Science.gov

Sample records for vertically integrated liquid

  1. Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

    1995-01-01

    Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

  2. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  3. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  4. Electrical interfacing between neurons and electronics via vertically integrated sub-4 microm-diameter silicon probe arrays fabricated by vapor-liquid-solid growth.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takeshi; Harimoto, Tetsuhiro; Ishihara, Akito; Takei, Kuniharu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Usui, Shiro; Ishida, Makoto

    2010-03-15

    We report here a technique for use in electrical interfaces between neurons and microelectronics, using vertically integrated silicon probe arrays with diameters of 2-3.5 microm and lengths of 60-120 microm. Silicon probe arrays can be fabricated by selective vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. A doped n-type silicon probe with the resistance of 1 k Omega has an electrical impedance of less than 10 M Omega in physiological saline. After inserting the probe arrays into the retina of a carp (Cyrpinus carpio), we conducted electrical recording of neural signals, using the probes to measure light-evoked electrical neural signals. We determined that recorded signals represented local field potentials of the retina (electroretinogram (ERG)). The VLS-probe can provide minimally invasive neural recording/stimulation capabilities at high spatial resolution for fundamental studies of nervous systems. In addition, the probe arrays can be integrated with microelectronics; therefore, these probes make it possible to construct interfaces between neurons and microelectronics in advanced neuroscience applications.

  5. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  6. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  7. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  8. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  9. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-09

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction.

  10. Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

  11. Retention of free liquids in landfills undergoing vertical expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zornberg, J.G.; Jernigan, B.L.; Sanglerat, T.R.; Cooley, B.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the potential release of liquids stored within a waste mass undergoing compression due to a landfill vertical expansion. The mechanism of free liquid generation is initially evaluated and data interpretation methods are developed to estimate the maximum allowable waste thickness that a landfill could reach without releasing liquids stored within the waste. The proposed conceptual framework of free liquid generation is used to evaluate the environmental implications of the vertical expansion of an unlined case history landfill located in southern California. The moisture content of waste in southern California landfills is generally below field capacity. However, if the waste is compressed, its available moisture-holding capacity will decrease and its moisture content may eventually reach field capacity. Additional compression beyond this point will squeeze liquid from the waste. Laboratory testing and field characterization programs were undertaken to evaluate the field capacity, the in-situ moisture distribution, and the unit weight profiles of the waste in the case history landfill. These experimental data were used to evaluate the ability of the landfill to continue to retain moisture after continued waste placement. The evaluation indicated that the moisture content of the waste will not reach its field capacity for the proposed final grading of the case history landfill and, therefore, that the liquids should remain within the waste mass after the vertical expansion.

  12. Integrated design of integral liquid fuel ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liangxian; Yang, Jianxin; Ma, Jia; Liu, Jingchun

    1993-04-01

    Integrated design of integral liquid fuel ramjet (ILFR) is regarded as a system of the combination of missile and ILFR, which aims at obtaining the optimum performance of the system and optimizing the parameters of both missile and ramjet. In this paper, supersonic cruise missile of medium range is taken as a calculation example. In accordance with the features of integrated ramjet, the integrated design of missile and integral ramjet are discussed here. Missile configuration and ramjet parameters are optimized and then the maximum range is obtained based on two typical cases in medium and low height cruising. Some problems related to choosing missile and ramjet parameters are also, discussed and analyzed for application in different cruise heights.

  13. Dynamics of liquid rise in a vertical capillary tube.

    PubMed

    Masoodi, Reza; Languri, Ehsan; Ostadhossein, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The governing equation for capillary rise in a vertical tube is derived using energy balance. The derived governing equation includes kinetic, gravity, and viscous effects. Through normalizing different terms in the governing equation, a form of nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a positive dimensionless parameter was obtained. The ODE equation was solved numerically and the numerical results were compared with some published experimental data. The derived governing equation was found to be quite accurate for predicting the liquid rise and oscillation in a capillary tube. The effect of a dimensionless parameter on the behavior of the liquid rise was explored numerically. A simple critical condition, which leads to the oscillation of the liquid column in the capillary tube, was found in the form of a dimensionless parameter in the governing equation.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Chilldown of a Vertical Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Samuel; Hu, Hong; Schaeffer, Reid; Chung, Jacob; Hartwig, Jason; Majumdar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a one-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient chilldown of a vertical stainless steel tube with liquid nitrogen. The direction of flow is downward (with gravity) through the tube. Heat transfer correlations for film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as critical heat flux, rewetting temperature, and the temperature at the onset of nucleate boiling were used to model the convection to the tube wall. Chilldown curves from the simulations were compared with data from 55 recent liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. With these new correlations the simulation is able to predict the time to rewetting temperature and time to onset of nucleate boiling to within 25% for mass fluxes ranging from 61.2 to 1150 kg/(sq m s), inlet pressures from 175 to 817 kPa, and subcooled inlet temperatures from 0 to 14 K below the saturation temperature.

  15. Thermal dispersion in vertical gas-liquid flows with foaming and non-foaming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, L.R.Z.; Saez, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    Heat transfer experiments have been performed in gas-liquid upwards flow in a vertical column with non-foaming (water) and foaming (kerosene) liquids. The main purpose of the experiments has been to characterized the degree of thermal mixing in the system. For the range of conditions employed, the nonfoaming liquid exhibits complete mixing a low liquid superficial velocities. An increased in liquid velocity leads to incomplete mixing. In the latter case, the thermal dispersion coefficient at low gas superficial velocities is larger than what correlations in the literature predict. For the foaming liquid, when foaming and bubbling regions coexist in the bubble column, each region behaves as a completely-mixed subsystem.

  16. Wicking and flooding of liquids on vertical porous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-03-01

    When one brings a wet paintbrush into contact with a vertical watercolor paper, the paint may wick into the porous sheet completely or run down to ruin the art. We study a simple model of this spreading dynamics of liquids on hydrophilic porous sheets under the effects of gravity, using a capillary as a liquid source and thin fabrics of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate. Upon finding the maximum flow rate, Qw, that can be absorbed into the fabric, we show that the model can be used to obtain an estimate of the in-plane permeability of fabrics in a simpler manner than the conventional schemes. The shape of a wetting area that grows when the flow rate exceeds Qw to lead to rivulet formation is also theoretically given. The nose shape of the wetting front is shown to be time-invariant, while its profile depends on the properties of the liquid and the fabric. This study can be applied to understand and improve the liquid absorption behavior of hygiene items, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning equipments, and fuel cell membranes in addition to elucidating the mundane painting activity.

  17. Fast Switching of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Cells with Liquid Crystalline Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Woo, Hwa Sung; Shin, Sung Tae; Souk, Jun Hyung

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on the electro-optic characteristics of vertical alignment (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks. Optical bouncing, that occurs during the turn-on of VA cells, can be eliminated by introducing in-cell polymer networks. Furthermore, the turn-off also becomes much faster because of the anchoring effect caused by the anisotropy in the molecular shape of the liquid crystalline polymers. These response times have been found to vary for different LC/prepolymer mixtures. When the concentration of the liquid crystalline prepolymer in the initial LC/prepolymer mixture was 3, 5, or 10 wt %, the response times were measured to be 34, 56, and 87% faster than those of a VA cell with pure LC. These switching behaviors of VA cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks are demonstrated and compared with those using pure LC and with polymer networks made of isotropic prepolymers.

  18. Optical characterization of tissue mimicking phantoms by a vertical double integrating sphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yilin; Jia, Qiumin; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Guo, Yuwei; Zhou, Ximing; Chu, Jiaru; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Erbao; Allen, David W.; Lemaillet, Paul; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Accurate characterization of absorption and scattering properties for biologic tissue and tissue-simulating materials enables 3D printing of traceable tissue-simulating phantoms for medical spectral device calibration and standardized medical optical imaging. Conventional double integrating sphere systems have several limitations and are suboptimal for optical characterization of liquid and soft materials used in 3D printing. We propose a vertical double integrating sphere system and the associated reconstruction algorithms for optical characterization of phantom materials that simulate different human tissue components. The system characterizes absorption and scattering properties of liquid and solid phantom materials in an operating wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. Absorption and scattering properties of the phantoms are adjusted by adding titanium dioxide powder and India ink, respectively. Different material compositions are added in the phantoms and characterized by the vertical double integrating sphere system in order to simulate the human tissue properties. Our test results suggest that the vertical integrating sphere system is able to characterize optical properties of tissue-simulating phantoms without precipitation effect of the liquid samples or wrinkling effect of the soft phantoms during the optical measurement.

  19. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  20. Dynamic wetting of a liquid film in a vertical hydrophobic tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigeonneau, Franck; Hayoun, Pascaline; Barthel, Etienne; Lequeux, Francois; Verneuil, Emilie; Letailleur, Alban; Teisseire, Jeremie; Saint-Gobain Recherche Collaboration; Espci-Physico-Chimie Des Polymeres Et Milieux Disperses Collaboration; Surface Du Verre Et Interfaces Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The drop of a liquid plug through a tube occurs for instance in vending machine. In such a system, the fouling is linked to the creation of the liquid film at the rear of the liquid plug. Consequently, the conditions leading to the film creation are important to know. We study numerically the dynamic wetting transition of a liquid plug undergoing gravity on hydrophobic surface in a vertical tube. Using a lubrication theory, the liquid film thickness obeys the mass conservation equation with a volume flow rate depending on the relative motion of the tube, capillary and gravity forces. An ad hoc friction at the triple line is used to take into account the wetting dynamics. The lubrication equation is solved using a finite difference technique in space and a time integrator for stiff system with an adaptive time step. The numerical results are compared to experimental data. The complex film morphology due to the transients and the critical slowing down at the dynamic transition are reproduced. However, several experimental features are not predicted numerically especially the width of the transition. Our preliminary calculations suggest that the dispersion relation of the liquid film mode can explain the discrepancy.

  1. A Vertically Integrated Manpower Management Model for Military Veterinary Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR MILITARY VETERINARY SERVICES 12 PERSONAL AUWOR(S)a ThTomas a anzaro 1~T1P OF RPORT13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (YearMonth, Dy...identify by block number) This study was conducted to develop a model for vertically integrating the existing military Veterinary Service manpower...management systems. Current manpower databases were examined and integrated into a proposed manpower management model . The advantages and disadvantages

  2. Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in…

  3. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  4. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  5. A vertically integrated Ka-band phased array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, R. R.; Lee, R. Q.; Martzaklis, K. S.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Downey, A. N.; Simons, R.

    1992-01-01

    The design, development, and experimental demonstration of a small phased array antenna suitable for applications on communications satellites are discussed. Each of the vertical layers was optimized for performance, and MMICs on custom carriers were characterized prior to insertion. A vertical integration architecture is used which minimizes the size of the array with its associated beamforming network (BFN). The antenna features a four-element linear microstrip array that uses aperture coupling of the antenna elements to the BFN; a modified Wilkinson power divider BFN; and 32 Ghz, 4-bit MMIC phase shifters on customized alumina carriers. Performance data are presented for all components, and far-field antenna radiation patterns are given.

  6. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  7. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  8. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Panajotov, K.; Neyts, K.

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a technology to integrate a thin layer of liquid crystal (LC) on top of a Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser (VCSEL). Based on this technology, we demonstrate VCSELs with a chiral liquid crystal (CLC) layer, which acts as a tuneable mirror. The reflection properties of the CLC layer are controlled by temperature. Next we demonstrate VCSEL devices with tuneable external cavity using a nematic LC layer incorporated with an additional dielectric mirror (SiO2/Ta2O5). The VCSEL and the LC layer can be electrically driven independently and the optical length in the external cavity can be tuned by the applied voltage on the LC layer. In both configurations we show that the emission properties of the VCSEL can be changed, in terms of emission wavelength, polarization state and/or lasing threshold.

  9. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

  10. Changes in Quality of Health Care Delivery after Vertical Integration

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Caroline S; Dowd, Bryan; Feldman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To fill an empirical gap in the literature by examining changes in quality of care measures occurring when multispecialty clinic systems were acquired by hospital-owned, vertically integrated health care delivery systems in the Twin Cities area. Data Sources/Study Setting Administrative data for health plan enrollees attributed to treatment and control clinic systems, merged with U.S. Census data. Study Design We compared changes in quality measures for health plan enrollees in the acquired clinics to enrollees in nine control groups using a differences-in-differences model. Our dataset spans 2 years prior to and 4 years after the acquisitions. We estimated probit models with errors clustered within enrollees. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were assembled by the health plan’s informatics team. Principal Findings Vertical integration is associated with increased rates of colorectal and cervical cancer screening and more appropriate emergency department use. The probability of ambulatory care–sensitive admissions increased when the acquisition caused disruption in admitting patterns. Conclusions Moving a clinic system into a vertically integrated delivery system resulted in limited increases in quality of care indicators. Caution is warranted when the acquisition causes disruption in referral patterns. PMID:25529312

  11. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  12. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  13. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  14. Reduced equations of motion of the interface of dielectric liquids in vertical electric and gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochurin, Evgeny A.; Zubarev, Nikolay M.

    2012-07-01

    The dynamics of the interface between two dielectric fluids in the presence of vertical electric and gravitational fields is studied theoretically. It is shown that, in the particular case where the rate of change of the electric field is proportional to the effective gravitational acceleration, a special flow regime can be realized for which the velocity and electric potentials are linearly dependent functions. This means that there exists a frame of reference in which liquids move along the electric field lines. We derive and analyze the corresponding reduced equations of motion of a liquid-liquid interface. For small density ratio, they turn into the equations describing the Laplacian growth. In the case of two spatial dimensions, we show that these equations determine the asymptotic behavior of the system. For arbitrary density ratios, the Laplacian growth equations adequately describe the initial (weakly nonlinear) stage of the interface instability development. The integrability of these equations makes it possible to investigate the evolution of nonlinear waves at the boundary and, in particular, to demonstrate the tendency to the formation of singularities (cusps).

  15. Community assessment in a vertically integrated health care system.

    PubMed Central

    Plescia, M; Koontz, S; Laurent, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this report, the authors present a representative case of the implementation of community assessment and the subsequent application of findings by a large, vertically integrated health care system. METHODS: Geographic information systems technology was used to access and analyze secondary data for a geographically defined community. Primary data included a community survey and asset maps. RESULTS: In this case presentation, information has been collected on demographics, prevalent health problems, access to health care, citizens' perceptions, and community assets. The assessment has been used to plan services for a new health center and to engage community members in health promotion interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Geographically focused assessments help target specific community needs and promote community participation. This project provides a practical application for integrating aspects of medicine and public health. PMID:11344895

  16. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  17. Design and fabrication of vertically-integrated CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors.

  18. Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2008-11-01

    A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.

  19. Vertical III-V nanowire device integration on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Borg, Mattias; Schmid, Heinz; Moselund, Kirsten E; Signorello, Giorgio; Gignac, Lynne; Bruley, John; Breslin, Chris; Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Werner, Peter; Riel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    We report complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration of compound semiconductors on Si substrates. InAs and GaAs nanowires are selectively grown in vertical SiO2 nanotube templates fabricated on Si substrates of varying crystallographic orientations, including nanocrystalline Si. The nanowires investigated are epitaxially grown, single-crystalline, free from threading dislocations, and with an orientation and dimension directly given by the shape of the template. GaAs nanowires exhibit stable photoluminescence at room temperature, with a higher measured intensity when still surrounded by the template. Si-InAs heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes were fabricated on Si(100) and are electrically characterized. The results indicate a high uniformity and scalability in the fabrication process.

  20. Vertically integrated circuit development at Fermilab for detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarema, R.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Khalid, F.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Trimpl, M.; Zimmerman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Today vertically integrated circuits, (a.k.a. 3D integrated circuits) is a popular topic in many trade journals. The many advantages of these circuits have been described such as higher speed due to shorter trace lenghts, the ability to reduce cross talk by placing analog and digital circuits on different levels, higher circuit density without the going to smaller feature sizes, lower interconnect capacitance leading to lower power, reduced chip size, and different processing for the various layers to optimize performance. There are some added advantages specifically for MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) in High Energy Physics: four side buttable pixel arrays, 100% diode fill factor, the ability to move PMOS transistors out of the diode sensing layer, and a increase in channel density. Fermilab began investigating 3D circuits in 2006. Many different bonding processes have been described for fabricating 3D circuits [1]. Fermilab has used three different processes to fabricate several circuits for specific applications in High Energy Physics and X-ray imaging. This paper covers some of the early 3D work at Fermilab and then moves to more recent activities. The major processes we have used are discussed and some of the problems encountered are described. An overview of pertinent 3D circuit designs is presented along with test results thus far.

  1. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  2. Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

    2011-01-01

    Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer

  3. A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

  4. Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.

    2007-07-15

    Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

  5. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  6. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Robert P.; Esherick, Peter; Jewell, Jack L.; Lear, Kevin L.; Olbright, Gregory R.

    1997-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

  7. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  8. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian; Ryan, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) on integrated power and propulsion for advanced human exploration. Specifically, it will present findings of the integrated design, testing, and operational challenges of a liquid oxygen / liquid methane (LOx/LCH4) propulsion brassboard and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. Human-Mars architectures point to an oxygen-methane economy utilizing common commodities, scavenged from the planetary atmosphere and soil via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and common commodities across sub-systems. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth) increasing commonality between spacecraft subsystems such as power and propulsion can result in tremendous launch mass and volume savings. Historically, propulsion and fuel cell power subsystems have had little interaction outside of the generation (fuel cell) and consumption (propulsion) of electrical power. This was largely due to a mismatch in preferred commodities (hypergolics for propulsion; oxygen & hydrogen for fuel cells). Although this stove-piped approach benefits from simplicity in the design process, it means each subsystem has its own tanks, pressurization system, fluid feed system, etc. increasing overall spacecraft mass and volume. A liquid oxygen / liquid methane commodities architecture across propulsion and power subsystems would enable the use of common tankage and associated pressurization and commodity delivery hardware for both. Furthermore, a spacecraft utilizing integrated power and propulsion could use propellant residuals - propellant which could not be expelled from the tank near depletion due to hydrodynamic considerations caused by large flow demands of a rocket engine - to generate power after all propulsive maneuvers are complete thus utilizing

  9. Launch site integration of Liquid Rocket Boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Leland P.; Dickinson, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The impacts of introducing Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRB) into the STS/KSC launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Pre-launch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated.

  10. Flow and temperature field measurements of thermal convection in a small vertical gap using liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiland, Hans Georg; Wozniak, Günter; Wozniak, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Thermal convection in a small vertical gap is studied experimentally applying digital particle image velocimetry/thermometry. This optical method enables the simultaneous measurement of two-dimensional flow and temperature fields in a liquid. The principle is based on seeding the liquid flow medium with thermochromic liquid crystal particles. The temperature is measured by the crystal particles which change their reflected colour as function of temperature. The flow velocity is measured by using the same particles as flow tracers. The investigation shall contribute to the understanding of the fluid mechanical behaviour of biological liquids within micro reactor systems. However, the problem is also of fundamental interest as far as heat and mass transfer is concerned. Measured temperature and flow velocity fields are presented and discussed.

  11. Flow behaviour and transitions in surfactant-laden gas-liquid vertical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Chakraborty, Sourojeet; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the effect of surfactant additives on vertical gas-liquid counter-current pipe flows. Two experimental campaigns were undertaken, one with water and one with a light oil (Exxsol D80) as the liquid phase; in both cases air was used as the gaseous phase. Suitable surfactants were added to the liquid phase up to the critical micelle concentration (CMC); measurements in the absence of additives were also taken, for benchmarking. The experiments were performed in a 32-mm bore and 5-m long vertical pipe, over a range of superficial velocities (liquid: 1 to 7 m/s, gas: 1 to 44 m/s). High-speed axial- and side-view imaging was performed at different lengths along the pipe, together with pressure drop measurements. Flow regime maps were then obtained describing the observed flow behaviour and related phenomena, i.e., downwards/upwards annular flow, flooding, bridging, gas/liquid entrainment, oscillatory film flow, standing waves, climbing films, churn flow and dryout. Comparisons of the air-water and oil-water results will be presented and discussed, along with the role of the surfactants in affecting overall and detailed flow behaviour and transitions; in particular, a possible mechanism underlying the phenomenon of flooding will be presented. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  12. Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V{sub o} in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V{sup *}(=V/V{sub o}), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V{sup *} decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction {epsilon} of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V{sup *} and {epsilon} is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid.

  13. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  14. Spatio-temporal evolution of interfacial instabilities in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Valluri, Prashant; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    Vertical gas-liquid flows are characteristic for process engineering and widely employed in various technical applications. However, the dynamic behaviour of the liquid interface in such flows is still not fully understood. We focus in our work on characterising the interfacial instability as well as associated interfacial waves in vertical laminar-laminar gas-liquid flows over a wide range of parameters covering different flow regimes, i.e. counter-current, zero-interface velocity (loading) and partial-to-full liquid flow reversal (flooding). High-resolution direct numerical simulations using the TPLS flow solver (http://sourceforge.net/projects/tpls/) reveal the existence of weakly nonlinear interfacial waves, which are in good agreement with Stuart-Landau theory. These waves travel down- or upstream, depending on the flow regime. Furthermore, spatio-temporal linear stability analysis indicates the occurrence of absolute instability within the investigated parameter range. DNS is used to analyse this feature in more detail whereby agreement with linear theory has been established.

  15. Monolithically integrated self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical coupler for three-dimensional photonic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.

  16. Monolithically integrated self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical coupler for three-dimensional photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-07-20

    We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.

  17. Three-dimensional dynamics of thin liquid films on vertical cylinders with Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zijing; Wong, Teck Neng

    2017-01-01

    The effects of thermocapillary force on the three dimensional dynamics of thin liquid films flowing down a uniformly heated vertical cylinder are investigated using a thin film model. Linear and nonlinear analyses predict the existence of a non-axisymmetric mode due to the Marangoni effect. Symmetry-breaking of axisymmetric steady traveling waves is observed when the Marangoni number exceeds a critical value. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that the steady traveling wave can be unstable to azimuthal disturbances due to the Marangoni effect, leading to the formation of non-axisymmetric patterns.

  18. SLID-ICV Vertical Integration Technology for the ATLAS Pixel Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    We present the results of the characterization of pixel modules composed of 75 μm thick n-in-p sensors and ATLAS FE-I3 chips, interconnected with the SLID (Solid Liquid Inter-Diffusion) technology. This technique, developed at Fraunhofer-EMFT, is explored as an alternative to the bump-bonding process. These modules have been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a very compact detector to be employed in the future ATLAS pixel upgrades, making use of vertical integration technologies. This module concept also envisages Inter-Chip-Vias (ICV) to extract the signals from the backside of the chips, thereby achieving a higher fraction of active area with respect to the present pixel module design. In the case of the demonstrator module, ICVs are etched over the original wire bonding pads of the FE-I3 chip. In the modules with ICVs the FE-I3 chips will be thinned down to 50 um. The status of the ICV preparation is presented.

  19. Liquid drops on vertical and inclined surfaces; I. An experimental study of drop geometry.

    PubMed

    ElSherbini, A I; Jacobi, A M

    2004-05-15

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the geometric parameters necessary to describe the shapes of liquid drops on vertical and inclined plane surfaces. Two liquids and eight surfaces have been used to study contact angles, contact lines, profiles, and volumes of drops of different sizes for a range of surface conditions. The results show the contact-angle variation along the circumference of a drop to be best fit by a third-degree polynomial in the azimuthal angle. This contact-angle function is expressed in terms of the maximum and minimum contact angles of the drop, which are determined for various conditions. The maximum contact angle, thetamax, is approximately equal to the advancing contact angle, thetaA, of the liquid on the surface. As the Bond number, Bo, increases from 0 to a maximum, the minimum contact angle, thetamin, decreases almost linearly from the advancing to the receding angle. A general relation is found between thetamin/thetaA and Bo for different liquid-surface combinations. The drop contour can be described by an ellipse, with the aspect ratio increasing with Bo. These experimental results are valuable in modeling drop shape, as presented in Part II of this work.

  20. Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured.

  1. Liquid film condensation along a vertical surface in a thin porous medium with large anisotropic permeability.

    PubMed

    Sanya, Arthur S O; Akowanou, Christian; Sanya, Emile A; Degan, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The problems of steady film condensation on a vertical surface embedded in a thin porous medium with anisotropic permeability filled with pure saturated vapour are studied analytically by using the Brinkman-Darcy flow model. The principal axes of anisotropic permeability are oriented in a direction that non-coincident with the gravity force. On the basis of the flow permeability tensor due to the anisotropic properties and the Brinkman-Darcy flow model adopted by considering negligible macroscopic and microscopic inertial terms, boundary-layer approximations in the porous liquid film momentum equation is solved analytically. Scale analysis is applied to predict the order-of-magnitudes involved in the boundary layer regime. The first novel contribution in the mathematics consists in the use of the anisotropic permeability tensor inside the expression of the mathematical formulation of the film condensation problem along a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium. The present analytical study reveals that the anisotropic permeability properties have a strong influence on the liquid film thickness, condensate mass flow rate and surface heat transfer rate. The comparison between thin and thick porous media is also presented.

  2. Liquid entrainment at an upward oriented vertical branch line from a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, Kent Byron

    Under simulated accident conditions, tees in the primary coolant loop of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) can deviate from their original design purpose and become separators that effectively remove core heat sink capacity. This method of primary coolant removal is a phenomenological subset of phase separation known as liquid entrainment, whereby liquid is forced from its original path by the inertia of the gas. A comprehensive literature review revealed common deficiencies in previous studies. The Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design was chosen to assess the validity of entrainment models. Following a systematic scaling analysis of the prototypic design a model separate effects test was proposed and constructed at Oregon State University. Just under 100 tests were run to fill the deficiencies found in the literature review. New data from the Air-water Test Loop for Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Studies (ATLATS) could not be predicted by published correlations. A new theoretical model for predicting liquid entrainment onset and steady state entrainment was developed. Comparison with all available data shows a marked improvement for predicting the mass flow rate out the vertical branch.

  3. Hotspot Liquid Microfluidic Cooling: Comparing The Efficiency between Horizontal Flow and Vertical Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yuki; Ryoson, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Koji; Honjo, Keiji; Ohba, Takayuki; Mita, Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a novel cooling method for a local high-temperature block in an integrated circuit, which is called a “hotspot”. The method is to cool the chip in out-of-plane (3-D) direction to overcome efficiency limit of traditional horizontal (2-D) cooling. Our result indicates that high-temperature (over 180 °C) circuit block such as a phase-locked-loop (PLL), which is a performance limiting block in a modern CPU, can more efficiently be cooled by the vertical (3-D) cooling scheme.

  4. The integrated cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yinong; Liu, EnGuang; Jiang, Zhenhua; Yang, Baoyu; Mu, Yongbin

    2016-05-01

    The cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite includes a Stirling cryocooler, a radiant cooler, a cryogenic heat pipe and some flexible thermal links as well. These cryogenic elements were integrated together in order to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity with high efficiency and high reliability. This paper summarizes the cryogenic integration design, technical challenges, and the results of thermal and performance testing.

  5. VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

  6. Mergers, networking, and vertical integration: managed care and investor-owned hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    This article links the forces of managed care and investor-owned firms as major factors driving the industry toward consolidation into vertically integrated, merged firms, often financed with investor capital. This relentless pressure to build regional systems of health services has transformed the industry from a charitable, community orientation to one of business, market shares, and profits.

  7. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  8. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  9. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  10. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has...

  11. Vertical and Horizontal Integration of Laboratory Curricula and Course Projects across the Electronic Engineering Technology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Wei; Goulart, Ana; Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the details of the curricular development effort with a focus on the vertical and horizontal integration of laboratory curricula and course projects within the Electronic Engineering Technology (EET) program at Texas A&M University. Both software and hardware aspects are addressed. A common set of software tools are…

  12. Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

  13. Natural convection experiments in a liquid-saturated porous medium bounded by vertical coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental effort is presently underway to investigate natural convection phenomena in liquid-saturated porous media utilizing a geometry, and hydrodynamic/thermal boundary conditions, relevant to the problem of nuclear-waste isolation in geologic repositories. During the first phase of this research program, detailed measurements were made of the steady-state thermal field throughout an annular test region bounded by a vertical, constant-heat-flux, inner cylinder and a concentrically-placed, constant-temperature, outer cylinder. An overlying, constant-pressure, fluid layer was utilized to supply a permeable upper surface boundary condition. Results showed the heater surface temperature to increase with increasing vertical distance due to the presence of a buoyantly-driven upflow. The measured temperature difference (..delta..T) between the average heater surface temperature and the constant, outer-surface, temperature was found to be progressively below the straight-line/conduction-only solution for ..delta..T vs power input as the latter was systematically increased. Comparisons between measured results and numerical predictions generated with the finite-element code MARIAH showed very good agreement, thereby contributing to the qualification of this code for repository-design applications.

  14. Vertical phase separation and liquid-liquid dewetting of thin PS/PCL blend films during spin coating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Yang, Jinghui; Wang, Qi; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Thin films of an amorphous polymer, polystyrene (PS), and a crystalline polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), blend were prepared by spin coating a toluene solution. Surface chemical compositions of the blend films were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the surface and interface topographical changes were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By changing the PS concentration and keeping the PCL concentration of the solution at 1 wt %, a great variety of morphologies were constructed. The results show that the morphology of the blend films can be divided into three regions with increasing PS concentration. In region I, PS island domains are embedded in PCL crystals when the PS concentration is lower than 0.3 wt % and the size of the PS island increases with increasing PS concentration. In region II, holes with different sizes surrounded by a low rim are obtained when the concentration of PS is between 0.35 and 0.5 wt %. After selectively washing the PS domains, we studied the interface morphology of PS/PCL and found that the upper PS-rich layer extended into the bottom PCL layer, forming a trench surrounding the holes. In region III, an enriched two-layer structure with the PS-rich layer on top of the blend films and the PCL-rich crystal layer underneath is obtained when the concentration of PS is higher than 0.5 wt %. Last, the formation mechanism of the different surface and interface morphologies is further discussed in terms of the vertical phase separation to a layered structure, followed by liquid-liquid dewetting and crystallization processes during spin coating.

  15. Integration of diffractive lenses with addressable vertical-cavity laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.E.; Du, T.C.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Carson, R.F.; Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P.; Zolper, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    An optical interconnection system is being developed to provide vertical, digital data channels for stacked multichip modules. A key component of the system is an array of individually addressable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with diffractive lenses integrated into the substrate to control beam divergence and direction. The lenses were fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching into the GaAs substrate. Preliminary device performance data and the design and fabrication issues are discussed.

  16. A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasen, B.; Verhaeghe, F.; Blanpain, B.; Fransaer, J.

    2014-01-01

    High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent.

  17. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus from ischemic origin: evidence for the paramedian tract neurons as a vertical neural integrator?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhang-Ning; Li, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Gao-Ting; Zhu, Mei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Only a few cases with unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia have been reported presenting vertical nystagmus, and few of them provides convincing evidence for the paramedian tract neuron to be a vertical neural integrator. We report a patient who suffered from confined dorsal mid-upper pontine infarction showing unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus in primary position. This case possibly provide evidence that paramedian tract neurons may act as a vertical neural integrator in human. PMID:26550407

  18. Vertical chip-to-chip coupling between silicon photonic integrated circuits using cantilever couplers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Reano, Ronald M

    2011-02-28

    We demonstrate vertical chip-to-chip light coupling using silicon strip waveguide cantilever couplers. The guided-wave couplers consist of silicon strip waveguides embedded within silicon dioxide cantilevers. The cantilevers deflect 90° out-of-plane via residual stress, allowing vertical light coupling between separate chips. A chip-to-chip coupling loss of 2.5 dB per connection is measured for TE polarization and 1.1 dB for TM polarization at 1550 nm wavelength. The coupling loss varies by less than±0.8 dB within the wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1565 nm for both polarizations. The couplers enable broadband and compact system architectures involving high speed vertical data transport between photonic integrated circuits.

  19. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  20. A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

    2014-07-23

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity.

  1. Interaction of surface water waves with a vertical elastic plate: a hypersingular integral equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Rumpa; Mondal, Arpita; Gayen, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an alternative method to investigate scattering of water waves by a submerged thin vertical elastic plate in the context of linear theory. The plate is submerged either in deep water or in the water of uniform finite depth. Using the condition on the plate, together with the end conditions, the derivative of the velocity potential in the direction of normal to the plate is expressed in terms of a Green's function. This expression is compared with that obtained by employing Green's integral theorem to the scattered velocity potential and the Green's function for the fluid region. This produces a hypersingular integral equation of the first kind in the difference in potential across the plate. The reflection coefficients are computed using the solution of the hypersingular integral equation. We find good agreement when the results for these quantities are compared with those for a vertical elastic plate and submerged and partially immersed rigid plates. New results for the hydrodynamic force on the plate, the shear stress and the shear strain of the vertical elastic plate are also evaluated and represented graphically.

  2. Vertical integration of biochemistry and clinical medicine using a near-peer learning model.

    PubMed

    Gallan, Alexander J; Offner, Gwynneth D; Symes, Karen

    2016-11-12

    Vertical integration has been extensively implemented across medical school curricula but has not been widely attempted in the field of biochemistry. We describe a novel curricular innovation in which a near-peer learning model was used to implement vertical integration in our medical school biochemistry course. Senior medical students developed and facilitated a case-based small group session for first year biochemistry students. Students were surveyed before and after the session on their attitudes about biochemistry, as well as the effectiveness of the session. Prior to the session, the students believed biochemistry was more important to understanding the basic science of medicine than it was to understanding clinical medicine or becoming a good physician. The session improved students' attitudes about the importance of biochemistry in clinical medicine, and after the session they now believe that understanding biochemistry is equally important to the basic sciences as clinical medicine. Students would like more sessions and believe the senior student facilitators were knowledgeable and effective teachers. The facilitators believe they improved their teaching skills. This novel combination of near-peer learning and vertical integration in biochemistry provided great benefit to both first year and senior medical students, and can serve as a model for other institutions. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):507-516, 2016.

  3. Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2013-03-01

    Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

  4. Synthesis and crystal growth of Mg2Si by the liquid encapsulated vertical gradient freezing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Reo; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of Mg2Si bulk crystals was performed by the vertical gradient freezing method using a KCl-MgCl2 eutectic liquid encapsulant. Stoichiometric polycrystalline Mg2Si bulk crystals were successfully grown by changing the composition ratio of starting Mg and Si powders (Mg/Si) from 2.0 to 3.5. A chemical reaction between Mg2Si and the crucible materials was inhibited using encapsulant materials, and the contamination by K or Cl originating from the encapsulant materials was not detected in almost all the samples. However, Mg evaporation could not be prevented completely during the synthesis and crystal growth. The optical band-gap energy of Mg2Si bulk crystals became minimal (0.79 eV) at a Mg/Si ratio of 2.5, at which the maximum electron mobility of 202 cm2·V-1·s-1 was obtained. These results indicate that the composition ratio of Mg/Si = 2.5 for starting Mg and Si powders was optimal for synthesizing Mg2Si bulk crystals with high crystalline quality.

  5. Implementing vertical and horizontal engineering students' integration and assessment of consequence academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-08-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to vertical and horizontal integration. Different activities have been embedded to ensure that students integrated and worked together with their peers and colleagues at different levels. The implemented processes and practices led to improved academic achievements, which were better than those of a similar cohort of students where no effort had been made to integrate. The analysis revealed that cooperative learning and the degree of academic support provided by teachers are positively and directly correlated with academic as well as the students' own sense of personal achievement. The results are discussed in light of previous research and with reference to the cultural context of the study.

  6. Monolithic integration of high-Q wedge resonators with vertically coupled waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Prtljaga, Nikola; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pucker, Georg; Ghulinyan, Mher

    2013-05-01

    Typical UHQ resonators, microspheres and microtoroids, lack the possibility of integration into lightwave circuits due to their planarity constrains. In this context, CMOS-compatible alternatives in the form of wedge resonators have been proposed. However, the mode retraction from the wedge cavity inhibits the possibility to side couple with integrated waveguides and therefore, halts the full integration within a planar lightwave circuit. In this work, we propose and demonstrate experimentally the complete integration of wedge resonators with vertically coupled dielectric bus waveguides. This coupling scheme permits to use arbitrary gaps, geometries and materials, enables simplified and precise control of the light injection into the cavity and opens the door to an industrial mass-fabrication of UHQ resonators.

  7. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  8. Integrated numerical prediction of atomization process of liquid hydrogen jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Ohira, Katsuhide; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Chitose, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    The 3-D structure of the liquid atomization behavior of an LH jet flow through a pinhole nozzle is numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. The present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis focuses on the thermodynamic effect on the consecutive breakup of a cryogenic liquid column, the formation of a liquid film, and the generation of droplets in the outlet section of the pinhole nozzle. Utilizing the governing equations for a high-speed turbulent cryogenic jet flow through a pinhole nozzle based on the thermal nonequilibrium LES-VOF model in conjunction with the CSF model, an integrated parallel computation is performed to clarify the detailed atomization process of a high-speed LH2 jet flow through a pinhole nozzle and to acquire data, which is difficult to confirm by experiment, such as atomization length, liquid core shape, droplet-size distribution, spray angle, droplet velocity profiles, and thermal field surrounding the atomizing jet flow. According to the present computation, the cryogenic atomization rate and the LH2 droplets-gas two-phase flow characteristics are found to be controlled by the turbulence perturbation upstream of the pinhole nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface and shear stress between the liquid core and the periphery of the LH2 jet. Furthermore, calculation of the effect of cryogenic atomization on the jet thermal field shows that such atomization extensively enhances the thermal diffusion surrounding the LH2 jet flow.

  9. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with in-plane waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Scherer, Axel; Pickrell, Gregory; Louderback, Duane; Guilfoyle, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The ability to couple light from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser into a planar, on-chip waveguide creates new opportunities for achieving higher levels of integration and functionality. Here we propose to use a strong grating etched into a waveguide defined into the top layer of the epitaxially grown structure, so that epitaxial regrowth is not required. By introducing a defect mode into the cavity we were able to achieve a 40% coupling efficiency even though light is coupled through a ninety degrees bend. We also show that polarization control of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is enhanced by coupling to the defect mode. Calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  10. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the

  11. Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Xu, Liwei

    2010-07-06

    An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

  12. Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

  13. Experimental investigation of inclined liquid water jet flow onto vertically located superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibar, Ali; Karabay, Hasan; Yiğit, K. Süleyman; Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yıldırım

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the behaviour of an inclined water jet, which is impinged onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, has been investigated experimentally. Water jet was impinged with different inclination angles (15°-45°) onto five different hydrophobic surfaces made of rough polymer, which were held vertically. The water contact angles on these surfaces were measured as 102°, 112°, 123°, 145° and 167° showing that the last surface was superhydrophobic. Two different nozzles with 1.75 and 4 mm in diameters were used to create the water jet. Water jet velocity was within the range of 0.5-5 m/s, thus the Weber number varied from 5 to 650 and Reynolds number from 500 to 8,000 during the experiments. Hydrophobic surfaces reflected the liquid jet depending on the surface contact angle, jet inclination angle and the Weber number. The variation of the reflection angle with the Weber number showed a maximum value for a constant jet angle. The maximum value of the reflection angle was nearly equal to half of the jet angle. It was determined that the viscous drag decreases as the contact angle of the hydrophobic surface increases. The drag force on the wall is reduced dramatically with superhydrophobic surfaces. The amount of reduction of the average shear stress on the wall was about 40%, when the contact angle of the surface was increased from 145° to 167°. The area of the spreading water layer decreased as the contact angle of the surface increased and as the jet inclination angle, Weber number and Reynolds number decreased.

  14. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beimforde, M.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2010-12-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm-2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  15. Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics.

    PubMed

    Kieu, K; Schneebeli, L; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2012-03-26

    We have developed a novel integrated platform for liquid photonics based on liquid core optical fiber (LCOF). The platform is created by fusion splicing liquid core optical fiber to standard single-mode optical fiber making it fully integrated and practical - a major challenge that has greatly hindered progress in liquid-photonic applications. As an example, we report here the realization of ultralow threshold Raman generation using an integrated CS₂ filled LCOF pumped with sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The measured energy threshold for the Stokes generation is 1nJ, about three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values in the literature for hydrogen gas, a popular Raman medium. The integrated LCOF platform opens up new possibilities for ultralow power nonlinear optics such as efficient white light generation for displays, mid-IR generation, slow light generation, parametric amplification, all-optical switching and wavelength conversion using liquids that have orders of magnitude larger optical nonlinearities compared with silica glass.

  16. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  17. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  18. Incomplete vertical integration in the health care industry: pseudomarkets and pseudopolicies.

    PubMed

    Evans, R G

    1983-07-01

    Most economic relationships are either arm's-length exchange transactions, each party seeking his or her own interest, or command structures, such as a firm or public agency, integrating joint efforts toward a common goal. The health care industry, however, displays a pattern of incomplete vertical integration--relationships which are neither truly arm's-length nor completely hierarchical. The doctor-patient relationship is archetypical. Physicians appear to sell services in private markets; yet they reach through the exchange process to direct the consumer-patient's utilization decisions, implicity undertaking to act in the patient's interest, and thus integrate forward. But they also integrate backward to control the public regulatory process--self-government--and some forms of insurance. The health care systems of different countries--Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States--can be interpreted as different patterns of incomplete integration among five basic classes of transactors: consumer-patients, first-line providers, second-line providers, insurers, and governments. Each system of linkage has characteristic strengths and weaknesses. Nowhere, however, do we find a predominance of arm's-length market relationships. Where they exist, markets in health care are usually pseudomarkets dominated by one side of the transaction. The rhetoric of market relationships serves principally to obscure political struggles over shifting patterns of integration.

  19. Vertical integration of science, technology, and applications fiscal year 1989 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.J.

    1990-06-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) is an initiative developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective dissemination and use of research results, with emphasis on applying these results to environmental problems. VISTA is being supported at PNL by DOE. The goal of VISTA is to make research results (data, models, and advanced concepts) usable and available to users in the areas of hazardous waste management and global climate change to speed research and development applications and reduce the costs of solving the complex environmental problems facing DOE and the nation. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  1. Vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Eftekhar, Ali A; Sodagar, Majid; Xia, Zhixuan; Atabaki, Amir H; Adibi, Ali

    2013-07-29

    We demonstrate a vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into the silicon-on-insulator platform for applications at the telecommunication wavelengths. Low-loss silicon nitride films with a thickness of 400 nm are successfully grown, enabling compact silicon nitride microresonators with ultra-high intrinsic Qs (~ 6 × 10(6) for 60 μm radius and ~ 2 × 10(7) for 240 μm radius). The coupling between the silicon nitride microresonator and the underneath silicon waveguide is based on evanescent coupling with silicon dioxide as buffer. Selective coupling to a desired radial mode of the silicon nitride microresonator is also achievable using a pulley coupling scheme. In this work, a 60-μm-radius silicon nitride microresonator has been successfully integrated into the silicon-on-insulator platform, showing a single-mode operation with an intrinsic Q of 2 × 10(6).

  2. ACTRIS aerosol vertical profile data and observations: potentiality and first examples of integrated studies with models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Benedetti, Angela; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Schulz, Michael; Wandinger, Ulla; Laj, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    The ACTRIS-2 project, funded by Horizon 2020, addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases, capitalizing on the work of FP7-ACTRIS. It aims at achieving the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape for providing 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column) which are relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit the harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS secures provision and dissemination of a unique set of data and data-products that would not otherwise be available with the same level of quality and standardization. This results from a 10-year plus effort in constructing a research infrastructure capable of responding to community needs and requirements, and has been engaged since the start of the FP5 EU commission program. ACTRIS ensures compliance with reporting requirements (timing, format, traceability) defined by the major global observing networks. EARLINET (European Aerosol research Lidar NETwork), the aerosol vertical profiling component of ACTRIS, is providing since May 2000 vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter over Europe. A new structure of the EARLINET database has been designed in a more user oriented approach reporting new data products which are more effective for specific uses of different communities. In particular, a new era is starting with the Copernicus program during which the aerosol vertical profiling capability will be fundamental for assimilation and validation purposes. The new data products have been designed thanks to a strong link with EARLINET data users, first of all modeling and satellite communities, established since the beginning of EARLINET and re-enforced within ACTRIS2

  3. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  4. Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy via thermodynamic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-07-28

    A novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme is presented to compute the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy (γ{sub cl}) from molecular dynamics simulation. The scheme is applied to a Lennard-Jones system. By using extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls to confine the liquid and crystal phases, we overcome hysteresis problems of previous TI schemes that stem from the translational movement of the crystal-liquid interface. Our technique is applied to compute γ{sub cl} for the (100), (110), and (111) orientation of the crystalline phase at three temperatures under coexistence conditions. For one case, namely, the (100) interface at the temperature T = 1.0 (in reduced units), we demonstrate that finite-size scaling in the framework of capillary wave theory can be used to estimate γ{sub cl} in the thermodynamic limit. Thereby, we show that our TI scheme is not associated with the suppression of capillary wave fluctuations.

  5. The effect of junction modes between backbones and side chains of polyimides on the stability of liquid crystal vertical alignment.

    PubMed

    Che, Xinyuan; Gong, Shiming; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yinghan

    2016-02-07

    Polyimides (PI-N9 and PI-N12) were synthesized from two kinds of functional diamines, whose junction modes between backbones and side chains were different. Side chains of PI-N9 were linked to the backbones with an ether bond spacer; and side chains of PI-N12 were directly linked to the backbones without any spacer. The PI alignment layer surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy, surface free energy measurements, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and polarized attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. It was found that PI-N9 lost the vertical alignment capability after high-strength rubbing, while PI-N12 could still induce liquid crystals (LCs) to align vertically under the same condition. The mechanism of the macroscopic molecular orientation of the PI surface is proposed. During the high-strength rubbing process, the side chain could rotate around the flexible ether bond which existed between the side chain and the main chain of PI-N9 and then fell over. Therefore, PI-N9 could not induce the vertical alignment of LCs anymore. But PI-N12 could keep LCs aligning vertically all the time, which proved that the stability of LC alignment induced by PI-N12 was better.

  6. Multi-Scale Morphological Analysis of Conductance Signals in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Enyang; Ren, Yingyu; Han, Yunfeng; Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Zhao, Junying

    2016-11-01

    The multi-scale analysis is an important method for detecting nonlinear systems. In this study, we carry out experiments and measure the fluctuation signals from a rotating electric field conductance sensor with eight electrodes. We first use a recurrence plot to recognise flow patterns in vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase pipe flow from measured signals. Then we apply a multi-scale morphological analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot to investigate the signals captured from the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow loop test. We find that the invariant scaling exponent extracted from the multi-scale first-order difference scatter plot with the bisector of the second-fourth quadrant as the reference line is sensitive to the inhomogeneous distribution characteristics of the flow structure, and the variation trend of the exponent is helpful to understand the process of breakup and coalescence of the gas phase. In addition, we explore the dynamic mechanism influencing the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas phase in terms of adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation. The research indicates that the system energy is a factor influencing the distribution of the gas phase and the multi-scale morphological analysis based on the first-order difference scatter plot is an effective method for indicating the inhomogeneous distribution of the gas phase in gas-liquid two-phase flow.

  7. Difficulties in applying laser technique to measure drop sizes in vertical and inclined Annular gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Sohail H.

    1996-11-01

    Annular two phase flow is one of the most common regimes of gas/liquid flow found in industrial equipment. In this regime, the liquid flows in part as a film on the channel walls while the rest of the liquid is carried as drops by the gas flowing in the center of the channel. Detailed knowledge of the liquid drops particularly their sizes and velocities is essential in processes involving heat and mass transfer. This information is of great importance for the oil industry where inclined drilling has recently become a common practice. The effect of inclination on the drop sizes is still unknown and requires further investigation. Laser diffraction is one of the few available techniques which is widely used for the measurement of droplet size distribution. Although the technique is simple to use, it is not free from problems. This paper highlights the practical difficulties encountered when the technique was used to measure the drop size distribution in an inclinable flow column. The laser system was mounted on the rig and the flow column was rotated from vertical to horizontal position. Liquid drops appearing on the optical windows prohibited laser measurements. Other problems included the glass reflections and vibration when the rig was in operation. In this paper some practical suggestions have been made to overcome these problems and some useful results have been included.

  8. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  9. Study on effect of liquid level on the heat leak into vertical cryogenic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Rongshun; Wang, Caili

    2010-06-01

    The diminishing of heat leak into cryogenic vessels can prolong the storage time of cryogenic liquid. With the storage of cryogenic liquid reducing, the heat leak decreases, while the actual storage time increases. Compared with the theoretical analysis, the numerical simulation can more accurately calculate the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the vessel with complex structure. In this paper the steady state heat leak into cryogenic vessels with different liquid level height is analyzed using a finite element model. And liquid nitrogen boil-off method was adopted in experiments to validate the result of numerical simulation. Experimental results indicate favorable agreement with numerical simulation by ANSYS software. The effect of liquid level on heat leak into the cryogenic vessel can be considered in calculation of storage time and structure design.

  10. Encapsulation of graphene transistors and vertical device integration by interface engineering with atomic layer deposited oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Webber, Jack A.; Sagade, Abhay A.; Aria, Adrianus I.; Van Veldhoven, Zenas A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Wang, Ruizhi; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Sui, Jinggao; Connolly, Malcolm R.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple, scalable approach to achieve encapsulated graphene transistors with negligible gate hysteresis, low doping levels and enhanced mobility compared to as-fabricated devices. We engineer the interface between graphene and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 by tailoring the growth parameters to achieve effective device encapsulation whilst enabling the passivation of charge traps in the underlying gate dielectric. We relate the passivation of charge trap states in the vicinity of the graphene to conformal growth of ALD oxide governed by in situ gaseous H2O pretreatments. We demonstrate the long term stability of such encapsulation techniques and the resulting insensitivity towards additional lithography steps to enable vertical device integration of graphene for multi-stacked electronics fabrication.

  11. Plasmonic characteristics of two vertically coupled graphene-coated nanowires integrated with substrate.

    PubMed

    Hajati, Morteza; Hajati, Yaser

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the guiding properties of two vertically coupled cylindrical graphene-coated nanowires (GNWs) integrated with a thin high-index dielectric substrate. We show that the plasmonic properties of the proposed structure can be effectively modulated by changing the thickness of the dielectric substrate, the nanowire radius, the gap distance between the substrate and GNWs, and the Fermi level of graphene. Through optimizing the geometric and structural parameters, a surface plasmon mode with high optical performance and low propagation loss can be achieved in the studied structure. Compared with the plasmon mode guided in a single GNW over substrate, a highly improved figure of merit with nearly two-fold electric field enhancement can be yielded in the double GNW over substrate counterpart.

  12. Numerical investigation on boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube using bubble number density approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuefeng; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Rongshun

    2016-04-01

    An average bubble number density (ABND) model was formulated and numerically resolved for the subcooled flow boiling of liquid nitrogen. The effects of bubble coalescence and breakup were taken into account. Some new closure correlations describing bubble nucleation and departure on the heating surface were selected as well. For the purpose of comparison, flow boiling of liquid nitrogen was also numerically simulated using a modified two-fluid model. The results show that the simulations performed by using the ABND model achieve encouraging improvement in accuracy in predicting heat flux and wall temperature of a vertical tube. Moreover, the influence of the bubble coalescence and breakup is shown to be great on predicting overall pressure beyond the transition point.

  13. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer inside a vertical channel in evaporating a heated falling glycols liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nait Alla, Abderrahman; Feddaoui, M'barek; Meftah, Hicham

    2015-12-01

    The interactive effects of heat and mass transfer in the evaporation of ethylene and propylene glycol flowing as falling films on vertical channel was investigated. The liquid film falls along a left plate which is externally subjected to a uniform heat flux while the right plate is the dry wall and is kept thermally insulated. The model solves the coupled governing equations in both phases together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The systems of equations obtained by using an implicit finite difference method are solved by Tridiagonal Matrix Algorithm. The influence of the inlet liquid flow, Reynolds number in the gas flow and the wall heat flux on the intensity of heat and mass transfers are examined. A comparison between the results obtained for studied glycols and water in the same conditions is made. The results indicate that water evaporates in more intense way in comparison to glycols and the increase of gas flow rate tends to improve slightly the evaporation.

  14. Positioning for capitation in long-term care: a profile of vertical integration strategies in health and social service organizations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A M

    1998-01-01

    During the next decade, the population over age 65 is expected to increase by 11% while the population over age 85 is expected to increase by 42%. These projections suggest that many organizations which currently provide services to the aged will be required to design a range of new products and services for this diverse population. Vertically integrated services provide a viable opportunity to competitively position an organization to respond to the diverse needs of an aged market. Since vertical integration will be essential in negotiating capitate contracts for the aged in the future, this study examined the extent of vertical integration in 116 health and social service organizations in an urban market with an expanding geriatric population.

  15. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  16. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-07-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  17. Investigation and visualization of liquid-liquid flow in a vertically mounted Hele-Shaw cell: flow regimes, velocity and shape of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shad, S.; Gates, I. D.; Maini, B. B.

    2009-11-01

    The motion and shape of a liquid drop flowing within a continuous, conveying liquid phase in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell were investigated experimentally. The continuous phase was more viscous and wetted the bounding walls of the Hele-Shaw cell. The gap between the Hele-Shaw plates was set equal to 0.0226 cm. Four different flow regimes were observed: (a) small-droplet flow, (b) elongated-droplet flow, (c) churn flow and (d) channel flow. At low capillary number, that is, when capillary forces are larger than viscous forces, the droplet shape was irregular and changed with time and distance, and it moved with lower velocity than that of the conveying phase. At higher capillary number, several different shapes of stabilized elongated and flattened drops were observed. In contrast to gas-liquid systems, the velocities of droplets are higher than that of conveying liquid. New correlations derived from dimensionless analysis and fitted to the experimental data were generated to predict the elongated-drop velocity and aspect ratio.

  18. A vertically integrated geriatric curriculum improves medical student knowledge and clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.

  19. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

  20. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  1. Sensitivity of a mesoscale model to initial specification of relative humidity, liquid water and vertical motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.; Perkey, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of synoptic scale initial conditions on the accuracy of mesoscale precipitation modeling is investigated. Attention is focused on the relative importance of the water vapor, cloud water, rain water, and vertical motion, with the analysis carried out using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The fully moist primitive equation model has 15 levels and a terrain-following sigma coordinate system. A K-theory approach was implemented to model the planetary boundary layer. A total of 15 sensitivity simulations were run to investigate the effects of the synoptic initial conditions of the four atmospheric variables. The absence of synoptic cloud and rain water amounts in the initialization caused a 2 hr delay in the onset of precipitation. The delay was increased if synoptic-scale vertical motion was used instead of mesoscale values. Both the delays and a choice of a smoothed moisture field resulted in underestimations of the total rainfall.

  2. Vertical viewing angle enhancement for the 360  degree integral-floating display using an anamorphic optic system.

    PubMed

    Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Baasantseren, Ganbat; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Nam

    2014-04-15

    We propose a 360 degree integral-floating display with an enhanced vertical viewing angle. The system projects two-dimensional elemental image arrays via a high-speed digital micromirror device projector and reconstructs them into 3D perspectives with a lens array. Double floating lenses relate initial 3D perspectives to the center of a vertically curved convex mirror. The anamorphic optic system tailors the initial 3D perspectives horizontally and vertically disperse light rays more widely. By the proposed method, the entire 3D image provides both monocular and binocular depth cues, a full-parallax demonstration with high-angular ray density and an enhanced vertical viewing angle.

  3. Integrated bioprocess for conversion of gaseous substrates to liquids

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng; Chakraborty, Sagar; Kumar, Amit; Woolston, Benjamin; Liu, Hongjuan; Emerson, David; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently large scale for industrial fuel production. Here we introduce a new bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of coal, natural gas, or biomass, into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. We present an integrated conversion method comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures of gases of CO2 and CO or H2 to acetic acid, using the anaerobic acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. The acetic acid product is fed as a substrate to a second bioreactor, where it is converted aerobically into lipids by an engineered oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. We first describe the process carried out in each reactor and then present an integrated system that produces microbial oil, using synthesis gas as input. The integrated continuous bench-scale reactor system produced 18 g/L of C16-C18 triacylglycerides directly from synthesis gas, with an overall productivity of 0.19 g⋅L−1⋅h−1 and a lipid content of 36%. Although suboptimal relative to the performance of the individual reactor components, the presented integrated system demonstrates the feasibility of substantial net fixation of carbon dioxide and conversion of gaseous feedstocks to lipids for biodiesel production. The system can be further optimized to approach the performance of its individual units so that it can be used for the economical conversion of waste gases from steel mills to valuable liquid fuels for transportation. PMID:26951649

  4. Integrated bioprocess for conversion of gaseous substrates to liquids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Chakraborty, Sagar; Kumar, Amit; Woolston, Benjamin; Liu, Hongjuan; Emerson, David; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-04-05

    In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently large scale for industrial fuel production. Here we introduce a new bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of coal, natural gas, or biomass, into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. We present an integrated conversion method comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures of gases of CO2 and CO or H2 to acetic acid, using the anaerobic acetogen Moorella thermoacetica The acetic acid product is fed as a substrate to a second bioreactor, where it is converted aerobically into lipids by an engineered oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica We first describe the process carried out in each reactor and then present an integrated system that produces microbial oil, using synthesis gas as input. The integrated continuous bench-scale reactor system produced 18 g/L of C16-C18 triacylglycerides directly from synthesis gas, with an overall productivity of 0.19 g⋅L(-1)⋅h(-1) and a lipid content of 36%. Although suboptimal relative to the performance of the individual reactor components, the presented integrated system demonstrates the feasibility of substantial net fixation of carbon dioxide and conversion of gaseous feedstocks to lipids for biodiesel production. The system can be further optimized to approach the performance of its individual units so that it can be used for the economical conversion of waste gases from steel mills to valuable liquid fuels for transportation.

  5. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide

  6. Observing Nitrogen Bubbles in Liquid Zinc in a Vertical Hele-Shaw Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasen, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik; Blanpain, Bart; Fransaer, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Observations of gas bubbles in liquid metal are strongly hindered by the opacity of metals. To circumvent this limitation, the authors recently proposed to study such systems under quasi-2D flow conditions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The current paper presents a successful application of this approach for nitrogen bubbles in liquid zinc at 973 K (700 °C) in a fused quartz cell with a thickness of 1.5 mm. At low oxygen levels, the cell walls are not wetted by the liquid zinc, and bubbles can be observed directly through the transparent cell walls. Furthermore, using a moving high-speed camera that travels upwards with the bubbles, their properties are quantified in detail along the entire trajectory. In the range of equivalent diameters between 5.9 and 9.0 mm, this reveals a single periodic flow regime in which bubbles follow a sinusoidal path with a characteristic frequency of 3.31 Hz. In addition, systematic intermediate accelerations are observed of which the origin remains unexplained. Considering the unprecedented resolution of such observations for bubbles in liquid metals, especially at high temperatures, it is expected that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern gas injection in pyrometallurgy.

  7. Integrative Curriculum Development in Nuclear Education and Research Vertical Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Jow, Julius O.; Edwards, Matthew E.; Montgomery, V. Trent; James, Ralph B.; Blackburn, Noel D.; Glenn, Chance M.

    2015-07-01

    Using a vertical education enhancement model, a Nuclear Education and Research Vertical Enhancement (NERVE) program was developed. The NERVE program is aimed at developing nuclear engineering education and research to 1) enhance skilled workforce development in disciplines relevant to nuclear power, national security and medical physics, and 2) increase the number of students and faculty from underrepresented groups (women and minorities) in fields related to the nuclear industry. The program uses multi-track training activities that vertically cut across the several education domains: undergraduate degree programs, graduate schools, and post-doctoral training. In this paper, we present the results of an integrative curriculum development in the NERVE program. The curriculum development began with nuclear content infusion into existing science, engineering and technology courses. The second step involved the development of nuclear engineering courses: 1) Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 2) Nuclear Engineering I, and 2) Nuclear Engineering II. The third step is the establishment of nuclear engineering concentrations in two engineering degree programs: 1) electrical engineering, and 2) mechanical engineering. A major outcome of the NERVE program is a collaborative infrastructure that uses laboratory work, internships at nuclear facilities, on-campus research, and mentoring in collaboration with industry and government partners to provide hands-on training for students. The major activities of the research and education collaborations include: - One-week spring training workshop at Brookhaven National Laboratory: The one-week training and workshop is used to enhance research collaborations and train faculty and students on user facilities/equipment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and for summer research internships. Participants included students, faculty members at Alabama A and M University and research collaborators at BNL. The activities include 1) tour and

  8. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  9. Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPolin, Cillian P. T.; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien; Vilain, Sebastien; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Dickson, Wayne; O'Connor, Daniel; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Justice, John; Corbett, Brian; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-08-01

    Integrated plasmonic sources and detectors are imperative in the practical development of plasmonic circuitry for bio- and chemical sensing, nanoscale optical information processing, as well as transducers for high-density optical data storage. Here we show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals, when operated in forward or reverse bias, respectively. To this end, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton excitation, waveguiding, frequency conversion and detection on a VCSEL-based plasmonic platform. The coupling efficiency of the VCSEL emission to waveguided surface plasmon polariton modes has been optimized using asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures. The plasmonic VCSEL platform validated here is a viable solution for practical realizations of plasmonic functionalities for various applications, such as those requiring sub-wavelength field confinement, refractive index sensitivity or optical near-field transduction with electrically driven sources, thus enabling the realization of on-chip optical communication and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; He, Feng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-05-01

    Microbial nitrogen (N) removal pathways in planted (Canna indica L.) and unplanted integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems (IVCWs) were investigated. Results of, molecular biological and isotope pairing experiments showed that nitrifying, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria were distributed in both down-flow and up-flow columns of the IVCWs. Further, the N transforming bacteria in the planted IVCWs were significantly higher than that in the unplanted ones (p<0.05). Moreover, the potential nitrification, anammox, and denitrification rates were highest (18.90, 11.75, and 7.84nmolNg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in the down-flow column of the planted IVCWs. Significant correlations between these potential rates and the absolute abundance of N transformation genes further confirmed the existence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) processes in the IVCWs. The anammox process was the major N removal pathway (55.6-60.0%) in the IVCWs. The results will further our understanding of the microbial N removal mechanisms in IVCWs.

  11. An integrated model of substrate clogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hua, G F; Li, L; Zhao, Y Q; Zhu, W; Shen, J Q

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents an integrated model of substrate clogging in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW). The model simulates the reduction of pore space in the wetland substrate due to combined influences of various physical, biogeochemical and plant-related processes. A series of experiments based on laboratory-scale VFCWs were conducted to examine and measure key parameters related to clogging of the wetland substrate during operation under different conditions. The model was then validated using data collected from the experiments. The results showed that the model was able to replicate the clogging phenomenon as observed in the experiments, in particular, the characteristic clogging time. The model also predicted well individual contributions to clogging by accumulated inert suspended solids, microbial biomass and plant root materials during the wetland operation. Although the validation was based on the laboratory data, the results indicated that the model describes well the processes underlying the clogging and has the potential to become a tool for assessing the performance of prototype CWs in relation to clogging at both the design and operation stages.

  12. Vertical integration of cosmid and YAC resources for interval mapping on the X-chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.; Coffey, A.J.; Giannelli, F.; Bentley, D.R. )

    1993-02-01

    The vertical integration of cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) resources is of particular importance in the development of high-resolution maps of selected regions of the human genome. A resource of approximately 95,000 cosmids constructed using DNA from primary fibroblasts of karyotype 49,XXXXX was validated by detailed characterization of a 200-kb cosmid contig spanning exons 8-20 of the dystrophin gene. This resource was used to construct contigs in 0.65 Mb of Xq26 by hybridization of gel-purified YAC DNA to high-density gridded arrays of the cosmid library; positive cosmids were overlapped by fingerprinting. Contigs were oriented and ordered relative to existing YACs in the region using cross-hybridization. The overlaps between a representative set of cosmids define 54 intervals of 5-20 kb and were used to construct a high-resolution cosmid interval map of the region, locating markers, dinucleotide repeats, and candidate CpG islands. This approach can be applied rapidly to large regions of the genome and without recourse to subcloning of individual YACs. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform

    PubMed Central

    McPolin, Cillian P. T.; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien; Vilain, Sebastien; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Dickson, Wayne; O'Connor, Daniel; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Justice, John; Corbett, Brian; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated plasmonic sources and detectors are imperative in the practical development of plasmonic circuitry for bio- and chemical sensing, nanoscale optical information processing, as well as transducers for high-density optical data storage. Here we show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals, when operated in forward or reverse bias, respectively. To this end, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton excitation, waveguiding, frequency conversion and detection on a VCSEL-based plasmonic platform. The coupling efficiency of the VCSEL emission to waveguided surface plasmon polariton modes has been optimized using asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures. The plasmonic VCSEL platform validated here is a viable solution for practical realizations of plasmonic functionalities for various applications, such as those requiring sub-wavelength field confinement, refractive index sensitivity or optical near-field transduction with electrically driven sources, thus enabling the realization of on-chip optical communication and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27491686

  14. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  15. Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel

    SciTech Connect

    Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard

    2011-02-15

    In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

  16. Forced convection heat transfer from a wire inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe.

  17. Transient Heat Transfer from a Wire Inserted into a Vertically Mounted Pipe to Forced Flow Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The transient heat transfer from a Pt-Co wire heater inserted into a vertically mounted pipe, through which forced flow subcooled liquid hydrogen was passed, is measured by increasing the exponential heat input with various time periods at a pressure of 0.7 MPa and an inlet temperature of 21 K. The flow velocities range from 0.8 to 5.5 m/s. For shorter periods, the non-boiling heat transfer becomes higher than that given by the Dittus-Boelter equation due to the transient conductive heat transfer contribution. In addition, the transient critical heat flux (CHF) becomes higher than the steady-state CHF. The effect of the flow velocity and period on the transient CHF heat flux is also clarified.

  18. The Effect of Dynamic Wetting on the Stability of a Gas-Liquid Interface Subjected to Vertical Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraynik, Andrew M.; Romero, Louis; Torczynski, John R.; Brooks, Carlton F.; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Jepson, Richard A.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2009-11-01

    The stability of an interface in a container partially filled with silicone oil and subjected to gravity and vertical oscillations has been examined theoretically and computationally. An exact theory for the onset of a parametric instability producing Faraday-like waves was developed for arbitrary liquid viscosity, stress-free walls, and deep two-dimensional or axisymmetric containers. Finite-element simulations for stress-free walls are in excellent agreement with the theory, which predicts instability in discrete frequency bands. These simpler calculations are a departure point for examining the more realistic problem, which involves no-slip at the walls and dynamic wetting modeled with a Blake condition. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Vertical photoionization of liquid-to-supercritical ammonia: thermal effects on the valence-to-conduction band gap.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Janus; Vöhringer, Peter

    2013-07-25

    We recently reported first femtosecond pump–probe experiments on the geminate recombination dynamics of solvated electrons in fluid ammonia (Urbanek et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 2223–2233). The electrons were generated through a vertical two-photon ionization at a total energy of 9.3 eV. Here, we present a full Monte Carlo analysis of the time-resolved data to determine the solvated electron’s thermalization distance from the ionization hole, NH(3)(+). The simulations are compared with the experiment over wide thermodynamic conditions to obtain insight into the dependence of the vertical ionization mechanism on the electronic properties of the solvent network. The simulations reveal that the average thermalization distance, , decreases strongly with both increasing temperature, T, and decreasing density, ρ, from 3.2 nm in the cryogenic fluid down to roughly 0.5 nm in the dilute supercritical phase with almost gas-like densities. We combine our results with the current understanding of the T,ρ-dependence of the electronic structure of the liquid phase and discuss in detail the role of thermally induced energy level shifts for the valence-to-conduction band gap. The observed changes of the thermalization distance can be well attributed to a gradual decrease of the excess energy initially imparted on the ejected electron as gas-like conditions are progressively approached.

  20. Gas-liquid Two Phase Flow Modelling of Incompressible Fluid and Experimental Validation Studies in Vertical Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.

  1. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain.

  2. Towards monolithic integration of mode-locked vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaz, Rafael I.

    2007-12-01

    The speed and performance of today's high end computing and communications systems have placed difficult but still feasible demands on off-chip electrical interconnects. However, future interconnect systems may need aggregate bandwidths well into the terahertz range thereby making electrical bandwidth, density, and power targets impossible to meet. Optical interconnects, and specifically compact semiconductor mode-locked lasers, could alleviate this problem by providing short pulses in time at 10s of GHz repetition rates for Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM) and clock distribution applications. Furthermore, the characteristic spectral comb of frequencies of these lasers could also serve as a multi-wavelength source for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) applications. A fully integrated mode-locked Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is proposed as a low-cost high-speed source for these applications. The fundamental laser platform for such a device has been developed and a continuous-wave version of these lasers has been fabricated and demonstrated excellent results. Output powers close to 60mW have been obtained with very high beam quality factor of M2 < 1.07. The mode-locked laser utilizes a passive mode-locking region provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber integrated together with the gain region. Such an aggressive integration forces the resonant beam in the cavity to have the same area on the gain and absorber sections, placing high demands on the saturation fluence and absorption coefficient for the saturable absorber. Quantum Wells (QWs), excitons in QWs and Quantum Dots (QDs) have been investigated as possible saturable absorbers for the proposed device. QDs have been found to have the lowest saturation fluence and total absorption, necessary to meet the mode-locking requirements for this configuration. The need to further understand QDs as saturable absorbers has led to the development of a theoretical model on the dynamics of

  3. Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

    The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

  4. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  5. Light-absorbent liquid immersion angled exposure for patterning 3D samples with vertical sidewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Kubo, Hironori; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-02-01

    To make photolithography patterns on 3D samples, the angled (inclined) exposure technique has been used so far. However, technological issues have emerged in making photolithography patterns on the surface of trench structures. The surface of the trench structures can be covered with a photoresist film by spray-coating but the photoresist film deposited on the sidewalls and bottom of the trench is generally thin. The thin photoresist film deposited inside the trench has been easily overdosed. Moreover, irregular patterns have frequently been formed by the light reflected inside the trench. In this study, we have developed liquid immersion photolithography using a light-absorbent material. The light-reflection inside the trench was suppressed. Various patterns were transferred in the photoresist film deposited on the trench structures which had an aspect ratio of 0.74. Compared to immersion photolithography using pure water under p-polarization light control, the light-absorbent liquid immersion photolithography developed here patterned well the surfaces of the trench sidewalls and bottom.

  6. The effect of flow pattern around a bubble rising near a vertical wall, on the wall to liquid heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvankar, Pramod; Dabiri, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase flow is an effective means for heat removal due to the enhanced convective effect caused by bubbly flow and the usually high latent heat of vaporization of the liquid phase. We present a numerical study of the effect of flow patterns around a single bubble rising in shear flow near a vertical wall, on the wall-to-liquid heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a frame of reference moving with the bubble, by using the front tracking method for interface tracking. Our simulations reveal an enhancement of heat transfer downstream of the bubble, and a less pronounced diminishment of heat transfer upstream of the bubble. We observe that in the range of 5 <= Re <= 40 for Reynolds number based on shear and bubble diameter, heat transfer first increases, attains a maximum and decreases as Re increases. The optimum Re depends on the Archimedes number. The heat transfer enhancement is attributed to flow reversal happening in a confined region of the shear flow, in the presence of a bubble. The analytical solution of 2 - D inviscid shear flow over a cylinder near a wall is used to identify two parameters of flow reversal namely 'reversal height' and 'reversal width'. These parameters are then used to qualitatively explain what we observe in 3 - D simulations.

  7. Remote measurements of ozone, water vapor and liquid water content, and vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Gary, B. L.; Shumate, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.

  8. Interfacial instability in vertical counter-current gas-liquid film flow: theory, direct numerical simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ausner, Ilja; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of vertical counter-current gas-liquid flows are largely determined by interfacial instability, which gives rise to a multitude of complex wave patterns and internal flows. To study the genesis and evolution of the instability in detail, we employ theoretical stability analysis, experiment and a newly developed level set method based in-house solver to carry out direct numerical simulations. Crucial results of these simulations, such as growth rate and phase velocity of interfacial waves, are rigorously compared against linear and weakly nonlinear theory; thereby showing remarkable agreement. The analysis also reveals the spatio-temporal character of the waves, depicting regimes of absolute and convective instability. Complementing the benchmark set by (non-)linear theory, we perform film thickness measurements of a real gas-liquid system (air-silicone oil) by means of a non-intrusive light-induced fluorescence technique to further validate the solver regarding its capability of capturing interfacial dynamics accurately. These measurements are in good agreement with the results of the nonlinear direct numerical simulations with respect to wavelength and wave shape of the most unstable mode.

  9. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  10. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ˜12.7 mW cm-3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  11. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.

  12. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  13. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  14. Analysis and testing of an integrated semi-active seat suspension for both longitudinal and vertical vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Jiang, Peng; Pan, Hui; Qian, Li-Jun

    2016-04-01

    An integrated semi-active seat suspension for both longitudinal and vertical vibration control is analyzed and tested in this paper. The seat suspension consists of a switching mechanism transforming both longitudinal and vertical motions into a rotary motion and a real-time damping-controllable system-a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper working in pure shear mode and its corresponding control system. The switching mechanism employs the parallelogram frames as a motion guide which keeps the seat moving longitudinally and vertically. At the same time, both longitudinal and vertical motions are transformed into a reciprocating rotary motion that is transmitted to the rotary MR damper after an amplification by a gear mechanism. Both the longitudinal and vertical vibrations can be attenuated in real time through controlling the damping force (or torque) of the rotary MR damper. The mathematical model of the seat suspension system is established, simulated, and analyzed. The experimental test based on the test rig in Hefei University of Technology is implemented, and the results of simulation and experimental test are compared and analyzed.

  15. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  16. Transformation of the integral integral F(r, r ', vertical bar(r)over-right-arrow-(r)over-right-arrow vertical bar) d(r)over-right-arrow d(r)over-right-arrow ' using Hylleraas coordinates in N-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, A.

    2006-09-01

    The integral integral F(r, r', vertical bar r - r'vertical bar) dr dr' where r and r' are N-dimensional position vectors can be transformed into a simple three-dimensional integral using Hylleraas coordinates. A simple derivation of this result is presented.

  17. Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    2006-06-15

    Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

  18. Step-Wise Velocity of an Air Bubble Rising in a Vertical Tube Filled with a Liquid Dispersion of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heon Ki; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-03-21

    The motion of air bubbles in tubes filled with aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) is of practical interest for bubble jets, lab-on-a-chip, and transporting media. Therefore, the focus of this study is the dynamics of air bubbles rising in a tube in a nanofluid. Many authors experimentally and analytically proposed that the velocity of rising air bubbles is constant for long air bubbles suspended in a vertical tube in common liquids (e.g. an aqueous glycerol solution) when the capillary number is larger than 10(-4). For the first time, we report here a systematic study of an air bubble rising in a vertical tube in a nanofluid (e.g. an aqueous silica dioxide nanoparticle suspension, nominal particle size, 19 nm). We varied the bubble length scaled by the diameter of the tubes (L/D), the concentration of the nanofluid (10 and 12.5 v %), and the tube diameter (0.45, 0.47, and 0.50 cm). The presence of the nanoparticles creates a significant change in the bubble velocity compared with the bubble rising in the common liquid with the same bulk viscosity. We observed a novel phenomenon of a step-wise increase in the air bubble rising velocity versus bubble length for small capillary numbers less than 10(-7). This step-wise velocity increase versus the bubble length was not observed in a common fluid. The step-wise velocity increase is attributed to the nanoparticle self-layering phenomenon in the film adjacent to the tube wall. To elucidate the role of the nanoparticle film self-layering on the bubble rising velocity, the effect of the capillary number, the tube diameter (e.g. the capillary pressure), and nanofilm viscosity are investigated. We propose a model that takes into consideration the nanoparticle layering in the film confinement to explain the step-wise velocity phenomenon versus the length of the bubble. The oscillatory film interaction energy isotherm is calculated and the Frenkel approach is used to estimate the film viscosity.

  19. Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes. [Bubble, slug, churn and dispersed-annular; also existence regions and transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taitel, Y.; Bornea, D.; Dukler, A.E.

    1980-05-01

    Models for predicting flow patterns in steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes (such as production-well tubing) delineate the transition boundaries between each of the four basic flow patterns for gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes: bubble, slug, churn, and dispersed-annular. Model results suggest that churn flow is the development region for the slug pattern and that bubble flow can exist in small pipes only at high liquid rates, where turbulent dispersion forces are high. Each transition depends on the flow-rate pair, fluid properties, and pipe size, but the nature of the dependence is different for each transition because of differing control mechanisms. The theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with a variety of published flow maps based on experimental data.

  20. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  1. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition

  2. Grating-assisted vertical couplers for signal routing in multilayer integrated optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, Giovanna; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Grating-assisted vertical couplers, which behave as add-drop filters, are proposed for wavelength routing of the signal among the different layers of on-chip multilayer optical networks. The device implements a 2×2 wavelength router which can be assembled into higher-order three-dimensional matrices. In particular, simple design criteria are found through a rapid and efficient optimization approach based on the mode analysis and demonstrated by the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations. The proposed numerical method is valid either for in-plane or for vertical grating-assisted couplers and it requires negligible computational effort. Different configurations of grating-assisted vertical couplers are designed and their spectral behavior is analyzed by the FDTD. The proposed devices achieve low values of the crosstalk between the different ports (below -20 dB) and of the input reflection (below -15 dB).

  3. Transient heat transfer from a wire to a forced flow of subcooled liquid hydrogen passing through a vertically- mounted pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Transient heat transfers from Pt-Co wire heaters inserted into vertically-mounted pipes, through which forced flow subcooled liquid hydrogen was passed, were measured by increasing the exponential heat input with various time periods at a pressure of 0.7 MPa and inlet temperature of 21 K. The flow velocities ranged from 0.3 to 7 m/s. The Pt-Co wire heaters had a diameter of 1.2 mm and lengths of 60 mm, 120 mm and 200 mm and were inserted into the pipes with diameters of 5.7mm, 8.0 mm, and 5.0 mm, respectively, which were made of Fiber reinforced plastic due to thermal insulation. With increase in the heat flux to the onset of nucleate boiling, surface temperature increased along the curve predicted by the Dittus-Boelter correlation for longer period, where it can be almost regarded as steady-state. For shorter period, the heat transfer became higher than the Dittus-Boelter correlation. In nucleate boiling regime, the heat flux steeply increased to the transient CHF (critical heat flux) heat flux, which became higher for shorter period. Effect of flow velocity, period, and heated geometry on the transient CHF heat flux was clarified.

  4. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Yusuke; OH, Jae Min; Kuwahara, Renpei

    2009-01-01

    Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs). PMID:20087476

  5. Design of a high-speed vertical transition in LTCC for interposers suitable for packaging photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezzini, M. A.; Marraccini, P. J.; Peters, F. H.

    2016-05-01

    The packaging of high speed Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) should maintain the electrical signal integrity. The standard packaging of high speed PICs relies on wire bonds. This is not desirable because wire bonds degrade the quality of the electrical signal. The research presented in this paper proposes to replace wire bonds with an interposer with multilevel transmission lines. By attaching the PIC by flip chip onto the interposer, the use of wire bonds is avoided. The main concern for designing an interposer with multilevel transmission lines is the vertical transition, which must be designed to avoid return and radiation losses. In this paper, a novel design of a high speed vertical transition for Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) is presented. The proposed vertical transition is simpler than others recently published in the literature, due to eliminating the need for additional ceramic layers or air cavities. A LTCC board was fabricated with several variations of the presented transition to find the optimal dimensions of the structure. The structures were fabricated then characterized and have a 3 dB bandwidth of 37 GHz and an open eye diagram at 44 Gbps. A full wave electromagnetic simulation is described and compared with good agreement to the measurements. The results suggest that an LTCC board with this design can be used for 40 Gbps per channel applications. Keywords: Photonics packaging, Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics.

  6. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  7. Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, David

    The objective of this research is to optimize compactness for reconfigurable wireless communication systems by integrating Radio Frequency (RF) components on a multilayer Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) package while minimizing the size and interconnection of each component. To achieve this goal, various RF/microwave components have been integrated on LCP with the design, fabrication, and testing results to explore the feasibility of the designs for RF applications. The first chapter of this research focuses on the characterization of via interconnects for 3D system designs. As a crucial component for achieving compact multilayer designs, various transition designs are explored from DC to 110 GHz. In particular, High Density Interconnects (HDI) are investigated to achieve low loss performance at mm-wave frequencies. An example of accessing the input and output of a LCP packaged device using via interconnects is included. In addition, a heat sink using via technology is presented for active cooling of heat generating embedded devices. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 demonstrate the results of RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches integrated on LCP to create compact reconfigurable devices. RF MEMS switches are essential for designing compact multi-functional devices. A pattern reconfigurable antenna with monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches is presented. In addition, a compact 3D phase shifter using RF MEMS switches for a 2 x 2 phased antenna array is also presented in this work. To create a phased antenna array that is more compatible with Integrated Circuits (IC), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) RF MEMS switches are used to make a low voltage phase shifter. The actuation voltage is under 10 V, which is more easily achievable in a integrated system compared to commonly used electrostatic actuated RF MEMS switches that required at least 30 V. In Chapter 6, an expandable, low cost, and conformal multilayer phased antenna array is presented. Starting with a 4 x 8

  8. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  9. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  10. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hot-fire test demonstrations were successfully conducted using a cold helium pressurization system fully integrated into a liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion system (Figure 1). Cold helium pressurant storage at near liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures (-275 F and colder) and used as a heated tank pressurant provides a substantial density advantage compared to ambient temperature storage. The increased storage density reduces helium pressurant tank size and mass, creating payload increases of 35% for small lunar-lander sized applications. This degree of mass reduction also enables pressure-fed propulsion systems for human-rated Mars ascent vehicle designs. Hot-fire test results from the highly-instrumented test bed will be used to demonstrate system performance and validate integrated models of the helium and propulsion systems. A pressurization performance metric will also be developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes.

  11. Optimal integration of gravity in trajectory planning of vertical pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The planning and control of motor actions requires knowledge of the dynamics of the controlled limb to generate the appropriate muscular commands and achieve the desired goal. Such planning and control imply that the CNS must be able to deal with forces and constraints acting on the limb, such as the omnipresent force of gravity. The present study investigates the effect of hypergravity induced by parabolic flights on the trajectory of vertical pointing movements to test the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized with respect to the effect of gravity on the limb. Subjects performed vertical pointing movements in normal gravity and hypergravity. We use a model based on optimal control to identify the role played by gravity in the optimal arm trajectory with minimal motor costs. First, the simulations in normal gravity reproduce the asymmetry in the velocity profiles (the velocity reaches its maximum before half of the movement duration), which typically characterizes the vertical pointing movements performed on Earth, whereas the horizontal movements present symmetrical velocity profiles. Second, according to the simulations, the optimal trajectory in hypergravity should present an increase in the peak acceleration and peak velocity despite the increase in the arm weight. In agreement with these predictions, the subjects performed faster movements in hypergravity with significant increases in the peak acceleration and peak velocity, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the movement duration. This suggests that movement kinematics change in response to an increase in gravity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized and the action of gravity on the limb is taken into account. The results provide evidence for an internal representation of gravity in the central planning process and further suggest that an adaptation to altered dynamics can be understood as a reoptimization process.

  12. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  13. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-03

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  14. Implementing Vertical and Horizontal Engineering Students' Integration and Assessment of Consequence Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zubaidy, Sarim; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Dashtpour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship references indicate that integration of the student body can result in an enhanced learning experience for students and also greater satisfaction. This paper reports the results of a case study whereby mechanical engineering students studying at a newly established branch campus in Dubai of a British university were exposed to…

  15. Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, J.G.; Weinhold, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.

  16. Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Appelbaum, Ian; Russell, Kasey J.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Schalek, Richard; Hanson, Micah P.; Gossard, Arthur C.

    2006-07-01

    By integrating a p-i-n photodiode photodetector directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence (BEEL) heterostructure with GaAs quantum-well active region, we have obtained a photon detection efficiency of more than 10%. This is many orders of magnitude higher than conventional far-field detection scheme with the most sensitive single-photon counters, enabling BEEL microscopy in systems with no optical components. Detailed analysis shows found a parasitic bipolar injection in parallel with the desired optical coupling between the BEEL heterostructure and the integrated photodiode beyond a characteristic collector bias, which may be solved by improved device design or limiting the operating window of the collector bias. Preliminary BEEL microscopy images of a homogeneous GaAs quantum-well luminescent layer show lateral variations of photon emission correlated with the collector current injection level modulated by surface features or interface defects.

  17. Natural Convection Liquid Immersion Cooling of High Density Columns of Discrete Heat Sources in a Vertical Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    patterns were obtained with the use of thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC). These crystals react to fluctuations in temperature by changing color, they are...was developed through the use of liquid crystals . From the data obtained, experimental correlations relating the local heat transfer properties with...at various power settings. " To implement liquid crystal technology in order to visually evaluate temperature profiles along the test surface. 4 II

  18. Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Niraj K; Singh, Ajay K; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Oh; Babu, A Giridhar; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2017-03-06

    Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas-liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81-97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps.

  19. Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow

    PubMed Central

    Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Singh, Ajay K.; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Oh; Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas–liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas–liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81–97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps. PMID:28262667

  20. Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Singh, Ajay K.; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Oh; Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas-liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81-97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps.

  1. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  2. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-08

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm(2). Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm(2) and 1 × 0.41 mm(2), respectively, at 5 frames/sec.

  3. Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film using ion-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Seo, Dae-Shik; Hwang, Jeong-Yeon

    2008-12-08

    Using ion-beam (IB) irradiation, liquid crystals (LCs) were vertically aligned (VA) on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film. Atomic-layer deposition was used to orient the LCs on high-quality {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. The LC molecule orientation indicates the vertical direction of the atomic-layer-deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that IB irradiation changed the chemical structure, shifting the Al-O binding energy and altering the Al-O bonding intensity. The low-voltage transmittance characteristics of the VA LC displays on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films were also measured, showing reduced voltage and power requirements.

  4. Purifying capability, enzyme activity, and nitrification potentials in December in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Gu, Jiaru; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yu; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The response of purifying capability, enzyme activity, nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in the rhizosphere in December to wetland plants, substrates, and earthworms was investigated in integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (IVFCW). The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN), NH4-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phosphorus (TP) was increased when earthworms were added into IVFCW. A significantly average removal efficiency of N in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate and in IVFCW that employed a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate was not found. However, the average removal efficiency of P was higher in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW with river sand as substrate. Invertase activity in December was higher in IVFCW that used a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW which used only river sand as substrate. However, urease activity, nitrification potential, and total number of bacteria in December was higher in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate than in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate. The addition of earthworms into the integrated vertical flow constructed wetland increased the above-ground biomass, enzyme activity (catalase, urease, and invertase), nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in December. The above-ground biomass of wetland plants was significantly positively correlated with urease and nitrification potentials (p < 0.01). The addition of earthworms into IVFCW increased enzyme activity and nitrification potentials in December, which resulted in improving purifying capability.

  5. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 ×1015neq /cm2. We will also report on the R&D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  6. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  7. Wavelength-division multiplexed optical integrated circuit with vertical diffraction grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A semiconductor optical integrated circuit for wave division multiplexing has a semiconductor waveguide layer, a succession of diffraction grating points in the waveguide layer along a predetermined diffraction grating contour, a semiconductor diode array in the waveguide layer having plural optical ports facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a first direction, respective semiconductor diodes in the array corresponding to respective ones of a predetermined succession of wavelengths, an optical fiber having one end thereof terminated at the waveguide layer, the one end of the optical fiber facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a second direction, wherein the diffraction grating points are spatially distributed along the predetermined contour in such a manner that the succession of diffraction grating points diffracts light of respective ones of the succession of wavelengths between the one end of the optical fiber and corresponding ones of the optical ports.

  8. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

  9. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  10. Thermodynamic consistency and integral equations for the liquid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, F. E.; March, N. H.; Lamoen, D.

    2002-12-01

    Within an assumed pair potential framework, it has been generally accepted for a long time that far from the critical point the asymptotic form of the direct correlation function c(r) at large r is given by [-φ(r)/kBT]. Here φ(r) is the pair potential and kBT the thermal energy. Subsequently, Kumar, March, and Wasserman [Phys. Chem. Liquids 11, 271 (1982)] examined the condition for thermodynamic consistency between virial and compressibility equations of state. Their study, together with later work by Senatore, Rashid, and March [Phys. Chem. Liquids 16, 1 (1986)], resulted in a decomposition of c(r) into a potential part cp(r) given by Kumar et al. for all r and involving the pair function g(r) and its density derivative, plus a "collective" part cc(r), which must obey a simple sum rule to satisfy thermodynamic consistency. The more recent study of B. C. Eu and K. Rah [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 3327 (1999)] prompts us to bring their results into direct contact with the study of Kumar et al. The work of Eu and Rah gives a prominent place to the Mayer function f(r)=e(-[φ(r)/kBT]-1 which tends to -[φ(r)/kBT] as r→∞ for potentials tending to zero at infinity.

  11. Thermodynamic consistency and integral equations for the liquid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, F. E.; March, N. H.; Lamoen, D.

    Within an assumed pair potential framework, it has been generally accepted for a long time that far from the critical point the asymptotic form of the direct correlation function c(r) at large r is given by [- ϕ(r)/kBT]. Here ϕ(r) is the pair potential and kBT the thermal energy. Subsequently, Kumar, March, and Wasserman [Phys. Chem. Liquids 11, 271 (1982)] examined the condition for thermodynamic consistency between virial and compressibility equations of state. Their study, together with later work by Senatore, Rashid, and March [Phys. Chem. Liquids 16, 1 (1986)], resulted in a decomposition of c(r) into a potential part cp(r) given by Kumar et al. for all r and involving the pair function g(r) and its density derivative, plus a "collective" part cc(r), which must obey a simple Sum rule to satisfy thermodynamic consistency. The more recent study of B. C. Eu and K. Rah [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 3327 (1999)] prompts us to bring their results into direct contact with the study of Kumar et al. The work of Eu and Rah gives a prominent place to the Mayer function f(r) = e(-[ϕ(r) / kBT]-1 which tends to -[ϕ(r)/kBT] as r → ∞ for potentials tending to zero at infinity.

  12. Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

  13. Dense and vertically-aligned centimetre-long ZnS nanowire arrays: ionic liquid assisted synthesis and their field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shimou; Li, Liang; Wang, Xi; Tian, Wei; Wang, Xuebing; Tang, Dai-Ming; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2012-03-01

    Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V μm-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters.Based on the self-ordering behavior of ionic liquids on solid surface, a gold ion containing ionic liquid was employed to obtain a uniform pattern of gold nanoparticles on Si substrate. Using this catalytic pattern, super-dense, centimetre long, well-crystallized and vertically-aligned ZnS nanowire arrays were then generated. It was found that the densely-packed gold nanoparticles played a key role in the nanowire alignment. Furthermore, the field-emission measurements show that the present ultralong ZnS nanowires arrays possess a low turn-on field of 3.69 V μm-1 and a high field-enhancement factor of 1215.4, indicating they are valuable field emitters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11835a

  14. Micro-optical design of a three-dimensional microlens scanner for vertically integrated micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Maciej; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Jia, Chenping; Frömel, Jörg; Wiemer, Maik

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the optical design of a miniature 3D scanning system, which is fully compatible with the vertical integration technology of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The constraints related to this integration strategy are considered, resulting in a simple three-element micro-optical setup based on an afocal scanning microlens doublet and a focusing microlens, which is tolerant to axial position inaccuracy. The 3D scanning is achieved by axial and lateral displacement of microlenses of the scanning doublet, realized by micro-electro-mechanical systems microactuators (the transmission scanning approach). Optical scanning performance of the system is determined analytically by use of the extended ray transfer matrix method, leading to two different optical configurations, relying either on a ball lens or plano-convex microlenses. The presented system is aimed to be a core component of miniature MOEMS-based optical devices, which require a 3D optical scanning function, e.g., miniature imaging systems (confocal or optical coherence microscopes) or optical tweezers.

  15. Vertical stream curricula integration of problem-based learning using an autonomous vacuum robot in a mechatronics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng; Yue, Keng

    2011-10-01

    Difficulties in teaching a multi-disciplinary subject such as the mechatronics system design module in Departments of Mechatronics Engineering at Temasek Polytechnic arise from the gap in experience and skill among staff and students who have different backgrounds in mechanical, computer and electrical engineering within the Mechatronics Department. The departments piloted a new vertical stream curricula model (VSCAM) to enhance student learning in mechatronics system design through integration of educational activities from the first to the second year of the course. In this case study, a problem-based learning (PBL) method on an autonomous vacuum robot in the mechatronics systems design module was proposed to allow the students to have hands-on experience in the mechatronics system design. The proposed works included in PBL consist of seminar sessions, weekly works and project presentation to provide holistic assessment on teamwork and individual contributions. At the end of VSCAM, an integrative evaluation was conducted using confidence logs, attitude surveys and questionnaires. It was found that the activities were quite appreciated by the participating staff and students. Hence, PBL has served as an effective pedagogical framework for teaching multidisciplinary subjects in mechatronics engineering education if adequate guidance and support are given to staff and students.

  16. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of co/counter-current vertical gas-Liquid annular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhaoui, Asma; Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    We carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of co/counter current Gas-Liquid annular flows using the parallel code, BLUE, based on a projection method for the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations and a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set method for the interface advection. Gas-Liquid annular flows and falling films in a pipe are present in a broad range of industrial processes. This configuration consists of an important multiphase flow regime where the liquid occupies the area adjacent to the internal circumference of the pipe and the gas flows in the pipe core. Experimentally, four distinctive flow regimes were identified ('dual-wave', 'thick ripple', 'disturbance wave' and 'regular wave' regimes), that we attempt to simulate. In order to visualize these different regimes, various liquid (water) and gas (air) flow-rates are investigated. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  17. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Initial Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype cold helium active pressurization system was incorporated into an existing liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) prototype planetary lander and hot-fire tested to collect vehicle-level performance data. Results from this hot-fire test series were used to validate integrated models of the vehicle helium and propulsion systems and demonstrate system effectiveness for a throttling lander. Pressurization systems vary greatly in complexity and efficiency between vehicles, so a pressurization performance metric was also developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes. This implementation of an active repress system is an initial sizing draft. Refined implementations will be tested in the future, improving the general knowledge base for a cryogenic lander-based cold helium system.

  18. Direct integration of vertical In2O3 nanowire arrays, nanosheet chains, and photoinduced reversible switching of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Miao; Zheng, Maojun; Zeng, Ansheng; Ma, L.

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale In2O3 nanowire (NW) arrays and nanosheet chains are directly integrated on InP substrates via a simple chemical vapor deposition process, benefiting from the substrate-induced, self-assembly and self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Such particular structures could be expected to have potential applications such as gas sensors and field emission devices. Equally important, remarkable photoinduced wettability conversion between superhydrophobicity and high hydrophilicity has been observed on In2O3 NW arrays. This reversible behavior is ascribed to the photogenerated surface oxygen vacancies and the special nanostructures. Such reversibly switching surface will widen the applications of In2O3 films.

  19. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 4: Reviews and presentation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Liquid rocket booster integration study is presented. Volume 4 contains materials presented at the MSFC/JSC/KSC Integrated Reviews and Working Group Sessions, and the Progress Reviews presented to the KSC Study Manager. The following subject areas are covered: initial impact assessment; conflicts with the on-going STS mission; access to the LRB at the PAD; the activation schedule; transition requirements; cost methodology; cost modelling approach; and initial life cycle cost.

  20. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silanemore » provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.« less

  1. Quantum-Classical Path Integral Simulation of Ferrocene-Ferrocenium Charge Transfer in Liquid Hexane.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter L; Makri, Nancy

    2015-12-17

    We employ the quantum-classical path integral methodology to simulate the outer sphere charge-transfer process of the ferrocene-ferrocenium pair in liquid hexane with unprecedented accuracy. Comparison of the simulation results to those obtained by mapping the solvent on an effective harmonic bath demonstrates the accuracy of linear response theory in this system.

  2. Waveguide-integrated vertical pin photodiodes of Ge fabricated on p+ and n+ Si-on-insulator layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Vertical pin structures of Ge photodiodes (PDs) integrated with Si optical waveguides are fabricated by depositing Ge epitaxial layers on Si-on-insulator (SOI) layers, and the performances of n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs are compared with those of p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs. Both types of PDs show responsivities as high as 1.0 A/W at 1.55 µm, while the dark leakage current is different, which is consistent with previous reports on free-space PDs formed on bulk Si wafers. The dark current of the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs is higher by more than one order of magnitude. Taking into account the activation energies for dark current as well as the dependence on PD area, the dark current of the n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs is dominated by the thermal generation of carriers via mid-gap defect levels in Ge, while for the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs, the dark current is ascribed to not only thermal generation but also other mechanisms such as locally formed conduction paths.

  3. Vertically integrated metal-clad/silicon dioxide-shell microtube arrays for high-spatial-resolution light stimuli in saline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, M.; Nakamura, T.; Matsuo, T.; Goryu, A.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

    2014-04-01

    Microdevices composed of integrated microscale light source arrays are powerful tools in optogenetic applications. Herein, we prepared vertically aligned 3-μm inner diameter silicon dioxide (SiO2) tube-based optical light waveguide arrays. To increase the locality of the light stimuli through the tube, we also fabricated metal-cladded SiO2 tubes using iridium (Ir). After filling the tube with a saline solution, the saline-core/Ir-clad/SiO2-shell waveguide exhibited light stimuli without spreading. With a 532-nm wavelength, the half-power width of the light intensity measured 10 μm above the tube tip was 3 μm, while that of the saline/SiO2-shell waveguide was 9.6 μm, which was more than three times wider. Such high-spatial-resolution optical light stimuli will offer a new class of optogenetic applications, including light stimuli for specific regions of a neuron (e.g., axons or dendrites).

  4. Q-adjusting technique applied to vertical deflections estimation in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xingshu; Wang, Jun; Dai, Dongkai; Xiong, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Former studies have proved that the attitude error in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system tracks the high frequency component of the deflections of the vertical (DOV) with a fixed delay and tracking error. This paper analyses the influence of the nominal process noise covariance matrix Q on the tracking error as well as the response delay, and proposed a Q-adjusting technique to obtain the attitude error which can track the DOV better. Simulation results show that different settings of Q lead to different response delay and tracking error; there exists optimal Q which leads to a minimum tracking error and a comparatively short response delay; for systems with different accuracy, different Q-adjusting strategy should be adopted. In this way, the DOV estimation accuracy of using the attitude error as the observation can be improved. According to the simulation results, the DOV estimation accuracy after using the Q-adjusting technique is improved by approximate 23% and 33% respectively compared to that of the Earth Model EGM2008 and the direct attitude difference method.

  5. Liquid nitrogen cooled integrated power electronics module with high current carrying capability and lower on resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hua; Lee, Changwoo; Simon, Randy W.; Haldar, Pradeep; Hennessy, Michael J.; Mueller, Eduard K.

    2006-11-01

    This letter presents the development of high-performance integrated cryogenic power modules, where both driver components and power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors are integrated in a single package, to be used in a 50kW prototype cryogenic inverter operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The authors have demonstrated a compact high-voltage, cryogenic integrated power module that exhibited more than 14 times improvement in on-resistance and continuous current carrying capability exceeding 40A. The modules are designed to operate at liquid nitrogen temperature with extreme thermal cycling. The power electronic modules are necessary components that provide control and switching for second generation, yttrium barium copper oxide-based high temperature superconductor devices including cables, motors, and generators.

  6. Transport properties of liquid para-hydrogen: The path integral centroid molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2003-11-01

    Several fundamental transport properties of a quantum liquid para-hydrogen (p-H2) at 17 K have been numerically evaluated by means of the quantum dynamics simulation called the path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). For comparison, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have also been performed under the same condition. In accordance with the previous path integral simulations, the calculated static properties of the liquid agree well with the experimental results. For the diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and shear viscosity, the CMD predicts the values closer to the experimental ones though the classical MD results are far from the reality. The agreement of the CMD result with the experimental one is especially good for the shear viscosity with the difference less than 5%. The calculated diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity agree with the experimental values at least in the same order. We predict that the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity for liquid p-H2 is much larger than classical van der Waals simple liquids such as rare gas liquids.

  7. Tiny surface plasmon resonance sensor integrated on silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into finite metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Jin; Yim, Hae-Dong; Lee, Seung-Gol; O, Beom-Hoan

    2011-10-10

    We propose a tiny surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor integrated on a silicon waveguide based on vertical coupling into a finite thickness metal-insulator-metal (f-MIM) plasmonic waveguide structure acting as a Fabry-Perot resonator. The resonant characteristics of vertically coupled f-MIM plasmonic waveguides are theoretically investigated and optimized. Numerical results show that the SPR sensor with a footprint of ~0.0375 μm2 and a sensitivity of ~635 nm/RIU can be designed at a 1.55 μm transmission wavelength.

  8. Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward 0.5 and 1.0 mm micro-tubes: Visualization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Fu, X.

    2009-10-01

    Application of liquid nitrogen to cooling is widely employed in many fields, such as cooling of the high temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgery and so on, in which liquid nitrogen is generally forced to flow inside very small passages to maintain good thermal performance and stability. In order to have a full understanding of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen in micro-tube, high-speed digital photography was employed to acquire the typical two-phase flow patterns of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward micro-tubes of 0.531 and 1.042 mm inner diameters. It was found from the experimental results that the flow patterns were mainly bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow. And the confined bubble flow, mist flow, bubble condensation and flow oscillation were also observed. These flow patterns were characterized in different types of flow regime maps. The surface tension force and the size of the diameter were revealed to be the major factors affecting the flow pattern transitions. It was found that the transition boundaries of the slug/churn flow and churn/annular flow of the present experiment shifted to lower superficial vapor velocity; while the transition boundary of the bubbly/slug flow shifted to higher superficial vapor velocity compared to the results of the room-temperature fluids in the tubes with the similar hydraulic diameters. The corresponding transition boundaries moved to lower superficial velocity when reducing the inner diameter of the micro-tubes. Time-averaged void fraction and heat transfer characteristics for individual flow patterns were presented and special attention was paid to the effect of the diameter on the variation of void fraction.

  9. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Mosorov, Volodymyr; Hanus, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.

  10. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-03-01

    In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission.

  11. The forms and bioavailability of phosphorus in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wang, Lin; Li, Huili; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    A sequential extraction method was utilized to analyze seven forms of P in an integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVFCW) containing earthworms and different substrates. The aluminum-bound P (Al-P) content was found to be lower, and the occluded P (Oc-P) content was higher in the IVFCW. The addition of earthworms into the influent chamber of IVFCW increased the exchange P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), calcium bound P (Ca-P), Oc-P, detritus-bound (De-P) and organic P (Org-P) content in the influent chamber, and also enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants. A significantly positive correlation between P content of above-ground wetland plants and the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P content in the rhizosphere was found (P<0.05), which indicated that the Ex-P, Fe-P, Oc-P and Org-P could be bio-available P. The Ex-P, Fe-P, De-P, Oc-P and Ca-P content of the influent chamber was higher where the substrate contained a mixture of Qing sand and river sand rather than only river sand. Also the IVFCW with earthworms and both Qing sand and river sand had a higher removal efficiency of P, which was related to higher P content uptake by wetland plants and P retained in IVFCW. These findings suggest that addition of earthworms in IVFCW increases the bioavailable P content, resulting in enhanced P content uptake by wetland plants.

  12. Optical monitoring of anchoring change in vertically aligned thin liquid crystal film for chemical and biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Namkung, Jun; Lin, Yongbin; Lindquist, Robert

    2010-04-01

    A significant advance in sensitivity of liquid-crystal (LC)-based chemical and biological sensors can be achieved by actively monitoring anchoring energy change. We simulate the deformation of a LC director with different anchoring energies using the finite element method and the optical properties of the LC film using the finite-difference time-domain method. Polarizing micrographs are collected and compared with simulated textures. Measurement of optical transmission is used to monitor the anchoring change. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes.

  13. Low-temperature metallic liquid hydrogen: an ab-initio path-integral molecular dynamics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ji; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Qianfan; Probert, Matthew; Pickard, Chris; Needs, Richard; Michaelides, Angelos; Wang, Enge

    2013-03-01

    Experiments and computer simulations have shown that the melting temperature of solid hydrogen drops with pressure above about 65 GPa, suggesting that a low temperature liquid state might exist. It has also been suggested that this liquid state might be non-molecular and metallic, although evidence for such behaviour is lacking. Using a combination of ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics and the two-phase methods, we have simulated the melting of solid hydrogen under finite temperatures. We found an atomic solid phase from 500 to 800 GPa which melts at < 200 K. Beyond this and up to pressures of 1,200 GPa a metallic atomic liquid is stable at temperatures as low as 50 K. The quantum motion of the protons is critical to the low melting temperature in this system as ab initio simulations with classical nuclei lead to a considerably higher melting temperature of ~300 K across the entire pressure range considered.

  14. Co-integration of nano-scale vertical- and horizontal-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for low power CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Garam; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-07-01

    In order to extend the conventional low power Si CMOS technology beyond the 20-nm node without SOI substrates, we propose a novel co-integration scheme to build horizontal- and vertical-channel MOSFETs together and verify the idea using TCAD simulations. From the fabrication viewpoint, it is highlighted that this scheme provides additional vertical devices with good scalability by adding a few steps to the conventional CMOS process flow for fin formation. In addition, the benefits of the co-integrated vertical devices are investigated using a TCAD device simulation. From this study, it is confirmed that the vertical device shows improved off-current control and a larger drive current when the body dimension is less than 20 nm, due to the electric field coupling effect at the double-gated channel. Finally, the benefits from the circuit design viewpoint, such as the larger midpoint gain and beta and lower power consumption, are confirmed by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study.

  15. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids.

  16. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations. PMID:25747091

  17. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-03-07

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

  18. Studying dissolution with a model integrating solid-liquid interface kinetics and diffusion kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jeff Y

    2012-12-18

    A dissolution model that integrates the solid-liquid interface kinetics and the mass transport kinetics is introduced. Such a model reduces to the Noyes-Whitney equation under special conditions, but offers expanded range of applicability and flexibility fitting dissolution profiles when interfacial kinetics and interfacial concentration deviate from the assumptions implied in the Noyes-Whitney equation. General solutions to the integrated dissolution model derived for noninteractive solutes as well as for solutes participating in ionization equilibrium are discussed. Parameters defining the integrated dissolution model are explained conceptually along with practical ways for their determinations. Conditions under which the model exhibits supersaturation features are elaborated. Simulated dissolution profiles using the integrated dissolution model for published experimental data exhibiting supersaturation features are illustrated.

  19. An Integrated microfluidic platform for liquid droplet in gas flow generation with in liquid flow collection and manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirandazi, Pooyan; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Discretization of biological samples and chemical reactions within digital droplets is a powerful technique which has rapidly emerged in many biochemical syntheses. The ability to generate, manipulate, and monitor millions of microdroplets in a short time provides great potential for high throughput screening and detection in microbiology. Here we report a microfluidic device for the formation of uniform microdroplets (50 μm-100 μm) using a high speed gas as the continuous phase. Gas-borne droplets are generated in a chip-based flow-focusing device fabricated in PDMS, and travel along the gaseous microchannel and are subsequently captured within a second liquid phase. The droplets are then transferred and collected in a minichamber and move into the manipulation section for further processing operations on the drops. All these steps are performed automatically in a single multilayer chip. This integrated microfluidic platform for generation, collection, and manipulation of the droplets provides great opportunities for monitoring and detection of gas-analytes. Utilizing the generated picoliter airborne droplets feature lower reaction times and higher transfer rates as compared to conventional air sampling techniques. Thus, it can greatly facilitate the investigation of airborne analytes by interrogation of the digital droplets using different analytical techniques. Furthermore, the presented liquid-in-gas generation method can be utilized for production of oil-free microparticles and microcapsules used in the food industry and for drug delivery.

  20. Transport coefficients of normal liquid helium-4 calculated by path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Haruna; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Thermal conductivity, shear viscosity, and bulk viscosity of normal liquid 4He at 1.7-4.0 K are calculated using path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations. The calculated thermal conductivity and shear viscosity above lambda transition temperature are on the same order of magnitude as experimental values, while the agreement of shear viscosity is better. Above 2.3 K the CMD well reproduces the temperature dependences of isochoric shear viscosity and of the time integral of the energy current and off-diagonal stress tensor correlation functions. The calculated bulk viscosity, not known in experiments, is several times larger than shear viscosity.

  1. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  2. High-performance, mechanically flexible, and vertically integrated 3D carbon nanotube and InGaZnO complementary circuits with a temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Ishida, Shohei; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-08-26

    A vertically integrated inorganic-based flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with a temperature sensor with a high inverter gain of ≈50 and a low power consumption of <7 nW mm(-1) is demonstrated using a layer-by-layer assembly process. In addition, the negligible influence of the mechanical flexibility on the performance of the CMOS inverter and the temperature dependence of the CMOS inverter characteristics are discussed.

  3. Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship With Respect to Cervical and Cranial Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Methods: Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009–2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. Results: In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and “muscle” adjustments. Conclusion: There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction PMID:22778531

  4. An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

    2005-12-01

    The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer

  5. Non-reactive and reactive trace gas fluxes: Simultaneous measurements with ground based and vertically integrating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J.-C.; Rummel, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Foken, T.; Meixner, F. X.

    2009-04-01

    The footprint area, i.e. the source region of a flux measured at a certain location, increases with increasing height above ground of the flux measurements. For non-reactive trace gases and horizontally homogeneous terrain (particularly with respect to deposition and emission processes), an increase in height should not alter the actual measured flux (constant flux layer assumption). For reactive trace gases, with chemical life times of about 30 s - 300 s, chemical production and loss processes within the measuring layer lead to vertical flux divergence. The magnitude of the flux divergence can be determined directly by comparing fluxes of reactive trace gases being affected by chemistry with fluxes of the same species being not altered by chemistry. In August 2006, the field experiment LIBRETTO (LIndenBerg REacTive Trace gas prOfiles) was carried out in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD) at the field site of the Richard Aßmann Observatory in Lindenberg. At a 99 m mast, profiles of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were measured. The mast is equipped with an elevator, where sensors for trace gases (CO2, H2O, O3), air temperature and relative humidity have been installed. During the experiment, the elevator system was run continuously, providing scanned profiles of trace gas concentrations from 2 m to 99 m a.g.l. of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approx. every 10 minutes. Between 0.15 m and 2.0 m, concentration differences of the trace gases CO2, H2O, O3, NO and NO2 were measured. Applying the modified Bowen ration (MBR) method to the measured concentration differences and directly measured sensible heat flux (eddy covariance data from DWD) yields surface fluxes of the trace gases. Integral fluxes of CO2, O3 and sensible heat were computed simultaneously by applying the nocturnal boundary layer budget method to the scanned elevator profiles. A direct comparison showed little deviations between the two methods

  6. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    PubMed Central

    Karunaweera, Sadish

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990

  7. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-01-28

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

  8. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  9. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  10. Integrated RF probe for in vivo multinuclear spectroscopy and functional imaging of rat brain using an 11.7 Tesla 89 mm bore vertical microimager.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Shen, J

    2005-07-01

    To acquire high quality in vivo NMR data from rat brain using a vertical 89-mm bore magnet, specially designed NMR probes with integrated RF coils and animal handling capability are required. An RF probe design that is also capable of rat head fixation, body support and suitable for physiology monitoring and maintenance was constructed for an 89 mm bore, 11.7 T, vertical microimager which is equipped with a 57-mm i.d. gradient insert. Design concept and practical aspects of probe construction are described in detail. The device allows accurate and highly reproducible positioning of rat head inside the magnet while providing excellent RF performance. Typical results from fMRI, localized in vivo proton and multinuclear spectroscopy using this probe system are presented.

  11. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Multispectral integral imaging acquisition and processing using a monochrome camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Sánchez-Ortiga, Emilio; Xiao, Xiao; Pla, Filiberto; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2012-11-05

    This paper presents an acquisition system and a procedure to capture 3D scenes in different spectral bands. The acquisition system is formed by a monochrome camera, and a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) that allows to acquire images at different spectral bands in the [480, 680]nm wavelength interval. The Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging acquisition technique is used to obtain the elemental images for each wavelength. These elemental images are used to computationally obtain the reconstruction planes of the 3D scene at different depth planes. The 3D profile of the acquired scene is also obtained using a minimization of the variance of the contribution of the elemental images at each image pixel. Experimental results show the viability to recover the 3D multispectral information of the scene. Integration of 3D and multispectral information could have important benefits in different areas, including skin cancer detection, remote sensing and pattern recognition, among others.

  13. An integrated control panel utilizing a programmable varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitton, I. J.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the conflicting demands of modern aircraft for increased systems/sensors and the decrease in cockpit panel size, weight, volume, and power, conventional discrete/dedicated methods of display and control are fast becoming obsolete. A means is sought to integrate the control and display into multifunctional programmable devices, thus giving the ability to increase system functions and yet conserve panel space. A potential solution to the control portion of the problem has come to be known as the Integrated Control Panel (ICP) approach. Flat panel display technology and controls using programmable flat panel displays with transparent capacitive touch control overlays offer the largest potential advantages. The flat panel display made of varistor-multiplexed dichroic liquid crystal (LCD) developed by GE in recent years appears to offer the ideal monochrome solution.

  14. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  15. Light coupling between vertical III-As nanowires and planar Si photonic waveguides for the monolithic integration of active optoelectronic devices on a Si platform.

    PubMed

    Giuntoni, Ivano; Geelhaar, Lutz; Bruns, Jürgen; Riechert, Henning

    2016-08-08

    We present a new concept for the optical interfacing between vertical III-As nanowires and planar Si waveguides. The nanowires are arranged in a two-dimensional array which forms a grating structure on top of the waveguide. This grating enables light coupling in both directions between the components made from the two different material classes. Numerical simulations show that this concept permits a light extraction efficiency from the waveguide larger than 45% and a light insertion efficiency larger than 35%. This new approach would allow the monolithic integration of nanowire-based active optoelectronics devices, like photodetectors and light sources, on the Si photonics platform.

  16. Highly stable liquid metal-based pressure sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-05-21

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30-1000 s(-1). The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability.

  17. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s−1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  18. Fabrication and characterization of the Si-photonics-integrated vertical resonant-cavity light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Duanhua; Kim, Taek; Kim, Sihan; Hong, Hyungi; Shcherbatko, Igor; Park, Youngsoo; Shin, Dongjae; Ha, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Gitae

    2014-03-01

    We designed and fabricated a 1.3-um hybrid vertical Resonant-Cavity Light-Emitting Diode for optical interconnect by using direct III-V wafer bonding on silicon on insulator (SOI). The device included InP based front distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), InGaAlAs based active layer, and SOI-based high-contrast-grating (HCG) as a back reflector. 42-uW continuous wave optical power was achieved at 20mA at room temperature.

  19. Monolithic integration of enhancement-mode vertical driving transistorson a standard InGaN/GaN light emitting diode structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Liu, Chao; Jiang, Huaxing; Zou, Xinbo; Zhang, Anping; Lau, Kei May

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (VMOSFET) drivers have been proposed and demonstrated. The VMOSFET was achieved by simply regrowing a p- and n-GaN bilayer on top of a standard LED structure. After fabrication, the VMOSFET is connected with the LED through the conductive n-GaN layer, with no need of extra metal interconnections. The junction-based VMOSFET is inherently an enhancement-mode (E-mode) device with a threshold voltage of 1.6 V. By controlling the gate bias of the VMOSFET, the light intensity emitted from the integrated VMOSFET-LED device could be well modulated, which shows great potential for various applications, including solid-state lighting, micro-displays, and visible light communications.

  20. A set of vertically integrated inquiry-based practical curricula that develop scientific thinking skills for large cohorts of undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J

    2013-12-01

    Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition.

  1. Liquid-vapor interfaces in XY -spin fluids: an inhomogeneous anisotropic integral-equation approach.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, I P; Folk, R; Kovalenko, A; Fenz, W; Mryglod, I M

    2009-01-01

    An integral-equation approach is developed to study interfacial properties of anisotropic fluids with planar spins in the presence of an external magnetic field. The approach is based on the coupled set of the Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim integro-differential equation for the inhomogeneous anisotropic one-particle density and the Ornstein-Zernike equation for the orientationally dependent two-particle correlation functions. Using the proposed inhomogeneous angle-harmonics expansion formalism we show that these integral equations can be reduced to a much simpler form similar to that inherent for a system of isotropic fluids. The interfacial orientationally dependent direct correlation function can be consistently constructed by means of a nonlinear interpolation via its values obtained in the coexisting anisotropic bulk phases. A soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the closure relation. This has allowed us to solve the complicated integral equations in the situation when both spatial inhomogeneity and orientational anisotropy are present simultaneously. The approach introduced is applied to an XY fluid model with ferromagnetic spin interactions. As a result, the density-orientation and magnetization profiles at the liquid-vapor interfaces are calculated in a wide range of temperatures up to subcritical regions. The influence of the external field on the microscopic structure of the interfaces and the surface tension is also analyzed in detail.

  2. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  3. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  4. Vertical optical antennas integrated with spiral ring gratings for large local electric field enhancement and directional radiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoan; Wang, Dongxing; Shi, Chuan; Crozier, Kenneth B; Yang, Tian

    2011-05-23

    We propose a device for reproducible achievement of enormous enhancement of local electric field intensities. In each device, a metallic spiral ring grating is employed for efficient excitation of local surface plasmon resonance in the tiny gap of a vertically oriented optical antenna. Radiation from the optical antenna is collimated by the ring grating which facilitates efficient collection. As a numerical example, for a gold nanosphere placed one nanometer above the center of a gold spiral ring grating, our simulations predict an increase in local electric field intensity of up to seven orders of magnitude compared to planewave illumination, and collection efficiencies of up to 68% by an objective with a numerical aperture of 0.7. Single molecule SERS application is discussed.

  5. Liquid-mediated dense integration of graphene materials for compact capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaowei; Cheng, Chi; Wang, Yufei; Qiu, Ling; Li, Dan

    2013-08-02

    Porous yet densely packed carbon electrodes with high ion-accessible surface area and low ion transport resistance are crucial to the realization of high-density electrochemical capacitive energy storage but have proved to be very challenging to produce. Taking advantage of chemically converted graphene's intrinsic microcorrugated two-dimensional configuration and self-assembly behavior, we show that such materials can be readily formed by capillary compression of adaptive graphene gel films in the presence of a nonvolatile liquid electrolyte. This simple soft approach enables subnanometer scale integration of graphene sheets with electrolytes to form highly compact carbon electrodes with a continuous ion transport network. Electrochemical capacitors based on the resulting films can obtain volumetric energy densities approaching 60 watt-hours per liter.

  6. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Russek, Steven Lee; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  7. Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

  8. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  9. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  10. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Fatimah, Hayyiratul E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Wilfred, Cecilia E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  11. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  12. Hybrid two-chain simulation and integral equation theory : application to polyethylene liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Huimin Li, David T. Wu; Curro, John G.; McCoy, John Dwane

    2006-02-01

    We present results from a hybrid simulation and integral equation approach to the calculation of polymer melt properties. The simulation consists of explicit Monte Carlo (MC) sampling of two polymer molecules, where the effect of the surrounding chains is accounted for by an HNC solvation potential. The solvation potential is determined from the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) as a functional of the pair correlation function from simulation. This hybrid two-chain MC-PRISM approach was carried out on liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 CH{sub 2} units. The results are compared with MD simulation and self-consistent PRISM-PY theory under the same conditions, revealing that the two-chain calculation is close to MD, and able to overcome the defects of the PRISM-PY closure and predict more accurate structures of the liquid at both short and long range. The direct correlation function, for instance, has a tail at longer range which is consistent with MD simulation and avoids the short-range assumptions in PRISM-PY theory. As a result, the self-consistent two-chain MC-PRISM calculation predicts an isothermal compressibility closer to the MD results.

  13. A compact optofluidic cytometer with integrated liquid-core/PDMS-cladding waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Chen, Zitian; Men, Yongfan; Li, Ang; Shen, Yiran; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-10-07

    We developed a simple method to construct liquid-core/PDMS-cladding optical waveguides through pressurized filling of dead-ended micro-channels with optical fluids. The waveguides are in the same layer as microfluidic channels which greatly simplifies device fabrication. With proper contrast between the refractive index of the core and cladding, the transmission loss of the waveguides is less than 5 dB cm(-1). We also developed a method to create flat and optically clear surfaces on the sides of PDMS devices in order to couple light between free-space and the waveguides embedded inside the chip. With these newly developed techniques, we make a compact flow cytometer and demonstrate the fluorescence counting of single cells at a rate of up to ~50 cell s(-1) and total sample requirement of a few microlitres. This method of making liquid-core optical waveguides and flat surfaces has great potential to be integrated into many PDMS-based microsystems.

  14. Integration of Electric Resistivity Profile and Infiltrometer Measurements to Calibrate a Numerical Model of Vertical Flow in Fractured and Karstic Limestone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, M. C.; de Carlo, L.; Masciopinto, C.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Karstic and fractured aquifers are among the most important drinking water resources. At the same time, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination. A detailed scientific knowledge of the behavior of these aquifers is essential for the development of sustainable groundwater management concepts. Due to their special characteristics of extreme anisotropy and heterogeneity, research aimed at a better understanding of flow, solute transport, and biological processes in these hydrogeologic systems is an important scientific challenge. This study integrates a geophysical technique with an infiltrometer test to better calibrate a mathematical model that quantifies the vertical flow in karstic and fractured limestone overlying the deep aquifer of Alta Murgia (Southern Italy). Knowledge of the rate of unsaturated zone percolation is needed to investigate the vertical migration of pollutants and the vulnerability of the aquifer. Sludge waste deposits in the study area have caused soil-subsoil contamination with toxics. The experimental test consisted of infiltrometer flow measurements, more commonly utilized for unconsolidated granular porous media, during which subsoil electric resistivity data were collected. A ring infiltrometer 2 m in diameter and 0.3 m high was sealed to the ground with gypsum. This large diameter yielded infiltration data representative of the anisotropic and heterogeneous rock, which could not be sampled adequately with a small ring. The subsurface resistivity was measured using a Wenner-Schlumberger electrode array. Vertical movement of water in a fracture plane under unsaturated conditions has been investigated by means of a numerical model. The finite difference method was used to solve the flow equations. An internal iteration method was used at every time step to evaluate the nodal value of the pressure head, in agreement with the mass- balance equation and the characteristic functional relationships of the coefficients.

  15. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  16. A vertical/horizontal integration wind-induced circulation model (VH13D): A method for including surface and bottom logarithmic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    A three-dimensional model called VH13D is developed using the vertical/horizontal integration (VHI) approach. The double-logarithmic velocity profile including both the surface and bottom sublayer characteristic lengths is employed to accurately evaluate the bottom shear stress and depth-averaged advective terms. The model is verified using analytical solutions and laboratory data for shear-induced countercurrent flows and is compared with other two- and three-dimensional circulation models in a simplified basin. It is demonstrated that the newly developed model improves the conventional two-dimensional depth-averaged and Quasi-3D models and provides a new approach to the three-dimensional wind-induced circulation model. It can efficiently simulate the wind-induced 3D current structure in lakes and estuaries under isothermal conditions.

  17. Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, C A; Sun, Z; Wittwer, V J; Popa, D; Milana, S; Kulmala, T S; Sundaram, R S; Mangold, M; Sieber, O D; Golling, M; Lee, Y; Ahn, J H; Ferrari, A C; Keller, U

    2013-12-16

    We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.

  18. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices.

    PubMed

    Kerckhoven, Vivien Van; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-10

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

  19. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  20. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  1. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  2. Vertical stratification of matrix production is essential for physical integrity and architecture of macrocolony biofilms of E scherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Diego O.; Klauck, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial macrocolony biofilms grow into intricate three‐dimensional structures that depend on self‐produced extracellular polymers conferring protection, cohesion and elasticity to the biofilm. In E scherichia coli, synthesis of this matrix – consisting of amyloid curli fibres and cellulose – requires CsgD, a transcription factor regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, and occurs in the nutrient‐deprived cells of the upper layer of macrocolonies. Is this asymmetric matrix distribution functionally important or is it just a fortuitous by‐product of an unavoidable nutrient gradient? In order to address this question, the RpoS‐dependent csgD promoter was replaced by a vegetative promoter. This re‐wiring of csgD led to CsgD and matrix production in both strata of macrocolonies, with the lower layer transforming into a rigid ‘base plate’ of growing yet curli‐connected cells. As a result, the two strata broke apart followed by desiccation and exfoliation of the top layer. By contrast, matrix‐free cells at the bottom of wild‐type macrocolonies maintain colony contact with the humid agar support by flexibly filling the space that opens up under buckling areas of the macrocolony. Precisely regulated stratification in matrix‐free and matrix‐producing cell layers is thus essential for the physical integrity and architecture of E . coli macrocolony biofilms. PMID:26234179

  3. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-10-11

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  4. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  5. Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

  6. Integrated liquid chromatography method in enantioselective studies: Biodegradation of ofloxacin by an activated sludge consortium.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alexandra S; Castro, Paula M L; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Ofloxacin is a chiral fluoroquinolone commercialized as racemate and as its enantiomerically pure form levofloxacin. This work presents an integrated liquid chromatography (LC) method with fluorescence detection (FD) and exact mass spectrometry (EMS) developed to assess the enantiomeric biodegradation of ofloxacin and levofloxacin in laboratory-scale microcosms. The optimized enantioseparation conditions were achieved using a macrocyclic antibiotic ristocetin A-bonded CSP (150×2.1mm i.d.; particle size 5μm) under reversed-phase elution mode. The method was validated using a mineral salts medium as matrix and presented selectivity and linearity over a concentration range from 5μgL(-1) (quantification limit) to 350μgL(-1) for each enantiomer. The method was successfully applied to evaluate biodegradation of ofloxacin enantiomers at 250μgL(-1) by an activated sludge inoculum. Ofloxacin (racemic mixture) and (S)-enantiomer (levofloxacin) were degraded up to 58 and 52%, respectively. An additional degradable carbon source, acetate, enhanced biodegradation up to 23%. (S)-enantiomer presented the highest extent of degradation (66.8%) when ofloxacin was supplied along with acetate. Results indicated slightly higher biodegradation extents for the (S)-enantiomer when supplementation was done with ofloxacin. Degradation occurred faster in the first 3days and proceeded slowly until the end of the assays. The chromatographic results from LC-FD suggested the formation of the (R)-enantiomer during levofloxacin biodegradation which was confirmed by LC-MS with a LTQ Orbitrap XL.

  7. Integrated design of cryogenic refrigerator and liquid-nitrogen circulation loop for HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    A new concept of cryogenic cooling system is proposed and investigated for application to long-length HTS cables. One of major obstacles to the cable length of 1 km or longer is the difficulty in circulating liquid nitrogen (LN) along the cables, since the temperature rise and pressure drop of LN flow could be excessively large. This study attempts a breakthrough by integrating the refrigerator with the LN circulation loop in order to eliminate the cryogenic LN pumps, and generate a large LN flow with the power of compressors at ambient temperature. A variety of thermodynamic structures are investigated on standard and modified Claude cycles, where nitrogen is used as refrigerant and the LN circulation loop is included as part of the closed cycle. Four proposed cycles are fully analyzed and optimized with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS) to evaluate the FOM (figure of merit) and examine the feasibility. The modified dual-pressure cycle cooled with expander stream is recommended for long HTS cables.

  8. Integration of a Cryocooler into a SQUID Magnetospinography System for Reduction of Liquid Helium Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Daisuke; Kawai, Jun; Ogata, Hisanao; Uehara, Gen

    We are currently developing a magnetospinography (MSG) system for noninvasive functional imaging of the spinal cord. The MSG system is a device for observing a weak magnetic field accompanied by the neural activity of the spinal cord by using an array of low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic flux sensors. As in the case of other biomagnetic measurement systems such as the magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, the running cost of the MSG system is mainly dependent on the liquid helium (LHe) consumption of a dewar vessel. We integrated a cryocooler into the MSG system to reduce LHe consumption. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cooling power of 0.5Wat 4 K was placed adjacent to a magnetically shielded room and was directly connected to the thermal radiation shield of the dewar by an electrically isolated transfer tube. Cold helium gas was circulated between the cryocooler and the radiation shield. Consequently, the temperature of the radiation shield decreased below 40 K. Previous studies have shown that the detection of a weak magnetic field is often hindered by severe low-frequency band noise from the cryocooler. However, the band of the MSG signals is much higher than that of the cryocooler noise. Therefore, the noise can be filtered out and has a less detrimental effect on MSG measurement than on other biomagnetic field measurements such as MEG measurement. As a result, LHe consumption was reduced by 46%, with no increase in the noise floor.

  9. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  10. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  11. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  12. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  13. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.

    2016-04-01

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.

  14. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  15. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  16. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Liebson, Lindsay

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  17. Measuring absorption coefficient of scattering liquids using a tube inside an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Veenstra, Colin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-04-10

    A method for measuring the absorption coefficient μa of absorbing and scattering liquid samples is presented. The sample is injected into a small transparent tube mounted through an integrating sphere. Two models for determining the absorption coefficient using the relative optical output signal are described and validated using aqueous ink absorbers of 0.5 vol.% (0.3  mm-1a<1.55  mm-1) and 1.0 vol.% (1.0  mm-1a<4.0  mm-1) concentrations with 1 vol.% (μs'≈1.4  mm-1) and 10 vol.% (μs'≈14  mm-1) Intralipid dilutions. The low concentrations give μa and μs values, which are comparable with those of biological tissues. One model assumes a uniform light distribution within the sample, which is valid for low absorption. Another model considers light attenuation that obeys Lambert-Beer's law, which may be used for relatively high absorption. Measurements with low and high scattering samples are done for the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Measured spectra of purely absorbing samples are within 15% agreement with measurements using standard transmission spectrophotometry. For 0.5 vol.% ink absorbers and at wavelengths below 700 nm, measured μa values are higher for samples with low scattering and lower for those with high scattering. At wavelengths above 700 nm, measured μa values do not vary significantly with amount of scattering. For 1.0 vol.% ink absorbers, measured spectra do not change with low scattering. These results indicate that the method can be used for measuring absorption spectra of scattering liquid samples with optical properties similar to biological absorbers, particularly at wavelengths above 700 nm, which is difficult to accomplish with standard transmission spectrophotometry.

  18. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

    2012-04-01

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to δ2H and δ18O measurement errors (Δδ2H and Δδ18O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, mBB, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, mNB. These metrics are used to correct for Δδ2H and Δδ18O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and Δδ18O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while Δδ2H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with mNB. Using the isotope error versus mNB and mBB curves, Δδ2H and Δδ18O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 ‰ and 0.25 ‰ respectively, while Δδ2H and Δδ18O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 ‰ and 0.22 ‰. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique

  19. Structural properties of liquid N-methylacetamide via ab initio, path integral, and classical molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, T. W.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

    2006-03-01

    In order to better understand the physical interactions that stabilize protein secondary structure, the neat liquid state of a peptidic fragment, N-methylacetamide (NMA), was studied using computer simulation. Three different descriptions of the molecular liquid were examined: an empirical force field treatment with classical nuclei, an empirical force field treatment with quantum mechanical nuclei, and an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) treatment. The DFT electronic structure was evaluated using the BLYP approximate functional and a plane wave basis set. The different physical effects probed by the three models, such as quantum dispersion, many-body polarization, and nontrivial charge distributions on the liquid properties, were compared. Much of the structural ordering in the liquid is characterized by hydrogen bonded chains of NMA molecules. Modest structural differences are present among the three models of liquid NMA. The average molecular dipole in the liquid under the ab initio treatment, however, is enhanced by 60% over the gas phase value.

  20. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  1. Continuous transfer of liquid metal droplets across a fluid-fluid interface within an integrated microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Gol, Berrak; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J; Kurdzinski, Michael E; Tang, Shi-Yang; Petersen, Phred; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-06-07

    Micro scale liquid metal droplets have been hailed as the potential key building blocks of future micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). However, most of the current liquid metal enabled systems involve millimeter scale droplets, which are manually injected onto the desired locations of the microchip. Despite its simplicity, this method is impractical for patterning large arrays or complex systems based on micro scale droplets. Here, we present a microfluidic chip, which integrates continuous generation of micro scale galinstan droplets in glycerol, and the hydrodynamic transfer of these droplets into sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Observation via high-speed imaging along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis are utilised to comprehend the lateral migration of droplets from the glycerol to NaOH fluid. This platform is simple, can be readily integrated into other microfluidic systems, and creates flexibility by separating the continuous phase for droplet generation from the eventual target carrier fluid within a monolithic chip.

  2. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production.

  3. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications--Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy).

    PubMed

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-06-30

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results.

  4. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others.

  5. Degree of Vertical Integration Between the Undergraduate Program and Clinical Internship with Respect to Lumbopelvic Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    PubMed Central

    Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. Methods: A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Results: Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. Conclusion: This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college. PMID:20480014

  6. Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

    2014-04-15

    We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of ∼0.6  V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ∼50  GHz at -2  V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50  Gb/s operation under 2.5  Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88  dB/100  μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration.

  7. Oblique incidence of semi-guided waves on step-like folds in planar dielectric slabs: Lossless vertical interconnects in 3D integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Andre; Alhaddad, Samer; Hammer, Manfred; Förstner, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Semi-guided light propagation across linear folds of slab waveguides is being considered. Radiation losses vanish beyond certain critical angles of incidence, as can be understood by arguments resembling Snell's law. One thus realizes lossless propagation through 90-degree corner configurations, where the remaining guided waves are still subject to pronounced reflection and polarization conversion. A step-like system of two of these sharp corners can then be viewed as a system akin to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, with two partial reflectors at a distance given by the vertical separation of the slab cores. The respective resonance effect enables full transmission of semiguided, laterally plane waves through the step structures. One obtains a configuration that optically connects guiding layers at different elevation levels in a 3-D integrated optical chip, without radiation losses, over large distances, and reasonably broadband. We show rigorous quasi-analytical results for typical high-contrast Si/SiO2 structures. Although the full-transmission effect requires a symmetric system, here realized by slab waveguides with a silicon core sandwiched between thick silica substrate and cover layers, simulations for configurations with air cover show that a certain asymmetry can well be afforded.

  8. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications—Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results. PMID:26134108

  9. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  10. A phase separation method for analyses of fluoroquinones in meats based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction and a new integrated device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Xu, Youqu; Wang, Wenwei; Zheng, Lian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted, salt-induced, liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones in meats by HPLC analysis. The novel integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE (high density polyethylene) parts that were used to separate the solvent from the aqueous solution prior to retrieving the extractant. The extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design: 589μL of acetone solvent, pH2.1, 4.1min extraction time and 3.5g of Na2SO4. The limits of detection were 0.056-0.64 μgkg(-1) and recoveries were 87.2-110.6% for the five fluoroquinones in muscle tissue from fish, chicken, pork and beef. This method is easily constructed from inexpensive materials, extraction efficiency is high, and the approach is compatible with HPLC analysis. Thus, it has excellent prospects for sample pre-treatment and analysis of fluoroquinones in meat samples.

  11. An Integrated Ignition and Combustion System for Liquid Propellant Micro Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    STATEMENT Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Liquid monopropellant microthrusters utilizing electrolytic ignition were...order to evaluate the applicability of the technology to high temperature combustion systems. Microscale diffusion flames were stabilized in the burners...nitrate based liquid monopropellants by electrolytic decomposition. The volume of the thruster combustion chamber was 0.82 mm3. The microthruster was

  12. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silane provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.

  13. Advances in numerical solutions to integral equations in liquid state theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jesse J.

    Solvent effects play a vital role in the accurate description of the free energy profile for solution phase chemical and structural processes. The inclusion of solvent effects in any meaningful theoretical model however, has proven to be a formidable task. Generally, methods involving Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used, but they either fail to accurately describe the solvent effects or require an exhaustive computation effort to overcome sampling problems. An alternative to these methods are the integral equations (IEs) of liquid state theory which have become more widely applicable due to recent advancements in the theory of interaction site fluids and the numerical methods to solve the equations. In this work a new numerical method is developed based on a Newton-type scheme coupled with Picard/MDIIS routines. To extend the range of these numerical methods to large-scale data systems, the size of the Jacobian is reduced using basis functions, and the Newton steps are calculated using a GMRes solver. The method is then applied to calculate solutions to the 3D reference interaction site model (RISM) IEs of statistical mechanics, which are derived from first principles, for a solute model of a pair of parallel graphene plates at various separations in pure water. The 3D IEs are then extended to electrostatic models using an exact treatment of the long-range Coulomb interactions for negatively charged walls and DNA duplexes in aqueous electrolyte solutions to calculate the density profiles and solution thermodynamics. It is found that the 3D-IEs provide a qualitative description of the density distributions of the solvent species when compared to MD results, but at a much reduced computational effort in comparison to MD simulations. The thermodynamics of the solvated systems are also qualitatively reproduced by the IE results. The findings of this work show the IEs to be a valuable tool for the study and prediction of

  14. Synergistic benefits of ionic liquid and alkaline pretreatments of poplar wood. Part 1: effect of integrated pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tong-Qi; Wang, Wei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-09-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses and lignin from poplar wood by ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment coupled with mild alkaline extraction. Hemicellulosic and lignin fractions were obtained in high yields, amounting to 59.3% and 74.4%, respectively, which can served as raw materials for production of value-added products. The yield of glucose for the integrated pretreated poplar wood was 99.2%, while it was just 19.2% for the untreated material. The synergistic benefits of the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses, the increase of the cellulose surface area, and the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase resulted in the high glucose yield for the integrated pretreated substrate. Therefore, the IL based biorefining strategy proposed can integrate biofuels production into a biorefinery scheme in which the major components of poplar wood can be converted into value-added products.

  15. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further.

  16. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Yosra Sr; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose.

  17. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2016-01-01

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. PMID:27822033

  18. A novel liquid plasma AOP device integrating microwaves and ultrasounds and its evaluation in defluorinating perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Susumu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-09-01

    A simplified and energy-saving integrated device consisting of a microwave applicator and an ultrasonic homogenizer has been fabricated to generate liquid plasma in a medium possessing high dielectric factors, for example water. The microwave waveguide and the ultrasonic transducer were interconnected through a tungsten/titanium alloy stick acting both as the microwave antenna and as the horn of the ultrasonic homogenizer. Both microwaves and ultrasonic waves are simultaneously transmitted to the aqueous media through the tungsten tip of the antenna. The microwave discharge liquid plasma was easily generated in solution during ultrasonic cavitation. The simple device was evaluated by carrying out the degradation of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a system highly recalcitrant to degradation by conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). PFOA is 59% degraded in an aqueous medium after only 90 s of irradiation by the plasma. Intermediates were identified by electrospray mass spectral techniques in the negative ion mode.

  19. Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Hung-Shan; Xiao, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-02-15

    We present a three dimensional (3D) micro integral imaging display system with extended depth of focus by using a polarized bifocal liquid crystal lens. This lens and other optical components are combined as the relay optical element. The focal length of the relay optical element can be controlled to project an elemental image array in multiple positions with various lenslet image planes, by applying different voltages to the liquid crystal lens. The depth of focus of the proposed system can therefore be extended. The feasibility of our proposed system is experimentally demonstrated. In our experiments, the depth of focus of the display system is extended from 3.82 to 109.43 mm.

  20. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  1. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Animesh Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  2. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  3. Effects of the vertically switching electric field on the photoelectric properties of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal cells using the director model.

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng-Yu; Qiu, Shi-Hao; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Chen, Tien-Jung; Yang, Yin-Jay; Wu, Jin-Jei

    2017-03-20

    This study uses the director model to analyze the optoelectronic properties of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC). The director model revealed a linear relationship of refractive index change and the cosine squared of the angle between the LCs and the direction of the electric field. Moreover, we employed simulations based on the Kerr effect and compared the results with those of the director model. The simulation results also show high consistency with real circumstances. Consequently, it can be of great help to design BPLC displays that can be applied to adopting better strategies for developing next-generation LCD devices.

  4. In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

    2013-05-28

    Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks.

  5. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  6. Development of Liquid Crystal Display Panel Integrated with Drivers Using Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi Osada,; Kengo Akimoto,; Takehisa Sato,; Masataka Ikeda,; Masashi Tsubuku,; Junichiro Sakata,; Jun Koyama,; Tadashi Serikawa,; Shunpei Yamazaki,

    2010-03-01

    We designed, prototyped, and evaluated a liquid crystal panel integrated with a gate driver and a source driver using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). Using bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) thin film transistors, superior characteristics could be obtained. We obtained TFT characteristics with little variation even when the thickness of the gate insulator (GI) film was reduced owing to etching of source/drain (S/D) wiring, which is a typical process for the BGBC TFT. Moreover, a favorable ON-state current was obtained even when an In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer was formed over the S/D electrode. Since the upper portion of the In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer is not etched, the BGBC structure is predicted to be effective in thinning the In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer in the future. Upon evaluation, we found that the prototyped liquid crystal panel integrated with the gate and source drivers using the TFTs with improved characteristics had stable drive.

  7. Integrating stimulation practices with geo-mechanical properties in liquid-rich plays of Eagle Ford Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Ahmed

    Many of the techniques for hydraulically fracturing design were attempted in the liquid-rich Eagle Ford developments. This study shows why different results were observed due to the variation of geomechanical stresses of the rock across a play and related reservoir properties. An optimum treatment for a liquids-rich objective is much different than that for a gas shale due primarily to the multiphase flow and higher viscosities encountered. This study presents a new treatment workflow for liquids-rich window of Eagle Ford Shale. Review and integration of data from multiple sets across the play are used as input to a 3D hydraulic fracture simulator to model key fracture parameters which control production enhancement. These results are then used within a production analysis and forecast, well optimization, and economic model to compare treatment designs with the best placement of proppant to deliver both high initial production and long term ultimate recoveries. A key focus for this workflow is to maximize proppant transport to achieve a continuous - optimum conductive - fracture half length. Often, due to the complexity of unconventional deposition, it is difficult to maintain complete connectivity of a proppant pack back to the wellbore. As a result, much of the potential of the fracture network is lost. Understanding the interaction of a hydraulic fracture and the rock fabric helps with designing this behavior to achieve the best results. These results are used to determine optimum well spacing to effectively develop within a selected reservoir acreage. Currently, numerous wells exist with over two years of production history in much of the Eagle Ford shale formation. Results from this study are used to compare values from field production to demonstrate the importance of employing a diligent workflow in integrating reservoir and operational parameters to the fracture design. A proper understanding and application of hydraulic fracturing modeling is achieved

  8. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Lastly, cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane.

  9. CO2-binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Zheng, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 °C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; ...

    2016-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in themore » microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Lastly, cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane.« less

  11. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane. PMID:26831599

  12. Molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid cytotoxicity probed by an integrated experimental and computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Jones, Stuart E.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Zhu, Yingxi; Shah, Jindal K.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called “green solvents” because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane.

  13. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  14. Polymer-embedded colloidal lead-sulfide nanocrystals integrated to vertically slotted silicon-based ring resonators for telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Markus; Guider, Romain; Hackl, Florian; Fromherz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The main drawback of the rapidly evolving field of silicon photonics lies in the absence of efficient monolithically integrated radiation sources as a consequence of the indirect bandgap of Si and Ge. Relevant alternatives based on the hybrid combination of Si with optically active materials have to be technologically simple, temporally stable, and provide efficient coupling to the Si waveguides. Lead-sulfide nanocrystals (NCs) were blended into a polymer resist suitable for deep-UV- and electron-beam lithography and integrated into Si-based vertically slotted waveguides and ring resonators. The polymer both stabilizes the NC's photoluminescence emission against degradation under ambient conditions and allows lithographic patterning of this compound material. After integration into the optoelectronic structures and upon optical pumping, intense photoluminescence emission from ring resonators was recorded at the output of bus-waveguides. The resonator quality factors were investigated for polymer-NC compounds with NC concentrations in the range between 0.1 and 8 vol%. The spontaneous emission rate enhancement for vertically slotted resonators was estimated to be a factor of two higher as compared to unslotted ones. The stable integration of colloidal NCs as well as the improved light coupling to silicon circuits is an important step in the development of silicon-based hybrid photonics.

  15. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  16. Integration of electrochemistry with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Zheng, Qiuling; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Loo, Joseph A; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with electrochemistry (EC) for the first time and its application for the structural analysis of proteins/peptides that contain disulfide bonds. In our approach, a protein/peptide mixture sample undergoes a fast UPLC separation and subsequent electrochemical reduction in an electrochemical flow cell followed by online MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. The electrochemical cell is coupled to the mass spectrometer using our recently developed desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface. Using this UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method, peptides that contain disulfide bonds can be differentiated from those without disulfide bonds, as the former are electroactive and reducible. MS/MS analysis of the disulfide-reduced peptide ions provides increased information on the sequence and disulfide-linkage pattern. In a reactive DESI- MS detection experiment in which a supercharging reagent was used to dope the DESI spray solvent, increased charging was obtained for the UPLC-separated proteins. Strikingly, upon online electrolytic reduction, supercharged proteins (e.g., α-lactalbumin) showed even higher charging, which will be useful in top- down protein structure MS analysis as increased charges are known to promote protein ion dissociation. Also, the separation speed and sensitivity are enhanced by approximately 1(~)2 orders of magnitude by using UPLC for the liquid chromatography (LC)/EC/MS platform, in comparison to the previously used high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method combines the power of fast UPLC separation, fast electrochemical conversion, and online MS structural analysis for a potentially valuable tool for proteomics research and bioanalysis.

  17. A case study for integrated STEM outreach in an urban setting using a do-it-yourself vertical jump measurement platform.

    PubMed

    Drazan, John F; Danielsen, Heather; Vercelletto, Matthew; Loya, Amy; Davis, James; Eglash, Ron

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and deploy a low cost vertical jump platform using readily available materials for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and outreach in the inner city. The platform was used to measure the jumping ability of participants to introduce students to the collection and analysis of scientific data in an engaging, accessible manner. This system was designed and fabricated by a student team of engineers as part of a socially informed engineering and design class. The vertical jump platform has been utilized in 10 classroom lectures in physics and biology. The system was also used in an after school program in which high school volunteers prepared a basketball based STEM outreach program, and at a community outreach events with over 100 participants. At present, the same group of high school students are now building their own set of vertical jump platform under the mentorship of engineering undergraduates. The construction and usage of the vertical jump platform provides an accessible introduction to the STEM fields within the urban community.

  18. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  19. Proteomic characterization of integral membrane proteins using thermostatted liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah M; Wu, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the hydrophobicity and localization of integral membrane proteins, they are difficult to study using conventional biochemical methods that are compatible with proteomic analyses. This chapter describes the coupling of multiple crucial steps that lead to the optimized shotgun proteomic analysis of integral membrane proteins while maintaining empirical topology information. Namely, a membrane shaving method is utilized to separate protease accessible peptides from membrane embedded peptides and elevated temperatures during chromatographic separation is utilized to augment the recovery of hydrophobic peptides for in-line analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. This combination of steps facilitates increased identification of membrane proteins while also maintaining information regarding protein topology.

  20. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2013-07-30

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2-3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam.

  1. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2–3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam. PMID:26435557

  2. Impact of Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on Multi-Spectral Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud Properties: A Study for the GCOM-C/SGLI Cloud Product by Using A-Train and Landsat-8 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, T. M.; Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius (re) and optical thickness (τc) of liquid water cloud retrieved from multi-spectral measurement of satellite-borne sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are important parameters for understanding of cloud microphysics and droplet growth process. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is scheduling to launch a new earth observation satellite, the Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), in Japan fiscal year 2016. The GCOC-C consists the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) instrument, which is a radiometer providing near-ultraviolet-to-thermal-infrared multi-spectral measurements at 250m-1km resolution with 1150-1400km swath. Motivated by the importance of re and τc retrievals, the GCOM-C/SGLI cloud product also provides them. However, it is pointed out by previous studies that multi-spectral-retrieved re and τc are impacted by cloud vertical and horizontal inhomogeneity. This study investigates the impacts by using A-Train and Landsat-8 data. First, we interpret three re retrievals from 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7µm-band measurements (re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7) in terms of cloud vertical inhomogeneity by using synergistic measurements from the CloudSat/CPR and Aqua/MODIS. For this interpretation, we use an approach called Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), which is a joint frequency diagram of CloudSat/CPR radar reflectivity profile as a function of in-cloud optical depth profile as classified according to retrieved re (Nakajima et al., 2010; Suzuki et al., 2010). The CFODD approach visualizes the linkage of re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7 to cloud droplet vertical profile. Second, we simulate the biases in re and τc retrievals at 1km resolution from the MODIS and SGLI induced by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity by using high-spatial resolution measurements of Landsat-8. And then we suggest two inversion models which estimate the biases in re and τc retrievals by using co

  3. Integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization using metal doped TiO2 and eutectic based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul

    2016-11-01

    A series of metal doped TiO2 namely Fe/TiO2, Cu/TiO2 and Cu-Fe/TiO2 were synthesized and characterized, to be used as a photocatalyst in the integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization for model oil (dodecane) and diesel fuel. The order of the photocatalytic activity was Cu-Fe/TiO2 followed by Cu/TiO2 and then Fe/TiO2. Cu-Fe/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst for sulfur conversion at ambient atmospheric pressure. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the source of oxidant and eutectic-based ionic liquid as the extractant. Sulfur conversion in model oil reached 100%. Removal of sulfur from model oil was done by two times extraction with a removal of 97.06% in the first run and 2.94% in the second run.

  4. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:27389070

  5. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    PubMed Central

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  6. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen.

  7. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-07-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  8. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    PubMed

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions.

  9. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Liquid Water: A Highly Accurate ab initio Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Santra, Biswajit; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we report highly accurate ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulations on liquid water at ambient conditions utilizing the recently developed PBE0+vdW(SC) exchange-correlation functional, which accounts for exact exchange and a self-consistent pairwise treatment of van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion interactions, combined with nuclear quantum effects (via the colored-noise generalized Langevin equation). The importance of each of these effects in the theoretical prediction of the structure of liquid water will be demonstrated by a detailed comparative analysis of the predicted and experimental oxygen-oxygen (O-O), oxygen-hydrogen (O-H), and hydrogen-hydrogen (H-H) radial distribution functions as well as other structural properties. In addition, we will discuss the theoretically obtained proton momentum distribution, computed using the recently developed Feynman path formulation, in light of the experimental deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180.

  10. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-12-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers. Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency and reliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. A comparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load and using heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed for monitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  11. Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  12. High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  13. Comparison of path integral molecular dynamics methods for the infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habershon, Scott; Fanourgakis, George S.; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2008-08-01

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (PA-CMD) methods are compared and contrasted in an application to the infrared absorption spectrum of a recently parametrized flexible, polarizable, Thole-type potential energy model for liquid water. Both methods predict very similar spectra in the low-frequency librational and intramolecular bending region at wavenumbers below 2500 cm-1. However, the RPMD spectrum is contaminated in the high-frequency O-H stretching region by contributions from the internal vibrational modes of the ring polymer. This problem is avoided in the PA-CMD method, which adjusts the elements of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix so as to shift the frequencies of these vibrational modes beyond the spectral range of interest. PA-CMD does not require any more computational effort than RPMD and it is clearly the better of the two methods for simulating vibrational spectra.

  14. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M.

    2016-09-01

    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute-solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute-solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems.

  15. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory.

    PubMed

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-09-01

    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute-solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute-solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems.

  16. Particle settling and vertical mixing in the Saharan Air Layer as seen from an integrated model, lidar, and in situ perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Groß, Silke; Sauer, Daniel; Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2017-01-01

    Long-range transport of aerosol in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) across the Atlantic plays an important role for weather, climate, and ocean fertilization. However, processes occurring within the SAL and their effects on aerosol properties are still unclear. In this work we study particle settling and vertical mixing within the SAL based on measured and modeled vertical aerosol profiles in the upper 1 km of the transported SAL. We use ground-based lidar measurements and airborne particle counter measurements over the western Atlantic, collected during the SALTRACE campaign, as well as space-based CALIOP lidar measurements from Africa to the western Atlantic in the summer season. In our model we take account of the optical properties and the Stokes gravitational settling of irregularly shaped Saharan dust particles.We test two hypotheses about the occurrence of vertical mixing within the SAL over the Atlantic to explain the aerosol profiles observed by the lidars and the particle counter. Our first hypothesis (H1) assumes that no mixing occurs in the SAL leading to a settling-induced separation of particle sizes. The second hypothesis (H2) assumes that vertical mixing occurs in the SAL allowing large super-micron dust particles to stay airborne longer than without mixing. The uncertainties of the particle linear depolarization ratio (δl) profiles measured by the ground-based lidars are comparable to the modeled differences between H1 and H2 and do not allow us to conclude which hypothesis fits better. The SALTRACE in situ data on size-resolved particle number concentrations show a presence of large particles near the SAL top that is inconsistent with H1. The analysis of the CALIOP measurements also reveals that the average δl profile over the western Atlantic is inconsistent with H1. Furthermore, it was found that the average δl profile in the upper 1 km of the SAL does not change along its transport path over the Atlantic. These findings give evidence that

  17. Nickel oxide nanowires: vapor liquid solid synthesis and integration into a gas sensing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, N.; Comini, E.; Zappa, D.; Poli, N.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the field of advanced sensor technology, metal oxide nanostructures are promising materials due to their high charge carrier mobility, easy fabrication and excellent stability. Among all the metal oxide semiconductors, nickel oxide (NiO) is a p-type semiconductor with a wide band gap and excellent optical, electrical and magnetic properties, which has not been much investigated. Herein, we report the growth of NiO nanowires by using the vapor liquid solid (VLS) technique for gas sensing applications. Platinum, palladium and gold have been used as a catalyst for the growth of NiO nanowires. The surface morphology of the nanowires was investigated through scanning electron microscopy to find out which catalyst and growth conditions are best for the growth of nanowires. GI-XRD and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the crystalline structure of the material. Different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards different gas species such as carbon monoxide, ethanol, acetone and hydrogen have been explored. NiO nanowire sensors show interesting and promising performances towards hydrogen.

  18. Integrated separation scheme for coal-derived liquids using ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, M.G.; Johns, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    A separation scheme for coal-derived liquids has been developed that separates by functionality into discrete compound classes using ion-exchange resins; neutrals are further subdivided into fractions differing in polarity, structure, and molecular weight by adsorption chromatography. Sufficient material can be separated to allow further characterization at both gross structural and molecular levels. It gives excellent overall reproducibility (+/- 4%) and recovery (>97%). Removal of acidic and base species prior to recovery of the liquefaction solvent by distillation is a major advantage of the method because it leads to a reduction both in the loss of lower boiling components and in the potential thermal alteration of the sample. The selectivity and discrimination of the procedure are demonstrated for a Victorian brown coal (Loy Yang field) liquefaction product as shown by spectroscopic and chemical analyses of its major fractions. The use of this method as a chemical probe can facilitate investigation of liquefaction mechanisms by enabling a ready selection for analysis of components varying according to a choice of parameters encompassing functionality, polarity, and structure. 29 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Quantitative determination of saccharides in dietary glyconutritional products by anion-exchange liquid chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Eberendu, Alexis R; Booth, Christy; Luta, Gabriela; Edwards, Joshua A; McAnalley, Bill H

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for the assay of carbohydrates is described in which separation and quantification of neutral saccharides, aminosaccharides, glycuronic acids, and disaccharides may be accomplished in less than 50 min of total run time. This method involves optimized anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulse amperometric detection. Complex carbohydrates from various sources, including dietary supplements, were hydrolyzed in a dilute solution of trifluoroacetic acid, freeze-dried, and reconstituted in water containing 2-deoxygalactose as the internal standard. The solution was filtered and separated on CarboPac PA20 column. The eluted saccharides were detected by oxidation on a gold electrode with quadruple-pulsed integrated amperometry. The calibration plots for the saccharides were linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.999. Method precision regarding peak retention time and resolution used in the peak identifications was verified. With this method, previously difficult-to-separate saccharides, such as galactosamine, glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine, were successfully resolved from the neutral saccharides rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose. Mannose was also resolved from xylose, and de-acetylation of aminosaccharides prior to separation was not necessary. This technique provides an accurate and efficient means to assay carbohydrates in dietary supplements, which new federal regulations will soon mandate.

  20. Polymer Microchips Integrating Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Reversed-Phase Polymethacrylate Monoliths

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jikun; Chen, C. F.; Tsao, C. W.; Chang, C. C.; Chu, C. C.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer microfluidic chips employing in situ photopolymerized polymethacrylate monoliths for high performance liquid chromatography separations of peptides is described. The integrated chip design employs a 15 cm long separation column containing a reversed-phase polymethacrylate monolith as a stationary phase, with its front end seamlessly coupled to a 5 mm long methacrylate monolith which functions as a solid phase extraction (SPE) element for sample cleanup and enrichment, serving to increase both detection sensitivity and separation performance. In addition to sample concentration and separation, solvent splitting is also performed on-chip, allowing the use of a conventional LC pump for the generation of on-chip nano-flow solvent gradients. The integrated platform takes advantage of solvent bonding and a novel high-pressure needle interface which together enable the polymer chips to withstand internal pressures above 20 MPa (~2,900 psi) for efficient pressure-driven HPLC separations. Gradient reversed-phase separation of fluorescein-labeled model peptides and BSA tryptic digest are demonstrated using the microchip HPLC system. On-line removal of free fluorescein and enrichment of labeled proteins are simultaneously achieved using the on-chip SPE column, resulting in a 150-fold improvement in sensitivity and a 10-fold reduction in peak width in the following microchip gradient LC separation. PMID:19267447

  1. Spatial and temporal variabilities in vertical structure of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Bay of Bengal during Winter Phase of Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahamanyam, D. Bala; Anurose, T. J.; Kumar, N. V. P. Kiran; Mohan, Mannil; Kunhikrishnan, P. K.; John, Sherine Rachel; Prijith, S. S.; Dutt, C. B. S.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variabilities in the vertical structure of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are investigated through a ship-borne field experiment measurements pertaining to three different classes, namely: night, morning and afternoon conditions. High-resolution vertical profiles of meteorological parameters obtained through balloon-borne GPS Sondes during the Winter phase of Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (W-ICARB) formed the primary database for the present investigation. The study advocates usage of wind shear profiles in association with virtual potential temperature (θv) and specific humidity (q) profiles for determination of the mixed layer heights (MLH). The mean values of turbulent flow thickness (TFT) obtained from the vertical profiles of Bulk Richardson Number (RiB) and MLH magnitudes for the entire cruise did not show any appreciable variations for three classes. During the entire cruise period, the MLH varied in a range from 450 m to 1500 m with a mean of about 900 m, whereas the TFT variations were confined between 125 m and 1475 m with a mean of about 581 m. The statistical means of TFT and MLH were similar for nighttime profiles, whereas they showed significant differences in the morning and afternoon conditions. Spatio-temporal variability in the MLH showed good correlation with the surface-layer sensible heat flux which is one of the driving mechanisms in mixing processes.

  2. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  3. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  4. Efficient solution of liquid state integral equations using the Newton-GMRES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Michael J.; Schlijper, A. G.; Scales, L. E.; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1999-06-01

    We present examples of the accurate, robust and efficient solution of Ornstein-Zernike type integral equations which describe the structure of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous fluids. In this work we use the Newton-GMRES algorithm as implemented in the public-domain nonlinear Krylov solvers NKSOL [ P. Brown, Y. Saad, SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 11 (1990) 450] and NITSOL [ M. Pernice, H.F. Walker, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 19 (1998) 302]. We compare and contrast this method with more traditional approaches in the literature, using Picard iteration (successive-substitution) and hybrid Newton-Raphson and Picard methods, and a recent vector extrapolation method [ H.H.H. Homeier, S. Rast, H. Krienke, Comput. Phys. Commun. 92 (1995) 188]. We find that both the performance and ease of implementation of these nonlinear solvers recommend them for the solution of this class of problem.

  5. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Tandra; Maiti, Ashok K.; Naskar, Sukla; Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cervical cells were also analyzed in respect to their electrical bioimpedance. Result: The results show that newly developed monolayer technique for cervical smears is cost effective, capable of cyto-pathological evaluation. Electrical bioimpedance study evidenced distinction between abnormal and normal cell population at more than two order of magnitude difference. Conclusion: The integration of bioimpedance observation along with the proposed low-cost monolayer technology could increase the efficiency of the cervical screening to a greater extent thereby reducing the rates of faulty diagnosis. PMID:25745281

  6. Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

  7. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Integration of structure and property measurements in a Paris-Edinburgh cell (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the structure and physical properties of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures is important in understanding dynamics and evolution of the Earth and other planets. However, understanding the physics of liquid materials remains a challenge, especially under high pressure and high temperature conditions. We have recently developed an integrated setup for multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, ultrasonic measurement, and falling sphere viscometer using a Paris-Edinburgh press at sector 16-BM-B, HPCAT, at the APS, for comprehensively studying structures and physical properties of liquids and amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The sector 16-BM-B is capable of amorphous and liquid structure measurements by using multi-angle energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique at high pressure and high temperature conditions in a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell (e.g., Yamada et al., 2011). The PE cell is capable of compressing large volume samples (typically >1 mm3) up to 7 GPa at temperatures exceed 2000 °C. In addition to the liquid and amorphous structure measurement capability, we have developed ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and falling sphere viscosity techniques in the PE cell. The elastic wave velocity is measured by ultrasonic pulse echo overlap method in conjunction with white x-ray radiography measurement for determining the wave travel distance (Kono et al., 2012). The falling sphere viscosity measurements are made with high-speed white x-ray radiography (>1000 frame/second) (Kono et al., 2013). The integration of liquid structure measurement with elastic wave velocity measurement and viscosity measurement in the PE cell provides a unique opportunity to investigate in situ correlation between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of liquids and amorphous solids. Knowledge of the correlation will provide valuable constraints for modeling liquid properties at high pressures and high temperatures, and

  8. Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: integrated molecular dynamics--statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach.

    PubMed

    Ilk Capar, M; Nar, A; Ferrarini, A; Frezza, E; Greco, C; Zakharov, A V; Vakulenko, A A

    2013-03-21

    The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

  9. Time-series integrated "omic" analyses to elucidate short-term stress-induced responses in plant liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Kanani, Harin; Quackenbush, John; Klapa, Maria I

    2009-01-01

    The research that aims at furthering our understanding of plant primary metabolism has intensified during the last decade. The presented study validated a systems biology methodological framework for the analysis of stress-induced molecular interaction networks in the context of plant primary metabolism, as these are expressed during the first hours of the stress treatment. The framework involves the application of time-series integrated full-genome transcriptomic and polar metabolomic analyses on plant liquid cultures. The latter were selected as the model system for this type of analysis, because they provide a well-controlled growth environment, ensuring that the observed plant response is due only to the applied perturbation. An enhanced gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomic data correction strategy and a new algorithm for the significance analysis of time-series "omic" data are used to extract information about the plant's transcriptional and metabolic response to the applied stress from the acquired datasets; in this article, it is the first time that these are applied for the analysis of a large biological dataset from a complex eukaryotic system. The case-study involved Arabidopsis thaliana liquid cultures subjected for 30 h to elevated (1%) CO2 stress. The advantages and validity of the methodological framework are discussed in the context of the known A. thaliana or plant, in general, physiology under the particular stress. Of note, the ability of the methodology to capture dynamic aspects of the observed molecular response allowed for 9 and 24 h of treatment to be indicated as corresponding to shifts in both the transcriptional and metabolic activity; analysis of the pathways through which these activity changes are manifested provides insight to regulatory processes.

  10. Obtaining the solid-liquid interfacial free energy via multi-scheme thermodynamic integration: Ag-ethylene glycol interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Ya; Fichthorn, Kristen A.

    2016-11-01

    The solid-liquid interfacial free energy γs l is an important quantity in wetting, nucleation, and crystal growth. Although various methods have been developed to calculate γs l with atomic-scale simulations, such calculations still remain challenging for multi-component interfaces between molecular fluids and solids. We present a multi-scheme thermodynamic integration method that is inspired by the "cleaving-wall" method and aimed at obtaining γs l for such systems using open-source simulation packages. This method advances two aspects of its predecessor methods. First, we incorporate separate schemes to resolve difficulties when manipulating periodic boundary conditions of the supercell using open-source simulation packages. Second, we introduce a numerical approximation to obtain thermodynamic integrands for complex force fields when an analytical differentiation is not readily available. To demonstrate this method, we obtain γs l for interfaces between Ag(100) and Ag(111) and ethylene glycol (EG). These interfacial free energies mirror interfacial potential energies for each facet. We also estimate entropies of interface formation and these are consistent with theoretical predictions in signs and trends. For the Ag-EG systems, we find that the largest contribution to γs l is the free energy to create the bare metal surfaces. The second-largest contribution to γs l is from the liquid-solid interaction. This user-friendly method will accelerate investigation in a broad range of research topics, such as the thermodynamic effect of structure-directing agents in solution-phase shape-controlled nanocrystal syntheses.

  11. Recovery of ammonia from domestic wastewater effluents as liquid fertilizers by integration of natural zeolites and hollow fibre membrane contactors.

    PubMed

    Sancho, I; Licon, E; Valderrama, C; de Arespacochaga, N; López-Palau, S; Cortina, J L

    2017-04-15

    The integration of up-concentration processes to increase the efficiency of primary sedimentation, as a solution to achieve energy neutral wastewater treatment plants, requires further post-treatment due to the missing ammonium removal stage. This study evaluated the use of zeolites as a post-treatment step, an alternative to the biological removal process. A natural granular clinoptilolite zeolite was evaluated as a sorbent media to remove low levels (up to 100mg-N/L) of ammonium from treated wastewater using batch and fixed bed columns. After being activated to the Na-form (Z-Na), the granular zeolite shown an ammonium exchange capacity of 29±0.8mgN-NH4(+)/g in single ammonium solutions and 23±0.8mgN-NH4(+)/g in treated wastewater simulating up-concentration effluent at pH=8. The equilibrium removal data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm. The ammonium adsorption into zeolites is a very fast process when compared with polymeric materials (zeolite particle diffusion coefficient around 3×10(-12)m(2)/s). Column experiments with solutions containing 100mgN-NH4(+)/L provide effective sorption and elution rates with concentration factors between 20 and 30 in consecutive operation cycles. The loaded zeolite was regenerated using 2g NaOH/L solution and the rich ammonium/ammonia concentrates 2-3g/L in NaOH were used in a liquid-liquid membrane contactor system in a closed-loop configuration with nitric and phosphoric acid as stripping solutions. The ammonia recovery ratio exceeded 98%. Ammonia nitrate and di-ammonium phosphate concentrated solutions reached up to 2-5% wt. of N.

  12. Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: Integrated molecular dynamics—Statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, M. Ilk; Nar, A.; Ferrarini, A.; Frezza, E.; Greco, C.; Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio.

  13. Coexistence of low and high overlap phases in a supercooled liquid: An integral equation investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Pastore, Giorgio; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2017-03-01

    The pair structure, free energy, and configurational overlap order parameter Q of an annealed system of two weakly coupled replicas of a supercooled "soft sphere" fluid are determined by solving the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and self-consistent Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions ρ (number-density), T (temperature), and inter-replicas couplings ɛ12. Analysis of the resulting effective (or Landau) potential W(ρ,T; Q) and of its derivative with respect to Q confirms the existence of a "precursor transition" between weak and strong overlap phases below a critical temperature Tc well above the temperature To of the "ideal glass" transition observed in the limit ɛ12→0 . The precursor transition is signalled by a loss of convexity of the potential W(Q) and by a concomitant discontinuity of the order parameter Q just below Tc, which crosses over to a mean-field-like van der Waals loop at lower temperatures. The HNC and RY equations lead to the same phase transition scenario, with quantitative differences in the predicted temperatures Tc and To.

  14. Spectral interferometric sensors for gases and liquids using integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingenhoff, Jan; Gauglitz, Guenter; Fabricius, Norbert

    1993-04-01

    Investigations for a sensor application with an integrated optical (IO) interferometric arrangement are presented. One of the two waveguide arms of an IO-Mach-Zehnder- interferometer is covered with a thin layer of polysiloxane (superstrate), which is sensitive to hydrocarbons. The dielectric IO-devices are fabricated by IOT. Gases of organic compounds including halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons cause a change of the polysiloxan's refractive index followed by an increase or decrease of the effective refractive index of the covered waveguide arm. The resulting phase shift between the guided light in the measuring and the reference arm depends on the detection wavelength and the concentration of gas. Using an LED as the light source the spectral interferogram becomes observable and so order and phase of the signal can be determined. The aim of this work is the development of a reversibly working, miniaturized sensor with a short response time. The advantages of spectral observation of the interference are discussed. A comparison between measured and calculated spectral interference signals is given.

  15. How to (or not to) integrate vertical programmes for the control of major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kabatereine, Narcis B; Malecela, Mwele; Lado, Mounir; Zaramba, Sam; Amiel, Olga; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2010-06-29

    Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT) to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes.

  16. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting. PMID:26439164

  17. Microfluidic White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on Integrated Patterns of Greenish-Blue and Yellow Solvent-Free Liquid Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naofumi; Kasahara, Takashi; Edura, Tomohiko; Oshima, Juro; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Tsuwaki, Miho; Imato, Toshihiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrated a novel microfluidic white organic light-emitting diode (microfluidic WOLED) based on integrated sub-100-μm-wide microchannels. Single-μm-thick SU-8-based microchannels, which were sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and cathode pairs, were fabricated by photolithography and heterogeneous bonding technologies. 1-Pyrenebutyric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester (PLQ) was used as a solvent-free greenish-blue liquid emitter, while 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6,12-diphenyltetracene (TBRb)-doped PLQ was applied as a yellow liquid emitter. In order to form the liquid white light-emitting layer, the greenish-blue and yellow liquid emitters were alternately injected into the integrated microchannels. The fabricated electro-microfluidic device successfully exhibited white electroluminescence (EL) emission via simultaneous greenish-blue and yellow emissions under an applied voltage of 100 V. A white emission with Commission Internationale de l’Declairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.40, 0.42) was also obtained; the emission corresponds to warm-white light. The proposed device has potential applications in subpixels of liquid-based microdisplays and for lighting.

  18. Conformational Properties of a Polymer in an Ionic Liquid: Computer Simulations and Integral Equation Theory of a Coarse-Grained Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsong; Yethiraj, Arun

    2015-07-23

    We study the conformational properties of polymers in room temperature ionic liquids using theory and simulations of a coarse-grained model. Atomistic simulations have shown that single poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) molecules in the ionic liquid 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) are expanded at room temperature (i.e., the radius of gyration, Rg), scales with molecular weight, Mw, as Rg ∼ Mw(0.9), instead of the expected self-avoiding walk behavior. The simulations were restricted to fairly short chains, however, which might not be in the true scaling regime. In this work, we investigate a coarse-grained model for the behavior of PEO in [BMIM][BF4]. We use existing force fields for PEO and [BMIM][BF4] and Lorentz–Berthelot mixing rules for the cross interactions. The coarse-grained model predicts that PEO collapses in the ionic liquid. We also present an integral equation theory for the structure of the ionic liquid and the conformation properties of the polymer. The theory is in excellent agreement with the simulation results. We conclude that the properties of polymers in ionic liquids are unusually sensitive to the details of the intermolecular interactions. The integral equation theory is sufficiently accurate to be a useful guide to computational work.

  19. An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae

    SciTech Connect

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

    2014-11-07

    Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a “soft-sphere” fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ε{sub 12}, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ε{sub 12} = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ε{sub 12}, two “glass” branches G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ε{sub 12} → 0. Branch G{sub 2} is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical “ideal glass” phase. Branch G{sub 1} exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G{sub 2} branch. The free energies of the L and G{sub 2} branches are found to intersect at an alleged “random first-order transition” (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts.

  20. Proteomic analysis with integrated multiple dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based on elution of ion exchange column using pH steps.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Shieh, Chia Hui; Sheng, Quan-Hu; Zhou, Hu; Zeng, Rong

    2005-09-15

    A novel integrated multidimensional liquid chromatography (IMDL) method is demonstrated for the separation of peptide mixtures by two-dimensional HPLC coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry. The method uses an integrated column, containing both strong cation exchange and reversed-phase sections for two-dimensional liquid chromatography. The peptide mixture was fractionated by a pH step using a series of pH buffers, followed by reversed-phase chromatography. Since no salt was used during separation, the integrated multidimensional liquid chromatography can be directly connected to mass spectrometry for peptide analysis. The pH buffers were injected from an autosampler, and the entire process can be carried out on a one-dimensional liquid chromatography system. In a single analysis, the IMDL system, coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry, identified more than 2000 proteins in mouse liver. The peptides were eluted according to their pI distribution. The resolution of the pH fractionation is approximately 0.5 pH unit. The method has low overlapping across pH fractions, good resolution of peptide mixture, and good correlation of peptide pIs with pH steps. This method provides a technique for large-scale protein identification using existing one-dimensional HPLC systems.

  1. Integrated approach to sustain biogas production in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under recycled utilization of liquid digestate: Dynamics of ammonium accumulation and mitigation control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Ni, Ping; Li, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Luo, Hongzhen; Dach, Jacek; Dong, Renjie

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of ammonium accumulation and mitigation control in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure under the recycled utilization of liquid digested slurry were investigated by using an integrated approach in two laboratory-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactors. In the reactor with direct recycled utilization of the anaerobic digested liquid slurry, total volatilized fatty acids (in CH3COOH) and NH4(+)-N increased from 1600mg/L to 8000mg/L and from 2600mg/L to 5000mg/L, respectively. The daily volumetric biogas production decreased from 1.4±0.1L/(L·d) to 0.8±0.1L/(L·d) with a reduction efficiency of 43±4%. Air stripping was integrated for ammonium mitigation of recycled liquid digested slurry and was shown to effectively reduce the ammonium to 3000mg/L. Correspondingly, the biogas production was recovered back to 1.4±0.1L/(L·d). This indicated the potential of the integration of air stripping for ammonium mitigation in an anaerobic digestion process with liquid digested slurry recirculation.

  2. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  3. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  4. Fast and General Method To Predict the Physicochemical Properties of Druglike Molecules Using the Integral Equation Theory of Molecular Liquids.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David S; Mišin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Llinas, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    We report a method to predict physicochemical properties of druglike molecules using a classical statistical mechanics based solvent model combined with machine learning. The RISM-MOL-INF method introduced here provides an accurate technique to characterize solvation and desolvation processes based on solute-solvent correlation functions computed by the 1D reference interaction site model of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids. These functions can be obtained in a matter of minutes for most small organic and druglike molecules using existing software (RISM-MOL) (Sergiievskyi, V. P.; Hackbusch, W.; Fedorov, M. V. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1982-1992). Predictions of caco-2 cell permeability and hydration free energy obtained using the RISM-MOL-INF method are shown to be more accurate than the state-of-the-art tools for benchmark data sets. Due to the importance of solvation and desolvation effects in biological systems, it is anticipated that the RISM-MOL-INF approach will find many applications in biophysical and biomedical property prediction.

  5. Path integral Monte Carlo simulation of global and local superfluidity in liquid 4He reservoirs separated by nanoscale apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, Tyler; Kwon, Yongkyung; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-10-01

    We present a path integral Monte Carlo study of the global superfluid fraction and local superfluid density in cylindrically symmetric reservoirs of liquid 4He separated by nanoaperture arrays. The superfluid response to both translations along the axis of symmetry (longitudinal response) and rotations about the cylinder axis (transverse response) are computed, together with radial and axial density distributions that reveal the microscopic inhomogeneity arising from the combined effects of the confining external potential and the 4He-4He interatomic potentials. We make a microscopic determination of the length scale of decay of superfluidity at the radial boundaries of the system by analyzing the local superfluid density distribution to extract a displacement length that quantifies the superfluid mass displacement away from the boundary. We find that the longitudinal superfluid response is reduced in reservoirs separated by a septum containing sufficiently small apertures compared to a cylinder with no intervening aperture array, for all temperatures below Tλ. For a single aperture in the septum, a significant drop in the longitudinal superfluid response is seen when the aperture diameter is made smaller than twice the empirical temperature-dependent 4He healing length, consistent with the formation of a weak link between the reservoirs. Increasing the diameter of a single aperture or the number of apertures in the array results in an increase of the superfluid density toward the expected bulk value.

  6. Synergic estimation of columnar integrated aerosol properties and their vertical resolved profiles in respect to the scenarios of dust intrusions over Granada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, Florian; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Lyamani, Hassan; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the columnar and vertically resolved aerosol optical properties over Granada (Spain) during dust events detected during July-August in the period 2012-2013. For this purpose, we classified the events according to their origins and pathways. The analyzed aerosol properties include; columnar aerosol optical properties like aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (AE), as well as the lidar products, like backscatter-related Angstrom exponent and linear particle depolarization ratio (LDPR). The lidar profiles are used for determination of the geometrical structure of dust layers and the aerosol optical parameters inside dust layers. There are identified 58 dusty days over Granada during the periods July-August, 2012-2013. In 71% of the dust, event analyzed the dust plume over Granada is located between 3000 and 4000 m a.g.l. Mean values of AOD500 according to the Atlantic and Mediterranean pathway were 0.28 ± 0.10 and 0.93 ± 0.17. Meanwhile, the mean values of AE440-870 were 0.57 ± 0.25 and 0.43 ± 0.20. Three region are identified as the main dust sources affecting the dust intrusions over Granada. Two principal pathways of air masses during dust intrusion over Granada were observed: through Atlantic (52.7%) and through Mediterranean (47.3%). Air masses which come through the Mediterranean present larger AOD and lower Angstrom exponent values than those air masses coming through Atlantic. Lidar measurements show different vertical distributions on particle backscatter coefficient, during different scenarios of dust intrusions. The lidar profiles indicate that average base and top heights of all dust during the investigation period were 2.1 ± 0.7 and 4.8 ± 0.9 km, and their center of mass and thickness were 3.3 ± 0.7 and 2.8 ± 1.0 km a.g.l. The AE355/532 profiles for the dust intrusions present some differences depending on the source regions and path followed by the dust. On the other hand, the profiles of LPDRat

  7. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of

  8. Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Pensieroso, Simone; Cagigi, Alberto; Palma, Paolo; Nilsson, Anna; Capponi, Claudia; Freda, Elio; Bernardi, Stefania; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Chiodi, Francesca; Rossi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children. PMID:19416836

  9. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  10. Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-wei; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system.

  11. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  12. Host-Guest Chemistry in Integrated Porous Space Formed by Molecular Self-Assembly at Liquid-Solid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Kohei; Tahara, Kazukuni; De Feyter, Steven; Tobe, Yoshito

    2017-02-23

    Host-guest chemistry in two-dimensional (2D) space, that is, physisorbed monolayers of a single atom or a single molecular thickness on surfaces, has become a subject of intense current interest because of perspectives for various applications in molecular-scale electronics, selective sensors, and tailored catalysis. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used as a powerful tool for the visualization of molecules in real space on a conducting substrate surface. For more than a decade, we have been investigating the self-assembly of a series of triangle-shaped phenylene-ethynylene macrocycles called dehydrobenzo[12]annulenes (DBAs). These molecules are substituted with six alkyl chains and are capable of forming hexagonal porous 2D molecular networks via van der Waals interactions between interdigitated alkyl chains at the interface of organic solvents and graphite. The dimension of the nanoporous space or nanowell formed by the self-assembly of DBAs can be controlled from 1.6 to 4.7 nm by simply changing the alkyl chain length from C6 to C20. Single molecules as well as homoclusters and heteroclusters are capable of coadsorbing within the host matrix using shape- and size-complementarity principles. Moreover, on the basis of the versatility of the DBA molecules that allows chemical modification of the alkyl chain terminals, we were able to decorate the interior space of the nanoporous networks with functional groups such as azobenzenedicarboxylic acid for photoresponsive guest adsorption/desorption or fluoroalkanes and tetraethylene glycol groups for selective guest binding by electrostatic interactions and zinc-porphyrin units for complexation with a guest by charge-transfer interactions. In this Feature Article, we describe the general aspects of molecular self-assembly at liquid/solid interfaces, followed by the formation of programmed porous molecular networks using rationally designed molecular building blocks. We focus on our own work involving host

  13. Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    vertically-averaged governing equations with an upscaled representation of the dissolution-convective mixing process. CO2 injection is solved numerically on a coarse grid, capturing the large-scale injection problem and the post-injection capillary trapping, while the upscaled dissolution model captures large-scale solubility trapping without the need for expensive grid refinement to capture the subscale instabilities associated with convective mixing. With this modeling approach, we demonstrate the effect of different modeling choices associated with dissolution for typical large-scale geological systems.

  14. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2013-12-01

    This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 μm or 150 μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 μm×10 μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

  15. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  16. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  17. Offset vertical radar profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  18. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  19. Observations and Modeling of the Near Surface Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere in the Southern Appalachians during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) Extended Observing Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high resolution observations of precipitation accumulations and intensity in regions of complex terrain are largely unavailable, due to a lack of existing in situ observations and obstacles to remote sensing (radar and satellite observations) such as beam blockage and ground clutter. For the past six years, a high-elevation, high-density rain gauge network has been recording precipitation observations along ridgelines in the Pigeon River Basin in the Southern Appalachians. These longer term observations complement the 4-D database of observations, which are being collected in support of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) during the first field campaign after the launch of the GPM satellite, the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx). The observations focused on here are those at the near surface, within 2 kilometers of the ground level. The IPHEx extended observation period lasts until the end of 2014. This presentation will focus on ground-based measurements made by MicroRain Radars, disdrometers, radiometers, rain gauges, fog collectors and aerosol spectrometers among others during the spring, summer and fall of 2014. These measurements will be analyzed to provide information on the diurnal cycle of microphysical and dynamical processes and properties in the region, with an emphasis on describing the characteristics of local cloud and fog. These observations will be discussed in the context of previous findings based on observations and model results (stochastic column model and the Advanced Research Weather and Forecasting Model (WRF)). Specifically, this presentation will address whether the IPHEx observations support the hypothesis, validated for specific case studies in previous work, that Bergeron processes govern the enhancement of light rainfall in the Southern Appalachians through increased coalescence efficiency in stratiform rainfall due to the interactions with low level clouds and topography modulated fog. WRF

  20. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

  1. Maximizing Science Return on Astrobiology and Planetary Missions Using Integrated Liquid-Handling Chemical Analysis Systems - A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. A.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Kehl, F.

    2016-10-01

    Our team has been developing all components required for liquid-based analysis on planetary missions. Here we summarize our progress in this area, and highlight enhancements to science return on NASA missions that these technologies could provide.

  2. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s(-1) to 50 mm s(-1). Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  4. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  5. Extended depth-of-field 3D endoscopy with synthetic aperture integral imaging using an electrically tunable focal-length liquid-crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Xin; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional synthetic-aperture integral imaging uses a lens array to sense the three-dimensional (3D) object or scene that can then be reconstructed digitally or optically. However, integral imaging generally suffers from a fixed and limited range of depth of field (DOF). In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate a 3D integral-imaging endoscopy with tunable DOF by using a single large-aperture focal-length-tunable liquid crystal (LC) lens. The proposed system can provide high spatial resolution and an extended DOF in synthetic-aperture integral imaging 3D endoscope. In our experiments, the image plane in the integral imaging pickup process can be tuned from 18 to 38 mm continuously using a large-aperture LC lens, and the total DOF is extended from 12 to 51 mm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic aperture integral imaging 3D endoscopy with a large-aperture LC lens that can provide high spatial resolution 3D imaging with an extend DOF.

  6. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  7. Structural elucidation of Eucalyptus lignin and its dynamic changes in the cell walls during an integrated process of ionic liquids and successive alkali treatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Yin; Wang, Chen-Zhou; Chen, Xue; Cao, Xue-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-12-01

    An integrated process based on ionic liquids ([Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]OAc) pretreatment and successive alkali post-treatments (0.5, 2.0, and 4.0% NaOH at 90°C for 2h) was performed to isolate lignins from Eucalyptus. The structural features and spatial distribution of lignin in the Eucalyptus cell wall were investigated thoroughly. Results revealed that the ionic liquids pretreatment promoted the isolation of alkaline lignin from the pretreated samples without obvious structural changes. Additionally, the integrated process resulted in syringyl-rich lignin macromolecules with more β-O-4' linkages and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Confocal Raman microscopy analysis showed that the dissolution behavior of lignin was varied in the morphologically distinct regions during the successive alkali treatments, and lignin dissolved was mainly stemmed from the secondary wall regions. These results provided some useful information for understanding the mechanisms of delignification during the integrated process and enhancing the potential utilizations of lignin in future biorefineries.

  8. An Empirical Model of the Vertical Structure of German Fogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    on reveree side if neceesay end Identify by block number) German fogs Vertical variation Fog density Liquid water content Empirical model SAIISTACT...Grafenw6hr and Meppen, Germany. Curve fitting procedures were applied to the results of liquid water content calculations and extinction coefficients...THE ALGORITM ............................................. 7 COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND MODELED FOG DENSITY ........................... 8 CONCLUSIONS

  9. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  10. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  11. Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

  12. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis I : Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S.; Arora, N. S.; Jordan, M. I.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    As part of its CTBT verification efforts, the International Data Centre (IDC) analyzes seismic and other signals collected from hundreds of stations around the world. Current processing at the IDC proceeds in a series of pipelined stages. From station processing to network processing, each decision is made on the basis of local information. This has the advantage of efficiency, and simplifies the structure of software implementations. However, this approach may reduce accuracy in the detection and phase classification of arrivals, association of detections to hypothesized events, and localization of small-magnitude events.In our work, we approach such detection and association problems as ones of probabilistic inference. In simple terms, let X be a random variable ranging over all possible collections of events, with each event defined by time, location, magnitude, and type (natural or man-made). Let Y range over all possible waveform signal recordings at all detection stations. Then Pθ(X) describes a parameterized generative prior over events, and P[|#30#|]φ(Y | X) describes how the signal is propagated and measured (including travel time, selective absorption and scattering, noise, artifacts, sensor bias, sensor failures, etc.). Given observed recordings Y = y, we are interested in the posterior P(X | Y = y), and perhaps in the value of X that maximizes it—i.e., the most likely explanation for all the sensor readings. As detailed below, an additional focus of our work is to robustly learn appropriate model parameters θ and φ from historical data. The primary advantage we expect is that decisions about arrivals, phase classifications, and associations are made with the benefit of all available evidence, not just the local signal or predefined recipes. Important phenomena—such as the successful detection of sub-threshold signals, correction of phase classifications using arrival information at other stations, and removal of false events based on the absence of signals—should all fall out of our probabilistic framework without the need for special processing rules. In our baseline model, natural events occur according to a spatially inhomogeneous Poisson process. Complex events (swarms and aftershocks) may then be captured via temporally inhomogeneous extensions. Man-made events have a uniform probability of occurring anywhere on the earth, with a tendency to occur closer to the surface. Phases are modelled via their amplitude, frequency distribution, and origin. In the simplest case, transmission times are characterized via the one-dimensional IASPEI-91 model, accounting for model errors with Gaussian uncertainty. Such homogeneous, approximate physical models can be further refined via historical data and previously developed corrections. Signal measurements are captured by station-specific models, based on sensor types and geometries, local frequency absorption characteristics, and time-varying noise models. At the conference, we expect to be able to quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of our approach, at least for simulated data. When reporting their findings, such systems can easily flag low-confidence events, unexplained arrivals, and ambiguous classifications to focus the efforts of expert analysts.

  13. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  14. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  15. A Study of the Use of Meteorological Satellite, Weather Radar, and Integrated Graphics Products in the Flight Service Station System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    watershed hydrological estimates, tops maps, and a vertically integrated liquid water content (VIL) map. System movement vectors are computed, and a flash ... flood monitor is maintained. The maps produced are not exact images of the picture seen on the radar CRT, but rather are processed data presented on

  16. In vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine on motility, acrosomal abnormality, and plasma membrane integrity of rabbit sperm during liquid-storage.

    PubMed

    Sarıözkan, Serpil; Ozdamar, Saim; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of l-carnitine and glutamine (Gln) on the sperm quality parameters of liquid-stored rabbit semen maintained up to 24 h at 5°C. Pooled and extended ejaculates were divided into two equal portions. l-Carnitine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2mM were added to the first portion, and glutamine was added at the same doses to the second portion. All samples were cooled to 5°C and examined at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of liquid storage. Supplementation of the semen extender with three different doses of l-carnitine provided significant increases in the percentage of motile sperm at 12 h (P<0.01), and 24h (P<0.001) and enabled significant protection of the sperm plasma membrane (P<0.01) at 12 and 24h of cool-storage, in comparison to the control samples. Only the 2mM dose of l-carnitine significantly (P<0.01) decreased the rate of acrosomal damage when compared to the control group. Furthermore, all doses of Gln caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in acrosomal damage at 6h, and provided significant improvement (P<0.01) in sperm motility, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrities at 12 and 24h of liquid storage, when compared to the controls. In conclusion, the supplementation of liquid-stored rabbit semen with l-carnitine and Gln provided a protection for sperm against cool storage-induced functional and structural damages.

  17. Probing mesoscopic process of laser ablation in liquid by integrated method of optical beam deflection and time-resolved shadowgraphy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoming; Gu, Yu; Wang, Hao; Song, Xiufeng; Zeng, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    For nanomaterial fabrication by laser ablation in liquid (LAL), it is very important to understand the mesoscopic process of laser interaction with materials in liquid. We proposed a method combining time-resolved shadowgraphy and optical beam deflection method to study the LAL process in both pure water and water with nanoparticles (colloids). As the laser was focused on the target in pure water, the laser energy was absorbed by the target and plasma, shockwaves and bubbles were produced, along with the generation of nanoparticles. While in case of colloid, laser beam first passed through the solution, interacted with nanoparticles and induced plenty of sporadic shadows (small bubbles) on the beam path which were captured by shadowgraphy. Then, the laser arrived at the target and induced breakdown accompanied by the emergence of plasma, shockwave and bubbles. Meanwhile, the concentration of nanoparticle increased and the sizes of nanoparticle were modified. The radius and oscillation time of bubbles are much smaller in the colloid than that in pure water, mainly due to laser energy loss by breakdown of the nanoparticles and generation of small bubbles before reaching the target. Moreover, we found the maximum bubble radius and bubble oscillation time decrease quickly with laser irradiation times at the beginning, and then reach a plateau, because of laser energy lost on the way to the target. In addition, we used the ablation process to explain a bimodal size distribution of nanoparticles. This work will deepen our understanding on the mechanism of both laser ablation of bulk targets in liquid and laser irradiation of particles in liquid.

  18. Quantitative analysis of amyloid-integrated biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G; Cegelski, Lynette

    2012-08-08

    Bacterial biofilms are complex multicellular assemblies, characterized by a heterogeneous extracellular polymeric matrix, that have emerged as hallmarks of persistent infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative data are needed to elucidate the composition and architecture of biofilms, and such data need to be correlated with mechanical and physicochemical properties that relate to function. We performed a panel of interfacial rheological measurements during biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by the Escherichia coli strain UTI89, which is noted for its importance in studies of urinary tract infection and for its assembly of functional amyloid fibers termed curli. Brewster-angle microscopy and measurements of the surface elasticity (G(s)') and stress-strain response provided sensitive and quantitative parameters that revealed distinct stages during bacterial colonization, aggregation, and eventual formation of a pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Pellicles that formed under conditions that upregulate curli production exhibited an increase in strength and viscoelastic properties as well as a greater ability to recover from stress-strain perturbation. The results suggest that curli, as hydrophobic extracellular amyloid fibers, enhance the strength, viscoelasticity, and resistance to strain of E. coli biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface.

  19. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador; Miró, Manuel; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2017-03-21

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used as an online interface between the microextraction system and the detection instrument. Air-segmented flow was used for delivery of a fraction of the nonwater miscible extraction phase, 12 μL of xylene, to the nebulizer. All sample preparative steps including magnetic stirring assisted DLLME were carried out inside the syringe void volume as a size-adaptable yet sealed mixing and extraction chamber. Determination of trace level concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and silver as model analytes has been demonstrated by microextraction as diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP) complexes. The automatic LIS-DLLME method features quantitative metal extraction, even in troublesome sample matrixes, such as seawater, salt, and fruit juices, with relative recoveries within the range of 94-103%, 93-100%, and 92-99%, respectively. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were found between concentration values experimentally obtained and the certified values of two serum standard reference materials.

  20. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  1. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  2. A wafer-level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb-level nitric oxide gas sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2015-10-01

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb-1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  3. A vertical cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alió Sanz, Juan J; Iglesias Conde, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Correctly assessing open-bite malocclusions has remained problematic because clinicians have not had entirely reliable methods of determining the exact amount of skeletal and dental contributions to the problem. A new cephalometric technique, the vertical cephalometric analysis, offers orthodontists a system that precisely identifies the percentage of skeletal and dentoalveolar components that open-bite patients have. The vertical cephalometric analysis offers a discriminating diagnostic method for evaluating, diagnosing, and treatment planning for patients with open bite. This technique will allow clinicians to classify patients with accuracy, as well as to establish prognoses and select therapies.

  4. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  5. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  6. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

    2003-04-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  7. Estimating the Gibbs energy of hydration from molecular dynamics trajectories obtained by integral equations of the theory of liquids in the RISM approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, D. A.; Sobolev, E. V.

    2011-04-01

    A method of integral equations of the theory of liquids in the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation is used to estimate the Gibbs energy averaged over equilibrium trajectories computed by molecular mechanics. Peptide oxytocin is selected as the object of interest. The Gibbs energy is calculated using all chemical potential formulas introduced in the RISM approach for the excess chemical potential of solvation and is compared with estimates by the generalized Born model. Some formulas are shown to give the wrong sign of Gibbs energy changes when peptide passes from the gas phase into water environment; the other formulas give overestimated Gibbs energy changes with the right sign. Note that allowance for the repulsive correction in the approximate analytical expressions for the Gibbs energy derived by thermodynamic perturbation theory is not a remedy.

  8. Mixed-mode chromatography integrated with high-performance liquid chromatography for protein analysis and separation: Using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as the model target.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-Feng; Don, Bin-Bin; Zheng, Meng-Jie

    2016-05-01

    A type of mixed-mode chromatography was integrated with high-performance liquid chromatography for protein analysis and separation. The chromatographic behavior was tested using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. For the mixed-mode column, the silica beads were activated with γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propytrimethoxysilane and coupled with 4-mercaptopyridine as the functional ligand. The effects of pH, salt, and the organic solvent conditions of the mobile phase on the retention behavior were studied, which provided valuable clues for separation strategy. When eluted with a suitable pH gradient, salt concentration gradient, and acetonitrile content gradient, the separation behavior of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme could be controlled by altering the conditions of the mobile phase. The results indicated this type of chromatography might be a useful method for protein analysis and separation.

  9. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  10. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  11. Microfluidic immunosensor with integrated liquid core waveguides for sensitive Mie scattering detection of avian influenza antigens in a real biological matrix.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Brian C; Gamboa, Jessica R; Kim, Keesung; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2010-11-01

    This work presents the use of integrated, liquid core, optical waveguides for measuring immunoagglutination-induced light scattering in a microfluidic device, towards rapid and sensitive detection of avian influenza (AI) viral antigens in a real biological matrix (chicken feces). Mie scattering simulations were performed and tested to optimize the scattering efficiency of the device through proper scatter angle waveguide geometry. The detection limit is demonstrated to be 1 pg mL(-1) in both clean buffer and real biological matrix. This low detection limit is made possible through on-chip diffusional mixing of AI target antigens and high acid content microparticle assay reagents, coupled with real-time monitoring of immunoagglutination-induced forward Mie scattering via high refractive index liquid core optical waveguides in close proximity (100 μm) to the sample chamber. The detection time for the assay is <2 min. This device could easily be modified to detect trace levels of any biological molecules that antibodies are available for, moving towards a robust platform for point-of-care disease diagnostics.

  12. Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

  13. Integration of Nine Steps into One Membrane Reactor To Produce Synthesis Gases for Ammonia and Liquid Fuel.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenping; Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Shuguang; Yang, Weishen

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of ammonia and liquid fuel are two important chemical processes in which most of the energy is consumed in the production of H2 /N2 and H2 /CO synthesis gases from natural gas (methane). Here, we report a membrane reactor with a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane, in which the nine steps for the production of the two types of synthesis gases are shortened to one step by using water, air, and methane as feeds. In the membrane reactor, there is no direct CO2 emission and no CO or H2 S present in the ammonia synthesis gas. The energy consumption for the production of the two synthesis gases can be reduced by 63 % by using this membrane reactor. This promising membrane reactor process has been successfully demonstrated by experiment.

  14. Influence of Selected Extenders for Liquid Storage at 4 degrees C of Breeding Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) Semen on Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Niedbała, Piotr; Szeleszczuk, Olga; Kuchta-Gładysz, Marta; Joneczek, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata; Maj, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two commercial and two laboratory oriented extenders on survival rate and DNA integrity of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) sperm was determined during liquid storage. Semen was collected using an electroejaculator from 6 adult male chinchillas. Ejaculates (n = 16) were diluted with extenders to obtain a concentration of 40 x 10 (3) sperm/5 μl. After dilution the semen samples were stored at 4"C. The percent motility, progressive motility, and morphology were assessed conventionally, whereas DNA integrity was evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (comet) assay at 0 (just after dilution), 24, 48 and 72 h. Conventional assessment of sperm quality showed that commercial extenders are characterized by the lowest sperm survival parameters out of the investigated extenders. In commercial extenders spermatozoa lost their capacity for progressive motility compared to laboratory extenders. After 24 h storage, from 21.67% to 30% of motile sperms were observed in commercial extender whereas total sperm motility was 63.33% (41.67% with progressive motility) in samples in which stallion semen extender was used. After 72 h storage, 10% of sperm were motile in stallion semen extender while no sperm movement was observed in tubes containing the commercial extender. Furthermore, a lower percentage of damaged spermatozoa in laboratory oriented extenders was demonstrated. It was also stated that along with the extended time of semen storage at 4 degrees C, commercial extenders lost their protective action. An analysis of DNA content in the heads of sperm cells and tail moment (TM) showed that the most useful extender for liquid preservation of chinchilla semen was the extender for stallions.

  15. Flow Split of Churn Flow at a Vertical Impacting T,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Barnea, D. and Dukler , A.E. (980). "Modelling flow pattern .transitions for steady upwards gas liquid flow in vertical tubes", (AIChE Journal Vol. 26...churn flow at a vertical impacting T DTIC 4 ELECTE B J Azzopardi, A Purvis and A H Govan JAU I1MD COPYRIGHT ANO REPRODUCTION fn lies about copyriqht ant...FLOW SPLIT OF CHURN FLOW AT A VERTICAL IMPACTING T B. J. Azzopardi, A. Purvi:’ and A. H. Govan ABSTRACT Measurements have been made of the flow split

  16. Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Butler, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

  17. Characterization of a liquid crystal/dye cell for a future application in display-integrated photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Itaya, Shunsuke; Ohta, Masamichi; Ozawa, Shintaro; Azmi, Nada Dianah Binti M.

    2016-04-01

    One can convert a luminescent solar concentrator to a display by scanning a laser beam on it. When a guest-host system of liquid crystal (LC) and dye materials are incorporated, absorption of excitation light and the radiation pattern of photoluminescence (PL) can be adjusted to changes in lighting condition. The resolution of a displayed image can be degraded by PL spreading in the LC/dye layer. Its contrast can be limited by the PL induced by ambient light. In the experiment, we fabricated a 22×25 mm2 cell that contained 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6 in a nematic LC host. The alignment was antiparallel and the gap was 6 μm. Using a blue laser beam of 0.04 mm FWHM, the PL intensity distribution was measured to be 0.20 mm FWHM at zero bias. It became slightly wider at 10 V. For contrast evaluation, we measured PL spectra under two conditions. First, the center of the cell was irradiated by a 1.7-mW blue laser beam. Second, the whole cell was uniformly exposed to light from a fluorescent lamp at illuminance of 800lx. The contrast of luminance was calculated to be 1.4×105. The optical power reaching its edge surfaces was measured and roughly agreed with the prediction by a simple model.

  18. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%-25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions.

  19. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, S.; Krebs, T.; Weiss, C.; Paur, H.-R.

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL® system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  20. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  1. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  2. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  3. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  4. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  5. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  6. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

  7. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Litt, Amy; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This study presents a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-TOF-MS methods and statistical tools, including untargeted PCA and targeted PLS/OPLS-DA models, to analyze 31 accessions representing 24 species in the eggplant genus Solanum (Solanaceae), including eight species whose metabolic profiles were studied for the first time. Sixty-two Solanum metabolites were identified after detailed analysis of UV absorbance spectra, mass spectral fragmentation patterns, NMR spectra, and/or co-injection experiments with authentic standards. Among these were two new 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives that were identified by analyzing their MS/MS fragmentation. Based on these results, a Solanum metabolic database (SMD) and a detailed biosynthetic pathway of Solanum metabolites were created. Results of analyses identified seven marker metabolites that distinguish four Solanum sections, and revealed species-specific chemical patterns. Combining LC-MS data with multivariate statistical analysis was proven effective in studying the metabolic network within the large genus Solanum, allowing for integration of complicated chemistry, morphology, and evolutionary relationships.

  8. Spatial Mapping of Protein Abundances in the Mouse Brain by Voxelation Integrated with High-Throughput Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H; Wang, Haixing H; Livesay, Eric A; Monroe, Matthew E; Adkins, Joshua N; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J; Camp, David G; Smith, Desmond J; Smith, Richard D

    2007-01-25

    Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput LC system coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer and a “universal” stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1,028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion.

  9. Integrated microscale analysis system for targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomics on limited amounts of enriched cell populations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey G; Rejtar, Tomas; Martin, Stephen A

    2013-11-19

    Limited samples, such as those that are in vivo sourced via biopsy, are closely representative of biological systems and contain valuable information for drug discovery. However, these precious samples are often heterogeneous and require cellular prefractionation prior to proteomic analysis to isolate specific subpopulations of interest. Enriched cells from in vivo samples are often very limited (<10(4) cells) and pose a significant challenge to proteomic nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS) sample preparation. To enable the streamlined analysis of these limited samples, we have developed an online cell enrichment, microscale sample preparation, nanoLCMS proteomics workflow by integrating fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), focused ultrasonication, microfluidics, immobilized trypsin digestion, and nanoLCMS. To assess the performance of the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow, 5000 fluorescent labeled cells were enriched from a 5% heterogeneous cell population and processed for LCMS proteomics in less than 2 h. Within these 5000 enriched cells, 30 peptides corresponding to 17 proteins spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude of cellular abundance were quantified using a QExactive MS. The results from the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow starting from 5000 enriched cells were directly compared to results from a traditional macroscale sample preparation workflow starting from 2.0 × 10(6) cells. The microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow demonstrated high cellular enrichment efficiency and high peptide recovery across the wide dynamic range of targeted peptides. Overall the microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow has shown effectiveness in efficiently preparing limited amounts of FACS enriched cells in an online manner for proteomic LCMS.

  10. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  11. A World Vertical Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    and continental levelling nets into a unifiled World Vertical Network. OD ,~ 173 OITON F I OV 5 I OSOLEI tnc las 9if led SECURITY CLASSIP CATION O T...rp,0p,Xp is T(P) = V(P) - U (P) (2.2) The gravity potential of the Earth is W(P) = V(P) + ((P) (2.3) where o ( P) = w rp’ cos 2 Op corresponds to the...is, therefore, A W(P,Q) = U(P) + T(P) + 0 (P) - U(Q) - T(Q) - o (Q) (2.4) With both P and Q on the Earth’s surface, the uncertainties in the calculated

  12. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  13. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  14. Liquid crystal optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-01

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  15. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  16. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  17. Study of a downward bubbly flow in a vertical pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, R.S.; Kashinskii, O.N.; Nakoryakov, V.E.

    1987-07-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study of downward bubble-diffused concurrent flow in a vertical pipe. Two-phase flow was induced by introducing gas into a liquid with a special mixer which made it possible to obtain a gas-liquid flow with consistent bubble size. Visualization was performed by photography and flow rate was monitored by friction transducers. Shear stress and hydraulic conductivity were determined for various flow rates and Reynolds numbers. It was found that the stabilizing effect of the gas phase is determined by the fact that the flow rate pulsations introduced into the liquid flow have a negative sign; that the flow rate of the liquid near the bubbles, in other words, is lower than the mean flow rate of the liquid. This effect is not seen in ascending flows.

  18. On the identification of liquid surface properties using liquid bridges.

    PubMed

    Kostoglou, M; Karapantsios, T D

    2015-08-01

    The term liquid bridge refers to the specific silhouette of a liquid volume when it is placed between two solid surfaces. Liquid bridges have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally during the last century due to their significance in many technological applications. It is worth noticing that even today new technological applications based on liquid bridges continue to appear. A liquid bridge has a well-defined surface configuration dictated by a rigid theoretical foundation so the potential of its utilization as a tool to study surface properties of liquids is apparent. However, it is very scarce in literature that the use of liquid bridges is suggested as an alternative to the well-established drop techniques (pendant/sessile drop). The present work (i) presents the theoretical background for setting up a liquid-bridge based surface property estimation problem, (ii) describes the required experimental equipment and procedures and (iii) performs a thorough literature review on the subject. A case with particular interest is that of liquid bridges made of electrically conducting liquids forming between two conducting solids; such a liquid bridge presents an integral electrical conductance value which is sensitive to the specific silhouette of the bridge. This enables the use of this integral conductance as shape descriptor instead of the conventional image processing techniques. Several attempts in literature for the estimation of liquid surface tension, liquid-solid contact angle and surfactant induced surface elasticity for conducting or non/conducting liquids are presented and the prospects of the technique are discussed.

  19. Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    A two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. Bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they rise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

  20. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  1. The Vertical Lift Industrial Base: Outlook 2004-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    update their business and management practices as they move toward a lean manufacturing paradigm and away from the vertically- integrated structure of...success in vertical lift technology, however, Sikorsky has been slow to embrace lean manufacturing . Over the last two years it has started to move in...strategy. If this were to occur, suppliers like Sikorsky could become oversized SIKORSKY AIRCRAFT • Moving toward lean manufacturing implementation

  2. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  3. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  4. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  5. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  6. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  7. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  8. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  9. An integrated QCM-based narcotics sensing microsystem.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Thomas; Sandström, Niklas; Eng, Lars; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Månsson, Per; Stemme, Göran

    2008-10-01

    We present the design, fabrication and successful testing of a 14x14x4 mm3 integrated electronic narcotics sensing system which consists of only four parts. The microsystem absorbs airborne narcotics molecules and performs a liquid assay using an integrated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A vertically conductive double-sided adhesive foil (VCAF) was used and studied as a novel material for LOC and MEMS applications and provides easy assembly, electrical contacting and liquid containment. The system was tested for measuring cocaine and ecstasy, with successful detection of amounts as small as 100 ng and 200 ng, respectively. These levels are of interest in security activities in customs, prisons and by the police.

  10. Modeling of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatlipinar, Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Ionic liquids are very important entry to industry and technology. Because of their unique properties they may classified as a new class of materials. IL usually classified as a high temperature ionic liquids (HTIL) and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). HTIL are molten salts. There are many research studies on molten salts such as recycling, new energy sources, rare elements mining. RTIL recently become very important in daily life industry because of their "green chemistry" properties. As a simple view ionic liquids consist of one positively charged and one negatively charged components. Because of their Coulombic or dispersive interactions the local structure of ionic liquids emerges. In this presentation the local structural properties of the HTIL are discussed via correlation functions and integral equation theories. RTIL are much more difficult to do modeling, but still general consideration for the modeling of the HTIL is valid also for the RTIL.

  11. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  12. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Szydlowski, Donald F.; Kuzminskas, Vaidotas; Bittner, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  13. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, J. J.; Qiu, F. S.; Chen, G. D.; Reeves, M. E.

    2003-02-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension.

  14. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  15. Vertical Beam Polarization at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Bender, D.; Beričič, J.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Dehn, M.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gutheil, B.; Herrmann, P.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kolar, T.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Maas, F.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Nillius, F.; Nuck, A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Spruck, B.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Tioukine, V.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time a vertically polarized electron beam has been used for physics experiments at MAMI in the energy range between 180 and 855 MeV. The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry An, which is a direct probe of higher-order photon exchange beyond the first Born approximation, has been measured in the reaction 12C (e → , e ‧)12C . Vertical polarization orientation was necessary to measure this asymmetry with the existing experimental setup. In this paper we describe the procedure to orient the electron polarization vector vertically, and the concept of determining both its magnitude and orientation with the available setup. A sophisticated method has been developed to overcome the lack of a polarimeter setup sensitive to the vertical polarization component.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  17. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  18. Improved Coupled Z-R and k-R Relations and the Resulting Ambiguities in the Determination of the Vertical Distribution of Rain from the Radar Backscatter and the Integrated Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Z. S.; Jameson, A. R.; Im, E.; Durden, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Several algorithms to calculate a rain-rate profile from a single-frequency air-or spaceborne radar backscatter profile and a given path-integrated attenuation have been proposed. The accuracy of any such algorithm is limited by the ambiguities between the (multiple) exact solutions, which depend on the variability of the parameters in the Z-R and k-R relations used. In this study, coupled Z-R and k-R relations are derived based on the drop size distribution. It is then shown that, because of the coupling, the relative difference between the multiple mutually ambiguous rain-rate profiles solving the problem must remain acceptably low, provided the available path-integrated attenuation value is known to within 0.5 dB.

  19. An Ecological Perceptual Aid for Precision Vertical Landings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    flight parameters within tight constraints. These challenges are often associated with a high mental workload, therefore, a precision landing aid...displays altitude and vertical speed information in an integrated form including the display of flight parameter safety constraints. The display...instrument takes advantage of direct-perception interaction by leveraging ecological perception and emergent features to provide quick perception and comprehension of critical flight parameters in an integrated fashion.

  20. Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

  1. Reusable EGaIn-Injected Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Resonator for Wireless Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Muhammad Usman; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    The proposed structure in this research is constructed on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology and has a mechanism that produces 16 different and distinct resonant frequencies between 2.45 and 3.05 GHz by perturbing a fundamental TE10 mode. It is a unique method for producing multiple resonances in a radio frequency planar structure without any extra circuitry or passive elements is developed. The proposed SIW structure has four vertical fluidic holes (channels); injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), also known commonly as liquid metal (LM), into these vertical channels produces different resonant frequencies. Either a channel is empty, or it is filled with LM. In total, the combination of different frequencies produced from four vertical channels is 16. PMID:26569257

  2. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  3. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  4. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  5. Path integral calculation of shock Hugoniot curves of precompressed liquid deuteriumSubmitted to Proceedings of the Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems 2002 in Santa Fe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2003-06-01

    Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study deuterium at high pressure and temperature. The equation of state has been derived in the temperature and density regions of 10 000 leq T leq 1 000 000 K and 0.6 leq rho leq 2.5 g cm-3. A series of shock Hugoniot curves is computed for different initial compressions in order to compare with current and future shock wave experiments using liquid deuterium samples precompressed in diamond anvil cells. Submitted to Proceedings of the Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems 2002 in Santa Fe.

  6. Relationship between the contact angle and the tilt angle on the vertical polymer layer of NLC using various ion beam exposure energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Han, Jeong-Min; Hwang, Jeong-Yeon; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2009-08-01

    Recently, the relationship between surface energy and tilt angle on vertical polyimide (PI) was studied. The study showed that ion beam (IB) exposure using argon gas changes the surface energy of vertical PI as a function of exposure time. This characteristic induces the transition of vertical liquid crystal (LC) orientation from vertical to homogeneous. In this study, we applied the property to fabricate liquid crystal displays (LCD) with both vertical alignment (VA) and twisted nematic (TN) LCDs on vertical PI. The study revealed correlations between various IB exposure energies and surface energies with the same exposure time on vertical PI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic spectra were analyzed to prove the correlations and transmittance curves via applied voltage to VA, and TN LCDs were evaluated to observe the LC driving performance on IB-irradiated vertical PI.

  7. Soft Anisotropic Conductors as Electric Vias for Ga-Based Liquid Metal Circuits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tong; Wissman, James; Ruthika; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-12-09

    We introduce a method for sealing liquid metal (LM) circuits with soft anisotropic conductors that prevent leaking, while simultaneously allowing for electrical contact with skin and surface mounted electronics. These films are composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) embedded with vertically aligned columns of ferromagnetic Ag-Ni microparticles. The microparticles are magnetically aligned and support electrical conductivity only through the thickness (z-axis) of the elastomer film. Measurements on 10-40% (by wt) composites show moderate volumetric resistivity (as low as ρ = 0.03 Ω/m) through the thickness and no conductivity between adjacent traces. Functionality is demonstrated with several illustrative applications related to tactile sensing and electronics hardware integration.

  8. Scaling law for bubbles rising near vertical walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Sadegh; Bhuvankar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the rising motion of a layer of gas bubbles next to a vertical wall in a liquid in the presence of an upward flow parallel to the wall to help with the understanding of the fluid dynamics in a bubbly upflow in vertical channels. Only the region near the wall is simulated with an average pressure gradient applied to the domain that balances the weight of the liquid phase. The upward flow is created by the rising motion of the bubbles. The bubbles are kept near the wall by the lateral lift force acting on them as a result of rising in the shear layer near the wall. The rise velocity of the bubbles sliding on the wall and the average rise velocity of the liquid depend on three dimensionless parameters, Archimedes number, Ar, Eötvös number, Eo, and the average volume fraction of bubbles on the wall. In the limit of small Eo, bubbles are nearly spherical and the dependency on Eo becomes negligible. In this limit, the scaling of the liquid Reynolds number with Archimedes number and the void fraction is presented. A scaling argument is presented based on viscous dissipation analysis that matches the numerical findings. Viscous dissipation rates are found to be high in a thin film region between the bubble and the wall. A scaling of the viscous dissipation and steady state film thickness between the bubble and the wall with Archimedes number is presented.

  9. Application of empirical ionic models to SiO 2 liquid: Potential model approximations and integration of SiO 2 polymorph data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, Robert L.; Hostetler, Charles J.

    1987-05-01

    Structural and thermodynamic properties of crystalline SiO 2 and SiO 2 liquid have been examined with Monte Carlo (MC), molecular dynamics (MD), and energy minimization (EM) calculations using several ionic potential models obtained from the literature. The MC and MD methods calculate the same structural and thermodynamic properties for liquids when the same potential model is used. The Ewald (1921) method of calculating coulomb interactions reproduced most successfully the structure of liquid silica. Approximating the coulomb interaction by eliminating the inverse lattice sum results in predicted bond distances that are too short and an average angle of approximately 180°. Introduction of a cut-off in the potential energy function produces irregular tetrahedra and inconsistencies in predicted Si-O coordination in silica liquid. The system internal energies show that liquid structures derived from random starting configurations can be metastable relative to structures calculated from crystalline starting configurations. The static lattice properties of the polymorphs alpha-quartz, coesite, and stishovite were used to evaluate further the accuracy of different sets of repulsive parameters for the full Ewald ionic model. Most of the models studied reproduced poorly the measured structures and elastic constants of the polymorphs. The major weakness of the ionic model is the unreasonably large Si-O bond strength (120 × 10 -12 ergs/bond) when formal ionic charges are used. Fractional charge models with a small Si-O bond strength (30 × 10 -12 ergs/bond) improve the agreement with experimental data. However, further improvement of the ionic model should include reducing the Si-O bond strength to values in better agreement with published estimates (7 × 10 - 12 to 13 × 10 -12 ergs/bond). By using additional information to constrain the parameterization of the ionic model, such as estimated bond strengths and static properties of the silica polymorphs, a model

  10. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  11. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  12. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  13. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  14. Spatial Coherence Between Remotely Sensed Ocean Color Data and Vertical Distribution of Lidar Backscattering in Coastal Stratified Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    vertically integrated phv toplankton pigments in the euphotic /one (chlorophyll a concentration N I SO mg m-2) 15. SUBJECT TERMS vertical structure...relatively high vertically integrated phytoplankton pigments in the euphotic zone (chlorophyll a concentration ^150 mg m" 2). © 2010 Elsevier Inc...phytoplankton light absorption pigments in marine waters (Platt et al., 1988; Sathyendranath et al., 1995, hereafter SP method). In this case

  15. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  16. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  17. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  18. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  19. Horizontal and vertical concentrations in the evolution of hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, D B; Carman, J M

    1987-01-01

    Summing across the three phases, the pattern of evolution was as follows: (1) the emergence of a market orientation by hospitals as the industry moved away from regulation; (2) steady expansion of what the hospitals considered to be their business, to include nonacute and wellness services, with vertical integration and diversification the vehicle for accomplishing this; (3) remarkable change with respect to who was competing with whom, stemming from restructuring of the market toward horizontal concentration and domination by a few rather than continuing open competition among many; (4) a shift in the market from one of competitive consumer choices among physicians and hospitals toward one of competitive choice among health plans; and (5) the beginnings of price dynamics within the context of oligopoly, due primarily to heightened power of corporate and other purchasers. A striking feature of this evolution was the role of concentration as both a response to increased competition and a vector of change in restructuring the market. Another notable feature was the relationship of vertical and horizontal integrations to each other: Stage I corporate reorganization and limited vertical integration provided the vehicle for horizontal integration in Stage II; then horizontal integration achieved a new critical mass and market dominance, yielding more vertical integration in Stage III. Finally, we note that of the numerous reasons advanced for mergers in industrial sectors and among hospitals in particular, a singular motivation was pursued in Community A: in an era of increasing competition, the stronger hospitals moved with determination to reduce competition and establish domination. The fundamental motive was market control.

  20. Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    From observations of a stream of gas bubbles rising through a liquid, a two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. The bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they arise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

  1. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  2. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  3. Chemical Theory and Computation Special Feature: Static and dynamic quantum effects in molecular liquids: A linearized path integral description of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aage Poulsen, Jens; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2005-05-01

    Structure, transport properties, and IR spectra including quantum effects are calculated for a flexible simple point charge model of liquid water. A recently introduced combination of a variational local harmonic description of the liquid potential surface and the classical Wigner approximation for the dynamics is used. The potential energy and interatomic radial distribution functions are in good agreement with accurate results from the literature and are significantly closer to experiment than predictions found from classical theory. The oxygen and hydrogen velocity correlation functions are also calculated, and the corresponding molecular diffusion coefficient is in good accord with existing theoretical estimates including quantum effects. Of most interest, an ab initio quantum correction factor is obtained to correct the far IR spectrum of water. When corrected, a spectrum based on a classical simulation yields results that agree well with experiment. Combined with internal tests of consistency, these observations indicate that this quite flexible approach will be effective for a variety of molecular problems involving the dynamics of light nuclei. computer simulation | liquid dynamics

  4. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference.

    PubMed

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N

    2012-07-18

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the

  5. Thermal Convection Affects Shape Of Solid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennetrier, C.; Chopra, M. A.; Yao, M.; De Groh, H. C., III; Yeoh, G. H.; De Vahl Davis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    1994-01-01

    Report describes experimental and theoretical study of effect of thermal convection on shape of interface between solid and liquid succinonitrile, clear commercially available plastic, in Bridgman (directional-solidification) apparatus in vertical and horizontal orientations.

  6. Verticality perception during off-vertical axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, R A A; Van Gisbergen, J A M; Medendorp, W P

    2007-05-01

    During prolonged rotation about a tilted yaw axis, often referred to as off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), a percept of being translated along a conical path slowly emerges as the sense of rotation subsides. Recently, we found that these perceptual changes are consistent with a canal-otolith interaction model that attributes the illusory translation percept to improper interpretation of the ambiguous otolith signals. The model further predicts that the illusory translation percept must be accompanied by slowly worsening tilt underestimates. Here, we tested this prediction in six subjects by measuring the time course of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) during OVAR stimulation at three different tilt-rotation speed combinations, in complete darkness. Throughout the 2-min run, at each left-ear-down and right-ear-down position, the subject indicated whether a briefly flashed line deviated clockwise or counterclockwise from vertical to determine the SVV with an adaptive staircase procedure. Typically, SVV errors indicating tilt underestimation were already present at rotation onset and then increased exponentially to an asymptotic value, reached at about 60 s after rotation onset. The initial error in the SVV was highly correlated to the response error in a static tilt control experiment. The subsequent increase in error depended on both rotation speed and OVAR tilt angle, in a manner predicted by the canal-otolith interaction model. We conclude that verticality misjudgments during OVAR reflect a dynamic component linked to canal-otolith interaction, superimposed on a tilt-related component that is also expressed under stationary conditions.

  7. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  8. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  10. Liquid oxygen dicting cleaned by falling film method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, H. I.

    1967-01-01

    Principle of a vertical falling film is used to clean contaminated large diameter and length liquid oxygen /LOX/ cylindrical ducting. The cleaning cycle is performed by flowing trichloroethylene in a falling film down a vertically mounted duct for approximately one hour.

  11. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  12. Vertical Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.

    1999-01-01

    Photon transport in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds is investigated and applied to cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements for retrieving droplet effective radius. Transport is couched in terms of weighting functions which approximate the relative contribution of individual layers to the overall retrieval. Two vertical weightings are investigated, including one based on the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons in any given layer. A simpler vertical weighting based on the maximum penetration of reflected photons proves useful for solar reflectance measurements. These weighting functions are highly dependent on droplet absorption and solar/viewing geometry. A superposition technique, using adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures, is derived to accurately determine both weightings, avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo methods. Superposition calculations are made for a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Effective radius retrievals from modeled vertically inhomogeneous liquid water clouds are then made using the standard near-infrared bands, and compared with size estimates based on the proposed weighting functions. Agreement between the two methods is generally within several tenths of a micrometer, much better than expected retrieval accuracy. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived weightings can be applied to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers.

  13. Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

    2011-03-28

    A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

  14. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  15. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  16. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Submarine Rocket (ASROC): Ship -launched rocket used in ASW.  RIM-174 SM6: Advanced version of a ship -launched SM2 missile capable of over-the...Operational planners strive to fmd ways to load missiles on Vertical Latmch System (VLS) ships to meet mission requit·ements in theit· AI·ea of...Responsibility (AOR). Requirements are variable: there are missions requiting specific types of missiles; each ship may have distinct capability or capacity to

  17. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  18. Mated vertical ground vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the prediction and design of loads, pogo controls, and flutter criteria under various payloads and operational missions. The MVGVT boost and launch program evolution, test configurations, and their suspensions are described. Test results are compared with predicted analytical results.

  19. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  20. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Piotr Mann, Elizabeth K.; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal

    2014-08-07

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.