Vidarabine, an Anti-Herpes Virus Agent, Protects Against the Development of Heart Failure With Relatively Mild Side-Effects on Cardiac Function in a Canine Model of Pacing-Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
Nakamura, Takashi; Fujita, Takayuki; Kishimura, Megumi; Suita, Kenji; Hidaka, Yuko; Cai, Wenqian; Umemura, Masanari; Yokoyama, Utako; Uechi, Masami; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro
In heart failure patients, chronic hyperactivation of sympathetic signaling is known to exacerbate cardiac dysfunction. In this study, the cardioprotective effect of vidarabine, an anti-herpes virus agent, which we identified as a cardiac adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, in dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was evaluated. In addition, the adverse effects of vidarabine on basal cardiac function was compared to those of the β-blocker, carvedilol.Methods and Results:Vidarabine and carvedilol attenuated the development of pacing-induced systolic dysfunction significantly and with equal effectiveness. Both agents also inhibited the development of cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and reduced the Na + -Ca 2+ exchanger-1 protein level in the heart. Importantly, carvedilol significantly enlarged the left ventricle and atrium; vidarabine, in contrast, did not. Vidarabine-treated dogs maintained cardiac response to β-AR stimulation better than carvedilol-treated dogs did. Vidarabine may protect against pacing-induced DCM with less suppression of basal cardiac function than carvedilol in a dog model. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2496-2505).
Therapeutic trials for a rabbit model of EBV-associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS): effects of vidarabine or CHOP, and development of Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-infected lymphoproliferative disease.
Hayashi, K; Joko, H; Koirala, T R; Onoda, S; Jin, Z-S; Munemasa, M; Ohara, N; Oda, W; Tanaka, T; Oka, T; Kondo, E; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K; Yamada, M; Akagi, T
Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), which is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD), is a distinct disease characterized by high mortality. Treatment of patients with EBV-AHS has proved challenging. To develop some therapeutic interventions for EBV-AHS, we examined the effectiveness of an antiviral agent (vidarabine) or chemotherapy (CHOP), using a rabbit model for EBV-AHS. Fourteen untreated rabbits were inoculated intravenously with cell-free virions of the EBV-like virus Herpesvirus papio (HVP). All of the rabbits died of HVP-associated (LPD) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) between 21 and 31 days after inoculation. Furthermore, three HVP-infected rabbits treated with vidarabine died between days 23 and 28 after inoculation, and their clinicopathological features were no different from those of untreated rabbits, indicating that this drug is not effective at all to treat HVP-induced rabbit LPD and HPS. Three of the infected rabbits that were treated with one course, with an incomplete set of three courses, or with three full courses of CHOP treatment died of HVP-induced LPD and HPS with a bleeding tendency and/or with opportunistic infections. They died on the 26th, 62nd and 105th day after virus inoculation, respectively. CHOP treatment transiently suppressed the HVP-induced LPD and contributed to the prolonged survival time of two infected rabbits. However, it did not remove all of the HVP-infected cells from the infected rabbits, and residual HVP-infected lymphocytes caused recurrences of rabbit LPD and HPS. The most interesting finding of this experiment was observed in the infected rabbit with the longest survival time of 105 days: HVP-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-induced LPD developed in the larynx and ileum of this rabbit, causing an obstruction of the lumen. We concluded that these were not secondary lymphomas caused by CHOP treatment, because no suspicious
Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.
Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.
Embil, J A; Camfield, P; Artsob, H; Chase, D P
A boy from New York traveling in Nova Scotia had olfactory hallucinations and other signs of temporal lobe involvement, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient was treated with vidarabine and made a complete recovery. However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the pathogen. Shortly before his trip to Nova Scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where POW encephalitis had occurred in humans (the eastern part of the state of New York), and he also came in contact with a known reservoir of POW infection (a groundhog) at home.
Drugs capable of inhibiting viruses in vitro were described in the 1950s, but real progress was not made until the 1970s, when agents capable of inhibiting virus-specific enzymes were first identified. The last decade has seen rapid progress in both our understanding of antiviral therapy and the number of antiviral agents on the market. Amantadine and ribavirin are available for treatment of viral respiratory infections. Vidarabine, acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet are used for systemic treatment of herpesvirus infections, while ophthalmic preparations of idoxuridine, trifluorothymidine, and vidarabine are available for herpes keratitis. For treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infections, zidovudine and didanosine are used. Immunomodulators, such as interferons and colony-stimulating factors, and immunoglobulins are being used increasingly for viral illnesses. While resistance to antiviral drugs has been seen, especially among AIDS patients, it has not become widespread and is being intensely studied. Increasingly, combinations of agents are being used: to achieve synergistic inhibition of viruses, to delay or prevent resistance, and to decrease dosages of toxic drugs. New approaches, such as liposomes carrying antiviral drugs and computer-aided drug design, are exciting and promising prospects for the future. PMID:1576586
Thompson, Clara; Whitley, Richard
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Prior to antiviral therapy, 85% of patients with disseminated HSV disease and 50% of patients with central nervous system disease died within 1 year. The advent of antiviral therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of neonatal HSV with initially vidarabine and subsequently acyclovir increasing the survival rate of infected neonates and improving long-term developmental outcomes. More recently, polymerase chain reaction has allowed earlier identification of HSV infection and provided a quantitative guide to treatment. Current advances in the treatment of neonatal HSV infections are looking toward the role of prolonged oral suppression therapy in reducing the incidence of recurrent disease. Of concern, however, are increasing reports of acyclovir-resistant HSV isolates in patients following prolonged therapy.
Since 1958, the geographical distribution of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) has especially extended non only into the province of Buenos Aires but also towards the provinces of Santa Fe and Cordoba, leading to an estimated population at risk of about 1.2 M inhabitants. Recent epidemiological field studies has confirmed the major role of Calomys musculinus and C. laucha rodents in both transmission to man and conservation of Junin virus in nature. However, the human infection may result essentially from contacts with infected C. musculinus. Clinical condition of patients with AHF was greatly improved using AHF convalescent plasma and additional administration of vidarabin may still improve the results of treatment. A live attenuated vaccine, Candid No 1, is presently under evaluation in endemic foci of AHF. On the contrary Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHV) appears at present quite silent. A new disease resembling both AHF and BHF, the Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, appeared in 1989 in the rural areas of central Llanos of Venezuela. The mortality was very high, reaching 23% or more among severely ill patients. The wild small rodents responsible for the disease were identified as Sigmodon alstoni and Zygotontomys brevicauda. Recent extension of agricultural practices and massive immigration may probably explain the recent emergence of this new viral zoonosis.
Del Arco, Jon; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro Alejandro; Mancheño, José Miguel; Gago, Federico; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús
In our search for thermophilic and acid-tolerant nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs), we found a good candidate in an enzyme encoded by Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203 (CtNDT). Biophysical and biochemical characterization revealed CtNDT as a homotetramer endowed with good activity and stability at both high temperatures (50-100 °C) and a wide range of pH values (from 3 to 7). CtNDT recognizes purine bases and their corresponding 2'-deoxynucleosides but is also proficient using cytosine and 2'-deoxycytidine as substrates. These unusual features preclude the strict classification of CtNDT as either a type I or a type II NDT and further suggest that this simple subdivision may need to be updated in the future. Our findings also hint at a possible link between oligomeric state and NDT's substrate specificity. Interestingly from a practical perspective, CtNDT displays high activity (80-100%) in the presence of several water-miscible co-solvents in a proportion of up to 20% and was successfully employed in the enzymatic production of several therapeutic nucleosides such as didanosine, vidarabine, and cytarabine.
Shi, Fan; Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhenfan; Sun, Wei
In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. © 2013.
Wilhelmus, Kirk R
eyes healed at one week, two weeks, or both after enrolment. Data collection and analysis We tabulated data on study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes and used direct comparisons to estimate a risk ratio (RR) and, when feasible, a hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by an inconsistency index. A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis consolidated direct and indirect comparisons of relative healing at 14 days. Main results One hundred thirty-seven studies involving 8333 eyes met the inclusion criteria. Placebo-controlled studies were heterogeneous in comparison with idoxuridine (RR 1.74; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.91) and few in number for vidarabine (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.01), interferon (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.64), and debridement. Vidarabine (RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25), trifluridine (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.43), acyclovir (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.34), and brivudine (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.51) were more effective than idoxuridine. Trifluridine (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.32) and acyclovir (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19) were more effective than vidarabine. No significant differences in healing emerged among trifluridine, acyclovir, brivudine, and foscarnet although few studies compared brivudine or foscarnet with other antivirals. Any potential advantage of ganciclovir compared to acyclovir was mitigated by study heterogeneity and possible publication bias. Only one study evaluated the joint use of two topical antivirals. In a limited number of studies, oral acyclovir (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.07) or the combination of oral acyclovir with a topical antiviral (RR 1.36; 95% CI 0.68 to 2.74) appeared as effective as a single topical antiviral agent. Compared to topical antiviral monotherapy, the combination of an antiviral with either interferon or debridement had inconsistent effects on expediting healing and improving outcome. Authors’ conclusions Placebo-controlled studies of HSV epithelial keratitis
Chou, Timothy Y; Hong, Bennett Y
Eye disease due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and the number one infectious cause of unilateral corneal blindness in the developed parts of the globe. Recurrent keratitis can result in progressive corneal scarring, thinning, and vascularization. Antiviral agents employed against HSV have primarily been nucleoside analogs. Early generation drugs included idoxuridine, iododesoxycytidine, vidarabine, and trifluridine. While effective, they tended to have low bioavailability and measurable local cellular toxicity due to their nonselective mode of action. Acyclovir 0.3% ointment is a more selective agent, and had become a first-line topical drug for acute HSV keratitis in Europe and other places outside of the US. Ganciclovir 0.15% gel is the most recently approved topical treatment for herpes keratitis. Compared to acyclovir 0.3% ointment, ganciclovir 0.15% gel has been shown to be better tolerated and no less effective in several Phase II and III trials. Additionally, topical ganciclovir does not cause adverse systemic side effects and is therapeutic at lower concentrations. Based on safety, efficacy, and tolerability, ganciclovir 0.15% gel should now be considered a front-line topical drug in the treatment of dendritic herpes simplex epithelial keratitis. Topics of future investigation regarding other potential uses for ganciclovir gel may include the prophylaxis of recurrent HSV epithelial keratitis, treatment of other forms of ocular disease caused by herpesviruses and adenovirus, and ganciclovir gel as an adjunct to antitumor therapy. PMID:25187721
Iferkhass, S; Elasri, F; Chatioui, S; Khoyaali, A; Bargach, T; Reda, K; Oubaaz, A
Hepatitis C is a serious viral infection, for which the current treatment is based on the combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and Ribavirin(®). Ophthalmic complications observed with PEG-IFN are infrequent and of variable prognosis. They often include an ischemic retinopathy with typical cotton-wool spots, hemorrhage and retinal edema, and rarely acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as illustrated by our report. We report the case of a 51-year-old man followed for chronic active hepatitis C, who presented in the fourth month of treatment with pegylated interferon and vidarabine with a sharp decline in visual acuity secondary to acute bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The hepatitis C treatment was discontinued. His course was notable by the third week for a significant regression of papilledema with improvement in visual acuity in the right eye and no change in the left eye, remaining at counting fingers. After regressing for four years, the disease progressed to bilateral temporal optic atrophy without change in visual acuity. Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin(®) are commonly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. They are the source of various ophthalmologic complications of varied severity. The pathophysiology of this ocular toxicity currently remains hypothetical. Non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy is still a relatively rare complication with a poor functional prognosis, often requiring discontinuation of treatment. Thus, careful ophthalmologic monitoring before and during antiviral treatment of patients with hepatitis C appears necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Crespo, N; Sánchez-Murcia, P A; Gago, F; Cejudo-Sanches, J; Galmes, M A; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Mancheño, José Miguel
Processes catalyzed by enzymes offer numerous advantages over chemical methods although in many occasions the stability of the biocatalysts becomes a serious concern. Traditionally, synthesis of nucleosides using poorly water-soluble purine bases, such as guanine, xanthine, or hypoxanthine, requires alkaline pH and/or high temperatures in order to solubilize the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate that the 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Leishmania mexicana (LmPDT) exhibits an unusually high activity and stability under alkaline conditions (pH 8-10) across a broad range of temperatures (30-70 °C) and ionic strengths (0-500 mM NaCl). Conversely, analysis of the crystal structure of LmPDT together with comparisons with hexameric, bacterial homologues revealed the importance of the relationships between the oligomeric state and the active site architecture within this family of enzymes. Moreover, molecular dynamics and docking approaches provided structural insights into the substrate-binding mode. Biochemical characterization of LmPDT identifies the enzyme as a type I NDT (PDT), exhibiting excellent activity, with specific activity values 100- and 4000-fold higher than the ones reported for other PDTs. Interestingly, LmPDT remained stable during 36 h at different pH values at 40 °C. In order to explore the potential of LmPDT as an industrial biocatalyst, enzymatic production of several natural and non-natural therapeutic nucleosides, such as vidarabine (ara A), didanosine (ddI), ddG, or 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyguanosine, was carried out using poorly water-soluble purines. Noteworthy, this is the first time that the enzymatic synthesis of 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyguanosine, ara G, and ara H by a 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase is reported.
Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P
Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hoped to be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.
Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. The objectives of this critical review of the literature are to: 1) define the modes of mother-infant and indirect transmission of HSV infection; 2) determine current treatments and perspectives for the future. We searched for articles published since 1980 in databases using a series of key words. The articles were classed into three categories by level of scientific proof: good (level 1), fair (level 2), poor (level 3, 4 or 5). General reviews were excluded. We selected 153 articles and retained 96. Man to woman contamination was generally reported: 10p.100 of the couples were serodiscordant. Presence of anti-HSV1 antibodies was partially protective against HSV2 infection. Neonates can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, at delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). The risk of neonatal contamination is greatest for primary infection (PI) or non-primary infection occurring the last month of pregnancy (50p.100), but transmission is low for maternal recurrence during the week before delivery (5p.100). Cesarean section is mandatory in case of genital PI or non-primary maternal infection during the last month of pregnancy, especially in case of membrane rupture<6 hr, but does not protect the infant in two-thirds of the cases. The decision for cesarean is controversial in case of recurrence. Antiviral treatment of the mother using aciclovir (ACV) is well tolerated. ACV-cesarean combination provides maximal protection for the neonate. A neonate with proven or suspected HSV infection should be isolated from other neonates but not from the mother. Breastfeeding is contraindicated in case of breast lesions. Parenteral ACV 60 g/kg/d is preferred over vidarabine. It should be started immediately after the first virology samples. The risk of recurrence is estimated at 7p.100 for all neonates and warrants treatment using a high oral dose (90-100mg