by balloons and the MU radar at a high vertical resolution in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, H.; Hassenpflug, G.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.

    2007-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that VHF Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar echo power is proportional to the generalized refractive index gradient squared M2 when using a vertically oriented beam. Because humidity is generally negligible above the tropopause, VHF ST radars can thus provide information on the static stability (quantified by the squared Brunt-Väisälä frequency N2) at stratospheric heights and this capability is useful for many scientific applications. Most studies have been performed until now at a vertical resolution of 150 m or more. In the present paper, results of comparisons between radar- and (balloon borne) radiosonde-derived M2 and N2 are shown at a better vertical resolution of 50 m with the MU radar (34.85° N, 136.15° E; Japan) by benefiting from the range resolution improvement provided by the multi-frequency range imaging technique, using the Capon processing method. Owing to favorable winds in the troposphere, the radiosondes did not drift horizontally more than about 30 km from the MU radar site by the time they reached an altitude of 20 km. The measurements were thus simultaneous and almost collocated. Very good agreements have been obtained between both high resolution profiles of M2, as well as profiles of N2. It is also shown that this agreement can still be improved by taking into account a frozen-in advection of the air parcels by a horizontally uniform wind. Therefore, it can be concluded that 1) the range imaging technique with the Capon method really provides substantial range resolution improvement, despite the relatively weak Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR) over the analyzed region of the lower stratosphere, 2) the proportionality of the radar echo power to M2 at a vertical scale down to 50 m in the lower stratosphere is experimentally demonstrated, 3) the MU radar can provide stability profiles with a vertical resolution of 50 m at heights where humidity is negligible, 4) stable stratospheric layers as thin

  10. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing dynamics across vertical environmental gradients determined by transplant in situ dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Selph, Karen E; Landry, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) represents a classic case of the bloom-forming capacity of small phytoplankton. Unlike other upwelling systems, autotrophic biomass in the CRD is dominated by picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotes that outcompete larger diatoms and reach extremely high biomass levels. We investigated responses of the subsurface phytoplankton community of the CRD to changes associated with vertical displacement of water masses, coupling in situ transplanted dilution experiments with flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy to assess group-specific dynamics. Growth rates of Synechococcus (SYN) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were positively correlated with light (Rpearson_SYN = 0.602 and Rpearson_PEUK = 0.588, P < 0.001). Growth rates of Prochlorococcus (PRO), likely affected by photoinhibition, were not light correlated (Rpearson_PRO = 0.101, P = 0.601). Overall, grazing and growth rates were closely coupled in all picophytoplankton groups (Rspearman_PRO = 0.572, Rspearman_SYN = 0.588, Rspearman_PEUK = 0.624), and net growth rates remained close to zero. Conversely, the abundance and biomass of larger phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, increased more than 10-fold in shallower transplant incubations indicating that, in addition to trace-metal chemistry, light also plays a significant role in controlling microphytoplankton populations in the CRD.

  11. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing dynamics across vertical environmental gradients determined by transplant in situ dilution experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Selph, Karen E.; Landry, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) represents a classic case of the bloom-forming capacity of small phytoplankton. Unlike other upwelling systems, autotrophic biomass in the CRD is dominated by picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotes that outcompete larger diatoms and reach extremely high biomass levels. We investigated responses of the subsurface phytoplankton community of the CRD to changes associated with vertical displacement of water masses, coupling in situ transplanted dilution experiments with flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy to assess group-specific dynamics. Growth rates of Synechococcus (SYN) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were positively correlated with light (Rpearson_SYN = 0.602 and Rpearson_PEUK = 0.588, P < 0.001). Growth rates of Prochlorococcus (PRO), likely affected by photoinhibition, were not light correlated (Rpearson_PRO = 0.101, P = 0.601). Overall, grazing and growth rates were closely coupled in all picophytoplankton groups (Rspearman_PRO = 0.572, Rspearman_SYN = 0.588, Rspearman_PEUK = 0.624), and net growth rates remained close to zero. Conversely, the abundance and biomass of larger phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, increased more than 10-fold in shallower transplant incubations indicating that, in addition to trace-metal chemistry, light also plays a significant role in controlling microphytoplankton populations in the CRD. PMID:27275030

  12. The Effect of Pre-Impact Porosity and Vertical Density Gradients on the Gravity Signature of Lunar Craters as Seen by GRAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbury, C.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H., IV; Collins, G. S.; Blair, D. M.; Soderblom, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Bierson, C. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    As a result of NASA's dual spacecraft Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission [Zuber et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231507], we now know that the lunar crust is highly porous and that the porosity varies laterally [Wieczorek et al., 2013; doi:10.1126/science.1231530] and vertically [Besserer et al., 2014; doi:10.1002/2014GL060240]. Analysis of complex craters located within the lunar highlands reveals that: 1) craters larger than diameter D~210 have positive Bouguer Anomalies (BAs), 2) craters with D ≲ 100 km have both positive and negative BAs that vary about the (near 0) mean by approximately ± 25 mGal, and, 3) D and BA are anticorrelated for craters with D ≲ 100 km [Soderblom et al., 2015; submitted]. Numerical modeling by Milbury et al. [2015, LPSC] shows that pre-impact porosity is the dominant influence on the gravity signature of complex craters with D ≲ 100 km, and mantle uplift dominates the gravity for those with D > 140 km. Phillips et al. [2015, LPSC] showed that complex craters located in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin tend to have more-negative BAs than similar craters in the highlands. By including (pre-impact) vertical porosity/density gradients in our impact simulations, we reproduce the observed anticorrelation between BA and D for D ≲ 100 km, and the observed difference between the BAs of SPA and highland craters. We use the iSALE hydrocode including pore space compaction [Wünnemann et al., 2006; doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.013] and dilatant bulking [Collins, 2014; doi:10.1002/2014JE004708] to understand how the gravity signature of impact craters develop. In this study we vary density/porosity with depth. We find that simulations that have constant porosity with depth have a lower BA for a given crater diameter than those with varying porosity. We used two different mean porosities (7% and 14%) and found that the BA increases with increasing porosity, similar to simulations with constant porosity. Larger

  13. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait.

    PubMed

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for physical

  14. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait

    PubMed Central

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30’N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for

  15. Observations of Vertical Gradients in Composition, Oxidation States, and Diurnal Dynamics for a Comprehensive Suite of VOCs from 10 to 525 m in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Weber, R.; Guha, A.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted by numerous anthropogenic and biogenic sources and undergo oxidative processing, as well as horizontal and vertical transport, in the troposphere. Understanding the dynamics of chemical and physical land atmosphere exchange processes and their impacts on atmospheric chemistry requires high temporal resolution of observations at multiple heights and the knowledge of the sources and sinks. We measured dynamic composition changes of VOCs as a function of height (5 inlets from 10 to 525 m, switching every 2 minutes, full profile every 10 minutes) for more than a year using a PTR-QMS. Here, we focus on a multi-week period in February 2013 when simultaneous SRI-TOFMS and PTR-QMS took place. More than 300 ions were detected within an m/z range of 0.000 - 400.000 Th and 260 ions were analyzed. Chemical formulas were assigned to more than 50% of these ions. Late winter is a period when anthropogenic influences are relatively high including remote sources in the Central Valley. Biogenic influences are low at this time of year, but were clearly observed. The average diurnal vertical gradients (Figure 1) showed trends and patterns and behavior consistent with boundary layer dynamics, wind profiles and source activity for a broad array of VOCs and source categories. Mass concentration of oxygenated VOCs with 2, 3 or more oxygens or with nitrogen+oxygen had an increasing tendency with height. The opposite was true for pure hydrocarbons and reduced nitrogen containing VOCs which generally decrease with height. The remaining species comprised halogenated as well as other volatile products. Average oxidation state ranged from -2.0 to 4.3. These observations are useful to reflect the dynamics of VOCs at a rural site in the Central Valley and could be particularly useful for comparison with models of atmospheric chemistry that include PBL dynamics. Figure 1: Gradient concentration diurnal profiles for 48 selected ions, showing the

  16. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    SciTech Connect

    Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven; Lindberg, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  17. Reconstructing the Late Pleistocene Southern Ocean biological pump using the vertical gradient of Cd/Ca in planktic and benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charidemou, Miros; Hall, Ian; Ziegler, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region in the global carbon cycle because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2-rich deep waters to the ocean surface. However, outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere is ultimately determined by the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump which transfers carbon back into the deep sea. Biological productivity in the Southern Ocean on glacial-interglacial timescales is thought to be influenced by the availability of iron from terrestrial dust sources (Martin, 1990). However, the exact nature of the relationship between productivity and dust flux is still debated (Ziegler et al., 2013; Martinez-Garcia et al., 2014) and remains unclear for earlier times such as during the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). Changes in the strength of the soft-tissue biological pump can be reconstructed with relative ease by measuring carbon isotopes in planktic and benthic foraminifera and quantifying the vertical gradient between them (Ziegler et al., 2013). Our ultimate aim is to use this technique to reconstruct changes in the biological pump in the Southern Ocean during the MPT, when a sharp rise in dust flux is observed in the sedimentary record (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2011). This will allow us to assess the contribution of changes in the Southern Ocean biological pump to the climatic reorganisation that occurred during the MPT. However, before the Δδ13C record is constructed for the MPT it is vital to confirm that this method is indeed a reliable proxy for the soft-tissue biological pump. Records of Δδ13C can be influenced by changes in the whole ocean inventory of δ13C, changes in circulation and changes in the degree of fractionation between the ocean and the atmosphere. The impact of inventory and circulation changes can be minimised by careful selection of study sites and by targeting foraminifera that live within specific water masses. However, deviations of Δδ13C from the biological signal could certainly

  18. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  19. Versatile wedge-based system for the construction of unidirectional collagen scaffolds by directional freezing: practical and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Pot, Michiel W; Faraj, Kaeuis A; Adawy, Alaa; van Enckevort, Willem J P; van Moerkerk, Herman T B; Vlieg, Elias; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2015-04-29

    Aligned unidirectional collagen scaffolds may aid regeneration of those tissues where alignment of cells and extracellular matrix is essential, as for instance in cartilage, nerve bundles, and skeletal muscle. Pores can be introduced by ice crystal formation followed by freeze-drying, the pore architecture reflecting the ice crystal morphology. In this study we developed a wedge-based system allowing the production of a wide range of collagen scaffolds with unidirectional pores by directional freezing. Insoluble type I collagen suspensions were frozen using a custom-made wedge system, facilitating the formation of a horizontal as well as a vertical temperature gradient and providing a controlled solidification area for ice dendrites. The system permitted the growth of aligned unidirectional ice crystals over a large distance (>2.5 cm), an insulator prolonging the freezing process and facilitating the construction of crack-free scaffolds. Unidirectional collagen scaffolds with tunable pore sizes and pore morphologies were constructed by varying freezing rates and suspension media. The versatility of the system was indicated by the construction of unidirectional scaffolds from albumin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (a synthetic polymer), and collagen-polymer blends producing hybrid scaffolds. Macroscopic observations, temperature measurements, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that directed horizontal ice dendrite formation, vertical ice crystal nucleation, and evolutionary selection were the basis of the aligned unidirectional ice crystal growth and, hence, the aligned unidirectional pore structure. In conclusion, a simple, highly adjustable freezing system has been developed allowing the construction of large (hybrid) bioscaffolds with tunable unidirectional pore architecture.

  20. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in the first dimension (IPG-Dalt): the state of the art and the controversy of vertical versus horizontal systems.

    PubMed

    Görg, A; Boguth, G; Obermaier, C; Posch, A; Weiss, W

    1995-07-01

    After having established the basic protocol of two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in the first dimension (IPG-Dalt) in 1988 (A. Görg et al., Electrophoresis 1988, 9, 531-546), some critical parameters of the actual IPG-Dalt protocols as well as the results obtained with horizontal and vertical second-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis are demonstrated and discussed.

  1. Directional freezing of spermatozoa and embryos.

    PubMed

    Arav, Amir; Saragusty, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Directional freezing is based on a simple thermodynamic principle whereby the sample is moved through a predetermined temperature gradient at a velocity that determines the cooling rate. Directional freezing permits a precise and uniform cooling rate in small- and large-volume samples. It avoids supercooling and reduces mechanical damage caused by crystallisation. Directional solidification was used to date for slow and rapid freezing, as well as for vitrification of oocytes and embryos by means of the minimum drop size technique: small drops are placed on a microscope slide that is moved at high velocity from the hot base to the cold base. Sperm samples from a wide range of domestic and wild animals were successfully cryopreserved using the directional freezing method. The bovine sexed semen industry may benefit from the increased survival of spermatozoa after directional freezing.

  2. Freeze fracture and freeze etching.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Douglas E; Sharp, William P

    2014-01-01

    Freeze fracture depends on the property of frozen tissues or cells, when cracked open, to split along the hydrophobic interior of membranes, thus revealing broad panoramas of membrane interior. These large panoramas reveal the three-dimensional contours of membranes making the methods well suited to studying changes in membrane architecture. Freshly split membrane faces are visualized by platinum or tungsten shadowing and carbon backing to form a replica that is then cleaned of tissue and imaged by TEM. Etching, i.e., removal of ice from the frozen fractured specimen by sublimation prior to shadowing, can also reveal the true surfaces of the membrane as well as the extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal networks that contact the membranes. Since the resolution of detail in the metal replicas formed is 1-2 nm, these methods can also be used to visualize macromolecules or macromolecular assemblies either in situ or displayed on a mica surface. These methods are available for either specimens that have been chemically fixed or specimens that have been rapidly frozen without chemical intervention.

  3. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-03-03

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  4. Freezing in confined geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

  5. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  6. Periodic ice banding in freezing colloidal dispersions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, M Grae

    2012-12-04

    Concentrated colloidal alumina dispersions were frozen in a directional solidification apparatus that provides independent control of the freezing rate and temperature gradient. Two distinct steady-state modes of periodic ice banding were observed in the range of freezing rates examined. For each mode, the wavelength between successive bands of segregated ice decreases with increasing freezing rate. At low freezing rates (0.25-3 μm s(-1)), the ice segregates from the suspension into ice lenses, which are cracklike in appearance, and there is visible structure in the layer of rejected particles in the unfrozen region ahead of the ice lenses. In this regime, we argue that compressive cryosuction forces lead to the irreversible aggregation of the rejected particles into a close-packed cohesive layer. The temperature in the aggregated layer is depressed below the bulk freezing point by more than 2 °C before the ice lenses are encountered; moreover, this undercooled region appears as a light-colored layer. The magnitude of the undercooling and the color change in this region both suggest the presence of pore ice and the formation of a frozen fringe. The possibility of a frozen fringe is supported by a quantitative model of the freezing behavior. At intermediate freezing rates, around 4 μm s(-1), the pattern of ice segregation is disordered, coinciding with the disappearance of the dark- and light-colored layers. Finally, at high freezing rates (5-10 μm s(-1)), there is a new mode of periodic ice banding that is no longer cracklike and is absent of any visible structure in the suspension ahead of the ice bands. We discuss the implications of our experimental findings for theories of ice lensing.

  7. Trophic structure of two intertidal Fucus spp. communities along a vertical gradient: Similarity and seasonal stability evidenced with δ13C and δ15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeyne, François; Davoult, Dominique; Migné, Aline; Bertaud du Chazaud, Euriell; Leroux, Cédric; Riera, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal communities dominated by canopy-forming macroalgae typically exhibit some differences in their specific composition that are related to their location along the emersion gradient of rocky shores. Tidal level is also expected to affect resource availability for both primary producers and consumers, potentially leading to divergence in the trophic structure of these communities. Furthermore, in temperate areas, the alternation of seasons has usually a large influence on the primary production and on life-history traits of numerous species, which may induce some changes in the food webs of intertidal communities. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trophic structure of two intertidal communities located at different tidal levels, over several seasons. Focusing on the dominant species of primary producers and consumers, the food webs of the Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus and Fucus serratus Linnaeus communities were studied during four successive seasons, using an isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) approach. Due to the diversity of primary producers and consumers living in these two communities, food webs were relatively complex and composed of several trophic pathways. These food webs remained rather conserved over the successive seasons, even though some variability in isotopic signature and in diet has been highlighted for several species. Finally, despite their location at different tidal levels, the two Fucus spp. communities exhibited nearly the same trophic structure, with common consumer species displaying similar isotopic signature in both of them.

  8. The Freezing Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  9. Vertical partitioning and controlling factors of gradient-based soil carbon dioxide fluxes in two contrasted soil profiles along a loamy hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiaux, F.; Vanclooster, M.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we aim to elucidate the role of physical conditions and gas transfer mechanism along soil profiles in the decomposition and storage of soil organic carbon (OC) in subsoil layers. We use a qualitative approach showing the temporal evolution and the vertical profile description of CO2 fluxes and abiotic variables. We assessed soil CO2 fluxes throughout two contrasted soil profiles (i.e. summit and footslope positions) along a hillslope in the central loess belt of Belgium. We measured the time series of soil temperature, soil moisture and CO2 concentration at different depths in the soil profiles for two periods of 6 months. We then calculated the CO2 flux at different depths using Fick's diffusion law and horizon specific diffusivity coefficients. The calculated fluxes allowed assessing the contribution of different soil layers to surface CO2 fluxes. We constrained the soil gas diffusivity coefficients using direct observations of soil surface CO2 fluxes from chamber-based measurements and obtained a good prediction power of soil surface CO2 fluxes with an R2 of 92 %. We observed that the temporal evolution of soil CO2 emissions at the summit position is mainly controlled by temperature. In contrast, at the footslope, we found that long periods of CO2 accumulation in the subsoil alternates with short peaks of important CO2 release. This was related to the high water filled pore space that limits the transfer of CO2 along the soil profile at this slope position. Furthermore, the results show that approximately 90 to 95 % of the surface CO2 fluxes originate from the first 10 cm of the soil profile at the footslope. This indicates that soil OC in this depositional context can be stabilized at depth, i.e. below 10 cm. This study highlights the need to consider soil physical properties and their dynamics when assessing and modeling soil CO2 emissions. Finally, changes in the physical environment of depositional soils (e.g. longer dry periods) may affect the

  10. Controlling the freezing process: a robotic device for rapidly freezing biological tissues with millisecond time resolution.

    PubMed

    Tikunov, Boris A; Rome, Lawrence C

    2007-10-01

    A robotic cryogenic device was developed which allows freezing of thick biological tissues with millisecond time resolution. The device consists of two horizontally oriented hammers (pre-cooled with liquid N(2)) driven by two linear servo-motors. The tissue sample is bathed in Ringers contained in a chamber which drops rapidly out of the way just as the hammers approach. A third linear motor is vertically oriented, and permits the rapidly dropping chamber to smoothly decelerate. All movements were performed by the three motors and four solenoids controlled by a PC. Mechanical adjustments, that change the size of the gap between the hammers at the end position, permit the final thickness of the frozen tissue to be varied. Here we show that the freezing time increased with the square of the final thickness of the frozen bundle. However, when bundles of different original thicknesses (up to at least 1mm) were compressed to the same final thickness (e.g., 0.2mm), they exhibited nearly equal freezing times. Hence, by being able to adjust the final thickness of the frozen bundles, the device not only speeds the rate of freezing, but standardizes the freezing time for different diameter samples. This permits the use of freezing for accurate determination of the kinetics of cellular processes in biological tissue.

  11. Future freeze forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholic, J. F.; Sutherland, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Real time GOES thermal data acquisition, an energy balance minimum temperature prediction model and a statistical model are incorporated into a minicomputer system. These components make up the operational "Satellite Freeze Forecast System" being used to aid NOAA, NWS forecasters in developing their freeze forecasts. The general concept of the system is presented in this paper. Specific detailed aspects of the system can be found in the reference cited.

  12. Freeze-fracture-autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Rix, E; Schiller, A; Taugner, R

    A new method for the electron microscope autoradiography of soluble substances in frozen tissue is described. The basic features of the method are freeze fracturing, the application of a suitable monolayer followed by exposure at low temperature and finally the separation of tissue and the replica-monolayer-sandwich after photographic processing. The advantages and limitations of the new method are discussed in terms of monolayer quality, contact, histochemography, resolution, freezing and recrystallisation artefacts.

  13. Wastewater treatment by radial freezing with stirring effects.

    PubMed

    Gay, Guillaume; Lorain, Olivier; Azouni, Aza; Aurelle, Yves

    2003-05-01

    Radial freezing experiments on wastewater models were conducted in the presence of imposed stirring in order to remove impurities. The studied samples (dilute Na-montmorillonite suspensions charged with nitrates and with zinc or lead) were placed inside a cylindrical annulus, cooled at a controlled temperature around -7 degrees C at its inner wall which rotated around a vertical axis. The freezing front propagated toward the still outer wall which was maintained at a constant temperature around +1 degrees C. Thanks to stirring, considerable purification rates up to 99.97% were attained. It was also demonstrated that combining radial freezing and stirring ended in residual concentrations which agreed with drinking water standards.

  14. Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

  15. Percolation with Constant Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Edward

    2014-06-01

    We introduce and study a model of percolation with constant freezing ( PCF) where edges open at constant rate , and clusters freeze at rate independently of their size. Our main result is that the infinite volume process can be constructed on any amenable vertex transitive graph. This is in sharp contrast to models of percolation with freezing previously introduced, where the limit is known not to exist. Our interest is in the study of the percolative properties of the final configuration as a function of . We also obtain more precise results in the case of trees. Surprisingly the algebraic exponent for the cluster size depends on the degree, suggesting that there is no lower critical dimension for the model. Moreover, even for , it is shown that finite clusters have algebraic tail decay, which is a signature of self organised criticality. Partial results are obtained on , and many open questions are discussed.

  16. Freeze-cast alumina pore networks: Effects of freezing conditions and dispersion medium

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S. M.; Xiao, X.; Faber, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    Alumina ceramics were freeze-cast from water- and camphene-based slurries under varying freezing conditions and examined using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Pore network characteristics, i.e., porosity, pore size, geometric surface area, and tortuosity, were measured from XCT reconstructions and the data were used to develop a model to predict feature size from processing conditions. Classical solidification theory was used to examine relationships between pore size, temperature gradients, and freezing front velocity. Freezing front velocity was subsequently predicted from casting conditions via the two-phase Stefan problem. Resulting models for water-based samples agreed with solidification-based theories predicting lamellar spacing of binary eutectic alloys, and models for camphene-based samples concurred with those for dendritic growth. Relationships between freezing conditions and geometric surface area were also modeled by considering the inverse relationship between pore size and surface area. Tortuosity was determined to be dependent primarily on the type of dispersion medium. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxime Catalysis by Freezing.

    PubMed

    Agten, Stijn M; Suylen, Dennis P L; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2016-01-20

    Chemical reaction rates are generally decreased at lower temperatures. Here, we report that an oxime ligation reaction in water at neutral pH is accelerated by freezing. The freezing method and its rate effect on oxime ligation are systematically studied on a peptide model system, and applied to a larger chemokine protein, containing a single acetyl butyrate group, which is conjugated to an aminooxy-labeled ligand. Our improved ligation protocol now makes it possible to efficiently introduce oxime-bond coupled ligands into proteins under aqueous conditions at low concentrations and neutral pH.

  18. Freezing and thawing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permea...

  19. Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Marshall, Diane L; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T

    2012-05-01

    Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (F (v) /F (m)) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity.

  20. Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity. PMID:22068319

  1. Satellite freeze forecast system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Provisions for back-up operations for the satellite freeze forecast system are discussed including software and hardware maintenance and DS/1000-1V linkage; troubleshooting; and digitized radar usage. The documentation developed; dissemination of data products via television and the IFAS computer network; data base management; predictive models; the installation of and progress towards the operational status of key stations; and digital data acquisition are also considered. The d addition of dew point temperature into the P-model is outlined.

  2. Freezing increment in keratophakia.

    PubMed

    Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

    In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result.

  3. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  4. Oocyte freezing: here to stay?

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Josiane

    2003-01-01

    Oocyte freezing is an established technology but, in contrast to embryo freezing, it has very limited application in clinical IVF programmes. Is there a chance that oocyte freezing will become an integrated routine in assisted reproductive technology? The delicate cytological architecture of the oocyte with a cold-sensitive spindle and a hardening zona have made the frozen oocyte 'unwanted' in assisted reproductive technology. Nevertheless, empirical improvements in freezing protocols and the use of ICSI for fertilization have led to an increasing number of live births. This mitigates against a simple ban on oocyte freezing. While efficiency of oocyte freezing can certainly be further improved by basic research, it is clear that there are humanitarian reasons for considering oocyte freezing as a future fully utilized assisted reproductive technology. The storage of the female genome as a particulate entity can provide an alternative in case of moral, ethical, legal or religious concerns about embryo freezing. Oocyte freezing can also offer hope for oocyte donation and preservation of fertility for women facing ovarian loss. The message is one of cautious optimism when looking for a place for oocyte freezing in routine assisted reproductive technology.

  5. Poromechanics of freezing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussy, Olivier

    2005-08-01

    When subjected to a uniform cooling below the freezing point a water-infiltrated porous material undergoes a cryo-deformation resulting from various combined actions: (i) the difference of density between the liquid water and the ice crystal, which results in the initial build-up of an in-pore pressure at the onset of crystallization; (ii) the interfacial effects arising between the different constituents, which eventually govern the crystallization process in connection with the pore access radius distribution; (iii) the drainage of the liquid water expelled from the freezing sites towards the air voids; (iv) the cryo-suction process, which drives liquid water towards the already frozen pores as the temperature further decreases; (v) the thermomechanical coupling between the solid matrix, the liquid water and the ice crystal. We work out a comprehensive theory able to encompass this whole set of actions. A macroscopic approach first provides the constitutive equations of freezing poroelastic materials, including the interfacial energy effects. This approach reveals the existence of a thermodynamic state function—namely the liquid saturation degree as a function of the temperature only. The macroscopic ice-dependent poroelastic properties are then upscaled from the knowledge of the elastic properties of the solid matrix, of the pore access radius distribution, and of the capillary curve. The theory is finally illustrated by analysing quantitatively the effects of the cooling rate and of the pore radius distribution upon the cryo-deformation of water-infiltrated porous materials. The theory succeeds in accounting for the experimentally observed shrinkage of embedded air voids, while predicting the partial melting of the ice already formed when the cooling suddenly stops.

  6. Freezing of Nonwoody Plant Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. S.; Pereira, E. Sa B.; Finkle, Bernard J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature recordings of the freezing of plant tissues include two plateaus or regions of reduced slope. During the second of these, small positive spikes were observed. When a completely frozen tissue was thawed and refrozen, neither the second plateau nor the spikes were recorded. Both were present, however, if the initial freezing had been terminated before the second plateau had been reached. The spikes appear to represent the release of heat of crystallization during the freezing of individual cells. Such a freezing and thawing cycle destroys the ability of the cells to remain supercooled in the presence of the ice that is formed as the first plateau is recorded. PMID:16658774

  7. Biomaterials by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schecter, Matthew; Donius, Amalie E; Hunger, Philipp M

    2010-04-28

    The functional requirements for synthetic tissue substitutes appear deceptively simple: they should provide a porous matrix with interconnecting porosity and surface properties that promote rapid tissue ingrowth; at the same time, they should possess sufficient stiffness, strength and toughness to prevent crushing under physiological loads until full integration and healing are reached. Despite extensive efforts and first encouraging results, current biomaterials for tissue regeneration tend to suffer common limitations: insufficient tissue-material interaction and an inherent lack of strength and toughness associated with porosity. The challenge persists to synthesize materials that mimic both structure and mechanical performance of the natural tissue and permit strong tissue-implant interfaces to be formed. In the case of bone substitute materials, for example, the goal is to engineer high-performance composites with effective properties that, similar to natural mineralized tissue, exceed by orders of magnitude the properties of its constituents. It is still difficult with current technology to emulate in synthetic biomaterials multi-level hierarchical composite structures that are thought to be the origin of the observed mechanical property amplification in biological materials. Freeze casting permits to manufacture such complex, hybrid materials through excellent control of structural and mechanical properties. As a processing technique for the manufacture of biomaterials, freeze casting therefore has great promise.

  8. Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans. Studies in rodents have shown that freezing depends on amygdala projections to the brainstem (periaqueductal grey). Recent neuroimaging studies in humans have indicated that similar brain regions may be involved in human freezing. In addition, flexibly shifting between freezing and active defensive modes is critical for adequate stress-coping and relies on fronto-amygdala connections. This review paper presents a model detailing these neural mechanisms involved in freezing and the shift to fight-or-flight action. Freezing is not a passive state but rather a parasympathetic brake on the motor system, relevant to perception and action preparation. Study of these defensive responses in humans may advance insights into human stress-related psychopathologies characterized by rigidity in behavioural stress reactions. The paper therefore concludes with a research agenda to stimulate translational animal–human research in this emerging field of human defensive stress responses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness’. PMID:28242739

  9. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  10. Gradient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.

    2008-04-01

    Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l < l_c = z , i.e., gradient networks become scale-free graphs up to a cut-off degree. This paper presents the detailed derivation of the results announced in Toroczkai and Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).

  11. Radiobrightness decision criteria for freeze/thaw boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuerndorfer, B.; England, Anthony W.

    1992-01-01

    A freeze indicator (FI), based on a low 37-GHz radiobrightness and a low 10.7, 18, and 37-GHz radiobrightness spectral gradient, has been used to classify frozen surfaces in the northern Great Plains. By modeling the radiometer beampatterns as Gaussian, freeze/thaw boundaries can be located at the (fine) resolution of the 37-GHz channel. The performance of the freeze indicator, and subsequent boundary location estimate, depends on the accuracy of the boundary decision criteria. It is shown that decision criteria based on clustering and unsupervised classification yield good performance. A simple algorithm for registering coarse-resolution FI boundaries to equivalent boundaries in fine-resolution 37-GHz radiobrightness images is also presented.

  12. FREEZING WEATHER IN PENINSULAR FLORIDA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The synoptic situations which bring serious freezing weather to the Florida Peninsula are discussed generally by presenting various weather charts...scheme is presented which might permanently eliminate serious freezing in the Florida Peninsula. Before any solution can be reached, it t necessary to be

  13. Freezing of stratospheric aerosol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas; Crutzen, Paul

    Theoretical calculations are presented for homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing of sulfuric acid droplets under stratospheric conditions, based on classical nucleation theory. In contrast to previous results it is shown that a prominent candidate for freezing, sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT ≡ H2SO4·4H2O), does not freeze homogeneously. The theoretical results limit the homogeneous freezing rate at 200 K to much less than 1 cm-3s-1, a value that may be estimated from bulk phase laboratory experiments. This suggests that the experimental value is likely to be a measure of heterogeneous, not homogeneous nucleation. Thus, under statospheric conditions, freezing of SAT can only occur in the presence of suitable nuclei; however, even for heterogeneous nucleation experimental results impose strong constraints. Since a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) embryo probably needs a solid body for nucleation, these results put an important constraint on the theory of NAT formation in polar stratospheric clouds.

  14. Universal freezing of asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Jian; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Hua-Lin; Tong, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetry of quantum states is a useful resource in applications such as quantum metrology, quantum communication, and reference frame alignment. However, asymmetry of a state tends to be degraded in physical scenarios where environment-induced noise is described by covariant operations, e.g., open systems constrained by superselection rules, and such degradations weaken the abilities of the state to implement quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we investigate under which dynamical conditions asymmetry of a state is totally unaffected by the noise described by covariant operations. We find that all asymmetry measures are frozen for a state under a covariant operation if and only if the relative entropy of asymmetry is frozen for the state. Our finding reveals the existence of universal freezing of asymmetry, and provides a necessary and sufficient condition under which asymmetry is totally unaffected by the noise.

  15. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  16. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  17. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  18. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  19. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank, to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. Two low-temperature situations were observed. Where the bulk of the fuel is above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removes all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. Where the bulk of the fuel is at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceases when solids block the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the overall average temperature.

  20. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

  1. 9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing facilities. 590.534 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the... as set forth in § 590.536. Use of off-premise freezing facilities is permitted only when...

  2. The role of the geothermal gradient in the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms by which ground ice is emplaced, removed, and potentially replenished, are critical to understanding the climatic and hydrologic behavior of water on Mars, as well as the morphologic evolution of its surface. Because of the strong temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure of H2O, the atmospheric emplacement or replenishment of ground ice is prohibited below the depth at which crustal temperatures begin to monotonically increase due to geothermal heating. In contrast, the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice from reservoirs of H2O residing deep within the crust can occur by at least three different thermally-driven processes, involving all three phases of water. In this regard, Clifford has discussed how the presence of a geothermal gradient as small as 15 K/km can give rise to a corresponding vapor pressure gradient sufficient to drive the vertical transport of 1 km of water from a reservoir of ground water at depth to the base of the cryosphere every 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) years. This abstract expands on this earlier treatment by considering the influence of thermal gradients on the transport of H2O at temperatures below the freezing point.

  3. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  4. Heat freezes niche evolution.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Marquet, Pablo A; Valladares, Fernando; Chown, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is altering phenology and distributions of many species and further changes are projected. Can species physiologically adapt to climate warming? We analyse thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm (n = 697), endotherm (n = 227) and plant (n = 1816) species worldwide, and show that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species. This pattern, previously documented for ectotherms, is apparent for this group and for endotherms and plants, challenging the longstanding view that physiological tolerances of species change continuously across climatic gradients. An alternative view is proposed in which the thermal component of climatic niches would overlap across species more than expected. We argue that hard physiological boundaries exist that constrain evolution of tolerances of terrestrial organisms to high temperatures. In contrast, evolution of tolerances to cold should be more frequent. One consequence of conservatism of upper thermal tolerances is that estimated niches for cold-adapted species will tend to underestimate their upper thermal limits, thereby potentially inflating assessments of risk from climate change. In contrast, species whose climatic preferences are close to their upper thermal limits will unlikely evolve physiological tolerances to increased heat, thereby being predictably more affected by warming.

  5. Water freezing and ice melting

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid,more » with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.« less

  6. Water freezing and ice melting

    SciTech Connect

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid, with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.

  7. Water Freezing and Ice Melting.

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-08

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to the freezing of liquid water and the melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well-sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice ↔ liquid and cubic ice ↔ liquid with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. Pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.

  8. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.

  9. Barium titanate-polymer composites produced via directional freezing.

    PubMed

    Gorzkowski, Edward P; Pan, Ming-Jen

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we use a freeze casting technique to construct ceramic-polymer composites in which the 2 phases are arranged in an electrically parallel configuration. By doing so, the composites exhibit dielectric constant (K) up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of composites with ceramic particles randomly dispersed in a polymer matrix. In this technique, an aqueous ceramic slurry was frozen unidirectionally to form ice platelets and ceramic aggregates that were aligned in the temperature gradient direction. Upon freeze-drying, the ice platelets sublimed and left the lamellar ceramic structure intact. The green ceramic body was fired to retain the microstructure, and then the space between ceramic lamellae was infiltrated with a polymer material. The finished composites exhibit the high dielectric constant (1000) of ferroelectric ceramics while maintaining the unique properties of polymer materials such as graceful failure, low dielectric loss, and high dielectric breakdown.

  10. Freezing resistance in some Antarctic fishes.

    PubMed

    DeVries, A L; Wohlschlag, D E

    1969-03-07

    Measurements of serum freezing points in three Antarctic marine fishes indicated that they do not freeze in the -1.87 degrees C seawater because their blood is isosmotic to seawater. Concentrations of sodium chloride, urea, and free amino acids in the serum accounted for only half of the freezing-point depression of the serum. A protein containing carbohydrate was isolated which accounted for 30 percent of the freezing-point depression of the serum.

  11. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or from laboratory and pilot...the freezing and thawing models reveals tit, the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the freezing and thawing seasons...13 Drying tests ...................................................... 20 Development of design models

  12. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing operations. 590.536 Section 590.536 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean...

  13. Immersion and contact freezing experiments in the Mainz wind tunnel laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppers, Oliver; Mayer, Amelie; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir; Borrmann, Stephan; Szakáll, Miklós

    2016-04-01

    Immersion and contact freezing are of outmost important ice nucleation processes in mixed phase clouds. Experimental studies are carried out in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel laboratory in order to characterize these nucleation processes for different ice nucleating particles (INP), such as for mineral dust or biological particles. Immersion freezing is investigated in our laboratory with two different experimental techniques, both attaining contact-free levitation of liquid droplets and cooling of the surrounding air down to about -25 °C. In an acoustic levitator placed in the cold room of our laboratory, drops with diameters of 2 mm are investigated. In the vertical air stream of the wind tunnel droplets with diameter of 700 micron are freely floated at their terminal velocities, simulating the flow conditions of the free atmosphere. Furthermore, the wind tunnel offers a unique platform for contact freezing experiments. Supercooled water droplets are floated in the vertical air stream at their terminal velocities and INP are injected into the tunnel air stream upstream of them. As soon as INP collides with the supercooled droplet the contact freezing is initiated. The first results of immersion and contact freezing experiments with cellulose particles both in the acoustic levitator and in the wind tunnel will be presented. Cellulose is considered as typical INP of biological origin and a macrotracer for plant debris. Nucleating properties of cellulose will be provided, mainly focusing on the temperature, INP concentration, and specific surface area dependences of the freezing processes. Direct comparison between the different experimental techniques (acoustic levitator and wind tunnel), as well as between nucleation modes (immersion and contact freezing) will be presented. The work is carried out within the framework of the German research unit INUIT.

  14. Estimation of coastal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. J.; Palmer, M. R.; Polton, J. A.; O'Neill, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Density gradients in coastal regions with significant freshwater input are large and variable and are a major control of nearshore circulation. However their measurement is difficult, especially where the gradients are largest close to the coast, with significant uncertainties because of a variety of factors - spatial and time scales are small, tidal currents are strong and water depths shallow. Whilst temperature measurements are relatively straightforward, measurements of salinity (the dominant control of spatial variability) can be less reliable in turbid coastal waters. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing and receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey, Ribble and Conwy estuaries, each with different catchment influences. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The water column stratifies intermittently. A Coastal Observatory has been operational since 2002 with regular (quasi monthly) CTD surveys on a 9 km grid, an situ station, an instrumented ferry travelling between Birkenhead and Dublin and a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves. These measurements are complementary, each having different space-time characteristics. For coastal gradients the ferry is particularly useful since measurements are made right from the mouth of Mersey. From measurements at the in situ site alone density gradients can only be estimated from the tidal excursion. A suite of coupled physical, wave and ecological models are run in association with these measurements. The models, here on a 1.8 km grid, enable detailed estimation of nearshore density gradients, provided appropriate river run-off data are available. Examples are presented of the density gradients estimated from the different measurements and models, together with accuracies and uncertainties, showing that systematic time series measurements within a few kilometres of the coast are a high priority. (Here gliders are an exciting prospect for

  15. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  16. Freeze chromatography method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-04-16

    A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

  17. On gradient field theories: gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the fundamentals of gradient field theories are presented and reviewed. In particular, the theories of gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity are investigated and compared. For gradient magnetostatics, non-singular expressions for the magnetic vector gauge potential, the Biot-Savart law, the Lorentz force and the mutual interaction energy of two electric current loops are derived and discussed. For gradient elasticity, non-singular forms of all dislocation key formulas (Burgers equation, Mura equation, Peach-Koehler stress equation, Peach-Koehler force equation, and mutual interaction energy of two dislocation loops) are presented. In addition, similarities between an electric current loop and a dislocation loop are pointed out. The obtained fields for both gradient theories are non-singular due to a straightforward and self-consistent regularization.

  18. Mapping freeze/thaw boundaries with SMMR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuerndorfer, B. W.; England, A. W.; Dobson, M. C.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data are used to map daily freeze/thaw patterns in the upper Midwest for the Fall of 1984. The combination of a low 37 GHz radiobrightness and a negative 10.7, 18, and 37 GHz spectral gradient, Partial Derivative of Tb with Respect to f, appears to be an effective discriminant for classifying soil as frozen or thawed. The 37 GHz emissivity is less sensitive to soil moisture than are the lower frequency emissivities so that the 37 GHz radiobrightness appears to track soil surface temperature relatively well. The negative gradient for frozen ground is a consequence of volume scatter darkening at shorter microwave wavelengths. This shorter wavelength darkening is not seen in thawed moist soils.

  19. The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipser, Edward J.; Lutz, Kurt R.

    1994-01-01

    Reflectivity data from Doppler radars are used to construct vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) of convective cells in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in three different environmental regimes. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CP-3 and CP-4 radars are used to calculate median VPRR for MCSs in the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central in 1985. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere radar in Darwin, Australia, is used to calculate VPRR for MCSs observed both in oceanic, monsoon regimes and in continental, break period regimes during the wet seasons of 1987/88 and 1988/89. The midlatitude and tropical continental VPRRs both exhibit maximum reflectivity somewhat above the surface and have a gradual decrease in reflectivity with height above the freezing level. In sharp contrast, the tropical oceanic profile has a maximum reflectivity at the lowest level and a very rapid decrease in reflectivity with height beginning just above the freezing level. The tropical oceanic profile in the Darwin area is almost the same shape as that for two other tropical oceanic regimes, leading to the conclustion that it is characteristic. The absolute values of reflectivity in the 0 to 20 C range are compared with values in the literature thought to represent a threshold for rapid storm electrification leading to lightning, about 40 dBZ at -10 C. The large negative vertical gradient of reflectivity in this temperature range for oceanic storms is hypothesized to be a direct result of the characteristically weaker vertical velocities observed in MCSs over tropical oceans. It is proposed, as a necessary condition for rapid electrification, that a convective cell must have its updraft speed exceed some threshold value. Based upon field program data, a tentative estimate for the magnitude of this threshold is 6-7 m/s for mean speed and 10-12 m/s for peak speed.

  20. Freezing Rate Due to Heterogeneous Nucleation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, Gabor

    1994-07-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of ice from supercooled water is influenced by the nature of the foreign nuclei that serve as the sites for ice embryo formation, and by the stochastic nature of the process of embryo growth to critical size. The relative roles of these two factors have been the subject of some debate, especially as they influence the way nucleation of ice is modeled in clouds. `Freezing rate' is defined as the time-dependent rate at which a population of macroscopically identical samples (e.g., drops in a volume of air) freeze due to the nuclei contained in them. Freezing rate is the combined result of nucleus content and of time dependence. The time-dependent freezing rate model (TDFR) is consistent with available empirical evidence. For droplets cooled at rates of the order of 1°C per min, the nucleus content, or nucleus spectrum, predicts the freezing rate with reasonable accuracy. For samples exposed to a fixed temperature, the time dependence of the freezing rate becomes important, but the probability of freezing is not the same for each individual of the sample population. Stochastic models are not supported by the results. Application of the TDFR model and use of measured freezing nucleus data for precipitation provide a basis for the description of ice formation via immersion-freezing nucleation in cloud models. Limitations to full development of these models arise from inadequate knowledge about the freezing nucleus content of cloud water as a function of cloud evolution.

  1. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on anaerobic microbial processes in an Arctic intertidal mud flat.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Joanna E; Robador, Alberto; Hubert, Casey; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Insight into the effects of repeated freezing and thawing on microbial processes in sediments and soils is important for understanding sediment carbon cycling at high latitudes acutely affected by global warming. Microbial responses to repeated freeze-thaw conditions were studied in three complementary experiments using arctic sediment collected from an intertidal flat that is exposed to seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (Ymerbukta, Svalbard, Arctic Ocean). The sediment was subjected to oscillating freeze-thaw incubations, either gradual, from -5 to 4 degrees C, or abrupt, from -20 to 10 degrees C. Concentrations of low-molecular weight carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids) were measured and sulfate reduction was assessed by measuring (35)S sulfate reduction rates (SRRs). Gradual freeze-thaw incubation decreased microbial activity in the frozen state to 0.25 % of initial levels at 4 degrees C, but activity resumed rapidly reaching >60 % of initial activity in the thawed state. Exposure of sediments to successive large temperature changes (-20 versus 10 degrees C) decreased SRR by 80% of the initial activity, suggesting that a fraction of the bacterial community recovered rapidly from extreme temperature fluctuations. This is supported by 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles that revealed persistence of the dominant microbial taxa under repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The fast recovery of the SRRs suggests that carbon mineralization in thawing arctic sediment can resume without delay or substantial growth of microbial populations.

  2. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P < 0.05) sperm motility and membrane integrity, in both nonselected and DCG-selected sperm samples, >60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection.

  3. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  4. Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 μM, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced.

  5. Freeze-dried bank bone.

    PubMed

    Delloye, C; Buccafusca, G C

    1989-09-01

    The authors present their experience with freeze-dried bone of human origin. Since 1983, 500 preserved allografts have been implanted in 228 patients. The implants were monitored radiographically and, based on perfect fusion with the recipient bone, the results were as follows: excellent: 78%; good: 8.6%; failure: 12.4%. In nearly all the cases of failure this was attributed to an erronous implant method or an improper use of the graft. Bank bone is only osteoconductive: thus, in the absence of osteogenetic properties, a perfect method of implant and its correct use are essential.

  6. Freeze Enhanced Halate Halide Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberg, J. T.; Weaver, K.; Broderick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about halate ion species (XO3-; X = I, Br, Cl) in atmospheric condensed phases. It was initial thought that iodate was a terminal stable species upon iodide oxidation. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that reactions involving iodate can lead to reactive iodine, and this chemistry is accelerated under acidic conditions. The environmental concentrations and chemistry of bromate and chlorate are largely unexplored in environmental ices. We present results from a series of aqueous phase halate ion reactions with halides under acidic conditions, showing that the kinetics are strongly enhanced upon freezing. The products of these reactions are reactive halogens, which have important implications to marine boundary layer chemistry.

  7. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Mathematical models for predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or...those of ice. An analysis of the freezing and thawing models rqvvals that the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the...also conducted with these sludges in the unfrozen state. Mathematical models were developed to predict the design depth based on the natural freezing

  8. Freeze-Dehydration by Microwave Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEHYDRATED FOODS ENERGY BEEF EQUATIONS FREEZE DRIED FOODS BEATING ANALYSIS MELTING FREEZE DRYING MICROWAVES MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC ...d) 20. Abstract (continued) The model is applied to simulate the freeze-dehydration of beef meat by microwave dielectric heating at 2450 MHz . The...8 3.3 Dielectric Properties •••.•. .••••....• 8 3.4 Specific Heat of Frozen and Dried Beef

  9. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  10. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  11. Egg freezing: a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy?

    PubMed

    Harwood, Karey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the relatively new technology of freezing human eggs and examines whether egg freezing, specifically when it is used by healthy women as 'insurance' against age-related infertility, is a legitimate exercise of reproductive autonomy. Although egg freezing has the potential to expand women's reproductive options and thus may represent a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy, I argue that without adequate information about likely outcomes and risks, women may be choosing to freeze their eggs in a commercially exploitative context, thus undermining rather than expanding reproductive autonomy.

  12. Freeze-drying processes and wind erodibility of a clay loam soil in southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, M S.; Larney, F. J.; McGinn, Sean M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    1999-01-01

    Freeze-drying has been implicated as a factor causing soil aggregate breakdown on the Canadian Prairies and northern Great Plains. Aggregates of a Dark Brown Chernozemic clay loam soil sampled in October 1993 and January and April 1994 were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting (to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 kg kg-1 water contents) freezing, and freeze-drying under laboratory conditions. The October 1993 samples showed less disruption when initially exposed to freeze-drying cycles compared to samples taken in January and April 1994. Using regression analysis, we predicted that 31 freeze-dry cycles were required for the 0.1 kg kg-1 water content aggregates to reach 60% erodible fraction (EF, % aggregates <0.86 mm), 9 cycles for the 0.2 kg kg-1 aggregates and 2 for 0.3 kg kg-1 aggregates. In a field study, conducted over the 1994-1995 winter on a similar clay loam soil, we estimated the number of freeze-drying cycles using large vapor pressure (VPL) and small vapor pressure (VPS) gradients bet ween the soil surface (which had a mean winter water content of {approx}0.1 kg kg-1) and the atmosphere. With solar energy adjustments, we predicted that the number of freeze-dry cycles required for the soil to reach 60% EF was 60 for VPL and 37 for VPS conditions. The latter number was similar to the 31 cycles predicted in the laboratory study of aggregates at 0.1 water content. Our results demonstrate that freeze-drying is an important overwinter process in the breakdown of soil aggregates and hence wind erosion risk in the Canadian prairie region.

  13. Identification, analysis and monitoring of risks of freezing affecting aircraft flying over the Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Freezing is one of the main causes of aircraft accidents registered over the last few decades. This means it is very important to be able to predict this situation so that aircraft can change their routes to avoid freezing risk areas. Also, by using satellites it is possible to observe changes in the horizontal and vertical extension of cloud cover likely to cause freezing in real time as well as microphysical changes in the clouds. The METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) makes it possible to create different red-green-blue (RGB) compositions that provide a large amount of information associated with the microphysics of clouds, in order to identify super-cooled water clouds that pose a high risk of freezing to aircraft. During the winter of 2011/12 in the Guadarrama Mountains, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, a series of scientific flights (conducted by INTA) were organised in order to study the cloud systems that affected this region during the winter. On the flight of the 1st of February 2012, the aircraft was affected by freezing after crossing over a mountain ridge with supercooled large drops (SLD). Although freezing was not expected during that day's flight, the orography caused a series of mesoscale factors that led to the appearance of localised freezing conditions. By analysing this case, we have been able to conclude that the use of satellite images makes it possible to monitor the risk of freezing, especially under specific mesoscale circumstances. Acknowledgements S. Fernández-González acknowledges the grant supported from the FPU program (AP 2010-2093). This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the INTA for its scientific flights.

  14. Analysis of 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Lee, Jong Min; Ahrberg, Christian D; Chung, Bong Geun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) simple multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator to create molecular gradients on the centimeter scale with a wide range of flow rates. To create the concentration gradients, a main channel (MC) was orthogonally intersected with vertical side microchannel (SC) in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic device. Through sequential dilution from the SC, a spatial gradient was generated in the MC. Two theoretical models were created to assist in the design of the 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator and to compare its performance against a two-dimensional equivalent. A first mass balance model was used to predict the steady-state concentrations reached, while a second computational fluid dynamic model was employed to predict spatial development of the gradient by considering convective as well as diffusive mass transport. Furthermore, the theoretical simulations were verified through experiments to create molecular gradients in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

  15. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  16. Demonstration of an Enhanced Vertical Magnetic Gradient System for UXO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    South) Area, FKPBR...........17 Table 4. Performance Criteria and Results for the Battelle Airborne Gradiometer Systems...Battelle Airborne Gradiometer Systems. Expected Performance Metric (Pre-demo) Performance Confirmation Method Actual Performance (Post-demo) Primary...and Results for the Battelle Airborne Gradiometer Systems (continued). Expected Performance Metric (Pre-demo) Performance Confirmation Method

  17. Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold acclimation is a multigenic, quantitative trait that involves biochemical and structural changes that effect the physiology of a plant. Mechanisms associated with freeze tolerance or freeze avoidance develop and are lost on an annual cycle. When conducting studies to characterize and determin...

  18. Repeatability and randomness in heterogeneous freezing nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.

    2008-08-01

    This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materials; the resulting freezing temperatures ranged from -6°C to -24°C. Rank correlation coefficients between observed freezing temperatures of the drops in successive runs were >0.9 with very high statistical significance, and thus provide strong support for the modified singular model of heterogeneous immersion freezing nucleation. For given drops, changes in freezing temperatures between cycles were relatively small (<1°C) for the majority of the events. These frequent small fluctuations in freezing temperatures are interpreted as reflections of the random nature of embryo growth and are associated with a nucleation rate that is a function of a temperature difference from the characteristic temperatures of nuclei. About a sixth of the changes were larger, up to ±5°C, and exhibited some systematic patterns. These are thought to arise from alterations of the nuclei, some being permanent and some transitory. The results are used to suggest ways of describing ice initiation in cloud models that account for both the temperature and the time dependence of freezing nucleation.

  19. Repeatability and randomness in heterogeneous freezing nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.

    2008-02-01

    This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materials; the resulting freezing temperatures ranged from -6°C to -24°C. Rank correlation coefficients between observed freezing temperatures of the drops in successive runs were >0.9 with very high statistical significance, and thus provide strong support for the modified singular model of heterogeneous immersion freezing nucleation. For given drops, changes in freezing temperatures between cycles were relatively small (<1°C) for the majority of the events. These frequent small fluctuations in freezing temperatures are interpreted as reflections of the random nature of embryo growth and are associated with a nucleation rate that is a function of a temperature difference from the characteristic temperatures of nuclei. About a sixth of the changes were larger, up to ±5°C, and exhibited some systematic patterns. These are thought to arise from alterations of the nuclei, some being permanent and some transitory. The results are used to suggest ways of describing ice initiation in cloud models that account for both the temperature and the time dependence of freezing nucleation.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1562 - Freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1562 Freezing. Freezing means that the potato is...

  1. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  2. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ulf R; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2016-08-17

    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature-pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system.

  3. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  4. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature–pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system. PMID:27530064

  5. Mesoscale monitoring of the soil freeze/thaw boundary from orbital microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Zuerndorfer, Brian; England, Anthony W.

    1990-01-01

    A technique was developed for mapping the spatial extent of frozen soils from the spectral characteristics of the 10.7 to 37 GHz radiobrightness. Through computational models for the spectral radiobrightness of diurnally heated freesing soils, a distinctive radiobrightness signature was identified for frozen soils, and the signature was cast as a discriminant for unsupervised classification. In addition to large area images, local area spatial averages of radiobrightness were calculated for each radiobrightness channel at 7 meteorologic sites within the test region. Local area averages at the meteorologic sites were used to define the preliminary boundaries in the Freeze Indicator discriminate. Freeze Indicator images based upon Nimbus 7, Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data effectively map temporal variations in the freeze/thaw pattern for the northern Great Plains at the time scale of days. Diurnal thermal gradients have a small but measurable effect upon the SMMR spectral gradient. Scale-space filtering can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a freeze/thaw classified image.

  6. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores.

  7. The effect of density gradients on hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Martti; Sillanpää, Sampo

    2003-05-01

    Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer calibration system. In the tests, the method was found reliable. However, the reliability depends on the available information on the hydrometer dimensions and density gradients.

  8. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  9. The pathogenesis of non-freezing cold nerve injury. Observations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jia, J; Pollock, M

    1997-04-01

    Non-freezing cold nerve injury is uncommon in civilian practice, but may reach epidemic proportions in war zones. Studied since the time of Hippocrates, its aetiology has remained elusive. We sought to replicate experimentally, a peripheral nerve cold temperature gradient, since this has been emphasized in clinical descriptions. Our observations, in the rat, of the vasa nervorum show that cold-induced intravascular aggregation is followed by a 'no-reflow' phenomenon which culminates in endothelial damage and delayed thrombotic occlusion.

  10. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Grayson, A L; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n = 35 each) were obtained from U.S. Select carcasses classified at the grading stand by the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center visible and near-infrared spectroscopy tenderness system to have predicted slice shear force greater than 16.5 kg at 14 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem, 2.54 cm thick steaks were cut from each muscle and assigned to 1 of the following treatments: 2 d fresh (2FRESH), 2 d freeze + thaw (2FREEZE), 2 d freeze + thaw + 12 d age (2FREEZE+12AGE), 14 d fresh (14FRESH), 14 d freeze + thaw (14FREEZE), 14 d freeze + thaw + 14 d age (14FREEZE+14AGE), and 28 d fresh (28FRESH). Steaks assigned to a freezing treatment were frozen at -26°C for 30 d before thawing/cooking or thawing with an additional aging period at 2°C. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P < 0.01) for 2FREEZE (27.4 and 24.5 kg) and 14FREEZE (22.4 and 22.4 kg) compared to 2FRESH (33.0 and 29.2 kg) and 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg), respectively. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P < 0.01) for 2FREEZE+12AGE (17.8 and 20.8 kg) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (14.6 and 19.0 kg) compared to 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg) and 28FRESH (18.7 and 21.7 kg), respectively. Desmin degradation for LL was not different (P > 0.05) between 2FREEZE (21.0%) and 2FRESH (14.6%) or between 14FREEZE (40.4%) and 14FRESH (38.4%); however, desmin degradation was higher (P < 0.06) in 2FREEZE+12AGE (46.7%) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (71.1%) when compared to 14FRESH (38.4%) and 28FRESH (60.5%), respectively. Cooking loss for LL was higher (P < 0.01) in 2FREEZE+12AGE (15.2%) compared to 14FRESH (14.0%) but was not different (P > 0.05) between 14FREEZE+14AGE (15.0%) and 28FRESH (14.3%). Freezing and thawing or a combination of freezing, thawing

  11. Planar gradient metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials possess exotic properties that do not exist in nature. Gradient metamaterials, which are characterized by a continuous spatial variation of their properties, provide a promising approach to the development of both bulk and planar optics. In particular, planar gradient metamaterials can be classified into three categories: gradient metasurfaces, gradient index metamaterials and gradient metallic gratings. In this Review, we summarize the progress made in the theoretical modelling of these materials, in their experimental implementation and in the design of functional devices. We discuss the use of planar gradient metamaterials for wave bending and focusing in free space, for supporting surface plasmon polaritons and for the realization of trapped rainbows. We also focus on the implementation of these materials in waveguide systems, which can enable electromagnetic cloaking, Fano resonances, asymmetric transmission and guided mode conversion. Finally, we discuss promising trends, such as the use of dielectric rather than metallic unit elements and the use of planar gradient metamaterials in 3D systems.

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections of Drosophila: high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kent L; Sharp, David J; Rickoll, Wayne

    2012-04-01

    The state of the art in fine-structure preservation for thin sectioning can be achieved by using fast-freezing technology followed by freeze substitution and embedding in resin. Samples prepared by high-pressure freezing are estimated to be "fixed" in 20-50 msec. Fast freezing also freezes every cell component regardless of its chemistry. Once frozen, tissues can be processed in a variety of ways before viewing in the electron microscope; here we describe only freeze substitution. In freeze substitution, cells are dehydrated at very low temperatures and cell water is replaced with organic solvent at -80°C to -90°C. At this temperature, large molecules such as proteins are immobilized, yet smaller molecules such as water (ice) can be dissolved and replaced with organic solvents, e.g., acetone. The ideal way to do freeze substitution is with a dedicated freeze-substitution device such as the Leica AFS2 system. These devices allow programming of the times and temperatures needed. Alternatively, if this equipment is not available, freeze substitution can still be performed using items commonly found around the laboratory, as is described here. This protocol is useful for preparing thin sections of Drosophila when the best possible preservation of ultrastructure and antigenicity is required.

  13. Survival of freeze-dried bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto-Shinohara, Yukie; Sukenobe, Junji; Imaizumi, Takashi; Nakahara, Toro

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze-dried bacterial species stored at the International Patent Organism Depository (IPOD) and to elucidate the characteristics affecting survival. Bacterial strains were freeze-dried, sealed in ampoules under a vacuum (<1 Pa), and stored in the dark at 5 degrees C. The survival of a variety of species following storage for up to 20 years was analyzed. The survival of freeze-dried species was analyzed in terms of two stages, freeze-drying and storing. Nonmotile genera showed relatively high survival after freeze-drying. Motile genera with peritrichous flagella showed low survival rates after freeze-drying. Vibrio and Aeromonas, which produce numerous flagella, showed very low survival rates. In Lactobacillus, non-trehalose-fermenting species showed better survival rates after freeze-drying than did fermenting species, and those species with teichoic acid in the cell wall showed lower survival rates during storage than species with teichoic acid in the cell membrane. Human pathogenic species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella showed lower survival rates during storage than nonpathogenic species within the same genus. Among Pseudomonas species, P. chlororaphis, the only species tested that forms levan from sucrose, showed the lowest survival rate during storage in the genus. Survival rates of Gram-negative species during storage tended to be lower than those of Gram-positive species, though Chryseobacterium meningosepticum had stable survival during storage. The conclusion is that smooth cell surfaces (i.e., no flagella) and lack of trehalose outside the cytoplasm improved survival rates after freeze-drying. Because desiccation is important for survival during storage, the presence of extracellular polysaccharides or teichoic acids is disadvantageous for long-term survival. The lower survival rates of freeze-dried Gram-negative bacteria compared with those of Gram-positive bacteria

  14. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm < Lc < 6 mm) using carefully designed freezing experiments in a temperature-controlled, zero-humidity environment on thin water slabs. To probe the effect of surface wettability, we investigated the total time for room temperature water to completely freeze into ice on superhydrophilic ( θaapp→ 0°), hydrophilic (0° < θa < 90°), hydrophobic (90° < θa < 125°), and superhydrophobic ( θaapp→ 180°) surfaces. Our results show that at macroscopic length scales, heat conduction through the bulk water/ice layer dominates the freezing process when compared to heat conduction through the functional coatings or nanoscale gaps at the superhydrophobic substrate-water/ice interface. In order to verify our findings, and to determine when the surface structure thermal resistance approaches the water/ice resistance, we fabricated and tested the additional substrates coated with commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  15. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  16. Evaluation of anti-freeze viscosity modifier for potential external tank applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O. L.

    1981-01-01

    Viscosity modifiers and gelling agents were evaluated in combination with ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide water eutectics. Pectin and agarose are found to gel these eutectics effectively in low concentration, but the anti-freeze protection afforded by these compositions is found to be marginal in simulations of the intended applications. Oxygen vent shutters and vertical metallic surfaces were simulated, with water supplied as a spray, dropwise, and by condensation from the air.

  17. Freeze/thaw and soil moisture effects on wind erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Shi, Z. H.; Wu, G. L.; Fang, N. F.

    2014-02-01

    Wind erosion is very pronounced in semiarid regions during late winter-early spring and has major impacts on regional desertification and agriculture. In order to identify the effects of freeze/thaw and soil moisture on wind erosion, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to compare wind erosion effects under various soil moisture gradients in frozen and thawed soil. The variation of surface soil moisture after wind erosion and the effective soil particle size distribution was tested to explain the differences. The results showed that surface soil moisture content decreased in thawed soil and increased in frozen soil after wind erosion. The mean weight diameter, which increased with increasing soil moisture, was smaller in thawed soil than in frozen soil. The wind-driven sediment flux of frozen and thawed soil both decreased with increasing moisture, owing to the heavier soil particle weight and stronger interparticle bonding forces. The critical soil moisture content for suppressing wind erosion was around 2.34% for frozen soil and around 2.61% for thawed soil. The wind-driven sediment flux of thawed soil was always larger than that of frozen soil at the same moisture content, but this difference became negligible at moisture contents above 3.38%. We may speculate that wind erosion will be more severe in the future because of the lower soil moisture content and fewer soil freezing days as a result of global warming.

  18. Freeze-thaw cycles as drivers of complex ribozyme assembly

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Hannes; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of an RNA catalyst capable of self-replication is considered a key transition in the origin of life. However, how such replicase ribozymes emerged from the pools of short RNA oligomers arising from prebiotic chemistry and non-enzymatic replication is unclear. Here we show that RNA polymerase ribozymes can assemble from simple catalytic networks of RNA oligomers no longer than 30 nucleotides. The entropically disfavoured assembly reaction is driven by iterative freeze-thaw cycles even in the absence of external activation chemistry. The steep temperature and concentration gradients of such cycles result in an RNA chaperone effect that enhances the otherwise only partially realized catalytic potential of the RNA oligomer pool by an order of magnitude. Our work outlines how cyclic physicochemical processes could have driven an expansion of RNA compositional and phenotypic complexity from simple oligomer pools. PMID:25991529

  19. Evaluation of spin freezing versus conventional freezing as part of a continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, L; Van Bockstal, P-J; Corver, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T

    2015-12-30

    Spin-freezing as alternative freezing approach was evaluated as part of an innovative continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses. The aim of this paper was to compare the sublimation rate of spin-frozen vials versus traditionally frozen vials in a batch freeze-dryer, and its impact on total drying time. Five different formulations, each having a different dry cake resistance, were tested. After freezing, the traditionally frozen vials were placed on the shelves while the spin-frozen vials were placed in aluminum vial holders providing radial energy supply during drying. Different primary drying conditions and chamber pressures were evaluated. After 2h of primary drying, the amount of sublimed ice was determined in each vial. Each formulation was monitored in-line using NIR spectroscopy during drying to determine the sublimation endpoint and the influence of drying conditions upon total drying time. For all tested formulations and applied freeze-drying conditions, there was a significant higher sublimation rate in the spin-frozen vials. This can be explained by the larger product surface and the lower importance of product resistance because of the much thinner product layers in the spin frozen vials. The in-line NIR measurements allowed evaluating the influence of applied drying conditions on the drying trajectories.

  20. The investigation of custom grown vertical zone melt semi-insulating bulk gallium arsenide as a radiation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.S.; Antolak, A.J.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-06-01

    Vertical zone melt (VZM) bulk GaAs boules have been zone refined (ZR) and zone leveled (ZL) to reduce EL2 deep donor levels and impurity concentrations with the intent of improving properties for gamma ray detectors. Zr and Zl GaAs boules had background impurity levels and deep donor EL2 concentrations near or below detectable limits. The crystal mosaic of the material at locations near the seed end was slightly superior to commercial liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) material, and nearly equivalent to commercial vertical gradient freeze (VGF) material. The crystal mosaic in ZL material degraded towards the tail end. The homogeneity of the electrical properties for the ZL and ZR VZM material was inferior compared to commercially available bulk GaAs material. Post growth annealing may help to homogenize some electrical properties of the material. The charge collection efficiency of the ZR GaAs detectors was only 30% maximum, and only 25% maximum for the ZL GaAs detectors. Resulting gamma ray spectra was poor from detectors fabricated with the ZL or ZR VZM material. Detectors fabricated from material that was both ZR and ZL did not demonstrate gamma ray resolution, and operated mainly as counters. The poor spectroscopic performance is presently attributed to the inhomogeneity of the electrical properties of the ZR and ZL GaAs materials. Comparisons are made with detectors fabricated from VGF SI bulk GaAs.

  1. Neuroimaging of Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Alfonso; Herman, Talia; Tessitore, Alessandro; Strafella, Antonio P.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional brain imaging techniques appear ideally suited to explore the pathophysiology of freezing of gait (FOG). In the last two decades, techniques based on magnetic resonance or nuclear medicine imaging have found a number of structural changes and functional disconnections between subcortical and cortical regions of the locomotor network in patients with FOG. FOG seems to be related in part to disruptions in the “executive-attention” network along with regional tissue loss including the premotor area, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the parietal and occipital areas involved in visuospatial functions of the right hemisphere. Several subcortical structures have been also involved in the etiology of FOG, principally the caudate nucleus and the locomotor centers in the brainstem. Maladaptive neural compensation may present transiently in the presence of acute conflicting motor, cognitive or emotional stimulus processing, thus causing acute network overload and resulting in episodic impairment of stepping. In this review we will summarize the state of the art of neuroimaging research for FOG. We will also discuss the limitations of current approaches and delineate the next steps of neuroimaging research to unravel the pathophysiology of this mysterious motor phenomenon. PMID:25757831

  2. Freeze concentration beats the heat

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on freeze concentration (FC) which saves energy and money in packaging, shipping, and storing food products. FC---in contrast to existing heat-evaporation processes---retains volatile flavor and aroma compounds in food products so that no additives are required to restore the taste and smell of the original product. In recent tests on orange, grapefruit, and pineapple juices, reconstituted FC juices were found to be superior in taste to juices produced by evaporation and similar to the original pasteurized juices. The dairy industry, which is the largest user of energy for concentration in the food sector, is looking to FC for new products such as frozen concentrated milk as well as better use of the milk by-products of cheese production. The biggest potential for new FC applications is in those industries that consume large amounts of energy for separation processing, according to a 1987 report prepared for EPRI. In the food industry, this includes milk, vinegar, and beer producers. Potential applications also abound in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, chemical, and petroleum industries. FC separates substances via crystallization at substantial energy savings.

  3. The Effect of Soil Freezing on N Cycling: Comparison of two Headwater Subcatchments With Varying Snowpack, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. F.; Shibata, H.; Ozawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mitchell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Climate change models predict the snowpacks of temperate forests will develop later and be shallower resulting in a higher propensity for soil freezing. In the northern most island of Japan, Hokkaido, snowpack depth decreases from west to east. This snowpack depth gradient provided a unique opportunity to test the effects of variable snowpack and soil freezing on N cycling. The Upper Nakagawa catchment (UN) in Shibecha Experimental Forest, eastern Hokkaido had a mean annual NO3- concentration of 2 mg N L-1 and had deciduous trees while the M3 catchment in Uryu Experimental Forest, western Hokkaido had a mean annual NO3- concentration of 0.1 mg N L-1 and contained mixed deciduous and coniferous tree species. We conducted a field study to determine if differences in stream NO3- concentration were controlled by the variability in soil freezing or tree litter quality. Reciprocal soil transplants were made between the Shibecha and Uryu sites using soils from at 0, 5, and 30 cm depths. Soil freezing occurred through out the study period (November-April 2004-05) at 0 and 5 cm depths at Shibecha while little freezing occurred at Uryu. Uryu litter had a higher C: N ratio (25.0 versus 22.4 for Shibecha) , higher lignin: N ratios (15 versus 8.8 ), and higher lignin concentrations (0.28 versus 0.18 g lignin g-1). These differences in litter quality contributed to higher net mineralization and nitrification in Shibecha compared to Uryu that resulted in higher NO3- concentrations in the drainage waters of Shibecha versus Uryu. Sites experiencing severe soil freezing had relatively high net mineralization rates but lower or unchanged net nitrification compared to sites that had little soil freezing. Effects of soil freezing were most pronounced in the Uryu soil buried in Shibecha. Variability in NO3- concentration in Shibecha versus Uryu streams were attributed to difference in tree species composition as well as the magnitude of soil freezing.

  4. Theoretical considerations for oocyte cryopreservation by freezing.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Gregory M

    2007-06-01

    Attempts to cryopreserve oocytes by freezing have, to date, been based mostly on empirical approaches rather than on basic principles, and perhaps in part for this reason have not been very successful. Theoretical considerations suggest some fairly 'heretical' conclusions. The concentrations of permeating cryoprotectants employed in past studies have probably been inadequate, and the choice of propylene glycol (PG) as a protective agent is questionable. The use of non-penetrating agents, such as sucrose to preshrink oocytes prior to freezing and which, therefore, exacerbate osmotic stress during freezing, may be inappropriate, yet may protect in part by reducing the concentration of PG during freezing. The methods used to add and remove cryoprotectant may be suboptimal, and may be based on an inadequate understanding of the cryobiological constraints for oocyte survival. Given these concerns, it is not surprising that fully satisfactory results have been elusive, but there is every reason to believe that greater success is possible using a more theoretically appropriate approach.

  5. Surface freezing of n-octane nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, Viraj; Pathak, Harshad; Thayer, Mitchell; Singer, Sherwin; Wyslouzil, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Surface freezing, at temperatures up to a few degrees above the equilibrium melting point, has been observed for intermediate chain length (16≤ i≤ 50) n-alkanes [B. M. Ocko, X. Z. Wu, E. B. Sirota, S. K. Sinha, O. Gang and M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55, 3164-3182]. Our recent experimental results suggest that surface freezing is also the first step when highly supercooled nanodroplets of n-octane crystallize. Our data yield surface and bulk nucleation rates on the order of ˜1015/cm2.s and ˜1022/cm3.s, respectively. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations also show that the surface of the droplet freezes almost immediately, and freezing of the remainder of the droplet progresses in a layer-by-layer manner.

  6. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  7. Delayed freezing on water repellent materials.

    PubMed

    Tourkine, Piotr; Le Merrer, Marie; Quéré, David

    2009-07-07

    Water drops on hydrophobic microtextured materials sit on a mixture of solid and air. In standard superhydrophobic situations, the drop contacts more air than solid, so that we can think of exploiting the insulating properties of this sublayer. We show here that its presence induces a significant delay in freezing, when depositing water on cold solids. If the substrate is slightly tilted, these drops can thus be removed without freezing and without accumulating on the substrate, a property of obvious practical interest.

  8. Quality changes and freezing time prediction during freezing and thawing of ginger.

    PubMed

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2016-07-01

    Effects of different freezing rates and four different thawing methods on chemical composition, microstructure, and color of ginger were investigated. Computer simulation for predicting the freezing time of cylindrical ginger for two different freezing methods (slow and fast) was done using ANSYS (®) Multiphysics. Different freezing rates (slow and fast) and thawing methods significantly (P < 0.05) affected the color and composition of essential oil in ginger. Fresh ginger was found to contain 3.60% gingerol and 18.30% zingerone. A maximum yield of 7.43% gingerol was obtained when slow frozen gingers when thawed by infrared method. Maximum zingerone content of 38.30% was achieved by thawing slow frozen gingers using infrared-microwave method. Microscopic examination revealed that structural damage was more pronounced in slow frozen gingers than fast frozen gingers. Simulated freezing curves were in good agreement with experimental measurements (r = 0.97 for slow freezing and r = 0.92 for fast freezing). Slow freezing damaged ginger's cellular structure. Data obtained will be helpful in selecting appropriate thawing method to increase desirable essential oil components in ginger. Computer simulation for predicting freezing time may help in developing proper storage system of ginger.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  10. Isochoric and isobaric freezing of fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Năstase, Gabriel; Lyu, Chenang; Ukpai, Gideon; Șerban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-02-19

    We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to -4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to -4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality. Therefore, cells in the isochoric frozen organism do not dehydrate, and the tissue maintains its morphological integrity. Comparing the histology of: a) fresh fish white muscle, b) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C in an isobaric system and c) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C I in an isochoric system, we find convincing evidence of the mechanism of cell dehydration during isobaric freezing. In contrast, the muscle tissue frozen to -5 °C in an isochoric system appears morphologically identical to fresh tissue, with no evidence of dehydration. This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that in isochoric freezing there is no cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact.

  11. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  12. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  13. A new freeze casting technique for ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kiyoshi

    A new freeze casting technique for ceramics capable of manufacturing near room temperature with a sublimable vehicle has been developed in order to eliminate expensive processes under extremely cold temperatures in the conventional freeze casting. Fluid concentrated slurries of Al2O 3 powder in molten camphene (C10H16) were successfully prepared at 55°C with a small amount of a dispersant. These slurries were quickly solidified (frozen) at room temperature to yield a rigid solid green body, where the frozen camphene was easily removed by sublimation (freeze-drying) with negligible shrinkage. Sintering was successfully conducted without any special binder burnout process to yield dense sintered bodies (over 98% T.D). An organic alloy with a eutectic composition in the naphthalene (C 10H8)-camphor (C10H16O) binary system with a eutectic temperature of 31°C was also found to be a successful vehicle for the new ceramic freeze casting. The fabrication processes are almost the same as those with camphene. It was found that vehicles with off-eutectic compositions resulted in large voids in the sintered body due to the ceramic particle rejection by pro-eutectic crystals during freezing. At the eutectic composition, fine lamellar microstructure in the solidified vehicle inhibits the particle rejection. The proposed advantages of the new freeze casting technique with a sublimable vehicle include; (1) elimination of extremely cold temperatures used in conventional freeze casting; (2) elimination of troublesome binder burnout process; and (3) fast manufacturing cycle due to quick solidification. Porous ceramic bodies with unique interconnected pore channels were fabricated by the new freeze casting with lower solid content. The unique channels surrounded by fully dense walls have nearly circular cross-sections unlike conventional aqueous freeze casting. The porosity and the channel diameters are controllable by the solid content in the slurry. The unique channels are

  14. Effect of freezing rate and dendritic ice formation on concentration profiles of proteins frozen in cylindrical vessels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Miller, Maria A; Glass, Matt A; Singh, Satish K; Johnston, Keith P

    2011-04-01

    The process of freezing protein solutions can perturb the conformation of the protein and potentially lead to aggregate formation during long-term storage in the frozen state. Radial macroscopic freeze concentration and temperature profiles for bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in small cylindrical stainless steel vessels were determined for various freezing rates. The measured concentrations of both BSA and immunoglobulin G2, as well as trehalose in sampled ice sections, increased by up to twofold to threefold toward the bottom and radial center for slow freezing rates produced in stagnant air freezers. The concentration and temperature profiles result in density gradients that transport solutes by convective flow. For faster external cooling by either forced convection of air or a liquid coolant, the increased freezing rate raised the ice front velocity resulting in enhanced dendritic ice growth. The ice trapped the solutes more effectively before they were removed from the ice front by diffusion and convection, resulting in more uniform solute concentration profiles. The dynamic temperature profiles from multiple radial thermocouples were consistent with the independently measured freeze concentration profiles. The ability to control the protein concentration profile in the frozen state offers the potential to improve stability of protein in long-term frozen storage.

  15. Physiological responses of freeze-tolerant and -intolerant frogs: clues to evolution of anuran freeze tolerance.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, J P; Lee, R E; Lortz, P H

    1993-10-01

    Freeze tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is promoted by multiple, integrated physiological responses to ice forming within body tissues. By analyzing the freezing responses of the sympatric, but freeze intolerant, leopard frog (R. pipiens), we sought clues to the evolution of anuran freeze tolerance. Physiological responses critical to R. sylvatica's freeze tolerance, such as the synthesis and distribution of the cryoprotectant glucose, protective dehydration of organs, and deferred cardiac failure, were present, but comparatively less pronounced, in R. pipiens. Both species were innately tolerant of hyperglycemia. Glucose supplements did not enhance the freezing viability of R. pipiens, although in vitro tests of cryoprotectant efficacy revealed that glucose and glycerol provided comparable protection to erythrocytes of both species. We conclude that the evolution of freeze tolerance in R. sylvatica is not only promoted by its desiccation tolerance and the fortuitous biophysical consequences of freezing (e.g., exothermic induction of cardioacceleration and moderation of cooling rate) but also involves a progressive enhancement of fundamental physiological stress responses.

  16. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n=35 each) ...

  17. The equilibrated state of freezing as a basis for distinguishing lethal stresses of freezing in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model for coordination of stresses that limit winterhardiness in plants based on the thermodynamic equilibrated state of freezing and melting provides a rational basis for distinction of freeze-induced energies which can stress and injure living organisms in various ways. The departure from equili...

  18. Offset vertical radar profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  19. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  20. Freezing of Lennard-Jones-type fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, Sergey A.; Chaudhuri, Manis; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2011-02-07

    We put forward an approximate method to locate the fluid-solid (freezing) phase transition in systems of classical particles interacting via a wide range of Lennard-Jones-type potentials. This method is based on the constancy of the properly normalized second derivative of the interaction potential (freezing indicator) along the freezing curve. As demonstrated recently it yields remarkably good agreement with previous numerical simulation studies of the conventional 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid [S.A.Khrapak, M.Chaudhuri, G.E.Morfill, Phys. Rev. B 134, 052101 (2010)]. In this paper, we test this approach using a wide range of the LJ-type potentials, including LJ n-6 and exp-6 models, and find that it remains sufficiently accurate and reliable in reproducing the corresponding freezing curves, down to the triple-point temperatures. One of the possible application of the method--estimation of the freezing conditions in complex (dusty) plasmas with ''tunable'' interactions--is briefly discussed.

  1. Molecular Physiology of Freeze Tolerance in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

    2017-04-01

    Freeze tolerance is an amazing winter survival strategy used by various amphibians and reptiles living in seasonally cold environments. These animals may spend weeks or months with up to ∼65% of their total body water frozen as extracellular ice and no physiological vital signs, and yet after thawing they return to normal life within a few hours. Two main principles of animal freeze tolerance have received much attention: the production of high concentrations of organic osmolytes (glucose, glycerol, urea among amphibians) that protect the intracellular environment, and the control of ice within the body (the first putative ice-binding protein in a frog was recently identified), but many other strategies of biochemical adaptation also contribute to freezing survival. Discussed herein are recent advances in our understanding of amphibian and reptile freeze tolerance with a focus on cell preservation strategies (chaperones, antioxidants, damage defense mechanisms), membrane transporters for water and cryoprotectants, energy metabolism, gene/protein adaptations, and the regulatory control of freeze-responsive hypometabolism at multiple levels (epigenetic regulation of DNA, microRNA action, cell signaling and transcription factor regulation, cell cycle control, and anti-apoptosis). All are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.

  2. Shadowgraph Study of Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David; Nikolaenko, Gennady; Giglio, Marzio; Vailati, Alberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Meyer, William

    2002-01-01

    A fluid or fluid mixture, subjected to a vertical temperature and/or concentration gradient in a gravitational field, exhibits greatly enhanced light scattering at small angles. This effect is caused by coupling between the vertical velocity fluctuations due to thermal energy and the vertically varying refractive index. Physically, small upward or downward moving regions will be displaced into fluid having a refractive index different from that of the moving region, thus giving rise to the enhanced scattering. The scattered intensity is predicted to vary with scattering wave vector q, as q(sup -4), for sufficiently large q, but the divergence is quenched by gravity at small q. In the absence of gravity, the long wavelength fluctuations responsible for the enhanced scattering are predicted to grow until limited by the sample dimensions. It is thus of interest to measure the mean-squared amplitude of such fluctuations in the microgravity environment for comparison with existing theory and ground based measurements. The relevant wave vectors are extremely small, making traditional low-angle light scattering difficult or impossible because of stray elastically scattered light generated by optical surfaces. An alternative technique is offered by the shadowgraph method, which is normally used to visualize fluid flows, but which can also serve as a quantitative tool to measure fluctuations. A somewhat novel shadowgraph apparatus and the necessary data analysis methods will be described. The apparatus uses a spatially coherent, but temporally incoherent, light source consisting of a super-luminescent diode coupled to a single-mode optical fiber in order to achieve extremely high spatial resolution, while avoiding effects caused by interference of light reflected from the various optical surfaces that are present when using laser sources. Results obtained for a critical mixture of aniline and cyclohexane subjected to a vertical temperature gradient will be presented. The

  3. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  4. Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David

    2005-01-01

    We have worked with our collaborators at the University of Milan (Professor Marzio Giglio and his group-supported by ASI) to define the science required to measure gradient driven fluctuations in the microgravity environment. Such a study would provide an accurate test of the extent to which the theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be used to predict the properties of fluids maintained in a stressed, non-equilibrium state. As mentioned above, the results should also provide direct visual insight into the behavior of a variety of fluid systems containing gradients or interfaces, when placed in the microgravity environment. With support from the current grant, we have identified three key systems for detailed investigation. These three systems are: 1) A single-component fluid to be studied in the presence of a temperature gradient; 2) A mixture of two organic liquids to be studied both in the presence of a temperature gradient, which induces a steady-state concentration gradient, and with the temperature gradient removed, but while the concentration gradient is dying by means of diffusion; 3) Various pairs of liquids undergoing free diffusion, including a proteidbuffer solution and pairs of mixtures having different concentrations, to allow us to vary the differences in fluid properties in a controlled manner.

  5. The ice nucleating ability of pollen:. Part II. Laboratory studies in immersion and contact freezing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, K.; Matthias-Maser, S.; Jaenicke, R.; Mitra, S. K.

    Laboratory tests were conducted of the ice nucleating ability of four kinds of pollen in the immersion and the contact freezing modes. The diameters of the selected pollen were between 25 and 70 μm. The experiments were carried out at the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with freely suspended supercooled droplets at temperatures down to -28 °C. The immersion freezing experiments were conducted with drops of radii between 250 and 375 μm formed from distilled water with a defined amount of pollen added. The drops were freely floated in the wind tunnel while being supercooled. For the contact freezing experiments, a short burst of pollen was allowed to collide with freely suspended, supercooled pure water drops of 360-μm radius. The results showed that particle-free water drops in particle-free air in the wind tunnel did not freeze at temperatures above -28 °C while water drops containing pollen froze at temperatures as high as -9 °C, and water drops colliding with pollen froze at temperatures -5 °C and lower. Combined with earlier results about the ice nucleating ability of some bacteria, marine plankton, and leaf litters, the present results confirm the importance of biological aerosol particles as potential ice nuclei at relatively warm temperatures.

  6. Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qika; Li, Heting

    2017-02-01

    The transverse gradient undulator (TGU) has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.

  7. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  8. UltraViolet freeze-in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Fatemeh; Kolda, Christopher; Unwin, James

    2015-03-01

    If dark matter is thermally decoupled from the visible sector, the observed relic density can potentially be obtained via freeze-in production of dark matter. Typically in such models it is assumed that the dark matter is connected to the thermal bath through feeble renormalisable interactions. Here, rather, we consider the case in which the hidden and visible sectors are coupled only via non-renormalisable operators. This is arguably a more generic realisation of the dark matter freeze-in scenario, as it does not require the introduction of diminutive renormalisable couplings. We examine general aspects of freeze-in via non-renormalisable operators in a number of toy models and present several motivated implementations in the context of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics. Specifically, we study models related to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and Z ' portals.

  9. Freeze verification: time for a fresh approach

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, C.

    1983-01-01

    The administration's claim that some elements of a comprehensive nuclear freeze are unverifiable does not specify the nature of those elements and whether they represent a real threat to national security if we trusted the USSR to comply. The author contends that clandestine development of new weapons will have little strategic effect since both sides already have total destructive power. The risks of noncompliance are largely political and less than the risks of continued arms buildup. Since the USSR would also want the US to be bound by freeze terms, deterrence would come from mutual benefit. Hardliners argue that cheating is easier in a closed society; that our democracy would tend to relax and the USSR would move ahead with its plans for world domination. The author argues that, over time, a freeze would diminish Soviet confidence in its nuclear war fighting capabilities and that adequate verification is possible with monitoring and warning arrangements. (DCK)

  10. Implication of ice flux on the geometry of basal freeze-on plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leysinger Vieli, Gwendolyn J.-M. C.

    2016-04-01

    In recent radio echo sounding (RES) surveys in Greenland and Antarctica large plume-like features in internal ice layer structures are seen. These large-scale anomalous structures rise from the bed to up to half of the ice thickness and commonly extend horizontally over several ice thicknesses. Numerical ice sheet flow models applying ice accretion at the base are able to reproduce such layer structures. Here I explore the geometry of these plume-like features in relation to ice dynamics. From theoretical considerations, based on mass continuity, a simple quantification of plume height is derived that depends on balance ice flux and on its vertical deformation profile. The dominant factor controlling plume height is thereby given by the ratio between the ice flux originating from basal freeze-on and the surface balance flux. It further implies that for relatively high plumes the vertical shape function profile in flux is of secondary importance, but of increasing importance for smaller plumes. Based on this concept, the ice flux originating from freeze-on at the bed can therefore be estimated from the observed relative plume heights. This provides direct constraints on rates of basal freeze-on, which is otherwise very difficult to quantify. This concept is explored on the example of observed plumes in North Greenland.

  11. Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory.

  12. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  13. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  14. Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling during Freezing Stress Is Accompanied by Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Allison C; Benning, Christoph; Roston, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a seasonal abiotic stress that restricts native plant ranges and crop distributions. Two types of low-temperature stress can be distinguished: chilling and freezing. Much work has been done on the mechanisms by which chilling is sensed, but relatively little is known about how plants sense freezing. Recently, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) was identified as a protein that responds in a nontranscriptional manner to freezing. Here, we investigate the cellular conditions that allow SFR2 activation. Using a combination of isolated organelle, whole-tissue, and whole-plant assays, we provide evidence that SFR2 is activated by changes in cytosolic pH and Mg(2+) Manipulation of pH and Mg(2+) in cold-acclimated plants is shown to cause changes similar to those of freezing. We conclude that pH and Mg(2+) are perceived as intracellular cues as part of the sensing mechanism for freezing conditions. This evidence provides a specific molecular mechanism to combat freezing.

  15. Cryoprotectant Production in Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frogs Is Augmented by Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycles.

    PubMed

    Larson, Don J; Barnes, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Ice nucleation across the skin of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) rapidly induces endogenous production of glucose, a cryoprotectant necessary for freeze tolerance. In laboratory studies of freeze tolerance, wood frogs are cooled slowly, often at -0.05°C h(-1), to facilitate high cryoprotectant production and survival. Under natural conditions in Alaska, however, wood frogs accumulate maximal tissue glucose concentrations while cooling at much faster rates, -0.35° to -1.6°C h(-1), and in addition undergo multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles before remaining frozen for the winter. We examined whether simulating these ecologically relevant cooling rates and repeated freeze-thaw events in captive wood frogs results in the high glucose concentrations found in naturally frozen wood frogs. We found that over successive freezing and thawing events, glucose concentrations increased stepwise in all measured tissues. Short thawing periods did not result in a statistically significant decline of glucose concentrations. Wood frogs that experienced three freeze-thaw events had fresh weight glucose concentrations that approached values found in tissues of wood frogs frozen in natural conditions. Laboratory wood frogs survive frozen for 2 mo, while wood frogs frozen under natural conditions survive frozen for up to 7 mo at temperatures below -18°C. We hypothesize that repeated freeze-thaw cycles with rapid cooling and warming rates allow for greater survival in Alaskan wood frogs through enhanced cryoprotectant production.

  16. Effect of process conditions on recovery of protein activity after freezing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Nail, S L

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of the degree to which recovery of activity of model proteins after freeze-drying can be maximized by manipulation of freeze-dry process conditions in the absence of protective solutes. Catalase, beta-galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were used as model proteins. All of the three proteins exhibited a concentration-dependent loss of activity after freezing, with significantly higher recovery at higher concentration. The freezing method and the type of buffer were also important, with sodium phosphate buffer and freezing by immersion of vials in liquid nitrogen associated with the lowest recovery of activity. Differential scanning calorimetry was predictive of the onset of collapse during freeze-drying only for beta-galactosidase. For the other proteins, either no Tg' transition was observed, or the apparent glass transition did not correlate with the microscopically-observed collapse temperature. The time course of activity loss for beta-galactosidase and LDH was compared during freeze-drying under conditions which produced collapse of the dried matrix and conditions which produced retention of microstructure in the dried solid. Recovery of activity decreased continuously during primary drying, with no sharp drop in recovery of activity associated with the onset of collapse. The most important drying process variable affecting recovery of activity was residual moisture level, with a dramatic drop in activity recovery associated with residual moisture levels less than about 10%.

  17. High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2004-11-29

    A concept being developed for high current electron beams may have application to HEDP and is described here. It involves the use of planar Blumlein stacks placed inside an induction cell. The output end of the Blumlein stack is applied across a high gradient insulator (HGI). These insulators have been used successfully in the presence of kilo Ampere-level electron beam currents for tens of nanoseconds at gradients of 20 MV/meter.

  18. Physiological responses to freezing in hatchlings of freeze-tolerant and -intolerant turtles.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Baker, Patrick J; Lee, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    Freeze tolerance is a complex cold-hardiness adaptation that has independently evolved in a diverse group of organisms, including several ectothermic vertebrates. Because little is known about the mechanistic basis for freeze tolerance in reptiles, we compared responses to experimental freezing in winter-acclimatized hatchlings representing nine taxa of temperate North American turtles, including ones that tolerated freezing and others that did not. Viability rates of hatchlings frozen to -3 degrees C for 72 h ranged from 0 to 100%. Tolerance to freezing was poor in Sternotherus odoratus, Graptemys geographica and Trachemys scripta, intermediate in Chelydra serpentina, and high in Emydoidea blandingii, Chrysemys picta bellii, C. p. marginata, Malaclemys terrapin, and Terrapene ornata, and generally reflected the winter thermal ecology of each taxon. Plasma activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a novel in vivo index of freeze/thaw damage, corroborated viability assessments and demonstrated that cryoinjury occurred even in surviving turtles. Irrespective of taxon, cryoinjury tended to be higher in smaller individuals and in those having relatively low water contents; however, bases for these associations were not apparent. Screening for certain organic osmolytes that might promote freezing survival by colligatively reducing ice content and limiting cell dehydration showed that the plasma of unfrozen (control) turtles contained small quantities of glucose (1.3-5.8 mmol l(-1)) and lactate (0.6-3.2 mmol l(-1)) and modest amounts of urea (range of mean values for all taxa 8.2-52.3 mmol l(-1)). Frozen/thawed turtles of all taxa accumulated modest amounts of glucose and lactate that jointly raised the plasma solute concentration by 30-100 mmol l(-1). We conclude that organic osmolytes accumulated both before and during freezing may promote survival in species that have evolved a tolerance to freezing, but are not necessarily accumulated for that purpose.

  19. Regulation of SMAD transcription factors during freezing in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Oscar A; Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-11-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives sub-zero winter temperatures by undergoing full body freezing for weeks at a time, during which it displays no measurable brain activity, no breathing, and a flat-lined heart. Freezing is a hypometabolic state characterized by a global suppression of gene expression that is elicited in part by transcription factors that coordinate the activation of vital pro-survival pathways. Smad transcription factors respond to TGF-β signalling and are involved in numerous cellular functions from development to stress. Given the identity of genes they regulate, we hypothesized that they may be involved in coordinating gene expression during freezing. Protein expression of Smad1/2/3/4/5 in response to freezing was examined in 24h frozen and 8h thawed wood frog tissues using western immunoblotting, with the determination of subcellular localization in muscle and liver tissues. Transcript levels of smad2, smad4 and downstream genes (serpine1, myostatin, and tsc22d3) were measured by RT-PCR. Tissue-specific responses were observed during freezing where brain, heart, and liver had elevated levels of pSmad3, and skeletal muscle and kidneys had increased levels of pSmad1/5 and pSmad2 during freeze/thaw cycle, while protein and transcript levels remained constant. There were increases in nuclear levels of pSmad2 in muscle and pSmad3 in liver. Transcript levels of serpine1 were induced in heart, muscle, and liver, myostatin in muscle, and tsc22d3 in heart, and liver during freezing. These results suggest a novel freeze-responsive activation of Smad proteins that may play an important role in coordinating pro-survival gene networks necessary for freeze tolerance.

  20. Mathematical model of induced flow on the airplane vertical tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Edu, Raluca Ioana

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the flow around the vertical tail of an airplane, based on the general elements of the aerodynamic design, with details leading to the separate formulation of the Fourier coefficients in the series solution of the Prandtl's lifting-line equation. Numerical results are obtained in Maple soft environment, for a standard configuration of an airplane geometry. The results include the discussion of the vortex model for the sidewash gradient on the vertical stabilizer.

  1. Device and method for determining freezing points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

  2. Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

  3. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  4. ENZYMIC ACTIVITY IN FREEZE DRIED FOODS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and bananas. Factors studied include, polyphenol oxidase , peroxidase, sucrase, alpha and beta amylase, pectinesterase and ascorbase activity as well...storage of freeze-dried and frozen peas at different moisture was studied. Lipase activity and production of free fatty acid was following during long term

  5. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  6. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  7. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  8. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  9. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  10. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  11. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  12. Ice VI freezing of meat: supercooling and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Antonio D; Otero, Laura; Martino, Miriam N; Zaritzky, Noemí E; Arabas, Jacek; Szczepek, Janusz; Sanz, Pedro D

    2004-03-01

    While "classical" freezing (to ice I) is disruptive to the microstructure of meat, freezing to ice VI has been found to preserve it. Ice VI freeze-substitution microscopy showed no traces of structural alteration on muscle fibres compared with the extensive damage caused by ice I freezing. The different signs of the freezing volume changes associated with these two ice phases is the most likely explanation for the above effects. Ice VI exists only at high pressure (632.4-2216 MPa) but can be formed and kept at room temperature. It was found that its nucleation requires a higher degree of supercooling than ice I freezing does, both for pure water and meat. Monitoring of the freezing process (by temperature and/or pressure measurements) is, thus, essential. The possible applications of ice VI freezing for food and other biological materials and the nucleation behaviour of this ice phase are discussed.

  13. Nucleation Pathways For Freezing Of Two Grades Of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Rulison, Aaron; Bayuzick, Robert; Hofmeister, William; Morton, Craig

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses classical nucleation theory of freezing and describes experimental study of nucleation mechanisms that predominate during freezing of spherical specimens of initially molten zirconium levitated electrostatically in vacuum.

  14. Stratospheric Balloon Gradient Geomagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Sergey; Tsvetkov, Yury

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth's crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). One of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN during already about 20 years. This system consists of three instrumental con-tainers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one's name is -stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Data trans-mission is carried out by Globalstar satellite link. The obtained data are used in solving the problems of deep sounding of the Earth's crust magnetic structure -an extraction of magnetic anomalies, determination of a depth of bedding of magnetoactive rocks and others. The developed launching technology, deployment in flight, assembly, data processing, transfer and landing the containers with the equipment can be used for other similar problems of monitoring and sounding an environment. Useful flight weights of each instrumental container may be reaching 50 kg. More than ten testing flights (1986-2009) at stratospheric altitudes (20-30 km) have proven the reliability of this system.

  15. Nanomaterials for efficiently lowering the freezing point of anti-freeze coolants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haiping; Zheng, Yingsong; Roy, Walter

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we report, for the first time, the effect of the lowered freezing point in a 50% water/50% anti-freeze coolant (PAC) or 50% water/50% ethylene glycol (EG) solution by the addition of carbon nanotubes and other particles. The experimental results indicated that the nano materials are much more efficient (hundreds fold) in lowering the freezing point than the regular ionic materials (e.g., NaCl). The possible explanation for this interesting phenomenon is the colligative property of fluid and relative small size of nano material. It is quite certain that the carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nano particles could be a wonderful candidate for the nano coolant application because they could not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also efficiently lower the freezing point of traditional coolants.

  16. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  17. Tandem High-pressure Freezing and Quick Freeze Substitution of Plant Tissues for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bobik, Krzysztof; Dunlap, John R.; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been providing biologists with ultra-high resolution images of biological materials. Yet, because of laborious and time-consuming protocols that also demand experience in preparation of artifact-free samples, TEM is not considered a user-friendly technique. Traditional sample preparation for TEM used chemical fixatives to preserve cellular structures. High-pressure freezing is the cryofixation of biological samples under high pressures to produce very fast cooling rates, thereby restricting ice formation, which is detrimental to the integrity of cellular ultrastructure. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution are currently the methods of choice for producing the highest quality morphology in resin sections for TEM. These methods minimize the artifacts normally associated with conventional processing for TEM of thin sections. After cryofixation the frozen water in the sample is replaced with liquid organic solvent at low temperatures, a process called freeze substitution. Freeze substitution is typically carried out over several days in dedicated, costly equipment. A recent innovation allows the process to be completed in three hours, instead of the usual two days. This is typically followed by several more days of sample preparation that includes infiltration and embedding in epoxy resins before sectioning. Here we present a protocol combining high-pressure freezing and quick freeze substitution that enables plant sample fixation to be accomplished within hours. The protocol can readily be adapted for working with other tissues or organisms. Plant tissues are of special concern because of the presence of aerated spaces and water-filled vacuoles that impede ice-free freezing of water. In addition, the process of chemical fixation is especially long in plants due to cell walls impeding the penetration of the chemicals to deep within the tissues. Plant tissues are therefore particularly challenging, but

  18. Aquaporin-mediated improvement of freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is restricted to rapid freezing conditions.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Colavizza, Didier; Thevelein, Johan M

    2004-06-01

    Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory conditions and not in large doughs under industrial conditions. We found that the difference in the freezing rate is apparently responsible for the difference in the results. We tested six different cooling rates and found that at high cooling rates aquaporin overexpression significantly improved the survival of yeast cells, while at low cooling rates there was no significant effect. Differences in the cultivation conditions and in the thawing rate did not influence the freeze tolerance under the conditions tested. Survival after freezing is determined mainly by two factors, cellular dehydration and intracellular ice crystal formation, which depend in an inverse manner on the cooling velocity. In accordance with this so-called two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury, we suggest that water permeability is limiting, and therefore that aquaporin function is advantageous, only under rapid freezing conditions. If this hypothesis is correct, then aquaporin overexpression is not expected to affect the leavening capacity of yeast cells in large, industrial frozen doughs, which do not freeze rapidly. Our results imply that aquaporin-overexpressing strains have less potential for use in frozen doughs than originally thought.

  19. Tandem high-pressure freezing and quick freeze substitution of plant tissues for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bobik, Krzysztof; Dunlap, John R; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2014-10-13

    Since the 1940s transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been providing biologists with ultra-high resolution images of biological materials. Yet, because of laborious and time-consuming protocols that also demand experience in preparation of artifact-free samples, TEM is not considered a user-friendly technique. Traditional sample preparation for TEM used chemical fixatives to preserve cellular structures. High-pressure freezing is the cryofixation of biological samples under high pressures to produce very fast cooling rates, thereby restricting ice formation, which is detrimental to the integrity of cellular ultrastructure. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution are currently the methods of choice for producing the highest quality morphology in resin sections for TEM. These methods minimize the artifacts normally associated with conventional processing for TEM of thin sections. After cryofixation the frozen water in the sample is replaced with liquid organic solvent at low temperatures, a process called freeze substitution. Freeze substitution is typically carried out over several days in dedicated, costly equipment. A recent innovation allows the process to be completed in three hours, instead of the usual two days. This is typically followed by several more days of sample preparation that includes infiltration and embedding in epoxy resins before sectioning. Here we present a protocol combining high-pressure freezing and quick freeze substitution that enables plant sample fixation to be accomplished within hours. The protocol can readily be adapted for working with other tissues or organisms. Plant tissues are of special concern because of the presence of aerated spaces and water-filled vacuoles that impede ice-free freezing of water. In addition, the process of chemical fixation is especially long in plants due to cell walls impeding the penetration of the chemicals to deep within the tissues. Plant tissues are therefore particularly challenging, but

  20. Modification of physical properties of freeze-dried rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.

    1971-01-01

    Freeze cycling process consists of alternately freezing and thawing precooked rice for two cycles, rice is then frozen and freeze-dehydrated in vacuum sufficient to remove water from rice by sublimitation. Process modifies rice grain structure and porosity, enabling complete rehydration in one minute in hot water.

  1. Interspecific analysis of xylem freezing responses in Acer and Betula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate woody plants have evolved two methods for coping with seasonal exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Supercooling is a freeze-avoidance strategy where cells are able to resist the freezing of intracellular water below sub-zero temperatures. Non-supercooling is a freeze-tolerance strategy wh...

  2. Depth-related gradients of viral activity in Lake Pavin.

    PubMed

    Colombet, J; Sime-Ngando, T; Cauchie, H M; Fonty, G; Hoffmann, L; Demeure, G

    2006-06-01

    High-resolution vertical sampling and determination of viral and prokaryotic parameters in a deep volcanic lake shows that in the absence of thermal stratification but within light, oxygen, and chlorophyll gradients, host availability empirically is prevalent over the physical and chemical environments and favors lytic over lysogenic "viral life cycles."

  3. Objective video quality assessment method for freeze distortion based on freeze aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.

  4. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  5. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  6. Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.

  7. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  8. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  9. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze-thaw cycles.

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark's living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in tree stems.

  10. Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

  11. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  12. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  13. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j// , at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  14. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the seasons progress, autumn-planted winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) first gain, then progressively lose freezing tolerance. Exposing the plants to freeze-thaw cycles of -3/3°C results in increased ability to tolerate subsequent freezing to potentially damaging temperatures. This stu...

  15. Evolution of the Inner Liquid-Solid Interface During Metal Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. G.; Fuksov, V. M.; Gerasimov, S. F.; Pokhodun, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the inner interface initiation method on the interface shape (formation of the planar interface or the interface with the dendrites growing into the liquid metal) was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The results of numerical simulation of the process of heat removal from the metal, corresponding to different initiation methods, revealed the existence of different species of the inner interface. The interface modification during freezing arises from the inequality of temperature gradients on opposite sides of the interface, i.e., from imbalance of heat fluxes on the interphase boundary (Stefan problem). For indium point, the results of numerical simulation were confirmed experimentally.

  16. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  17. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  18. The effect of undissolved air on isochoric freezing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pedro A; Preciado, Jessica; Carlson, Gary; DeLonzor, Russ; Rubinsky, Boris

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of undissolved air on isochoric freezing of aqueous solutions. Isochoric freezing is concerned with freezing in a constant volume thermodynamic system. A possible advantage of the process is that it substantially reduces the percentage of ice in the system at every subzero temperature, relative to atmospheric freezing. At the pressures generated by isochoric freezing, or high pressure isobaric freezing, air cannot be considered an incompressible substance and the presence of undissolved air substantially increases the amount of ice that forms at any subfreezing temperature. This effect is measurable at air volumes as low as 1%. Therefore eliminating the undissolved air, or any separate gaseous phase, from the system is essential for retaining the properties of isochoric freezing.

  19. Fish antifreeze protein and the freezing and recrystallization of ice.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; DeVries, A L; Oolman, L D

    Antifreeze glycopeptide and peptides from the blood of polar fishes prevent the growth of ice crystals in water at temperatures down to approximately 1 degree C below freezing point, but do not appreciably influence the equilibrium freezing point. This freezing point hysteresis must be a disequilibrium effect, or it would violate Gibbs' phase rule, but the separate freezing and melting points are experimentally very definite: ice neither melts nor freezes perceptibly within the 'hysteresis gap', for periods of hours or days. We report here unusual crystal faces on ice crystals grown from solutions of very low concentrations of the anti-freeze glycopeptides and peptides. This is a clue to the mechanism of freezing inhibition, and it may be the basis of a simple, very sensitive test for antifreeze material. Very low concentrations of the antifreeze protein are also remarkably effective in preventing the recrystallization of ice.

  20. Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

  1. Freezing and melting water in lamellar structures.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, J T; Erramilli, S; Gruner, S M

    1994-01-01

    The manner in which ice forms in lamellar suspensions of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine in water depends strongly on the water fraction. For weight fractions between 15 and 9%, the freezing and melting temperatures are significantly depressed below 0 degree C. The ice exhibits a continuous melting transition spanning as much as 20 degrees C. When the water weight fraction is below 9%, ice never forms at temperatures as low as -40 degrees C. We show that when water contained in a lamellar lipid suspension freezes, the ice is not found between the bilayers; it exists as pools of crystalline ice in equilibrium with the bound water associated with the polar lipid headgroups. We have used this effect, together with the known chemical potential of ice, to measure hydration forces between lipid bilayers. We find exponentially decaying hydration repulsion when the bilayers are less than about 7 A apart. For larger separations, we find significant deviations from single exponential decay. PMID:7948683

  2. Freeze-out, Hadronization and Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of the statistical hadronization model with experimental data and lattice QCD results is not always straightforward. Indeed, the interpretation of the ϕ meson production, of the proton to pion multiplicity ratio at LHC and the agreement of the freeze-out curve with the lattice critical line in the T — µB plane, require further analyses. Moreover the dynamics of the hadronization has to be compatible with: 1) the statitical behavior also observed in elementary high energy collisions; 2) a universal hadronization temperature for all high energy collisions; 3) the freeze-out criteria. In these lecture notes the SHM is recalled and some explanations of the puzzling aspects of its comparison with data are discussed.

  3. Growth and characterization of twin-free ZnSe single crystals by the vertical Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, T.; Umetsu, K.; Rudolph, P.; Koh, H. J.; Iida, S.; Uchiki, H.; Tsuboi, N.

    1996-04-01

    The crystallographic characteristics of twin-reduced ZnSe crystals grown by a high-pressure melting method and the approach to stoichiometric growth are given. The crystals were grown by the seeded vertical Bridgman method and gradient freezing with in-situ composition control by a defined Zn source temperature. One inch ZnSe single crystals having twin-reduced parts and an average etch pit density of 2.0 × 10 5cm -2 were successfully grown by the seeded Bridgman method. Multi-twin patterns, typically for melt-grown boules, were not detected from the observation by optical microscopy with crossed polaroids and by transmission X-ray topography. The crystallinity of the as-grown crystal was characterized by X-ray rocking curve analysis using a double crystal arrangement. A full width at half maximum of 24 arcsec was detected. The influence of the Zn source on the crystal composition was studied by chemical analysis and photoluminescence.

  4. Freeze tolerance in an arctic Alaska stonefly.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kent R; Sformo, Todd; Barnes, Brian M; Duman, John G

    2009-01-01

    Most aquatic insects do not survive subzero temperatures and, for those that do, the physiology has not been well characterized. Nemoura arctica is a species of stonefly widely distributed throughout arctic and subarctic Alaska. We collected nymphs from the headwaters of the Chandalar River, where we recorded streambed temperatures as low as -12.7 degrees C in midwinter. When in contact with ice, autumn-collected N. arctica cool to -1.5+/-0.4 degrees C before freezing, but individuals survived temperatures as low as -15 degrees C, making this the first described species of freeze-tolerant stonefly. N. arctica clearly survive freezing in nature, as winter-collected nymphs encased in ice demonstrated high survivorship when thawed. In the laboratory, 87% of N. arctica nymphs frozen to -15 degrees C for 2.5 weeks survived and, within one month of thawing, 95% of the last-instar nymphs emerged. N. arctica produce both glycerol and ice-binding factors (e.g. antifreeze protein) in response to low temperature. Hemolymph glycerol concentrations increased from 3 mmol l(-1) to 930+/-114 mmol l(-1) when temperatures were decreased from 4 degrees C to -8 degrees C, and N. arctica continued to produce glycerol even while frozen. Although the hemolymph of individual cold-acclimated nymphs occasionally exhibited more than a degree of thermal hysteresis, typically the hemolymph exhibited only hexagonal crystal growth, indicating a low concentration of ice-binding factor. Hemolymph of nymphs acclimated to subzero temperatures had recrystallization inhibition. These results demonstrate that, in the face of freezing conditions, N. arctica exhibit overwintering adaptations similar to those of terrestrial insects.

  5. Volume versus surface nucleation in freezing aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurbjörnsson, Ómar F.; Signorell, Ruth

    2008-05-01

    The present study puts an end to the ongoing controversy regarding volume versus surface nucleation in freezing aerosols: Our study on nanosized aerosol particles demonstrates that current state of the art measurements of droplet ensembles cannot distinguish between the two mechanisms. The reasons are inherent experimental uncertainties as well as approximations used to analyze the kinetics. The combination of both can lead to uncertainties in the rate constants of two orders of magnitude, with important consequences for the modeling of atmospheric processes.

  6. Heat Conduction with Freezing or Thawing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    with permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, thermal storage systems for solar energy, the freezing of food or biological mater- ial, and the...solar latent heat methods, and preservation of food . 1.1 THE NATURE OF THE THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM Before any equations or physical laws are discussed...fluids or other solids. An important example Is a soil system consisting of a mineral skeleton whose voids may contain air, water, water A - vapor, ice

  7. Freeze-Dried Human Red Blood Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    freeze-dried and rehydrated blood cells will be made radioactive with " chromium and infused into my other arm through a hypodermic needle . No more than...directed at: (1) development of buffer formulations based on the glass transition and water replacement theory : (2) establishing standard...survival of transfused red blood cells. The labelled RBC were infused through a 20 gauge needle into the volunteer via a scalp vein in the right arm

  8. Freezing of charged colloids in slit pores.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Stefan; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2008-12-28

    Using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical and isobaric ensembles we investigate freezing phenomena in a charged colloidal suspension confined to narrow slit pores. Our model involves only the macroions which interact via a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential supplemented by a soft-sphere potential. We focus on DLVO parameters typical for moderately charged silica particles (with charges Z approximately 35) in solvents of low ionic strengths. The corresponding DLVO interactions are too weak to drive a (bulk) freezing transition. Nevertheless, for sufficiently small surface separations L(z) the confined systems display not only layering but also significant in-plane crystalline order at chemical potentials where the bulk system is a globally stable fluid (capillary freezing). At confinement conditions related to two-layer systems the observed in-plane structures are consistent with those detected in ground state calculations for perfect Yukawa bilayers [R. Messina and H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146101 (2003)]. Here we additionally observe (at fixed L(z)) a compression-induced first-order phase transition from a two-layer to a three-layer system with different in-plane structure, in agreement with previous findings for pure hard spheres.

  9. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response.

  10. Steam consumption reduction by eutectic freeze crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Bichsel, S.E.; Cleary, M.; Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Steam production in American beet sugar factories can be reduced by 600 pounds per ton of beets by using hydrate freeze crystallization in place of pan evaporators for sugar crystallization. This is a relatively constant number, regardless of current factory energy use. Further reduction is limited by the juice heating needs in the purification operations. Steam for juice heating is 20 to 30% on beets, or 400 to 600 pounds of steam per ton. In efficient factories this is about the steam flow to the evaporators when the pan crystallizers are replaced by freeze crystallization. An approach is described here for a rapid evaluation of effects on the steam balance of basic process changes. It provides a visual guide to restructuring the steam balance that simplifies optimization when such changes are made. The graphic approach is useful in illustrating methods of reducing energy use in a sugar factory, in addition to the current analysis of integration of the hydrate freeze process. For example, membrane and vapor recompression evaporators for juice concentration must be accompanied by major factory modifications to produce any net savings of steam. The reason is the needs for specific steam quantity and quality for the pan evaporators and juice heaters, supplied through the current evaporator trains. Reduction of the steam rate below 25 to 35% on beets will require changes to the conventional juice purification process.

  11. Spin-freezing perspective on cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Philipp; Hoshino, Shintaro; Shinaoka, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting state in cuprates appears if charge carriers are doped into a Mott-insulating parent compound. An unresolved puzzle is the unconventional nature of the normal state above the superconducting dome and its connection to the superconducting instability. At weak hole doping, a "pseudogap" metal state with signatures of time-reversal symmetry breaking is observed, which near-optimal doping changes into a "strange metal" with non-Fermi-liquid properties. Qualitatively similar phase diagrams are found in multiorbital systems, such as pnictides, where the unconventional metal states arise from a Hund-coupling-induced spin freezing. Here, we show that the relevant model for cuprates, the single-orbital Hubbard model on the square lattice, can be mapped onto an effective multiorbital problem with strong ferromagnetic Hund coupling. The spin-freezing physics of this multiorbital system explains the phenomenology of cuprates, including the pseudogap, the strange metal, and the d -wave superconducting instability. Our analysis suggests that spin/orbital freezing is the universal mechanism which controls the properties of unconventional superconductors.

  12. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  13. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  14. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Johnny L.

    2014-01-01

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum “cast” intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to ultrarapid freezing rates, often in the presence of cryoprotective agents to limit ice crystal formation, with subsequent fracturing of the specimen at liquid nitrogen cooled temperatures under high vacuum. The resultant fractured surface is replicated and stabilized by evaporation of carbon and platinum from an angle that confers surface three-dimensional detail to the cast. This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. In this report, we survey the instrument requirements and technical protocol for performing freeze-fracture, the associated nomenclature and characteristics of fracture planes, variations on the conventional procedure, and criteria for interpretation of freeze-fracture images. This technique has been widely used for ultrastructural investigation in many areas of cell biology and holds promise as an emerging imaging technique for molecular, nanotechnology, and materials science studies. PMID:25285532

  15. Fundamental technical elements of freeze-fracture/freeze-etch in biological electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carson, Johnny L

    2014-09-11

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to ultrarapid freezing rates, often in the presence of cryoprotective agents to limit ice crystal formation, with subsequent fracturing of the specimen at liquid nitrogen cooled temperatures under high vacuum. The resultant fractured surface is replicated and stabilized by evaporation of carbon and platinum from an angle that confers surface three-dimensional detail to the cast. This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. In this report, we survey the instrument requirements and technical protocol for performing freeze-fracture, the associated nomenclature and characteristics of fracture planes, variations on the conventional procedure, and criteria for interpretation of freeze-fracture images. This technique has been widely used for ultrastructural investigation in many areas of cell biology and holds promise as an emerging imaging technique for molecular, nanotechnology, and materials science studies.

  16. Response of New zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum to freezing and near freezing fluctuating water temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; James, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the resilience of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to fluctuating winter freezing and near-freezing temperature cycles in laboratory tests. Our goal was to provide data to confirm field observations of mortality and presumed mortality in stream habitats with fluctuating freezing to near-freezing temperatures. We tested individuals from 2 locations with distinctly different thermal regimes and population densities. One location had low snail densities and water temperatures with strong diel and seasonal water variation. The other location had high snail densities and nearly constant water temperatures. Groups of individuals from both locations were tested in each of 3 laboratory-created diel thermal cycles around nominal temperatures of 0, 2, or 4°C. Mortality occurred in cycles around 0°C in both populations, and little to no mortality occurred at temperatures >0°C. Individuals from both sources held in diel 0°C cycles for 72 h showed 100% mortality. Our findings support observations from published field studies that survival was limited in infested habitats subject to freezing temperatures.

  17. The biomechanical properties of deep freezing and freeze drying bones and their biomechanical changes after in-vivo allograft.

    PubMed

    Kang, J S; Kim, N H

    1995-09-01

    This study measured the physical properties in bending of the rat femur and compression of the rat first tail vertebra subjected to deep freezing at -80 degrees C for 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and freeze drying. This study also measured the mechanical changes after in vivo allograft of fresh bone, deep freezing(2, 6, 12 weeks) and freeze drying. Analysis for deep freezing groups showed a mean 7.2% decrease in bending strength and 11.0% decrease in compressive strength when compared with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in the duration of deep freezing. The groups of in vivo graft after deep freezing showed 23.1% and 22.2% decrease in bending and compressive strength. There was no statistical difference in the duration of deep freezing. The freeze drying group showed a 9.7% decrease in bending strength and no significant difference in compressive strength. The group of in vivo graft after freeze drying showed a 30.1% and a 41.3% decrease in bending and compressive strength. The above results suggested that there would be some mechanical limitation in using freeze dried graft for supporting implants.

  18. A vertical cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alió Sanz, Juan J; Iglesias Conde, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Correctly assessing open-bite malocclusions has remained problematic because clinicians have not had entirely reliable methods of determining the exact amount of skeletal and dental contributions to the problem. A new cephalometric technique, the vertical cephalometric analysis, offers orthodontists a system that precisely identifies the percentage of skeletal and dentoalveolar components that open-bite patients have. The vertical cephalometric analysis offers a discriminating diagnostic method for evaluating, diagnosing, and treatment planning for patients with open bite. This technique will allow clinicians to classify patients with accuracy, as well as to establish prognoses and select therapies.

  19. Levels of antioxidant defenses are decreased in bovine spermatozoa after a cycle of freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, J F; Chatterjee, S; Sirard, M A; Gagnon, C

    2000-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their detoxification by antioxidants plays a very important role in fertility. However, the relationship between the level of antioxidants in spermatozoa and the decreased fecundity following a freeze/thaw cycle remains poorly understood. We assessed the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in bovine semen. Sperm cells were isolated using a Percoll gradient to avoid contamination from seminal plasma, cellular debris, and other cell types. We found that bovine spermatozoa are poorly adapted to metabolize the toxic hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Indeed, very low levels of GPx and an absence of catalase were observed. We also studied the effect of freezing and thawing bovine spermatozoa in a egg yolk-Tris-glycerol extender (EYTG). Cryopreservation significantly reduced sperm GSH levels by 78% and SOD activity by 50%. We also investigated whether the decrease in GSH level could be linked to oxidative metabolism and found that a greater reduction in intracellular GSH level occurred when fresh sperm cells were incubated in EYTG for 6 hr at 38.5 degrees C under aerobic conditions than when incubated under restricted oxygen availability. Our results strongly suggest the involvement of an oxidative stress during a freeze/thaw cycle and are consistent with the hypothesis that ROS generated during such a cycle are detrimental to sperm function.

  20. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (-4.3 to -7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to -17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h⁻¹). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling.

  1. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-05-04

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  2. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  3. Stress-gradient plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

  4. Comparing contact and immersion freezing from continuous flow diffusion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, Baban; Marcolli, Claudia; Welti, André; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere are responsible for glaciating cloud droplets between 237 and 273 K. Different mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation can compete under mixed-phase cloud conditions. Contact freezing is considered relevant because higher ice nucleation temperatures than for immersion freezing for the same INPs were observed. It has limitations because its efficiency depends on the number of collisions between cloud droplets and INPs. To date, direct comparisons of contact and immersion freezing with the same INP, for similar residence times and concentrations, are lacking. This study compares immersion and contact freezing efficiencies of three different INPs. The contact freezing data were obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH) using 80 µm diameter droplets, which can interact with INPs for residence times of 2 and 4 s in the chamber. The contact freezing efficiency was calculated by estimating the number of collisions between droplets and particles. Theoretical formulations of collision efficiencies gave too high freezing efficiencies for all investigated INPs, namely AgI particles with 200 nm electrical mobility diameter, 400 and 800 nm diameter Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and kaolinite particles. Comparison of freezing efficiencies by contact and immersion freezing is therefore limited by the accuracy of collision efficiencies. The concentration of particles was 1000 cm-3 for ATD and kaolinite and 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 cm-3 for AgI. For concentrations < 5000 cm-3, the droplets collect only one particle on average during their time in the chamber. For ATD and kaolinite particles, contact freezing efficiencies at 2 s residence time were smaller than at 4 s, which is in disagreement with a collisional contact freezing process but in accordance with immersion freezing or adhesion freezing. With "adhesion freezing", we refer to a contact nucleation process that is enhanced compared to immersion freezing

  5. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  6. A method to estimate freezing rain climatology from ERA-Interim reanalysis over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämäräinen, Matti; Hyvärinen, Otto; Jylhä, Kirsti; Vajda, Andrea; Neiglick, Simo; Nuottokari, Jaakko; Gregow, Hilppa

    2017-02-01

    A method for estimating the occurrence of freezing rain (FZRA) in gridded atmospheric data sets was evaluated, calibrated against SYNOP weather station observations, and applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis for climatological studies of the phenomenon. The algorithm, originally developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute for detecting the precipitation type in numerical weather prediction, uses vertical profiles of relative humidity and temperature as input. Reanalysis data in 6 h time resolution were analysed over Europe for the period 1979-2014. Mean annual and monthly numbers of FZRA events, as well as probabilities of duration and spatial extent of events, were then derived. The algorithm was able to accurately reproduce the observed, spatially averaged interannual variability of FZRA (correlation 0.90) during the 36-year period, but at station level rather low validation and cross-validation statistics were achieved (mean correlation 0.38). Coarse-grid resolution of the reanalysis and misclassifications to other freezing phenomena in SYNOP observations, such as ice pellets and freezing drizzle, contribute to the low validation results at station level. Although the derived gridded climatology is preliminary, it may be useful, for example, in safety assessments of critical infrastructure.

  7. Recent Developments in Smart Freezing Technology Applied to Fresh Foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-10-13

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh-like quality. In this article, we reviewed the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts has greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provided a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies included computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  8. Characterization of the freeze sensitivity of a hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexiang; Tyagi, Anil; Carpenter, John; Perkins, Shalimar; Sylvester, David; Guy, Mark; Kristensen, Debra D; Braun, Latoya Jones

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that vaccines containing aluminum adjuvant are exposed to sub-zero temperatures while in the cold chain more frequently than was previously believed. This raises concerns that these freeze-sensitive vaccines may be damaged and offer inadequate protection. This study was undertaken to characterize the immediate qualitative changes of one such vaccine, hepatitis B, caused by freeze exposure. Hepatitis B vaccine was subjected to freezing temperatures ranging from 0 degrees C to -20 degrees C for up to three episodes with durations ranging from 1 hour to 7 days. The vaccine was analyzed for freezing point, particle size distribution, tertiary structure, and in vitro and in vivo potency. Whether or not hepatitis B vaccine freezes was shown to be dependent on an array of factors including temperature, rate of temperature change, duration of exposure, supercooling effects and vibration. Vaccine exposed to "mild" freezing (-4 degrees C or warmer) temperatures did not freeze and remained qualitatively unaltered. Single or repeated freezing events at temperatures of -10 degrees C or lower were associated with aggregation of the adjuvant-antigen particles, structural damage of the antigen, and reduction of immunogenicity in mice. Damage to the vaccine increased with duration of freezing, lower temperature, and the number of freezing episodes. With vibration, vaccine froze at -6 degrees C after 1 hour and damage occurred. Freezing and freeze damage to vaccines containing aluminum salt adjuvant represent real risks to the effectiveness of immunization and should be prevented by strengthening the cold chain system or, alternatively, development of freeze-stable vaccine formulations.

  9. Freeze-Thaw Injury to Isolated Spinach Protoplasts and Its Simulation at Above Freezing Temperatures 1

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Steven C.; Steponkus, Peter L.

    1978-01-01

    Possibilities to account for the mechanism of freeze-thaw injury to isolated protoplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Winter Bloomsdale were investigated. A freeze-thaw cycle to −3.9 C resulted in 80% lysis of the protoplasts. At −3.9 C, protoplasts are exposed to the equivalent of a 2.1 osmolal solution. Isolated protoplasts behave as ideal osmometers in the range of concentrations tested (0.35 to 2.75 osmolal), arguing against a minimum critical volume as a mechanism of injury. Average protoplast volume after a freeze-thaw cycle was not greatly different than the volume before freezing, arguing against an irreversible influx of solutes while frozen. A wide variety of sugars and sugar alcohols, none of which was freely permeant, were capable of protecting against injury which occurred when protoplasts were frozen in salt solutions. The extent of injury was also dependent upon the type of monovalent ions present, with Li = Na > K = Rb = Cs and Cl ≥ Br > I, in order of decreasing protoplast survival. Osmotic conditions encountered during a freeze-thaw cycle were established at room temperature by exposing protoplasts to high salt concentrations and then diluting the osmoticum. Injury occurred only after dilution of the osmoticum and was correlated with the expansion of the plasma membrane. Injury observed in frozen-thawed protoplasts was correlated with the increase in surface area the plasma membrane should have undergone during thawing, supporting the contention that contraction of the plasma membrane during freezing and its expansion during thawing are two interacting lesions which cause protoplast lysis during a freezethaw cycle. PMID:16660588

  10. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  11. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  12. Measurement of freezing point depression of water in glass capillaries and the associated ice front shape.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Muldrew, Ken; Wan, Richard G; Elliott, Janet A W

    2003-06-01

    Variations of the Kelvin equation [W. Thomson, Philos. Mag. 42, 448 (1871)] to describe the freezing point depression of water in capillaries exist in the literature. The differing equations, coupled with the uncertainty in input parameters, lead to various predictions. The difference between the predictions may become substantial when the capillary size decreases much below micron dimensions. An experiment was designed to investigate the predicted values using a customized directional solidification stage. The capillary freezing point depression for glass tubes with radii of 87 microm-3 microm was successfully measured. The image of the ice-water interface at equilibrium was also digitally captured and analyzed to examine the contact angle and the interface shape as well. Both are important for examining the hemispherical interface assumption that was exclusively used in the theoretical derivations. Finally, an equilibrium analysis of the thermodynamic system leads to a theoretical discussion of the problem. The effect of the temperature gradient on the interface shape is addressed, and an engineering criterion for the critical temperature gradient above which the effect must be considered for the interface shape calculation is derived.

  13. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ziren; Han Yilong; Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    2010-04-21

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.

  14. Freeze-drying of live virus vaccines: A review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L J J; Daoussi, R; Vervaet, C; Remon, J-P; De Beer, T R M

    2015-10-13

    Freeze-drying is the preferred method for stabilizing live, attenuated virus vaccines. After decades of research on several aspects of the process like the stabilization and destabilization mechanisms of the live, attenuated viruses during freeze-drying, the optimal formulation components and process settings are still matter of research. The molecular complexity of live, attenuated viruses, the multiple destabilization pathways and the lack of analytical techniques allowing the measurement of physicochemical changes in the antigen's structure during and after freeze-drying mean that they form a particular lyophilization challenge. The purpose of this review is to overview the available information on the development of the freeze-drying process of live, attenuated virus vaccines, herewith focusing on the freezing and drying stresses the viruses can undergo during processing as well as on the mechanisms and strategies (formulation and process) that are used to stabilize them during freeze-drying.

  15. How to freeze drop oscillations with powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Jeremy; Zhu, Ying; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We present experiments that show when a water drop impacts onto a bed of fine, hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. For all drop impact speeds, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we observe that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a complete coverage of powder, thus creating a deformed liquid marble. This powder coating acts to freeze the drop oscillations during rebound.

  16. Freezing distributed entanglement in spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Irene; Lovett, Brendon W.; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2007-09-15

    We show how to freeze distributed entanglement that has been created from the natural dynamics of spin chain systems. The technique that we propose simply requires single-qubit operations and isolates the entanglement in specific qubits at the ends of branches. Such frozen entanglement provides a useful resource, for example for teleportation or distributed quantum processing. The scheme can be applied to a wide range of systems--including actual spin systems and alternative qubit embodiments in strings of quantum dots, molecules, or atoms.

  17. Freeze Tolerant Radiator for an Advanced EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Elliott, Jeannine; Weislogel, Mark

    2004-01-01

    During an Extravehicular Activity (EVA), the astronaut s metabolic heat and the heat produced by the Portable Life Support Unit (PLSS) must be rejected. This heat load is currently rejected by a sublimator, which vents up to eight pounds of water each EVA. However, for advanced space missions of the future, water venting to space needs to be minimized because resupply impacts from earth will be prohibitive. If this heat load could be radiated to space from the PLSS, which has enough surface area to radiate most of the heat, the amount of water now vented could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a radiator rejects heat at a relatively constant rate, but the astronauts generate a variable heat load depending on how hard they are working. Without a way to vary the heat removal rate, the astronaut would experience cold discomfort or even frostbite. A proven method allowing a radiator to be turned-down is to sequentially allow tubes that carry the heat transfer fluid to the radiator to freeze. A drawback of current freezable radiators using this method is that they are far to heavy for use on a PLSS, because they use heavy construction to prevent the tubes from bursting as they freeze and thaw. This creates the need for a large radiator to reject most of the heat but with a lightweight tube that doesn t burst as it freezes and thaws. The new freezable radiator for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has features to accommodate the expansion of the radiator fluid when it freezes, and still have the high tube to fin conductance needed to minimize the number and weight of the tubes. Radiator fluid candidates are water and a propylene glycol-water mixture. This design maintains all materials within their elastic limits so that large volume changes can be achieved without breaking the tube. This concept couples this elastic expansion with an extremely lightweight, extremely high conductivity carbon fiber fin that can carry the heat needed to thaw a frozen tube. By using

  18. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOEpatents

    Poppendiek, Heinz F.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  19. Magnetic shielding for the Fermilab Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, Camille M.; Reid, Clark; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting RF cavity has to be shielded from magnetic fields present during cool down below the critical temperature to avoid freezing in the magnetic flux at localized impurities, thereby degrading the cavity intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}. The magnetic shielding designed for the Fermilab vertical cavity test facility (VCTF), a facility for CW RF vertical testing of bare ILC 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF cavities, was recently completed. For the magnetic shielding design, we used two cylindrical layers: a room temperature 'outer' shield of Amumetal (80% Ni alloy), and a 2K 'inner' shield of Cryoperm 10. The magnetic and mechanical design of the magnetic shielding and measurement of the remanent magnetic field inside the shielding are described.

  20. Allometry of cooling, supercooling, and freezing in the freeze-tolerant turtle Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Claussen, D L; Zani, P A

    1991-09-01

    Although several vertebrates are freeze tolerant, little is known of the relationship between body size and the kinetics of cooling and freezing. We compared these responses for six hatchling and eight adult Chrysemys picta from an Ohio population. All turtles initially recovered from freezing, and all adults, but only two hatchlings (which experienced ice contents of approximately 35%), exhibited long-term survival. Rapid thawing may have compromised hatchling survival. Turtle water content was inversely related to body mass, but we found no significant correlation between the extent of supercooling and body size. Prefreezing and postfreezing cooling rates scaled with body mass to the -0.55 and -0.40 power, respectively, but the latter rate was more than two orders of magnitude slower. Theoretical (assuming 20% bound water) and calorimetric estimates of body ice agreed reasonably well. Ice contents were both body mass and time dependent. The absolute rate of ice formation scaled with body mass to the 0.4 power. Body size strongly influences the freezing response of ectotherms and deserves more attention.

  1. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution of Arabidopsis for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jotham R

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of electron microscopy ultrastructural studies are to examine cellular architecture and relate the cell's structural machinery to dynamic functional roles. This aspiration is difficult to achieve if specimens have not been adequately preserved in a "living state"; hence specimen preparation is of the utmost importance for the success of any electron micrographic study. High-pressure freezing (HPF)/freeze substitution (FS) has long been recognized as the primer technique for the preservation of ultrastructure in biological samples. In most cases a basic HPF/freeze substitution protocol is sufficient to obtain superior ultrastructural preservation and structural contrast, which allows one to use more advanced microscopy techniques such as 3D electron tomography. However, for plant tissues, which have a thick cell wall, large water-filled vacuoles, and air spaces (all of which are detrimental to cryopreservation), these basic HPF/FS protocols often yield undesirable results. In particular, ice crystal artifacts and the staining of membrane systems are often poorly or negatively stained, which make 3D segmentation of a tomogram difficult. To overcome these problems, various aspects of the HPF/FS protocol can be altered, including the cryo-filler(s) used, freeze substitution cocktail, and the resin infiltration process. This chapter will describe these modifications for the preparation of plant tissues for routine electron microscopic studies, immunocytochemistry, and 3D tomographic electron imaging.

  2. 23 CFR 658.23 - LCV freeze; cargo-carrying unit freeze.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 658.23 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.23 LCV freeze... nature to route designation and vehicle operating restrictions applicable to combinations subject to 23...

  3. A molecular dynamics study of freezing in a confined geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wen-Jong; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Koplik, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls is studied by computer simulation. The time development of ordering is quantified and a novel freezing mechanism is observed. The liquid forms layers and subsequent in-plane ordering within a layer is accompanied by a sharpening of the layer in the transverse direction. The effects of channel size, the methods of quench, the liquid-wall interaction and the roughness of walls on the freezing mechanism are elucidated. Comparison with recent experiments on freezing in confined geometries is presented.

  4. Design of a blood-freezing system for leukemia research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. E.; Cygnarowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Leukemia research involves the use of cryogenic freezing and storage equipment. In a program being carried out at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), bone marrow (white blood cells) was frozen using a standard cryogenic biological freezer. With this system, it is difficult to maintain the desired rate of freezing and repeatability from sample to sample. A freezing system was developed that satisfies the requirements for a repeatable, constant freezing rate. The system was delivered to NIC and is now operational. This report describes the design of the major subsystems, the analyses, the operating procedure, and final system test results.

  5. Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

  6. Structurally caused freezing point depression of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    BLOCH, R; WALTERS, D H; KUHN, W

    1963-01-01

    When investigating the freezing behaviour (by thermal analysis) of the glycerol-extracted adductor muscle of Mytilus edulis it was observed that the temperature of ice formation in the muscular tissue was up to 1.5 degrees C lower than the freezing point of the embedding liquid, a 0.25 N KCl solution with pH = 4.9 with which the tissue had been equilibrated prior to the freezing experiment. A smaller freezing point depression was observed if the pH values of the embedding 0.25 N KCl solution were above or below pH = 4.9. Reasoning from results obtained previously in analogous experiments with artificial gels, the anomalous freezing depression is explained by the impossibility of growing at the normal freezing temperature regular macroscopic crystals inside the gel, due to the presence of the gel network. The freezing temperature is here determined by the size of the microprisms penetrating the meshes of the network at the lowered freezing temperature. This process leads finally to an ice block of more or less regular structure in which the filaments are embedded. Prerequisite for this hindrance of ideal ice growth is a sufficient tensile strength of the filamental network. The existence of structurally caused freezing point depression in biological tissue is likely to invalidate many conclusions reported in the literature, in which hypertonicity was deduced from cryoscopic data.

  7. Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates have colonized regions that are seasonally or perpetually cold, and some species, particularly terrestrial hibernators, must cope with temperatures that fall substantially below 0°C. Survival of such excursions depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Supercooling, a metastable state in which body fluids remain liquid below the equilibrium freezing/melting point, is promoted by physiological responses that protect against chilling injury and by anatomical and behavioral traits that limit risk of inoculative freezing by environmental ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance evolved from responses to fundamental stresses to permit survival of the freezing of a substantial amount of body water under thermal and temporal conditions of ecological relevance. Survival of freezing is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical and physiological responses that limit cell death from excessive shrinkage, damage to macromolecules and membranes, metabolic perturbation and oxidative stress. Although freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance generally are mutually exclusive strategies, a few species can switch between them, the mode used in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions.

  8. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  9. [Characteristics of soil net nitrogen mineralization in subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan, Southwest China during seasonal freeze-thaw period].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Shi, Pei-Li; Wang, Ao; Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Zhi-Chao

    2012-03-01

    Seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and its change pattern under the scenarios of climate warming might exert strong effects on the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forests. In this paper, intact soil cores were collected from the subalpine/alpine forests along an altitudinal gradient in west Sichuan, and an incubation test was conducted to study the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen in the forests during growth season and seasonal freeze-thaw period under simulated scenarios of global warming. In the test soils, the NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N contents both showed a clear tendency of decreased in the period from growth season to the onset stage of freezing, increased at deep freezing stage, and decreased again at the early stage of thawing. The soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen were significantly lower in freeze-thaw period than in growth season, and the soil inorganic nitrogen was obviously immobilized. The soil nitrogen immobilization was stronger at middle altitudes but weaker at high altitudes, as compared with that at low altitudes, possibly due to the variation of soil temperature and its induced different freeze-thaw cycle. During growth period, the soil net nitrogen mineralization rate and the amount of soil mineralized nitrogen showed an obvious increasing trend with the decrease of altitude, and the soil nitrogen mineralization was the strongest at low altitudes, implying that under the scenarios of climate warming, the increase of soil temperature promoted the soil nitrogen mineralization during growth season, and affected the soil nitrogen mineralization rate by increasing the frequency of freeze-thaw cycle and shortening the time period of freeze-thaw. Soil micro-environment could also affect the soil nitrogen mineralization in alpine forest regions.

  10. Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Wu, S C; Yu, X Z; Wong, M H

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere.

  11. Two-Zone Bridgman Furnace With Sharp Thermal Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borshchevsky, Alex; Caillat, Thierry; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Two-zone vertical directional-solidification furnace designed and built to grow crystals from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts and from solutions. Includes conventional wire heater in lower zone, tubular silicon carbide heating element in upper zone, and thermal baffle between zones. Temperature gradients up to 125 degrees centigrade per centimeter achieved in the crystal-growth region. Sharper gradient enables both faster growth and better separation between solid and liquid. Furnace used in laboratory or industrial setting for growth of crystals from congruently melting materials as well as for growth of compounds formed by peritectic reactions.

  12. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  13. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  14. Large ion concentration gradients below the equatorial F peak.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Sanatani, S.

    1973-01-01

    Very large vertical and longitudinal gradients in the ion concentrations are observed below the F peak near the magnetic equator with the retarding potential analyzer on Ogo 6. Ion concentration 'bite outs' of up to a factor of 1000 are observed above 400 km. They appear to be associated with the bottomside of the nighttime F layer. The ion composition in the minima may contain large fractions of ions heavier than O(+) (e.g., NO(+) and Fe(+)). It is suggested that convective electric fields associated with spread F steepen the bottomside of the F layer and also introduce longitudinal irregularities in the vertical ion concentration profiles.

  15. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  16. Purification of very high density lipoproteins by differential density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Haunerland, N H; Ryan, R O; Law, J H; Bowers, W S

    1987-03-01

    Differential density gradient ultracentrifugation procedures, utilizing a vertical rotor, were developed for the preparative purification of very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, density greater than 1.21 g/ml). The VHDLs of several insect species were purified as follows. An initial density gradient ultracentrifugation step removed lipoproteins of lower density from the VHDL-fraction, which partially separated from the nonlipoproteins present in the infranatant. A complete separation was achieved by a second centrifugation step employing a modified gradient system. The use of a vertical rotor and specially designed discontinuous gradients allows a relatively fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the class of very high density lipoproteins. Similar gradient systems should be useful for the detection and purification of VHDLs from other sources.

  17. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  18. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  19. Reconstructing global overturning from meridional density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E. D.; Oliver, K. I. C.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.; Mecking, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    Despite the complexity of the global ocean system, numerous attempts have been made to scale the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), principally in the North Atlantic, with large-scale, basin-wide hydrographic properties. In particular, various approaches to scaling the MOC with meridional density gradients have been proposed, but the success of these has only been demonstrated under limited conditions. Here we present a scaling relationship linking overturning to twice vertically-integrated meridional density gradients via the hydrostatic equation and a "rotated" form of the geostrophic equation. This provides a meridional overturning streamfunction as a function of depth for each basin. Using a series of periodically forced experiments in a global, coarse resolution configuration of the general circulation model NEMO, we explore the timescales over which this scaling is temporally valid. We find that the scaling holds well in the upper Atlantic cell (at 1000 m) for multi-decadal (and longer) timescales, accurately reconstructing the relative magnitude of the response for different frequencies and explaining over 85 % of overturning variance on timescales of 64-2048 years. Despite the highly nonlinear response of the Antarctic cell in the abyssal Atlantic, between 76 and 94 % of the observed variability at 4000 m is reconstructed on timescales of 32 years (and longer). The scaling law is also applied in the Indo-Pacific. This analysis is extended to a higher resolution, stochastically forced simulation for which correlations of between 0.79 and 0.99 are obtained with upper Atlantic MOC variability on timescales >25 years. These results indicate that meridional density gradients and overturning are linked via meridional pressure gradients, and that both the strength and structure of the MOC can be reconstructed from hydrography on multi-decadal and longer timescales provided that the link is made in this way.

  20. Predicting global overturning from meridional density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Edward; Oliver, Kevin; Hirschi, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to scale the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), principally in the North Atlantic, with large-scale, basin-wide hydrographic properties. In particular, various approaches to scaling the MOC with meridional density gradients have been proposed, but the success of these has only been demonstrated under limited conditions. Here we present a scaling relationship linking overturning to twice vertically-integrated meridional density gradients via the hydrostatic equation and a "rotated" form of the geostrophic equation. This provides a meridional overturning streamfunction as a function of depth for each basin. Using a series of periodically forced experiments in a global, coarse resolution configuration of the general circulation model NEMO, we explore the timescales over which this scaling is temporally valid. We find that the scaling holds well in the upper Atlantic cell (at 1000m) on decadal and longer timescales, explaining at least 94% of overturning variance for timescales of 128 to 2048 years and accurately predicting the relative magnitude of the response for different frequencies. Despite the highly nonlinear response of the Antarctic cell in the abyssal Atlantic, over 77% of the observed variability at 4000m is predicted on timescales of 32 years and longer. The scaling law is also successful in the Indo-Pacific, thus demonstrating its generality. This analysis is extended to a higher resolution, stochastically forced simulation for which correlations of at least 0.79 are obtained with upper Atlantic MOC variance on all timescales greater than 25 years. These results demonstrate that meridional density gradients and overturning are linked via meridional pressure gradients, and that both the strength and structure of the MOC can be predicted from hydrography on multi-decadal and longer timescales provided that the link is made in this way.

  1. Time-dependent freezing rate parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    The time-dependent freezing rate (TDFR) model here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period in time when the parcel remains stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles under isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to three-fold variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple model framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud models. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in models.

  2. Time-dependent freezing rate parcel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The Time-Dependent Freezing Rate (TDFR) model here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period at time with the parcel remaining stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time-dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles at isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to factors of about 3 variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time-dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple model framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud models. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in models.

  3. Fundamental Boiling and RP-1 Freezing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Brian; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes results from experiments performed to help understand certain aspects of the MC-1 engine prestart thermal conditioning procedure. The procedure was constrained by the fact that the engine must chill long enough to get quality LOX at the LOX pump inlet but must be short enough to prevent freezing of RP-1 in the fuel pump. A chill test of an MC-1 LOX impeller was performed in LN2 to obtain data on film boiling, transition boiling and impeller temperature histories. The transition boiling data was important to the chill time so a subsequent experiment was performed chilling simple steel plates in LOX to obtain similar data for LOX. To address the fuel freezing concern, two experiments were performed. First, fuel was frozen in a tray and its physical characteristics were observed and temperatures of the fuel were measured. The result was physical characteristics as a function of temperature. Second was an attempt to measure the frozen thickness of RP-1 on a cold wall submerged in warm RP-1 and to develop a method for calculating that thickness for other conditions.

  4. Spray freeze drying of YSZ nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathy, Bala P. C.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2012-07-01

    Spray freeze drying of yttria stabilised zirconia nanopowders with a primary particle size of 16 nm has been undertaken using different solids content starting suspensions, with the effect of the latter on the flowability and crushability of the granules being investigated. The flowability and fill density of the granules increased with an increase in the solid content of the starting suspension, whilst the crushability decreased. The powder flowability, measured using a Hall flowmeter and model shoe-die filling tests, showed that the flowability of otherwise poorly flowable nanopowders can be improved to match that of the commercial spray dried submicron powder. The 5.5 vol.% solid content based suspension yielded soft agglomerates whilst a 28 vol.% solid content suspension formed hard agglomerates on spray freeze drying; the granule relics were visible in the fracture surface of the die pressed green compact in the latter case. The increase in granule strength is explained by the reduction in inter-particle distance based on the theories developed by Rumpf and Kendall. The flaw sizes computed using the Kendall model are comparable with those seen in the micrographs of the granule. With an optimum solid content, it is possible to have a granulated nanopowder with reasonable flowability and compactability resulting in homogeneous green bodies with 54 % of theoretical density.

  5. Freeze-drying today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Leary, J H; Stanford, E A

    1976-10-01

    The freeze-drying process and equipment have been improved over the years; the cycle times have shortened and the dried products have improved as a result. This talk will deal with these improvements and how we have progressed from the early systems to where we are today. Such areas of discussion will include: vacuum pumping systems, how they are sized and designed to meet the needs for general and special applications; heat transfer systems, and their use in maintaining the drying profile; condensing surface design, and what is best for certain types of dryers; controls and instrumentation, and how these have played a big part in the drying process and have made it possible to get repeatability; refrigeration systems, and the part they play in the performance of freeze-drying; and lastly the effect of internal stoppering, bottomless trays, and other items such as these have had on the present state of the art. It goes without saying that there have been many changes and there will continue to be changes and we shall endeavor to look into the future--as to what might well bo some of these changes. Included in the talk will be a number of slides and illustrations to point out the various items as they are discussed.

  6. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  7. Vertical variations of coral reef drag forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri

    2016-05-01

    Modeling flow in a coral reef requires a closure model that links the local drag force to the local mean velocity. However, the spatial flow variations make it difficult to predict the distribution of the local drag. Here we report on vertical profiles of measured drag and velocity in a laboratory reef that was made of 81 Pocillopora Meandrina colony skeletons, densely arranged along a tilted flume. Two corals were CT-scanned, sliced horizontally, and printed using a 3-D printer. Drag was measured as a function of height above the bottom by connecting the slices to drag sensors. Profiles of velocity were measured in-between the coral branches and above the reef. Measured drag of whole colonies shows an excellent agreement with previous field and laboratory studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies vertically. The vertical distribution of drag is reported as a function of flow rate and water level. When the water level is the same as the reef height, Reynolds stresses are negligible and the drag force per unit fluid mass is nearly constant. However, when the water depth is larger, Reynolds stress gradients become significant and drag increases with height. An excellent agreement was found between the drag calculated by a momentum budget and the measured drag of the individual printed slices. Finally, we propose a modified formulation of the drag coefficient that includes the normal dispersive stress term and results in reduced variations of the drag coefficient at the cost of introducing an additional coefficient.

  8. 3-D radial gravity gradient inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vanderlei C.; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2013-11-01

    We have presented a joint inversion of all gravity-gradient tensor components to estimate the shape of an isolated 3-D geological body located in subsurface. The method assumes the knowledge about the depth to the top and density contrast of the source. The geological body is approximated by an interpretation model formed by an ensemble of vertically juxtaposed 3-D right prisms, each one with known thickness and density contrast. All prisms forming the interpretation model have a polygonal horizontal cross-section that approximates a depth slice of the body. Each polygon defining a horizontal cross-section has the same fixed number of vertices, which are equally spaced from 0° to 360° and have their horizontal locations described in polar coordinates referred to an arbitrary origin inside the polygon. Although the number of vertices forming each polygon is known, the horizontal coordinates of these vertices are unknown. To retrieve a set of juxtaposed depth slices of the body, and consequently, its shape, our method estimates the radii of all vertices and the horizontal Cartesian coordinates of all arbitrary origins defining the geometry of all polygons describing the horizontal cross-sections of the prisms forming the interpretation model. To obtain a stable estimate that fits the observed data, we impose constraints on the shape of the estimated body. These constraints are imposed through the well-known zeroth- and first-order Tikhonov regularizations allowing, for example, the estimate of vertical or dipping bodies. If the data do not have enough in-depth resolution, the proposed inverse method can obtain a set of stable estimates fitting the observed data with different maximum depths. To analyse the data resolution and deal with this possible ambiguity, we plot the ℓ2-norm of the residuals (s) against the estimated volume (vp) produced by a set of estimated sources having different maximum depths. If this s × vp curve (s as a function of vp) shows a well

  9. [Rapid freezing of biologic tissue. Measurement of temperature and rate of freezing by thin-layer thermocouple].

    PubMed

    Escaig, J; Géraud, G; Nicolas, G

    1977-06-13

    An apparatus for rapid freezing of biological tissues by contact with a copper block cooled by liquid helium has been devised to reduce the contamination of copper block surface. It prevents the precooling of the specimen while going through the layers of cold helium gas surrounding the copper block and reduces the quantity of helium necessary for freezing. It also enables one to obtain easily reproducible results from freezing by immersion in liquid coolants. Freezing rates are measured directly, related to the specimen thickness, by a thin film thermocouple; its low thermal inertia gives speed measurements of the order of 100,000 degrees C/s.

  10. Gradient sensing in defined chemotactic fields

    PubMed Central

    Skoge, Monica; Adler, Micha; Groisman, Alex; Levine, Herbert; Loomis, William F.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Cells respond to a variety of secreted molecules by modifying their physiology, growth patterns, and behavior. Motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells can sense extracellular chemoattractants and chemorepellents and alter their movement. In this way fibroblasts and leukocytes can find their ways to sites of injury and cancer cells can home in on sites that are releasing growth factors. Social amoebae such as Dictyostelium are chemotactic to cAMP which they secrete several hours after they have initiated development. These eukaryotic cells are known to be able to sense extremely shallow gradients but the processes underlying their exquisite sensitivity are still largely unknown. In this study we determine the responses of developed cells of Dictyostelium discoideum to stable linear gradients of cAMP of varying steepness generated in 2 μm deep gradient chambers of microfluidic devices. The gradients are generated by molecular diffusion between two 50 μm deep flow-through channels, one of which is perfused with a solution of cAMP and the other with buffer, serving as continuously replenished source and sink. These low ceiling gradient chambers constrained the cells in the vertical dimension, facilitating confocal imaging, such that subcellular localization of fluorescently tagged proteins could be followed for up to 30 minutes without noticeable phototoxicity. Chemotactic cells enter these low ceiling chambers by flattening and elongating and then move almost as rapidly as unconstrained cells. By following the localization of activated Ras (RasGTP) using a Ras Binding Domain fused to Green Fluorescent Protein (RBD-GFP), we observed the rapid appearance of membrane associated patches at the tips of pseudopods. These patches remained associated with pseudopods while they continued to extend but were rapidly disassembled when pseudopods stalled and the cell moved past them. Likewise, fluorescence associated with localized RasGTP rapidly disappeared when the gradient was

  11. Rapid freezing without cooling equilibration in canine sperm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Yongcheol; Yang, Honghyun; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method of canine semen freezing without cooling equilibration using treatment with different cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) and freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor in a 0.5-mL straw via modifying vitrification. Ejaculates from eight beagle dogs were frozen with different CPAs (CPA-free, 5% glycerol, 5% ethylene glycol, and 10% ethylene glycol) and freezing times (direct plunging into LN(2) or freezing for 1, 2, 3, or 10 min in LN(2) vapor before plunging into LN(2)). Frozen-thawed sperm were evaluated for motility, viability, normal morphology, and plasma- and acrosome-membrane integrities. The 5% glycerol treatment resulted in improved sperm motility, plasma-membrane integrity and acrosome-membrane integrity (P<0.05). Freezing in LN(2) vapor showed improved sperm motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity (P<0.05), and freezing for more than 2 min in LN(2) vapor increased acrosome-membrane integrity compared with direct plunging into LN(2) (P<0.05). The direct plunging into LN(2) showed no motile sperm. However, freezing for more than 2 min in LN(2) vapor increased the total abnormalities compared to direct plunging into LN(2) (P<0.05). In conclusion, use of 5% glycerol and freezing in LN(2) vapor were essential for the rapid freezing of canine sperm without cooling equilibration. In particular, holding for 2 min in LN(2) vapor was sufficient to yield successful rapid freezing. This rapid freezing method is simple and effective in canine sperm and would be helpful to offer information for trial of vitrification in large volumes of canine sperm.

  12. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of -2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding.

  13. Freezing in porous media: Phase behavior, dynamics and transport phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    2012-12-21

    This research was focused on developing the underlying framework for the mechanisms that control the nature of the solidification of a broad range of porous media. To encompass the scope of porous media under consideration we considered material ranging from a dilute colloidal suspension to a highly packed saturated host matrix with a known geometry. The basic physical processes that occur when the interstitial liquid phase solidifies revealed a host of surprises with a broad range of implications from geophysics to materials science and engineering. We now understand that ostensibly microscopic films of unfrozen liquid control both the equilibrium and transport properties of a highly packed saturated host matrix as well as a rather dilute colloidal suspension. However, our description of the effective medium behavior in these settings is rather different and this sets the stage for the future research based on our past results. Once the liquid phase of a saturated relatively densely packed material is frozen, there is a rich dynamical behavior of particles for example due to the directed motion driven by thermomolecular pressure gradients or the confined Brownian motion of the particles. In quite striking contrast, when one freezes a dilute suspension the behavior can be rather more like that of a binary alloy with the particles playing the role of a ``solute''. We probed such systems quantitatively by (i) using X ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (ii) studying the Argonne cell in the laboratory using optical microscopy and imagery (because it is not directly visible while in the vacuum can). (3) analyzed the general transport phenomena within the framework of both irreversible thermodynamics and alloy solidification and (4) applied the results to the study of the redistribution of solid particles in a frozen interstitial material. This research has gone a long way towards

  14. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    SciTech Connect

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  15. Crystal Ice Formation of Solution and Its Removal Phenomena around Vertical Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Akutsu, Nobuaki

    Experimental and analytical studies for freezing phenomena of ethylene glycol solution around a vertical cooled polyvinyl-chloride cylinder have been performed. It is found that the crystal ice formed around the vertical cylinder is removed from the cylinder surface due to buoyancy force acting on the crystal ice. The crystal ice slides along the cylinder surface due to buoyancy force and grows in a shape of tube by joining with the neighbour ice. It is shown that the onset of ice removal condition is related to the heat flux at the cylinder surface when the latent heat of fusion is discharged with freezing, and that the heat flux ratio of 'from the cylinder surface into the cylinder' to 'from the cylinder surface to the solution' is an important parameter for the onset conditions. The ice removal occurs easily for short cylinders than for long ones.

  16. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recove...

  17. St. Lawrence River Freeze-Up Forecast Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assel, R. A.

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) is presented for calculating the date of freeze-up on the St. Lawrence River at Massena, N.Y. The SOP is based on two empirical temperature decline equations developed for Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, N.Y., respectively. Input data needed to forecast freeze-up consist of the forecast December flow rate and…

  18. 7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze...

  19. 7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze...

  20. Savanna Tree Seedlings are Physiologically Tolerant to Nighttime Freeze Events

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Kimberly; Nippert, Jesse B.; Swemmer, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Freeze events can be important disturbances in savanna ecosystems, yet the interactive effect of freezing with other environmental drivers on plant functioning is unknown. Here, we investigated physiological responses of South African tree seedlings to interactions of water availability and freezing temperatures. We grew widely distributed South African tree species (Colophospermum mopane, Combretum apiculatum, Acacia nigrescens, and Cassia abbreviata) under well-watered and water-limited conditions and exposed individuals to nighttime freeze events. Of the four species studied here, C. mopane was the most tolerant of lower water availability. However, all species were similarly tolerant to nighttime freezing and recovered within one week following the last freezing event. We also show that water limitation somewhat increased freezing tolerance in one of the species (C. mopane). Therefore, water limitation, but not freezing temperatures, may restrict the distribution of these species, although the interactions of these stressors may have species-specific impacts on plant physiology. Ultimately, we show that unique physiologies can exist among dominant species within communities and that combined stresses may play a currently unidentified role in driving the function of certain species within southern Africa. PMID:26870065

  1. Using infrared thermography to study freezing in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that determine when and to what extent a plant will freeze are complex. While thermocouples have served as the main method of monitoring the freezing process in plants, infrared thermography offers distinct advantages, and the use of this latter technology has provided new insights on the p...

  2. Design of freeze-drying processes for pharmaceuticals: practical advice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Design of freeze-drying processes is often approached with a "trial and error" experimental plan or, worse yet, the protocol used in the first laboratory run is adopted without further attempts at optimization. Consequently, commercial freeze-drying processes are often neither robust nor efficient. It is our thesis that design of an "optimized" freeze-drying process is not particularly difficult for most products, as long as some simple rules based on well-accepted scientific principles are followed. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the scientific foundations of the freeze-drying process design and then to consolidate these principles into a set of guidelines for rational process design and optimization. General advice is given concerning common stability issues with proteins, but unusual and difficult stability issues are beyond the scope of this review. Control of ice nucleation and crystallization during the freezing step is discussed, and the impact of freezing on the rest of the process and final product quality is reviewed. Representative freezing protocols are presented. The significance of the collapse temperature and the thermal transition, denoted Tg', are discussed, and procedures for the selection of the "target product temperature" for primary drying are presented. Furthermore, guidelines are given for selection of the optimal shelf temperature and chamber pressure settings required to achieve the target product temperature without thermal and/or mass transfer overload of the freeze dryer. Finally, guidelines and "rules" for optimization of secondary drying and representative secondary drying protocols are presented.

  3. 7 CFR 305.18 - Quick freeze treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment schedule. 305.18 Section 305.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Quick Freeze Treatments § 305.18 Quick...

  4. Effects of freezes on survival of Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus in Florida is occasionally subjected to freezing temperatures. No information was available on the effect of freezing temperatures on mortality of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida. Studies were therefore initiated to assess mortality rates of D. citri eggs, nymphs and adults...

  5. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Perceptions on Boiling and Freezing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of prospective primary school teachers on the physical state of water during the processes of boiling and freezing. There were three stages in the investigation: First, open-ended questions concerning the boiling and freezing of water were given to two groups of prospective primary school…

  6. 40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulation for parking freeze. 52.1135... for parking freeze. (a) Definitions: (1) The phrase to commence construction means to engage in a... specifically designed for a parking facility in preparation for the fabrication, erection, or installation...

  7. Stopping biological time: The freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental physical-chemical events that occur during the freezing and thawing of cells are outlined and the manner in which cell permeability determines the response of the cell to freezing is discussed both in terms of physical response and in terms of survival. 40 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Florida harvester ant nest architecture, nest relocation and soil carbon dioxide gradients.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2013-01-01

    Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed.

  9. Florida Harvester Ant Nest Architecture, Nest Relocation and Soil Carbon Dioxide Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed. PMID:23555829

  10. Nanoparticle manipulation by thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method was proposed to manipulate nanoparticles through a thermal gradient. The motion of a fullerene molecule enclosed inside a (10, 10) carbon nanotube with a thermal gradient was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We created a one-dimensional potential valley by imposing a symmetrical thermal gradient inside the nanotube. When the temperature gradient was large enough, the fullerene sank into the valley and became trapped. The escaping velocities of the fullerene were evaluated based on the relationship between thermal gradient and thermophoretic force. We then introduced a new way to manipulate the position of nanoparticles by translating the position of thermostats with desirable thermal gradients. Compared to nanomanipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope or an atomic force microscope, our method for nanomanipulation has a great advantage by not requiring a direct contact between the probe and the object. PMID:22364240

  11. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.

    2013-12-01

    . Model-data fusion suggests that model performance is improved when the relatively high thermal conductivity of the ice phase is accounted for. However, the permafrost site is very gravelly so that the model equations for thermal conductivity are at the edge of applicability. The freezing-soil formulation is tested in the presence of snow, using measurements at an orchard site in Idaho. The model reproduces well observed snow-water equivalents and soil temperatures. However, it is highly sensitive to snow emissivity and maximum liquid content of the snow, leading both to modified refreezing of melted water. It is possible that the model would benefit from 1-2 more snow layers to permit simulation of density and temperature gradients in the snow-pack. SLI was run globally on 1x1 degree grid as the soil part of the land surface scheme CABLE. We could therefore demonstrate that this detailed and physically-realistic formulation is fast enough to be a feasible alternative to the much simpler default soil-scheme in CABLE. References Hansson et al. (2004) Vadose Zone J 3, 693ff Haverd & Cuntz (2010) J Hydro 388, 434ff Haverd et al. (2013) Biogeosci 10, 2011ff Weismüller et al. (2011) The Cryosphere 5, 741ff

  12. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Haverd, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    . Model-data fusion suggests that model performance is improved when the relatively high thermal conductivity of the ice phase is accounted for. However, the permafrost site is very gravelly so that the model equations for thermal conductivity are at the edge of applicability. The freezing-soil formulation is tested in the presence of snow, using measurements at an orchard site in Idaho. The model reproduces well observed snow-water equivalents and soil temperatures. However, it is highly sensitive to snow emissivity and maximum liquid content of the snow, leading both to modified refreezing of melted water. It is possible that the model would benefit from 1-2 more snow layers to permit simulation of density and temperature gradients in the snow-pack. SLI was run globally on 1°x1° grid as the soil part of the land surface scheme CABLE. We could therefore demonstrate that this detailed and physically-realistic formulation is fast enough to be a feasible alternative to the much simpler default soil-scheme in CABLE. References Hansson et al. (2004) Vadose Zone J 3, 693ff Haverd & Cuntz (2010) J Hydro 388, 434ff Haverd et al. (2013) Biogeosci 10, 2011ff Weismüller et al. (2011) The Cryosphere 5, 741ff

  13. Ready and waiting: Freezing as active action preparation under threat.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, Thomas E; Hashemi, Mahur M; van Ast, Vanessa; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-04-21

    Freezing is a defensive response characterized by rigidity and bradycardia, but it is unclear whether it is a passive versus active preparatory state. We developed a shooting task in which preparation and threat were manipulated independently: Participants were either helpless or able to respond to a possible upcoming attack, and attacks were either associated with an electric shock or not. Essentially, a purely anticipatory preparatory period was used during which no stimuli occurred. Freezing was assessed during this period. In addition to heart rate, body sway was measured, using a stabilometric force platform. The efficacy of the threat manipulation was confirmed via self-report. The ability to prepare led to decreases in heart rate and postural sway, while threat led to decreased heart rate. Further, exploratory analyses suggested that aggressive participants showed reduced initial freezing for threatening opponents, but increased postural freezing when armed. The results suggest that freezing may involve active preparation. Relations to results in passive viewing tasks are discussed.

  14. Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Hacker, P. T.

    1950-01-01

    A photomicrographic technique for investigating eupercooled. water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of eupercooled. water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets. The effect of size on the spontaneous freezing temperature was particularly marked below 60 microns. Frequency-distribution curves of the spontaneous freezing temperatures observed for droplets of a given size were obtained. Although no droplet froze at a temperature above 20 0 F, all droplets melted at 32 F. Results obtained with a copper support did not differ essentially from those obtained with a platinum surface.

  15. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. {yields} It altered Ca{sup 2+} distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. {yields} Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca{sup 2+} gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca{sup 2+} distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca{sup 2+} gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca{sup 2+} gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca{sup 2+} flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} gradient.

  16. Atmospheric gradients from very long baseline interferometry observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in the atmospheric refractive index can lead to errors in estimated vertical and horizontal station coordinates. Daily average gradient effects can be as large as 50 mm of delay at a 7 deg elevation. To model gradients, the constrained estimation of gradient paramters was added to the standard VLBI solution procedure. Here the analysis of two sets of data is summarized: the set of all geodetic VLBI experiments from 1990-1993 and a series of 12 state-of-the-art R&D experiments run on consecutive days in January 1994. In both cases, when the gradient parameters are estimated, the overall fit of the geodetic solution is improved at greater than the 99% confidence level. Repeatabilities of baseline lengths ranging up to 11,000 km are improved by 1 to 8 mm in a root-sum-square sense. This varies from about 20% to 40% of the total baseline length scatter without gradient modeling for the 1990-1993 series and 40% to 50% for the January series. Gradients estimated independently for each day as a piecewise linear function are mostly continuous from day to day within their formal uncertainties.

  17. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  18. Freezing resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. X.; Lu, L. C.; Wang, S. D.; Zhao, P. Q.; Gong, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the mechanical properties of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement was investigated in the present study. The visual examination was conducted to evaluate the surface damage. The deterioration considering the weight loss, modulus loss of relative dynamic elastic and strength loss of mortar were also investigated. The morphology of hydration products were analysed by SEM. Compared with ordinary Portland cement and sulphoaluminate cement, the frost resistance of high iron phosphoraluminate cement is better. Hydration products of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement contain sheet crystals, and a lot of gel form a dense three-dimensional network structure, which results in a lower porosity. Different from ordinary Portland cement, the hydration product of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement does not contain Ca(OH)2, and low alkalinity reduces its osmotic pressure. The lower porosity and osmotic pressure are the two main reasons which causes in the higher frost resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement.

  19. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  20. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    PubMed

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results.

  1. Universality in freezing of an asymmetric drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Md Farhad; Waghmare, Prashant R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the evidence of universality in conical tip formation during the freezing of arbitrary-shaped sessile droplets. The focus is to demonstrate the relationship between this universality and the liquid drop shape. We observe that, in the case of asymmetric drops, this universal shape is achieved when the tip reconfigures by changing its location, which subsequently alters the frozen drop shape. The proposed "two-triangle" model quantifies the change in the tip configuration as a function of the asymmetry of the drop that shows a good agreement with the experimental evidence. Finally, based on the experimental and theoretical exercise, we propose the scaling dependence between the variations in the tip configuration and the asymmetry of the drop.

  2. Ice adhesions in relation to freeze stress.

    PubMed

    Olien, C R; Smith, M N

    1977-10-01

    In freezing, competitive interaction between ice and hydrophilic plant substances causes an energy of adhesion to develop through the interstitial liquid. The thermodynamic basis for the adhesion energy is discussed, with estimates of the energies involved. In this research, effects of adhesion energy were observed microscopically in conjunction with energies of crystallization and frost desiccation. The complex character of ice in intact crown tissue of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the problems of sectioning frozen tissue without producing artifacts led to an alternative study of single barley cells in a mesh of ice and cell wall polymers. Adhesions between ice, cell wall polymers, and the plasmalemma form a complexly interacting system in which the pattern of crystallization is a major factor in determination of stress and injury.

  3. Depression of soil moisture freezing point

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Certain criteria for freezing temperature of clay soil have been found which are a relative moisture content at the soil liquid limit (W/W{sub L}) and maximum hydroscopic moisture (W/W{sub h}). On the strength of test data it has been established that the relative moisture content at the soil liquid limit (W/W{sub L}) may also serve as a criterion on compression pressure and resistance against shearing for soil paste with no structural binding. Linear correlation between the moisture content of natural soil and its paste -- the equation of moisture balance -- has been found which specifies a thermodynamic balance condition. The equation of moisture balance represents a whole set of properties for a certain type of soil, such as strength and compressibility. In this respect, it may be considered as a ``Soil equation`` which allows for further prognosis of its properties.

  4. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  5. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  6. Computation of the gravity field and its gradient: Some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, C. P.; Tiwari, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    New measuring instruments of Earth's gravity gradient tensors (GGT) have offered a fresh impetus to gravimetry and its application in subsurface exploration. Several efforts have been made to provide a thorough understanding of the complex properties of the gravity gradient tensor and its mathematical formulations to compute GGT. However, there is not much open source software available. Understanding of the tensor properties leads to important guidelines in the development of real three dimensional geological models. We present a MATLAB computational algorithm to calculate the gravity field and full gravity gradient tensor for an undulated surface followed by regular geometries like an infinite horizontal slab, a vertical sheet, a solid sphere, a vertical cylinder, a normal fault model and a rectangular lamina or conglomerations of such bodies and the results are compared with responses using professional software based on different computational schemes. Real subsurface geometries of complex geological structures of interest are approximated through arrangements of vertical rectangular laminas. The geological application of this algorithm is demonstrated over a horst-type structure of Oklahoma Aulacogen, USA and Vredefort Dome, South Africa, where measured GGT data are available.

  7. Step-gradient capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, M R; Gilligan, D; Johnson, C M; Bartle, K D

    1997-10-01

    The analytical benefits of using a step-gradient in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are demonstrated. The application of step-gradient CEC to the analysis of six diuretics of widely differing lipophilicities was evaluated and shown to result in a marked reduction in the analysis time and an improvement in the peak shape for later-eluting lipophilic components. When the step-gradient approach was performed in an automated mode, the retention time RSD for repeated injections was below 1%.

  8. What happens in freezing bodies? Experimental study of histological tissue change caused by freezing injuries.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T; Kaufmann, J D

    1999-06-28

    In order to evaluate histological features of freezing damages to human tissue after death, we froze samples of liver and heart tissue to temperatures of -12 degrees C, -28 degrees C and -80 degrees C, and stored them for 24 and 72 h, respectively, at those temperatures. After thawing and routine preparation for histology, the samples were evaluated both by microscope and with an electronic image analyzer. In all cases, we found extended extracellular spaces and shrunken cells resulting from the freeze-thaw cycle. These features were more pronounced in tissues stored for longer durations. Such findings seem to be typical of tissue that has been frozen prior to examination. Two cases of dead bodies found outdoors at subzero temperatures demonstrate that formerly frozen and unfrozen tissues can be distinguished histologically. The findings are examined in relation to the fundamental laws of cryobiology.

  9. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  10. Vertical heterogeneity in predation pressure in a temperate forest canopy

    PubMed Central

    Aikens, Kathleen R.; Buddle, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The forest canopy offers a vertical gradient across which variation in predation pressure implies variation in refuge quality for arthropods. Direct and indirect experimental approaches were combined to assess whether canopy strata differ in ability to offer refuge to various arthropod groups. Vertical heterogeneity in impact of avian predators was quantified using exclosure cages in the understory, lower, mid, and upper canopy of a north-temperate deciduous forest near Montreal, Quebec. Bait trials were completed in the same strata to investigate the effects of invertebrate predators. Exclusion of birds yielded higher arthropod densities across all strata, although treatment effects were small for some taxa. Observed gradients in predation pressure were similar for both birds and invertebrate predators; the highest predation pressure was observed in the understory and decreased with height. Our findings support a view of the forest canopy that is heterogeneous with respect to arthropod refuge from natural enemies. PMID:24010017

  11. Evaluation and Validation of the Messinger Freezing Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important non-dimensional parameters used in ice-accretion modeling and scaling studies is the freezing fraction defined by the heat-balance analysis of Messinger. For fifty years this parameter has been used to indicate how rapidly freezing takes place when super-cooled water strikes a solid body. The value ranges from 0 (no freezing) to 1 (water freezes immediately on impact), and the magnitude has been shown to play a major role in determining the physical appearance of the accreted ice. Because of its importance to ice shape, this parameter and the physics underlying the expressions used to calculate it have been questioned from time to time. Until now, there has been no strong evidence either validating or casting doubt on the current expressions. This paper presents experimental measurements of the leading-edge thickness of a number of ice shapes for a variety of test conditions with nominal freezing fractions from 0.3 to 1.0. From these thickness measurements, experimental freezing fractions were calculated and compared with values found from the Messinger analysis as applied by Ruff. Within the experimental uncertainty of measuring the leading-edge thickness, agreement of the experimental and analytical freezing fraction was very good. It is also shown that values of analytical freezing fraction were entirely consistent with observed ice shapes at and near rime conditions: At an analytical freezing fraction of unity, experimental ice shapes displayed the classic rime shape, while for conditions producing analytical freezing fractions slightly lower than unity, glaze features started to appear.

  12. Multiple glass transitions and freezing events of aqueous citric acid.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J; Tenhu, Heikki; Loerting, Thomas

    2015-05-14

    Calorimetric and optical cryo-microscope measurements of 10-64 wt % citric acid (CA) solutions subjected to moderate (3 K/min) and slow (0.5 and 0.1 K/min) cooling/warming rates and also to quenching/moderate warming between 320 and 133 K are presented. Depending on solution concentration and cooling rate, the obtained thermograms show one freezing event and from one to three liquid-glass transitions upon cooling and from one to six liquid-glass and reverse glass-liquid transitions, one or two freezing events, and one melting event upon warming of frozen/glassy CA/H2O. The multiple freezing events and glass transitions pertain to the mother CA/H2O solution itself and two freeze-concentrated solution regions, FCS1 and FCS2, of different concentrations. The FCS1 and FCS2 (or FCS22) are formed during the freezing of CA/H2O upon cooling and/or during the freezing upon warming of partly glassy or entirely glassy mother CA/H2O. The formation of two FCS1 and FCS22 regions during the freezing upon warming to our best knowledge has never been reported before. Using an optical cryo-microscope, we are able to observe the formation of a continuous ice framework (IF) and its morphology and reciprocal distribution of IF/(FCS1 + FCS2). Our results provide a new look at the freezing and glass transition behavior of aqueous solutions and can be used for the optimization of lyophilization and freezing of foods and biopharmaceutical formulations, among many other applications where freezing plays a crucial role.

  13. Effects of freezing rates and cryoprotectant on thermal expansion of articular cartilage during freezing process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sun, H J; Lv, Y; Zou, J C; Lin, B L; Hua, T C

    2013-01-01

    The intact articular cartilage has not yet been successfully preserved at low temperature most likely due to the volume expansion from water to ice during freezing. The objective of this current study focuses on examining thermal expansion behavior of articular cartilage (AC) during freezing from 0 degree C to -100 degree C. Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA) was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0%, 10%, 30% and 60% v/v) and different freezing rates (1 C/min, 3 C/min and 5 C/min). The results showed that: (1) the inhomogeneous thermal expansion (or contraction) presents due to inhomogeneous water distributions in articular cartilage during freezing, which also may be the most likely reason that the matrix has been damaged in cryopreserved intact articular cartilage; (2) at the phase transition temperature range, the maximum thermal strain change value for 5C/min is approximately 1.45 times than that for 1 C/min, but the maximum thermal expansion coefficient of the later is about six times than that of the former; (3) the thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing cooling rate at the unfrozen temperature region, but some opposite results are obtained at the frozen temperature region; (4) the higher the DMSO concentration is, at the phase change temperature region, the smaller the thermal strain change as well as the maximum thermal expansion coefficient are, but DMSO concentration exhibits little effect on the thermal expansion coefficient at both unfrozen and frozen region. Once the DMSO concentration increasing enough, e.g. 60% v/v, the thermal strain decreases linearly and smoothly without any abrupt change due to little or no ice crystal forms (i.e. vitrification) in frozen articular cartilage. This study may improve our understanding of the thermal expansion (or contraction) behavior of cryopreserved articular cartilage and it may be useful for the future study on cryopreservation of intact

  14. Freezing Precipitation and Freezing Events over Northern Eurasia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Yin, Xungang; Bulygina, Olga; Partasenok, Irina; Zolina, Olga; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger

    2016-04-01

    With global climate change in the extratropics, the 0°C isotherm will not disappear and associated precipitation events will continue to occur. The near-0°C temperatures should generally move poleward and arrive at many locations earlier in spring or later in autumn. This could potentially affect the seasonal cycle of near-0°C precipitation. The overall warming, together with a larger influx of the water vapor in the winter atmosphere from the oceans (including ice-free portions of the Arctic Ocean) can also affect the amount of near-0°C precipitation. The issue of near 0°C precipitation is linked with several hazardous phenomena including heavy snowfall/rainfall transition around °C; strong blizzards; rain-on-snow events causing floods; freezing rain and freezing drizzle; and ice load on infrastructure. In our presentation using more than 1,500 long-term time series of synoptic observations for the past four decades, we present climatology and the empirical evidence about changes in occurrence, timing, and intensity of freezing rains and freezing drizzles over several countries of Northern Eurasia and North America. In the former Soviet Union, instrumental monitoring of ice load has been performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. Estimates of climatology and changes in ice load based on this monitoring at 958 Russian stations will be also presented. The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 14.B25.31.0026) and NASA LCLUC Program (grant "How Environmental Change in Central Asian Highlands Impacts High Elevation Communities").

  15. The 630 nm MIG and the vertical neutral wind in the low latitude nighttime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, F. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that large negative divergences (gradients) in the horizontal neutral wind in the equatorial thermosphere can support downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. With attention to the meridional and vertical winds only, the pressure tendency equation is used to derive the expression U(sub z0) approximately equals (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y)H for the vertical wind U(sub z0) at the reference altitude for the pressure tendency equation; H is the atmospheric density scale height, and (Partial derivative U(sub y)/Partial derivative y) is the meridional wind gradient. The velocity gradient associated with the Meridional Intensity Gradient (MIG) of the O((sup 1)D) emission (630 nm) at low latitudes is used to estimate the vertical neutral wind in the MIG region. Velocity gradients derived from MIG data are about 0.5 (m/s)/km) or more, indicating that the MIG region may contain downward neutral winds in excess of 20 m/s. Though direct measurements of the vertical wind are scarce, Fabry-Perot interferometer data of the equatorial F-region above Natal, Brazil, showed downward winds of 30 m/s occurring during a strong meridional wind convergence in 1982. In-situ measurements with the WATS instrument on the DE-2 satellite also show large vertical neutral winds in the equatorial region.

  16. Soil respiration and carbon loss relationship with temperature and land use conversion in freeze-thaw agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Lai, Xuehui; Li, Xia; Liu, Heying; Lin, Chunye; Hao, Fanghua

    2015-11-15

    Soil respiration (Rs) was hypothesized to have a special response pattern to soil temperature and land use conversion in the freeze-thaw area. The Rs differences of eight types of land use conversions during agricultural development were observed and the impacts of Rs on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss were assessed. The land use conversions during last three decades were categorized into eight types, and the 141 SOC sampling sites were grouped by conversion type. The typical soil sampling sites were subsequently selected for monitoring of soil temperature and Rs of each land use conversion types. The Rs correlations with temperature at difference depths and different conversion types were identified with statistical analysis. The empirical mean error model and the biophysical theoretical model with Arrhenius equation about the Rs sensitivity to temperature were both analyzed and shared the similar patterns. The temperature dependence of soil respiration (Q10) analysis further demonstrated that the averaged value of eight types of land use in this freeze-thaw agricultural area ranged from 1.15 to 1.73, which was lower than the other cold areas. The temperature dependence analysis demonstrated that the Rs in the top layer of natural land covers was more sensitive to temperature and experienced a large vertical difference. The natural land covers exhibited smaller Rs and the farmlands had the bigger value due to tillage practices. The positive relationships between SOC loss and Rs were identified, which demonstrated that Rs was the key chain for SOC loss during land use conversion. The spatial-vertical distributions of SOC concentration with the 1.5-km grid sampling showed that the more SOC loss in the farmland, which was coincided with the higher Rs in farmlands. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze-thaw agricultural area. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze

  17. Feasibility of high pressure freezing with freeze substitution after long-term storage in chemical fixatives.

    PubMed

    Venter, Chantelle; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan Frederick; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Bester, Megan Jean; Taute, Helena

    2013-09-01

    Fixation of biological samples is an important process especially related to histological and ultrastructural studies. Chemical fixation was the primary method of fixing tissue for transmission electron microscopy for many years, as it provides adequate preservation of the morphology of cells and organelles. High pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) is a newer alternative method that rapidly freezes non-cryoprotected samples that are then slowly heated in the FS medium, allowing penetration of the tissue to insure adequate fixation. This study addresses several issues related to tissue preservation for electron microscopy. Using mice liver tissue as model the difference between samples fixed chemically or with HPF immediately after excision, or stored before chemical or HPF fixation were tested with specific focus on the nuclear membrane. Findings are that immediate HPF is the method of choice compared to chemical fixation. Of the chemical fixatives, immediate fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde (GA)/formaldehyde (FA) is the best in preserving membrane morphology, 2.5% GA can be used as alternative for stored and then chemically processed samples, with 10% formalin being suitable as a storage medium only if followed by HPF fixation. Overall, storage leads to lower ultrastructural preservation, but HPF with FS can minimize these artifacts relative to other processing protocols.

  18. Effect of wettability on sessile drop freezing: when superhydrophobicity stimulates an extreme freezing delay.

    PubMed

    Boinovich, Ludmila; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Korolev, Vadim V; Pashinin, Andrei S

    2014-02-18

    An increasing number of studies directed at supercooling water droplets on surfaces with different wettabilities have appeared in recent years. This activity has been stimulated by the recognition that water supercooling phenomena can be effectively used to develop methods for protecting outdoor equipment and infrastructure elements against icing and snow accretion. In this article, we discuss the nucleation kinetics of supercooled sessile water droplets on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces under isothermal conditions at temperatures of -8, -10, and -15 °C and a saturated water vapor atmosphere. The statistics of nucleation events for the ensembles of freezing sessile droplets is completed by the detailed analysis of the contact angle temperature dependence and freezing of individual droplets in a saturated vapor atmosphere. We have demonstrated that the most essential freezing delay is characteristic of the superhydrophobic coating on aluminum, with the texture resistant to contact with ice and water. This delay can reach many hours at T = -8 °C and a few minutes at -23 °C. The observed behavior is analyzed on the basis of different nucleation mechanisms. The dissimilarity in the total nucleation rate, detected for two superhydrophobic substrates having the same apparent contact angle of the water drop but different resistivities of surface texture to the contact with water/ice, is associated with the contribution of heterogeneous nucleation on external centers located at the water droplet/air interface.

  19. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: Climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Hall, Courtney T.; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason; Jones, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean temperature gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical air temperature data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by extreme freeze events (i.e., air temperatures below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6 °C). We expect that in the past 121 years, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean temperature gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where temperature extremes were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean temperature gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze

  20. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Hall, Courtney T; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason L; Jones, William R

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean temperature gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical air temperature data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by extreme freeze events (i.e., air temperatures below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6°C). We expect that in the past 121 yr, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean temperature gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where temperature extremes were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean temperature gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze

  1. Gradient forests: calculating importance gradients on physical predictors.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Nick; Smith, Stephen J; Pitcher, C Roland

    2012-01-01

    In ecological analyses of species and community distributions there is interest in the nature of their responses to environmental gradients and in identifying the most important environmental variables, which may be used for predicting patterns of biodiversity. Methods such as random forests already exist to assess predictor importance for individual species and to indicate where along gradients abundance changes. However, there is a need to extend these methods to whole assemblages, to establish where along the range of these gradients the important compositional changes occur, and to identify any important thresholds or change points. We develop such a method, called "gradient forest," which is an extension of the random forest approach. By synthesizing the cross-validated R2 and accuracy importance measures from univariate random forest analyses across multiple species, sampling devices, and surveys, gradient forest obtains a monotonic function of each predictor that represents the compositional turnover along the gradient of the predictor. When applied to a synthetic data set, the method correctly identified the important predictors and delineated where the compositional change points occurred along these gradients. Application of gradient forest to a real data set from part of the Great Barrier Reef identified mud fraction of the sediment as the most important predictor, with highest compositional turnover occurring at mud fraction values around 25%, and provided similar information for other predictors. Such refined information allows for more accurate capturing of biodiversity patterns for the purposes of bioregionalization, delineation of protected areas, or designing of biodiversity surveys.

  2. Adaptive dictionary learning in sparse gradient domain for image recovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiegen; Wang, Shanshan; Ying, Leslie; Peng, Xi; Zhu, Yanjie; Liang, Dong

    2013-12-01

    Image recovery from undersampled data has always been challenging due to its implicit ill-posed nature but becomes fascinating with the emerging compressed sensing (CS) theory. This paper proposes a novel gradient based dictionary learning method for image recovery, which effectively integrates the popular total variation (TV) and dictionary learning technique into the same framework. Specifically, we first train dictionaries from the horizontal and vertical gradients of the image and then reconstruct the desired image using the sparse representations of both derivatives. The proposed method enables local features in the gradient images to be captured effectively, and can be viewed as an adaptive extension of the TV regularization. The results of various experiments on MR images consistently demonstrate that the proposed algorithm efficiently recovers images and presents advantages over the current leading CS reconstruction approaches.

  3. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high‐flip‐angle fast gradient echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a framework in which time‐varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. Methods A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Results Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. Conclusions A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called “hexagonal spoiling,” has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231–1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27037941

  4. The effect of water-soluble polymers on the microstructure and properties of freeze-cast alumina ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekor, Christopher Michael

    Porous ceramics can be divided into three separate classes based on their pore size: microporous ceramics with pores less than 2 nm, mesoporous ceramics with pores in the range of 2--50 nm and macroporous ceramics with pores that are greater than 50 nm. In particular, macroporous ceramics are used in a variety of applications such as refractories, molten metal filtration, diesel particulate filters, heterogeneous catalyst supports and biomedical scaffolds. Freeze casting is a novel method used to create macroporous ceramics. In this method growing ice crystals act as a template for the pores and are solidified, often directionally, through a ceramic dispersion and removed from the green body through a freeze drying procedure. This method has attracted some attention over the past few years due to its relative simplicity, flexibility and environmental friendliness. On top of this freeze casting is capable of producing materials with high pore volume fractions, which is an advantage over processing by packing and necking of particles, where the pore volume fraction is typically less than 50%. Many of the basic processing variables that affect the freeze cast microstructure, such as the temperature gradient, interfacial velocity and solid loading of the dispersion have been well established in the literature. On the other hand, areas such as the effect of additives on the microstructure and mechanical properties have not been covered in great detail. In this study the concept of constitutional supercooling from basic solidification theory is used to explain the effects of two water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol, on the microstructure of freeze cast alumina ceramics. In addition, changes in the observed microstructure will be related to experimentally determined values of permeability and compressive strength.

  5. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content.

  6. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  7. SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Aids in Resilience to Salt and Drought in Freezing-Sensitive Tomato1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Hope Lynn

    2016-01-01

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [M82 cv]). Hypersensitivity to salt and drought of SlSFR2-RNAi lines was observed. Higher tolerance of wild-type tomatoes was correlated with the production of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol, a product of SFR2 activity. Tomato SFR2 in vitro activity is Mg2+-dependent and its optimal pH is 7.5, similar to that of Arabidopsis SFR2, but the specific activity of tomato SFR2 in vitro is almost double that of Arabidopsis SFR2. When salt and drought stress were applied to Arabidopsis, no conditions could be identified at which SFR2 was induced prior to irreversibly impacting plant growth, suggesting that SFR2 protects Arabidopsis primarily against freezing. Discovery of tomato SFR2 function in drought and salt resilience provides further insights into general membrane lipid remodeling-based stress tolerance mechanisms and together with protection against freezing in freezing-resistant plants such as Arabidopsis, it adds lipid remodeling as a possible target for the engineering of abiotic stress-resilient crops. PMID:27600812

  8. Laser scanning microscopy of broad freezing interfaces with applications to biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neils, Christopher Martin

    2000-09-01

    A new, vertical cryostage was used for microscopic observation of broad-front freezing in aqueous solutions. This cryostage complements traditional studies of cell behavior and interface morphology in cryobiology. Traditional systems directionally solidify thin samples perpendicular to the optical axis. Thin samples confer thermal and optical advantages for video brightfield microscopy. However, sample thickness can affect the interface morphology. In the new cryostage, ice propagates parallel to the microscope optical axis. The sample cup is 1 cm tall and 1.5 cm in diameter, with insulated sides and a nitrogen-cooled base to freeze the solution upward. The top of the solution is warmed passively through a cover glass or immersion objective. The freezing solutions contain dilute fluorescein dye, which is visible where it is concentrated by exclusion from the ice. The stage is mounted on a confocal laser-scanning microscope, and thermal control and image capture routines are centralized in a LabView user interface. Filtered water, physiological saline, 9.5% glycerol, and 10% glycerol with PBS were frozen at rates between -2°C/min and -10°C/min and sequential images at one plane were captured. Images distinctly revealed a lamellar interface but could not resolve 3-D morphology. The average lamellar spacing was quantified using image analysis. Physiological saline was frozen in flat glass capillary tubes with 0.05 to 0.4 mm path length, mounted vertically to observe internal ice in cross-section. Lamellae were randomly oriented with respect to the glass, suggesting caution when measuring dendrite spacing in a horizontal cryostage. No correlation between capillary size and lamellar spacing was noted. Cell monolayers and synthetic membranes were mounted horizontally to let a well-developed ice front approach the layer broadly. In transparent membranes, ice-membrane interaction was visible until ice grew over and obscured the membrane. The vertical cryostage improved

  9. A World Vertical Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    and continental levelling nets into a unifiled World Vertical Network. OD ,~ 173 OITON F I OV 5 I OSOLEI tnc las 9if led SECURITY CLASSIP CATION O T...rp,0p,Xp is T(P) = V(P) - U (P) (2.2) The gravity potential of the Earth is W(P) = V(P) + ((P) (2.3) where o ( P) = w rp’ cos 2 Op corresponds to the...is, therefore, A W(P,Q) = U(P) + T(P) + 0 (P) - U(Q) - T(Q) - o (Q) (2.4) With both P and Q on the Earth’s surface, the uncertainties in the calculated

  10. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  11. Theory of the Alternating-Gradient Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, E. D.; Snyder, H. S.

    2000-04-01

    The equations of motion of the particles in a synchrotron in which the field gradient indexn=-(r/B) ∂B/∂rvaries along the equilibrium orbit are examined on the basis of the linear approximation. It is shown that if n alternates rapidly between large positive and large negative values, the stability of both radial and vertical oscillations can be greatly increased compared to conventional accelerators in which n is azimuthally constant and must lie between 0 and 1. Thus aperture requirements are reduced. For practical designs, the improvement is limited by the effects of constructional errors; these lead to resonance excitation of oscillations and consequent instability if 2νx or 2νz or νx+νz is integral, where νx and νz are the frequencies of horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations, measured in units of the frequency of revolution. The mechanism of phase stability is essentially the same as in a conventional synchrotron, but the radial amplitude of synchrotron oscillations is reduced substantially. Furthermore, at a "transition energy" E1≈νxMc2 the stable and unstable equilibrium phases exchange roles, necessitating a jump in the phase of the radiofrequency accelerating voltage. Calculations indicate that the manner in which this jump is performed is not very critical.

  12. Theory of the alternating-gradient synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E. D.; Snyder, H. S.

    2000-04-10

    The equations of motion of the particles in a synchrotron in which the field gradient index n=-(r/B){partial_derivative}B/{partial_derivative}r varies along the equilibrium orbit are examined on the basis of the linear approximation. It is shown that if n alternates rapidly between large positive and large negative values, the stability of both radial and vertical oscillations can be greatly increased compared to conventional accelerators in which n is azimuthally constant and must lie between 0 and 1. Thus aperture requirements are reduced. For practical designs, the improvement is limited by the effects of constructional errors: these lead to resonance excitation of oscillations and consequent instability if 2v{sub x} or 2v{sub z} or v{sub x}+v{sub z} is integral, where v{sub x} and v{sub z} are the frequencies of horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations, measured in units of the frequency of revolution. The mechanism of phase stability is essentially the same as in a conventional synchrotron, but the radial amplitude of synchrotron oscillations is reduced substantially. Furthermore, at a ''transition energy'' E{sub 1}{approx_equal}v{sub x}Mc{sup 2} the stable and unstable equilibrium phases exchange roles, necessitating a jump in the phase of the radiofrequency accelerating voltage. Calculations indicate that the manner in which this jump is performed is not very critical. (c) 2000 Academic Press, Inc.

  13. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  14. Density Gradients in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines experiments in which a density gradient might be used to advantage. A density gradient consists of a column of liquid, the composition and density of which varies along its length. The procedure can be used in analysis of solutions and mixtures and in density measures of solids. (Author/TS)

  15. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  16. Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R

    2006-08-16

    Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators are vacuum insulating structures composed of thin, alternating layers of dielectric and metal. They are currently being developed for application to high-current accelerators and related pulsed power systems. This paper describes some of the High-Gradient Insulator research currently being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Levodopa changes the severity of freezing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fietzek, Urban M; Zwosta, Jens; Schroeteler, Frauke E; Ziegler, Kerstin; Ceballos-Baumann, Andres O

    2013-10-01

    Oral levodopa has been proposed to be one of the more effective medications to alleviate freezing of gait, but there is limited data on its efficacy. We evaluated the gait phenomenology of 20 Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait before and 60 min after a standardized levodopa dose using a rating scale based on the assumption that festination and akinetic freezing share a common pathophysiology. Levodopa abolished festination and freezing in 20% of patients (p < 0.0001), and reduced the freezing sum score from a median of 15 (IQR 6.75-27.5) to 3.5 (1-11.25), p < 0.001) in all but one of the remainder. Pre-dose ratings correlated with post-dose ratings, in that those patients with lower pre-dose item-scores also showed lower post-dose outcome scores. Levodopa's effect on both festination and akinetic freezing was linear, thereby supporting the concept that festination and freezing are variants on a continuity of episodic gait disorders in PD.

  18. Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

    2013-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to “the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete” GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results. PMID:23576906

  19. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    PubMed

    Henson, Cynthia A; Duke, Stanley H; Livingston, David P

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  20. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  1. Impact of Freezing and Thawing on Soil Oxygen Dynamics and Nutrient Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milojevic, T.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.; Smeaton, C. M.; Parsons, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) influence the physical properties, microbial activity, biogeochemistry, nutrient and carbon cycling in soils, and regulate subsurface oxygen (O2) availability, affecting greenhouse gas exchanges between soils and the atmosphere. The ability to monitor changes in O2 levels, which are indicative of aerobic and anaerobic conditions, is key to understanding how changes in the frequency and amplitude of freeze-thaw cycles affect a soil's geochemical conditions and microbial activity. In this study, a highly instrumented soil column experiment was designed to accurately simulate freeze-thaw dynamics under controlled conditions. This design allowed us to reproduce realistic, time- and depth-dependent temperature gradients in the soil column. Continuous O2 levels throughout the soil column were monitored using high-resolution, luminescence-based, Multi Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensors. Image-processing techniques were used to convert light intensity of high-resolution digital images of the sensor-emitted light into O2 concentrations. Water samples from various depths in the column were collected to monitor pore water composition changes. Headspace gas measurements were used to derive the effluxes of CO2 and CH4 during the experiment. The results indicate that the pulse of oxygen introduced by thawing caused partial and temporal oxidation of previously reduced sulfur and nitrogen species, leading to concomitant changes in pore water SO42- and NO3- concentrations. Pulsed CO2 emission to the headspace was observed at the onset of thawing, indicating that a physical ice barrier had formed during frozen conditions and prevented gas exchange between the soil and atmosphere. CO2 emission was due to a combination of the physical release of gases dissolved in pore water and entrapped below the frozen zone and changing microbial respiration in response to electron acceptor variability (O2, NO3-, SO42-).

  2. Rotating treadmill training reduces freezing in Parkinson disease: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Minna; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2008-01-01

    Two subjects with Parkinson disease (PD) who had difficulty turning, and freezing of gait triggered by turning, participated. Subjects completed four blocks of turning trials. Three blocks were conducted in the absence of treadmill intervention. Both subjects had consistent freezing across blocks prior to training and evidenced more freezing when turning left than right. The final block of turns was performed after 10–15 minutes of training leftward turning on a rotating circular treadmill. Following training: 1) neither subject froze during leftward turns, 2) muscle activity normalized, and 3) turning times decreased for leftward turns. PMID:17761449

  3. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  4. Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of porous ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species involved in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally porous ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.

  5. Rotating treadmill training reduces freezing in Parkinson disease: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minna; Earhart, Gammon M

    2008-01-01

    Two subjects with Parkinson disease (PD) who had difficulty turning, and freezing of gait triggered by turning, participated. Subjects completed four blocks of turning trials. Three blocks were conducted in the absence of treadmill intervention. Both subjects had consistent freezing across blocks prior to training and evidenced more freezing when turning left than right. The final block of turns was performed after 10-15 min of training leftward turning on a rotating circular treadmill. Following training: (1) neither subject froze during leftward turns, (2) muscle activity normalized, and (3) turning times decreased for leftward turns.

  6. Freezing-induced deformation of biomaterials in cryomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelikkale, Altug

    Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these freezing-induced deformation processes and their effects on post-thaw biomaterial functionality is currently lacking but will be critical to engineer improved cryomedicine procedures. This dissertation addresses this problem by presenting three separate but related studies of freezing-induced deformation at multiple length scales including nanometer-scale protein fibrils, single cells and whole tissues. A combination of rigorous experimentation and computational modeling is used to characterize post-thaw biomaterial structure and properties, predict biomaterial behavior and assess its post-thaw biological functionality. Firstly, freezing-induced damage on hierarchical extracellular matrix structure of collagen is investigated at molecular, fibril and matrix levels. Results indicate to a specific kind of fibril damage due to freezing-induced expansion of intrafibrillar fluid. This is followed by a study of freezing-induced cell and tissue deformation coupled to osmotically driven cellular water transport. Computational and semi empirical modeling of these processes indicate that intracellular deformation of the cell during freezing is heterogeneous and can interfere with cellular water

  7. On the time required to freeze water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.; Navarro, C.; Sanz, E.; Valeriani, C.; Vega, C.

    2016-12-01

    By using the seeding technique the nucleation rate for the formation of ice at room pressure will be estimated for the TIP4P/ICE model using longer runs and a smaller grid of temperatures than in the previous work. The growth rate of ice will be determined for TIP4P/ICE and for the mW model of water. Although TIP4P/ICE and mW have a similar melting point and melting enthalpy, they differ significantly in the dynamics of freezing. The nucleation rate of mW is lower than that of TIP4P/ICE due to its higher interfacial free energy. Experimental results for the nucleation rate of ice are between the predictions of these two models when obtained from the seeding technique, although closer to the predictions of TIP4P/ICE. The growth rate of ice for the mW model is four orders of magnitude larger than for TIP4P/ICE. Avrami's expression is used to estimate the crystallization time from the values of the nucleation and growth rates. For mW the minimum in the crystallization time is found at approximately 85 K below the melting point and its value is of about a few ns, in agreement with the results obtained from brute force simulations by Moore and Molinero. For the TIP4P/ICE the minimum is found at about 55 K below the melting point, but its value is about ten microseconds. This value is compatible with the minimum cooling rate required to avoid the formation of ice and obtaining a glass phase. The crossover from the nucleation controlled crystallization to the growth controlled crystallization will be discussed for systems of finite size. This crossover could explain the apparent discrepancy between the values of J obtained by different experimental groups for temperatures below 230 K and should be considered as an alternative hypothesis to the two previously suggested: internal pressure and/or surface freezing effects. A maximum in the compressibility was found for the TIP4P/ICE model in supercooled water. The relaxation time is much smaller than the crystallization time

  8. A numerical study of scalar gradients in Kelvin-Helmholtz billows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. W.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution numerical technique is used to model the development of a periodically perturbed shear layer imbedded in an initially vertical gradient of a passive scalar. The technique follows the development of the vorticity through an initial linear growth state and well into the nonlinear development of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, in the zero-viscosity, zero-diffusion limit. The resulting scalar distribution rapidly develops regions of extremely sharp scalar gradients, which wind around the periodically spaced vortical low gradient cores. Vertical cross sections through different parts of the billow structure are presented and compared with rocket measurements of electron density fine structure in the mesosphere. Gradient limits imposed by finite diffusion are calculated, and implications for atmospheric radar observations are discussed.

  9. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  10. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  11. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  12. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  13. Comparison of the depth of tissue necrosis between double-freeze and single-freeze nitrous oxide-based cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Adepiti, Akinfolarin Clement; Ajenifuja, Olusegun Kayode; Fadahunsi, Oluwaseyi Olatunji; Osasan, Stephen Adebayo; Pelemo, Olumuyiwa Eyitayo; Loto, Morebishe Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryotherapy is one the methods of treating cervical premalignant lesions. It is particularly suitable for low-resource countries because of it is relative cheaper, has low cost of maintenance, ease of use and that does not require electricity which is in short supply in many rural areas of developing countries where the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer is very high. In this study we compared single and double freezing on the cervices of women admitted for hysterectomy for benign conditions using Nitrous-based cryotherapy. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted for elective hysterectomy for benign gynaecological conditions were randomized into two arms. The first group had single freeze cryotherapy while the second arm received double freeze cryotherapy. The cervices were examined 24 hours later to determine the depth of tissue necrosis. Results: In this comparative study, the depth of tissue necrosis was deeper with double freeze compared with single freeze. Also in both arms, the depth of necrosis was deeper on anterior lips than on posterior lips of the cervix. Conclusion: Double freeze technique achieve more depth of tissue necrosis than single-freeze on both anterior and posterior lips of the cervix. PMID:27185971

  14. Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling during Freezing Stress Is Accompanied by Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating SENSITIVE TO FREEZING21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Allison C.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a seasonal abiotic stress that restricts native plant ranges and crop distributions. Two types of low-temperature stress can be distinguished: chilling and freezing. Much work has been done on the mechanisms by which chilling is sensed, but relatively little is known about how plants sense freezing. Recently, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) was identified as a protein that responds in a nontranscriptional manner to freezing. Here, we investigate the cellular conditions that allow SFR2 activation. Using a combination of isolated organelle, whole-tissue, and whole-plant assays, we provide evidence that SFR2 is activated by changes in cytosolic pH and Mg2+. Manipulation of pH and Mg2+ in cold-acclimated plants is shown to cause changes similar to those of freezing. We conclude that pH and Mg2+ are perceived as intracellular cues as part of the sensing mechanism for freezing conditions. This evidence provides a specific molecular mechanism to combat freezing. PMID:27233750

  15. Characterization of a laboratory-scale container for freezing protein solutions with detailed evaluation of a freezing process simulation.

    PubMed

    Roessl, Ulrich; Jajcevic, Dalibor; Leitgeb, Stefan; Khinast, Johannes G; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    A 300-mL stainless steel freeze container was constructed to enable QbD (Quality by Design)-compliant investigations and the optimization of freezing and thawing (F/T) processes of protein pharmaceuticals at moderate volumes. A characterization of the freezing performance was conducted with respect to freezing kinetics, temperature profiling, cryoconcentration, and stability of the frozen protein. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of temperature and phase transition were established to facilitate process scaling and process analytics as well as customization of future freeze containers. Protein cryoconcentration was determined from ice-core samples using bovine serum albumin. Activity, aggregation, and structural perturbation were studied in frozen rabbit muscle l-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) solution. CFD simulations provided good qualitative and quantitative agreement with highly resolved experimental measurements of temperature and phase transition, allowing also the estimation of spatial cryoconcentration patterns. LDH exhibited stability against freezing in the laboratory-scale system, suggesting a protective effect of cryoconcentration at certain conditions. The combination of the laboratory-scale freeze container with accurate CFD modeling will allow deeper investigations of F/T processes at advanced scale and thus represents an important step towards a better process understanding.

  16. Measurement of electric field and gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters of floating microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, T. E.; Katschke, M. R.; Wells, K. D.

    2007-02-15

    A method for measuring the time-averaged vertical electric field and its gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters with n=2 or 3 floating microspheres of known mass is described. The particle charge q is found by determining the ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency for horizontal (in-plane) oscillations. The electric field at the position of the particles is then calculated using the measured charge-to-mass ratio, and the electric-field gradient is determined from the vertical resonance frequency. The Debye length is also found. Experimental results are in agreement with a simple sheath model.

  17. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  18. Spray irrigation effects on surface-layer stability in an experimental citrus orchard during winter freezes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.J.; Smith, E.A.; Martsolf, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Ginesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M.; Bertoldi, A.; Bodart, Q.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Angelis, M. de; Prevedelli, M.

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.

  20. Effect of geometrical frustration on inverse freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Morais, C. V.; Zimmer, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between geometrical frustration (GF) and inverse freezing (IF) is studied within a cluster approach. The model considers first-neighbor (J1) and second-neighbor (J2) intracluster antiferromagnetic interactions between Ising spins on a checkerboard lattice and long-range disordered couplings (J ) among clusters. We obtain phase diagrams of temperature versus J1/J in two cases: the absence of J2 interaction and the isotropic limit J2=J1 , where GF takes place. An IF reentrant transition from the spin-glass (SG) to paramagnetic (PM) phase is found for a certain range of J1/J in both cases. The J1 interaction leads to a SG state with high entropy at the same time that can introduce a low-entropy PM phase. In addition, it is observed that the cluster size plays an important role. The GF increases the PM phase entropy, but larger clusters can give an entropic advantage for the SG phase that favors IF. Therefore, our results suggest that disordered systems with antiferromagnetic clusters can exhibit an IF transition even in the presence of GF.

  1. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  2. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  3. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  4. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  5. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  6. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  7. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  8. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  9. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  10. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  11. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  12. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  13. Long-term storage of bionanodevices by freezing and lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja; Wada, Yuuko; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Hess, Henry; Satir, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Successful long-term storage of a "smart dust" device integrating biomolecular motors and complex protein assemblies has been demonstrated using freezing or lyophilization, which implies that fabrication and application can be separated even for complex bionanodevices.

  14. Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops.

    PubMed

    Marín, A G; Enríquez, O R; Brunet, P; Colinet, P; Snoeijer, J H

    2014-08-01

    A drop of water deposited on a cold plate freezes into an ice drop with a pointy tip. While this phenomenon clearly finds its origin in the expansion of water upon freezing, a quantitative description of the tip singularity has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how the geometry of the freezing front, determined by heat transfer considerations, is crucial for the tip formation. We perform systematic measurements of the angles of the conical tip, and reveal the dynamics of the solidification front in a Hele-Shaw geometry. It is found that the cone angle is independent of substrate temperature and wetting angle, suggesting a universal, self-similar mechanism that does not depend on the rate of solidification. We propose a model for the freezing front and derive resulting tip angles analytically, in good agreement with the experiments.

  15. Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

  16. [Freezing of gait is a symptom of Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Mezzarobba, Susanna; Bandel, Dora; Capus, Livio; Torre, Paola; Moretti, Rita

    2004-09-01

    One could distinguish between "off freezing", which is a symptom tightly bound to L-dopa dosage and titration, and is clinically bound to wearing off, and, on the contrary, "on freezing" which does not respond to therapy modifications or to different drug's titration. On freezing seems to be related to frontal-basal ganglia-pontine neural pathway disruption. This neural disruption may be related with altered perception of extra and peri-personal space which are two major problems of these patients. We demonstrate in a group of patients with "on freezing" evident defect of attention, focus capability, of set-shifting properties, and of alteration in body/space relationship. We discuss on results obtained by specific training of physiotherapy with an review on literature.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: Freezing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, M. L.; Niedziela, R. F.; Richwine, L. J.; Dransfield, T.; Miller, R. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

    1997-04-01

    A low-temperature flow cell has been used in conjunction with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to study sulfuric acid/water aerosols. The aerosols were generated with a wide range of composition (28 to 85 wt%), including those characteristic of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and studied over the temperature range from 240 K to 160 K. The particles exhibited deep supercooling, by as much as 100 K below the freezing point in some cases. Freezing of water ice was observed in the more dilute (<40 wt% sulfuric acid) particles, in agreement with the predictions of Jensen et al. and recent observations by Bertram et al. In contrast with theoretical predictions, however, the entire particle often does not immediately freeze, at least on the timescale of the present experiments (seconds to minutes). Freezing of the entire particle is observed at lower temperatures, well below that characteristic of the polar stratosphere.

  18. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tech...

  19. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  20. Multiphoton imaging of biological samples during freezing and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Uchugonova, A.; König, K.

    2014-02-01

    We applied multiphoton microscopic imaging to observe freezing and heating effects in plant- and animal cell samples. The experimental setups consisted of a multiphoton imaging system and a heating and cooling stage which allows for precise temperature control from liquid nitrogen temperature (-196°C 77 K) up to +600°C (873 K) with heating/freezing rates between 0.01 K/min and 150 K/min. Two multiphoton imaging systems were used: a system based on a modified optical microscope and a flexible mobile system. To illustrate the imaging capabilities, plant leafs as well as animal cells were microscopically imaged in vivo during freezing based on autofluorescence lifetime and intensity of intrinsic molecules. The measurements illustrate the usefulness of multiphoton imaging to investigate freezing effects on animal and plant cells.

  1. Long-term preservation of freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-06-01

    Many genetically engineered mice strains have been generated worldwide and sperm preservation is a valuable method for storing these strains as genetic resources. Freeze-drying is a useful sperm preservation method because it requires neither liquid nitrogen nor dry ice for preservation and transportation. We report here successful long-term preservation at 4 °C of mouse spermatozoa freeze-dried using a simple buffer solution (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA, pH 8.0). Offspring with fertility were obtained from oocytes fertilized with freeze-dried spermatozoa from C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mouse strains stored at 4 °C for 3 years. This freeze-drying method is a safe and economical tool for the biobanking of valuable mouse strains.

  2. An approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, K.-T.; Wood, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived and proposed as a new approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without consideration of time dependence and stochastic nature of the ice nucleation process, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size and water activity of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may largely be explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that this approximation is useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  3. Condensation and freezing of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oberli, Linda; Caruso, Dean; Hall, Colin; Fabretto, Manrico; Murphy, Peter J; Evans, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic coatings are reported as promising candidates for anti-icing applications. Various studies have shown that as well as having ultra water repellency the surfaces have reduced ice adhesion and can delay water freezing. However, the structure or texture (roughness) of the superhydrophobic surface is subject to degradation during the thermocycling or wetting process. This degradation can impair the superhydrophobicity and the icephobicity of those coatings. In this review, a brief overview of the process of droplet freezing on superhydrophobic coatings is presented with respect to their potential in anti-icing applications. To support this discussion, new data is presented about the condensation of water onto physically decorated substrates, and the associated freezing process which impacts on the freezing of macroscopic droplets on the surface.

  4. Facile Route to Vertically Aligned High-Aspect Ratio Block Copolymer Films via Dynamic Zone Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kulkarni, Manish; Yager, Kevin; Smilgies, Detlef; Bucknall, David; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Directed assembly of block copolymers (BCP) can be used to fabricate a diversity of nanostructures useful for nanotech applications. The ability to vertically orient etchable high aspect ratio (˜30) ordered BCP domains on flexible substrates via continuous processing methods are particularly attractive for nanomanufacturing. We apply sharp dynamic cold zone annealing (CZA-S) to create etchable, and predominantly vertically oriented 30nm cylindrical domains in 1 μm thick poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) films on low thermal conductivity rigid (quartz) and flexible (PDMS & Kapton) substrates. Under similar static conditions, temporally stable vertical cylinders form within a narrow zone above a critical temperature gradient. Primary ordering mechanism of CZA-S involves sweeping this vertically orienting zone created at maximum thermal gradient. An optimal speed is needed since the process competes with preferential surface wetting dynamics that favors parallel orientation. GISAXS of etched BCP films confirms internal morphology.

  5. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.

    PubMed

    Zanne, Amy E; Tank, David C; Cornwell, William K; Eastman, Jonathan M; Smith, Stephen A; FitzJohn, Richard G; McGlinn, Daniel J; O'Meara, Brian C; Moles, Angela T; Reich, Peter B; Royer, Dana L; Soltis, Douglas E; Stevens, Peter F; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Aarssen, Lonnie; Bertin, Robert I; Calaminus, Andre; Govaerts, Rafaël; Hemmings, Frank; Leishman, Michelle R; Oleksyn, Jacek; Soltis, Pamela S; Swenson, Nathan G; Warman, Laura; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2014-02-06

    Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species' traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.

  6. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  7. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  8. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  9. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  10. A three dimensional view of damage in oat crown tissue recovering from freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology of freezing tolerance in small grains (oats, barley, wheat and rye) is usually studied by analyzing the metabolism and genetics of plants prior to freezing, during cold- and freeze-acclimation. We wanted to study the physiology of plants after freezing, during a period of recovery whe...

  11. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [improved quality of freeze-dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for improving the quality of freeze-dried foods were investigated. Areas discussed include: (1) microstructure of freeze-dried systems, (2) structural changes in freeze-dried systems, (3) artificial food matrices, and (4) osmotic preconcentration to yield improved freeze-dried products.

  12. Carbohydrate and lipid dynamics in wheat crown tissue in response to mild freeze-thaw treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freezing tolerance resulting from cold hardening is critical to survival of fall-planted crops such as winter wheat. Exposure of winter wheat plants to cycles of freeze-thaw at temperatures just below, and just above freezing results in incremental improvements of freezing tolerance. Defining the ph...

  13. Freezing of Lennard-Jones fluid on a patterned substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijun; Peng, Shuming; Mao, Li; Zhou, Xiaosong; Liang, Jianhua; Wan, Chubin; Zheng, Jian; Ju, Xin

    2014-06-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study freezing of Lennard-Jones particles at commensurate substrate with triangular pattern. Throughout the box particles freeze onto the substrate and form close-packed layers. For the moderately attractive substrates, an intermediate hexatic phase between liquid and crystal is detected in the first two layers where the hexatic-solid freezing process is continuous while, counterintuitively, the liquid-hexatic process is of first order. Moreover, we observe that liquid-hexatic and hexatic-solid transitions shift towards higher temperatures with the attraction strength increasing. By contrast, the liquid-hexatic transition shifts faster than the hexatic-solid process, significantly widening the temperature range of the hexatic phase. When this phenomenon appears, freezing in the bulk always proceeds through a first-order transition at the same temperature. In addition, changes in the average structural order (three-dimensional) of the layers indicate that freezing processes in layers near substrates seem to cost the structural order of the bulk particles in their vicinity, and an intermediate prestructural cloud of medium-ordered particles is always observed before the layering freezing.

  14. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes.

  15. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods.

    PubMed

    Ku, Su Kyung; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Jong Dae; Jeon, Ki Hong; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Boong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at -45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at -55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of commercial freeze-dried snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Solano, Daniela; Gómez, Aarón; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Sánchez, Andrés; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Freeze-drying is a process used to improve the stability of pharmaceutical proteins, including snake antivenoms. This additional step confers these with a higher stability in comparison to liquid formulations, especially in tropical regions where high temperatures could affect the activity of immunoglobulins. Currently, the knowledge about freeze-drying process conditions for snake antivenoms is very limited. Some of the scarce scientific works on this subject reported reconstitution times up to 90 min for these preparations, which could imply a delay in the beginning of the antivenom therapy at the clinical setting. Therefore there is a reasonable concern about whether freeze-dried antivenoms exhibit the desired attributes for solid pharmaceutical proteins. In this work, a physicochemical characterization of seven commercial freeze-dried snake antivenoms was performed based on tests recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No significant differences were observed between the products regarding macroscopic appearance of the solid cakes, reconstitution times, residual humidity and monomers content. On the other hand, total protein concentration, turbidity and electrophoretic profile were different among samples. Microscopic analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed no collapsed structure and, instead, most of the samples showed a characteristic protein morphology composed of smooth plates and channels. All the parameters tested in this study were according to literature recommendations and evidenced that, in spite of slight variations found for some products, formulation and freeze-drying conditions chosen by manufacturers are adequate to prevent aggregation and generate, in physicochemical terms, freeze-dried antivenoms of acceptable quality.

  17. Practical approach to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease and related disorders is common and very disabling. It usually occurs in the advanced stages, although mild forms may develop earlier. Freezing can occur on turning, in narrow spaces, immediately before reaching a destination, and in stressful situations. Dual tasking (motor or cognitive load) aggravates the problem. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease usually occurs in the 'off' rather than in the 'on' state. It is, therefore, not entirely drug-resistant; the first step in medical treatment is to ensure adequate dopaminergic stimulation to reduce the 'off' state. There is no good evidence for any specific drug to alleviate freezing. Visual or auditory cues are very helpful as behavioural therapy. Assistive devices, such as a wheeled walker sometimes help. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may alleviate freezing in the 'off' state. Because of the complexity of freezing, individual patients need a careful assessment-particularly in relation to motor fluctuation-to optimise their treatment.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Gyoungju; Lee, Moonsub; Kim, Do-Soon; Rayburn, A. Lane; Voigt, Thomas; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG) groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY). The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:27032112

  19. Parameter-exploring policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Sehnke, Frank; Osendorfer, Christian; Rückstiess, Thomas; Graves, Alex; Peters, Jan; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    We present a model-free reinforcement learning method for partially observable Markov decision problems. Our method estimates a likelihood gradient by sampling directly in parameter space, which leads to lower variance gradient estimates than obtained by regular policy gradient methods. We show that for several complex control tasks, including robust standing with a humanoid robot, this method outperforms well-known algorithms from the fields of standard policy gradients, finite difference methods and population based heuristics. We also show that the improvement is largest when the parameter samples are drawn symmetrically. Lastly we analyse the importance of the individual components of our method by incrementally incorporating them into the other algorithms, and measuring the gain in performance after each step.

  20. Surface Energy Fluxes During Arctic Freeze-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ola; Blomquist, Byron; Guest, Peter; Fairall, Christopher; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Brooks, Ian; Björk, Göran; Tjernström, Michael; Inoue, Jun

    2016-04-01

    This presentation will use atmospheric and ocean mixed-layer observations from three cruises during the past two years to examine the magnitude and variability of the air-ocean energy fluxes, the sources of the variability, the impact of the fluxes on the ocean mixed-layer thermal structure, and how these surface energy fluxes impact the initial ice formation. The measurements were made during the ACSE, Mirai, and Sea State field programs, the first two obtaining measurements near the ice edge in the Laptev and Chukchi Seas in September 2014 and the last along the advancing ice edge in the Beaufort/Chukchi Sea in October 2015. These time periods include the onset of continuous ocean heat loss, the initial episodic ice formation, and the core period for southward advance of the ice. Frequent atmospheric soundings and continuous remote-sensor measurements provide the vertical kinematic and thermodynamic structure in the lower troposphere. Broadband radiometers, turbulent flux sensors, surface temperature sensors, surface characterization instruments, and basic meteorological instrumentation provide continuous measurements of all surface energy flux terms (shortwave/longwave radiation, sensible/latent turbulent heat fluxes), allowing the quantification of the total energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. Furthermore, each cruise provided continuous measurements of the upper-ocean temperature and salinity and frequent CTD measurements of the ocean temperature and salinity profiles, providing estimates of upper-ocean energy evolution. Various methods for characterizing the ocean surface (open ocean, ice cover, ice thickness, wave state, etc.) allow linking energy changes with changes in ocean surface conditions. Analyses of the September and October conditions show persistent ocean heat loss after Sep. 15 because of the reduction of downwelling shortwave radiation and strong impacts of off-ice airflow on turbulent heat fluxes and downwelling longwave

  1. Cold-stage scanning electron microscope measurement of ice morphology in apple tissue as a function of freezing rate.

    PubMed

    Bomben, J L; King, C J; Hayes, T L

    1983-10-01

    A cold-stage SEM was used to document the morphology of ice in apple tissue and a sucrose solution frozen at rates ranging from 450 to 0.03 degrees K/min. Freezing rates of 3-mm-thick apple discs were measured with a differential thermocouple technique, which gave measurement of the growth velocity and the temperature gradient through the solidified specimen as well as the cooling rate during solidification. Cold-stage SEM micrographs were used to measure the dendritic spacing of the ice structures, and these data were found to correlate linearly with the square root of the cooling rate during solidification as would be predicted by a theoretical analysis of mass transfer in the formation of dendrites. Comparison of freeze-substituted and freeze-dried apple-tissue micrographs with those from a cold-stage SEM showed that the cold-stage SEM technique was the only one which correctly represented ice morphology in apple tissue.

  2. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.

  3. Effects of freezing, freeze drying and convective drying on in vitro gastric digestion of apples.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Maria Esperanza; Bornhorst, Gail M; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Simal, Susana

    2017-01-15

    The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion. Processing resulted in disruption of the cellular structure during digestion, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and changes in carbohydrate composition. Moisture content increased (6-11% dmo), while soluble solids (55-78% dmo), acidity (44-72% dmo), total polyphenol content (30-61% dmo), and antioxidant activity (41-87%) decreased in all samples after digestion. Mathematical models (Weibull and exponential models) were used to better evaluate the influence of processing on apple behavior during gastric digestion.

  4. Fast Imaging of Freezing Drops: Investigating Contact Nucleation at the Triple Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurganus, C.

    2011-12-01

    system shows the possible importance of temperature gradients within a supercooled droplet that may bias nucleation mechanisms. This presents a possible explanation for our seemingly contrary result. With a new apparatus, we have investigated the importance of cooling rates for nucleation mechanisms. Using a solid state cooling element, we are able to replicate the rapid substrate cooling rates of previous experiments, as well as the weak, uniform cooling rates of our prior study. [1] Gurganus, C.; Kostinski, A. B. ; Shaw, R. A. ; J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2011, 2 (12), pp 1449-1454 [2] Suzuki, S.; et al. ; Freezing of water droplets on silicon surfaces coated with various silanes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2007, 445, 37-41.

  5. The effect of density gradient on boundary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Song, Zhiyao; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Dong; Hu, Di

    2016-12-01

    Based on Prandtl's mixing-length theory, this study proposes new theoretical formulae of velocity profiles resulting from the forcing by a constant horizontal buoyancy gradient in unstratified and stably stratified flows. Based on the one-dimensional water column momentum equation, the vertical turbulent shearing stress profile is found to deviate from a linear distribution and follow a parabolic distribution, differing from that in neutral flow. The shearing stress curves upward with the current following the density gradient, and curves downward with the currents opposite to the density gradient. For a constant eddy viscosity, the well-known estuarine circulation is obtained through the parabolic shearing distribution. For a vertically parabolic eddy viscosity, the new-proposed velocity profile by Burchard & Hetland (2010) is obtained. In this paper, we estimate the viscosity profile based on Prandtl's mixing-length theory and then derive the new formulae of the velocity profiles. Through comparison with the numerical turbulence model, the velocity profiles presented in the paper agree well with the numerical results. In addition, the new velocity profiles can be applied to determine the valid range and evaluate errors of the log-fit in baroclinic boundary flows.

  6. Gradient-based image recovery methods from incomplete Fourier measurements.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal M; Maleh, Ray; Gilbert, Anna C; Chellappa, Rama

    2012-01-01

    A major problem in imaging applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and synthetic aperture radar is the task of trying to reconstruct an image with the smallest possible set of Fourier samples, every single one of which has a potential time and/or power cost. The theory of compressive sensing (CS) points to ways of exploiting inherent sparsity in such images in order to achieve accurate recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling schemes. Traditional CS approaches to this problem consist of solving total-variation (TV) minimization programs with Fourier measurement constraints or other variations thereof. This paper takes a different approach. Since the horizontal and vertical differences of a medical image are each more sparse or compressible than the corresponding TV image, CS methods will be more successful in recovering these differences individually. We develop an algorithm called GradientRec that uses a CS algorithm to recover the horizontal and vertical gradients and then estimates the original image from these gradients. We present two methods of solving the latter inverse problem, i.e., one based on least-square optimization and the other based on a generalized Poisson solver. After a thorough derivation of our complete algorithm, we present the results of various experiments that compare the effectiveness of the proposed method against other leading methods.

  7. Freezing and glass transitions upon cooling and warming and ice/freeze-concentration-solution morphology of emulsified aqueous citric acid.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J; Tenhu, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    Although freeze-induced phase separation and the ice/FCS (freeze-concentration solution) morphology of aqueous solutions play an important role in fields ranging from life sciences and biotechnology to geophysics and high-altitude ice clouds, their understanding is far from complete. Herein, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical cryo-microscope (OC-M), we have studied the freezing and glass transition behavior and the ice/FCS morphology of emulsified 10-60wt% CA (citric acid) solutions in the temperature region of ∼308and153K. We have obtained a lot of new result which are understandable and unclear. The most essential understandable results are as follows: (i) similar to bulk CA/H2O, emulsified CA/H2O also freezes upon cooling and warming and (ii) the ice/FCS morphology of frozen drops smaller than ∼3-4μm is less ramified than that of frozen bulk solutions. Unclear results, among others, are as follows: (i) in contrast to bulk solutions, which produce one freezing event, emulsified CA/H2O produces two freezing events and (ii) in emulsions, drop concentration is not uniform. Our results demonstrate that DSC thermograms and OC-M images/movies are mutually supplementary and allow us to extract important information which cannot be gained when DSC and OC-M techniques are used alone.

  8. Multi-scale validation of a new soil freezing scheme for a land-surface model with physically-based hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttevin, I.; Krinner, G.; Ciais, P.; Polcher, J.; Legout, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing is a major feature of boreal regions with substantial impact on climate. The present paper describes the implementation of the thermal and hydrological effects of soil freezing in the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which includes a physical description of continental hydrology. The new soil freezing scheme is evaluated against analytical solutions and in-situ observations at a variety of scales in order to test its numerical robustness, explore its sensitivity to parameterization choices and confront its performance to field measurements at typical application scales. Our soil freezing model exhibits a low sensitivity to the vertical discretization for spatial steps in the range of a few millimetres to a few centimetres. It is however sensitive to the temperature interval around the freezing point where phase change occurs, which should be 1 °C to 2 °C wide. Furthermore, linear and thermodynamical parameterizations of the liquid water content lead to similar results in terms of water redistribution within the soil and thermal evolution under freezing. Our approach does not allow firm discrimination of the performance of one approach over the other. The new soil freezing scheme considerably improves the representation of runoff and river discharge in regions underlain by permafrost or subject to seasonal freezing. A thermodynamical parameterization of the liquid water content appears more appropriate for an integrated description of the hydrological processes at the scale of the vast Siberian basins. The use of a subgrid variability approach and the representation of wetlands could help capture the features of the Arctic hydrological regime with more accuracy. The modeling of the soil thermal regime is generally improved by the representation of soil freezing processes. In particular, the dynamics of the active layer is captured with more accuracy, which is of crucial importance in the prospect of simulations involving the response of frozen carbon

  9. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  10. Fight-flight or freeze-hide? Personality and metabolic phenotype mediate physiological defence responses in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Rupia, Emmanuel J; Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Survival depends on appropriate behavioural and physiological responses to danger. In addition to active 'fight-flight' defence responses, a passive 'freeze-hide' response is adaptive in some contexts. However, the physiological mechanisms determining which individuals choose a given defence response remain poorly understood. We examined the relationships among personality, metabolic performance and physiological stress responses across an environmental gradient in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. We employed four behavioural assays to document the existence of two distinct behavioural types ('bold' and 'shy') in this species. We found consistent metabolic differences between individuals of a given behavioural type across an environmental gradient: shy individuals had overall lower aerobic scope, maximum metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate than bold individuals in both high (25 ppt) and low (3 ppt) salinity. These behavioural and metabolic differences translated into divergent physiological responses during acute stress: shy individuals adopted a passive 'freeze-hide' response by reducing their oxygen consumption rates (akin to shallow breathing) whereas bold individuals adopted an active 'fight-flight' response by increasing their rates of respiration. These distinct defence strategies were repeatable within individuals between salinity treatments. Although it has been suggested theoretically, this is the first empirical evidence that the metabolic response to stressful situations differs between bold and shy individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating physiological measures to understand the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences in animals.

  11. Measuring and modeling hemoglobin aggregation below the freezing temperature.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Lopes, Carlos; Melo, Eduardo P; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vitor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    Freezing of protein solutions is required for many applications such as storage, transport, or lyophilization; however, freezing has inherent risks for protein integrity. It is difficult to study protein stability below the freezing temperature because phase separation constrains solute concentration in solution. In this work, we developed an isochoric method to study protein aggregation in solutions at -5, -10, -15, and -20 °C. Lowering the temperature below the freezing point in a fixed volume prevents the aqueous solution from freezing, as pressure rises until equilibrium (P,T) is reached. Aggregation rates of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) increased at lower temperature (-20 °C) and higher BHb concentration. However, the addition of sucrose substantially decreased the aggregation rate and prevented aggregation when the concentration reached 300 g/L. The unfolding thermodynamics of BHb was studied using fluorescence, and the fraction of unfolded protein as a function of temperature was determined. A mathematical model was applied to describe BHb aggregation below the freezing temperature. This model was able to predict the aggregation curves for various storage temperatures and initial concentrations of BHb. The aggregation mechanism was revealed to be mediated by an unfolded state, followed by a fast growth of aggregates that readily precipitate. The aggregation kinetics increased for lower temperature because of the higher fraction of unfolded BHb closer to the cold denaturation temperature. Overall, the results obtained herein suggest that the isochoric method could provide a relatively simple approach to obtain fundamental thermodynamic information about the protein and the aggregation mechanism, thus providing a new approach to developing accelerated formulation studies below the freezing temperature.

  12. Freeze-thaw cycles enhance decellularization of large tendons.

    PubMed

    Burk, Janina; Erbe, Ina; Berner, Dagmar; Kacza, Johannes; Kasper, Cornelia; Pfeiffer, Bastian; Winter, Karsten; Brehm, Walter

    2014-04-01

    The use of decellularized tendon tissue as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering provides great opportunities for future clinical and current research applications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and two different detergents, t-octyl-phenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on decellularization effectiveness and cytocompatibility in large tendons. Freshly collected equine superficial and deep digital flexor tendons were subjected to decellularization according to four different protocols (1 and 2: freeze-thaw cycles combined with either Triton X-100 or SDS; 3 and 4: Triton X-100 or SDS). Decellularization effectiveness was assessed based on the reduction of vital cell counts, histologically visible nuclei, and DNA content. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate cellular and extracellular matrix integrity. Further, cytocompatibility of scaffolds that had been decellularized according to the protocols including freeze-thaw cycles (protocols 1 and 2) was assessed by seeding the scaffolds with superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled mesenchymal stromal cells and monitoring the cells histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging for two weeks. Decellularization was significantly more effective when using the protocols including freeze-thaw cycles, leaving only roughly 1% residual nuclei and 20% residual DNA, whereas samples that had not undergone additional freeze-thaw cycles contained roughly 20% residual nuclei and 40% residual DNA. No morphological extracellular matrix alterations due to decellularization could be observed. Scaffolds prepared by both protocols including freeze-thaw cycles were cytocompatible, but the cell distribution into the scaffold tended to be better in scaffolds that had been decellularized using freeze-thaw cycles combined with Triton X-100 instead of SDS.

  13. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001) and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001). Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013) and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005) when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  14. Hydrodynamic Stability Criteria for Vertically Stratified Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2014-11-01

    Whenever a vertically stratified circumstellar disk has a radial entropy gradient, the balance of forces in the radial and vertical directions implies that the unperturbed orbit frequency is a function of both radius and height above the midplane of the disk. This vertical shear in the orbit frequency can produce baroclinic instabilities that result in slanted convection in the r-z plane, vertical corrugations of the disk midplane, and outward angular momentum transport with an effective alpha of 0.001 (Nelson et al., MNRAS 435, 2610-2632, (2013)). It is difficult to derive a rigorous dispersion relation for this instability due to the inseparable nature of the r and z-dependence of the problem. Previously published stability criteria are limited to small vertical scales because they assume the vertical component of the star’s gravity to be independent of z. This limitation can be overcome if one assumes that the vertical structure near the disk midplane is nearly adiabatic, so that the anelastic approximation is valid. For this case, the problem can be reduced to a set of three evolution equations for the z-component of the angular momentum, the potential temperature, and the component of vorticity due to motions in the r-z plane. This reduced dynamical system has a Hamiltonian structure that allows one to readily derive a Liapunov functional that governs the linear and nonlinear stability of the problem. The stability criterion reduces to a statement about the relative slopes in the r-z plane of the surfaces of constant angular momentum and constant potential temperature in the unperturbed disk. This stability condition is analogous to the criterion for symmetric baroclinic instabilities in planetary atmospheres. Support from NASA’s Origins of Solar Systems program is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Snowmelt and Surface Freeze/Thaw Timings over Alaska derived from Passive Microwave Observations using a Wavelet Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic permafrost soils contain a vast amount of organic carbon that will be released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide or methane when thawed. Surface to air greenhouse gas fluxes are largely dependent on such surface controls as the frozen/thawed state of the snow and soil. Satellite remote sensing is an important means to create continuous mapping of surface properties. Advances in the ability to determine soil and snow freeze/thaw timings from microwave frequency observations improves upon our ability to predict the response of carbon gas emission to warming through synthesis with in-situ observation, such as the 2012-2015 Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Surface freeze/thaw or snowmelt timings are often derived using a constant or spatially/temporally variable threshold applied to time-series observations. Alternately, time-series singularity classifiers aim to detect discontinuous changes, or "edges", in time-series data similar to those that occur from the large contrast in dielectric constant during the freezing or thaw of soil or snow. We use multi-scale analysis of continuous wavelet transform spectral gradient brightness temperatures from various channel combinations of passive microwave radiometers, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, AMSR2) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I F17) gridded at a 10 km posting with resolution proportional to the observational footprint. Channel combinations presented here aim to illustrate and differentiate timings of "edges" from transitions in surface water related to various landscape components (e.g. snow-melt, soil-thaw). To support an understanding of the physical basis of observed "edges" we compare satellite measurements with simple radiative transfer microwave-emission modeling of the snow, soil and vegetation using in-situ observations from the SNOw TELemetry (SNOTEL) automated weather stations. Results of freeze/thaw and snow-melt timings and trends are

  16. A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models, Part 1: Scheme Design and Diagnostic Analysis, Part II: Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography following coordinates is proposed. It can be used in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily implemented.

  17. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  18. A Brightness-Temperature-Variance-Based Passive Microwave Algorithm for Monitoring Soil Freeze/Thaw State on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, M.; Yang, K.; Qin, J.; Jin, R.; Ma, Y.; Wen, J.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, L.; La, Z.; Tang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The land surface on the Tibetan Plateau experiences typical diurnal and seasonal freeze/thaw processes that play important roles in the regional water and energy exchanges, and recent passive microwave satellites provide opportunities to detect the soil state for the unique region. With the support of three soil moisture and temperature networks in the Tibetan Plateau, a dual-index microwave algorithm with AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System) data is developed for the detection of soil surface freeze/thaw state. One index is the standard deviation index (SDI) of brightness temperature (TB), which is defined as the standard deviation of horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at all AMSR-E frequencies. It is the major index and is used to reflect the reduction of liquid water content after soils get frozen. The other index is the 36.5 GHz vertically-polarized brightness temperature, which is linearly correlated with ground temperature and thus is utilized to detect it. The threshold values of the two indices (SDI and the brightness temperature at 36.5 GHz vertically-polarized) are determined based on a part of in situ data from the network located in a semi-arid climate, and the algorithm was validated against other in situ data from this network. Further validations were conducted based on the other two networks located in different climates (semi-humid and arid, respectively). Results show that this algorithm has accuracy of more than 90% for the semi-humid and semi-arid regions, and misclassifications mainly occur at the transition period between unfrozen and frozen seasons. Nevertheless, the microwave signals have limited capability in identifying the soil surface freeze/thaw state in the arid region, because they can penetrate deep dry soils and thus embody the bulk information beneath the surface.

  19. Vertical Beam Polarization at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Bender, D.; Beričič, J.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Dehn, M.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gutheil, B.; Herrmann, P.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kolar, T.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Maas, F.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Nillius, F.; Nuck, A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Spruck, B.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Tioukine, V.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time a vertically polarized electron beam has been used for physics experiments at MAMI in the energy range between 180 and 855 MeV. The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry An, which is a direct probe of higher-order photon exchange beyond the first Born approximation, has been measured in the reaction 12C (e → , e ‧)12C . Vertical polarization orientation was necessary to measure this asymmetry with the existing experimental setup. In this paper we describe the procedure to orient the electron polarization vector vertically, and the concept of determining both its magnitude and orientation with the available setup. A sophisticated method has been developed to overcome the lack of a polarimeter setup sensitive to the vertical polarization component.

  20. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.