Sample records for video streaming applications

  1. Android Video Streaming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    natural choice. In this document, we describe several aspects of video streaming and the challenges of performing video streaming between Android-based...client application was needed. Typically something like VideoLAN Client ( VLC ) is used for this purpose in a desktop environment. However, while VLC is...a very mature application on Windows and Linux, VLC for Android is still in a beta testing phase, and versions have only been developed to work

  2. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  3. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  4. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  5. Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Silverlight, Flash, or HTML5 ) used for video streaming. In particular, we identify three different streaming strategies that produce traffic... HTML5 , Flash. 1. INTRODUCTION The popularity of video streaming has considerably increased in the last decade. Indeed, recent studies have shown...applications for mobile devices), and the container (Flash [10], HTML5 [18], Silverlight [4]), on the charac- teristics of the traffic between the

  6. Video streaming into the mainstream.

    PubMed

    Garrison, W

    2001-12-01

    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  7. Task-oriented quality assessment and adaptation in real-time mission critical video streaming applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class

  8. Using the Periscope Live Video-Streaming Application for Global Pathology Education: A Brief Introduction.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Maren Y; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-07-21

    Periscope is a live video-streaming smartphone application (app) that allows any individual with a smartphone to broadcast live video simultaneously to multiple smartphone users around the world. The aim of this review is to describe the potential of this emerging technology for global pathology education. To our knowledge, since the launch of the Periscope app (2015), only a handful of educational presentations by pathologists have been streamed as live video via Periscope. This review includes links to these initial attempts, a step-by-step guide for those interested in using the app for pathology education, and a summary of the pros and cons, including ethical/legal issues. We hope that pathologists will appreciate the potential of Periscope for sharing their knowledge, expertise, and research with a live (and potentially large) audience without the barriers associated with traditional video equipment and standard classroom/conference settings.

  9. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  10. Streaming Video--The Wave of the Video Future!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Videos and DVDs give the teachers more flexibility than slide projectors, filmstrips, and 16mm films but teachers and students are excited about a new technology called streaming. Streaming allows the educators to view videos on demand via the Internet, which works through the transfer of digital media like video, and voice data that is received…

  11. Objective video presentation QoE predictor for smart adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhou; Zeng, Kai; Rehman, Abdul; Yeganeh, Hojatollah; Wang, Shiqi

    2015-09-01

    How to deliver videos to consumers over the network for optimal quality-of-experience (QoE) has been the central goal of modern video delivery services. Surprisingly, regardless of the large volume of videos being delivered everyday through various systems attempting to improve visual QoE, the actual QoE of end consumers is not properly assessed, not to say using QoE as the key factor in making critical decisions at the video hosting, network and receiving sites. Real-world video streaming systems typically use bitrate as the main video presentation quality indicator, but using the same bitrate to encode different video content could result in drastically different visual QoE, which is further affected by the display device and viewing condition of each individual consumer who receives the video. To correct this, we have to put QoE back to the driver's seat and redesign the video delivery systems. To achieve this goal, a major challenge is to find an objective video presentation QoE predictor that is accurate, fast, easy-to-use, display device adaptive, and provides meaningful QoE predictions across resolution and content. We propose to use the newly developed SSIMplus index (https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/~z70wang/research/ssimplus/) for this role. We demonstrate that based on SSIMplus, one can develop a smart adaptive video streaming strategy that leads to much smoother visual QoE impossible to achieve using existing adaptive bitrate video streaming approaches. Furthermore, SSIMplus finds many more applications, in live and file-based quality monitoring, in benchmarking video encoders and transcoders, and in guiding network resource allocations.

  12. Proxy-assisted multicasting of video streams over mobile wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Maggie; Pezeshkmehr, Layla; Moh, Melody

    2005-03-01

    This work addresses the challenge of providing seamless multimedia services to mobile users by proposing a proxy-assisted multicast architecture for delivery of video streams. We propose a hybrid system of streaming proxies, interconnected by an application-layer multicast tree, where each proxy acts as a cluster head to stream out content to its stationary and mobile users. The architecture is based on our previously proposed Enhanced-NICE protocol, which uses an application-layer multicast tree to deliver layered video streams to multiple heterogeneous receivers. We targeted the study on placements of streaming proxies to enable efficient delivery of live and on-demand video, supporting both stationary and mobile users. The simulation results are evaluated and compared with two other baseline scenarios: one with a centralized proxy system serving the entire population and one with mini-proxies each to serve its local users. The simulations are implemented using the J-SIM simulator. The results show that even though proxies in the hybrid scenario experienced a slightly longer delay, they had the lowest drop rate of video content. This finding illustrates the significance of task sharing in multiple proxies. The resulted load balancing among proxies has provided a better video quality delivered to a larger audience.

  13. Layer-based buffer aware rate adaptation design for SHVC video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.

  14. We All Stream for Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  15. Real-time video streaming in mobile cloud over heterogeneous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah-Saleh, Saleh; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to offload the resource requirements in computational capabilities, storage and security from mobile devices into the cloud. Internet video applications such as real-time streaming are expected to be ubiquitously deployed and supported over the cloud for mobile users, who typically encounter a range of wireless networks of diverse radio access technologies during their roaming. However, real-time video streaming for mobile cloud users across heterogeneous wireless networks presents multiple challenges. The network-layer quality of service (QoS) provision to support high-quality mobile video delivery in this demanding scenario remains an open research question, and this in turn affects the application-level visual quality and impedes mobile users' perceived quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we devise a framework to support real-time video streaming in this new mobile video networking paradigm and evaluate the performance of the proposed framework empirically through a lab-based yet realistic testing platform. One particular issue we focus on is the effect of users' mobility on the QoS of video streaming over the cloud. We design and implement a hybrid platform comprising of a test-bed and an emulator, on which our concept of mobile cloud computing, video streaming and heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and integrated to allow the testing of our framework. As representative heterogeneous wireless networks, the popular WLAN (Wi-Fi) and MAN (WiMAX) networks are incorporated in order to evaluate effects of handovers between these different radio access technologies. The H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) standard is employed for real-time video streaming from a server to mobile users (client nodes) in the networks. Mobility support is introduced to enable continuous streaming experience for a mobile user across the heterogeneous wireless network. Real-time video stream packets

  16. Fingerprint multicast in secure video streaming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2006-01-01

    Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.

  17. Performance analysis of medical video streaming over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, N; Istepanian, R H

    2010-01-01

    Wireless medical ultrasound streaming is considered one of the emerging application within the broadband mobile healthcare domain. These applications are considered as bandwidth demanding services that required high data rates with acceptable diagnostic quality of the transmitted medical images. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a medical ultrasound video streaming acquired via special robotic ultrasonography system over emulated WiMAX wireless network. The experimental set-up of this application is described together with the performance of the relevant medical quality of service (m-QoS) metrics.

  18. The Use of Smart Glasses for Surgical Video Streaming.

    PubMed

    Hiranaka, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Yuta; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hida, Yuichi; Tsubosaka, Masanori; Shibata, Yosaku; Okimura, Kenjiro; Uemoto, Harunobu

    2017-04-01

    Observation of surgical procedures performed by experts is extremely important for acquisition and improvement of surgical skills. Smart glasses are small computers, which comprise a head-mounted monitor and video camera, and can be connected to the internet. They can be used for remote observation of surgeries by video streaming. Although Google Glass is the most commonly used smart glasses for medical purposes, it is still unavailable commercially and has some limitations. This article reports the use of a different type of smart glasses, InfoLinker, for surgical video streaming. InfoLinker has been commercially available in Japan for industrial purposes for more than 2 years. It is connected to a video server via wireless internet directly, and streaming video can be seen anywhere an internet connection is available. We have attempted live video streaming of knee arthroplasty operations that were viewed at several different locations, including foreign countries, on a common web browser. Although the quality of video images depended on the resolution and dynamic range of the video camera, speed of internet connection, and the wearer's attention to minimize image shaking, video streaming could be easily performed throughout the procedure. The wearer could confirm the quality of the video as the video was being shot by the head-mounted display. The time and cost for observation of surgical procedures can be reduced by InfoLinker, and further improvement of hardware as well as the wearer's video shooting technique is expected. We believe that this can be used in other medical settings.

  19. Two-Stream Transformer Networks for Video-based Face Alignment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-stream transformer networks (TSTN) approach for video-based face alignment. Unlike conventional image-based face alignment approaches which cannot explicitly model the temporal dependency in videos and motivated by the fact that consistent movements of facial landmarks usually occur across consecutive frames, our TSTN aims to capture the complementary information of both the spatial appearance on still frames and the temporal consistency information across frames. To achieve this, we develop a two-stream architecture, which decomposes the video-based face alignment into spatial and temporal streams accordingly. Specifically, the spatial stream aims to transform the facial image to the landmark positions by preserving the holistic facial shape structure. Accordingly, the temporal stream encodes the video input as active appearance codes, where the temporal consistency information across frames is captured to help shape refinements. Experimental results on the benchmarking video-based face alignment datasets show very competitive performance of our method in comparisons to the state-of-the-arts.

  20. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  1. Multimedia applications in nursing curriculum: the process of producing streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    PubMed

    Sowan, Azizeh K

    2014-07-01

    Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Streaming Audio and Video: New Challenges and Opportunities for Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spadaccini, Jim

    Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…

  3. In-camera video-stream processing for bandwidth reduction in web inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullien, Graham A.; Li, QiuPing; Hajimowlana, S. Hossain; Morvay, J.; Conflitti, D.; Roberts, James W.; Doody, Brian C.

    1996-02-01

    Automated machine vision systems are now widely used for industrial inspection tasks where video-stream data information is taken in by the camera and then sent out to the inspection system for future processing. In this paper we describe a prototype system for on-line programming of arbitrary real-time video data stream bandwidth reduction algorithms; the output of the camera only contains information that has to be further processed by a host computer. The processing system is built into a DALSA CCD camera and uses a microcontroller interface to download bit-stream data to a XILINXTM FPGA. The FPGA is directly connected to the video data-stream and outputs data to a low bandwidth output bus. The camera communicates to a host computer via an RS-232 link to the microcontroller. Static memory is used to both generate a FIFO interface for buffering defect burst data, and for off-line examination of defect detection data. In addition to providing arbitrary FPGA architectures, the internal program of the microcontroller can also be changed via the host computer and a ROM monitor. This paper describes a prototype system board, mounted inside a DALSA camera, and discusses some of the algorithms currently being implemented for web inspection applications.

  4. Scalable Video Streaming Relay for Smart Mobile Devices in Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok

    2016-01-01

    Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN). PMID:27907113

  5. Scalable Video Streaming Relay for Smart Mobile Devices in Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok

    2016-01-01

    Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN).

  6. The effectiveness of streaming video on medical student learning: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Patrick D; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah

    2009-08-19

    Information technology helps meet today's medical students' needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content's delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n = 1736) to determine if the availability of streaming video in Years 1-2 of the basic science curriculum affected overall Step 1 scores for first-time test-takers. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to accommodate the needs of medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. Further studies need to be conducted to continue validating the effectiveness of streaming video technology.

  7. Research on quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefei

    2018-04-01

    With the development of wireless networks and intelligent terminals, video traffic has increased dramatically. Adaptive video streaming has become one of the most promising video transmission technologies. For this type of service, a good QoS (Quality of Service) of wireless network does not always guarantee that all customers have good experience. Thus, new quality metrics have been widely studies recently. Taking this into account, the objective of this paper is to investigate the quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming. In this paper, a wireless video streaming simulation platform with DASH mechanism and multi-rate video generator is established. Based on this platform, PSNR model, SSIM model and Quality Level model are implemented. Quality Level Model considers the QoE (Quality of Experience) factors such as image quality, stalling and switching frequency while PSNR Model and SSIM Model mainly consider the quality of the video. To evaluate the performance of these QoE models, three performance metrics (SROCC, PLCC and RMSE) which are used to make a comparison of subjective and predicted MOS (Mean Opinion Score) are calculated. From these performance metrics, the monotonicity, linearity and accuracy of these quality metrics can be observed.

  8. Scalable Video Streaming in Wireless Mesh Networks for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinheng; Zhao, Liqiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a video streaming system for education based on a wireless mesh network is proposed. A wireless mesh network is a self-organizing, self-managing and reliable intelligent network, which allows educators to deploy a network quickly. Video streaming plays an important role in this system for multimedia data transmission. This new…

  9. The Effectiveness of Streaming Video on Medical Student Learning: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Patrick D.; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Information technology helps meet today's medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content's delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n = 1736) to determine if the availability of streaming video in Years 1–2 of the basic science curriculum affected overall Step 1 scores for first-time test-takers. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to accommodate the needs of medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. Further studies need to be conducted to continue validating the effectiveness of streaming video technology. PMID:20165525

  10. Using a Video Split-Screen Technique To Evaluate Streaming Instructional Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Bernas, Ronan S.; McCann, Steven A.

    The Media Center at Eastern Illinois University developed and streamed on the Internet 26 short (one to five minutes) instructional videos about WebCT that illustrated specific functions, including logging-in, changing a password, and using chat. This study observed trainees using and reacting to selections of these videos. It set out to assess…

  11. Video streaming in nursing education: bringing life to online education.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Willer, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Distance education is a standard form of instruction for many colleges of nursing. Web-based course and program content has been delivered primarily through text-based presentations such as PowerPoint slides and Web search activities. However, the rapid pace of technological innovation is making available more sophisticated forms of delivery such as video streaming. High-quality video streams, created at the instructor's desktop or in basic recording studios, can be produced that build on PowerPoint or create new media for use on the Web. The technology required to design, produce, and upload short video-streamed course content objects to the Internet is described. The preparation of materials, suggested production guidelines, and examples of information presented via desktop video methods are presented.

  12. A systematic review of usability test metrics for mobile video streaming apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review regarding the usability test metrics for mobile video streaming apps. In the study, 238 studies were found, but only 51 relevant papers were eventually selected for the review. The study reveals that time taken for video streaming and the video quality were the two most popular metrics used in the usability tests for mobile video streaming apps. Besides, most of the studies concentrated on the usability of mobile TV as users are switching from traditional TV to mobile TV.

  13. Quality of experience enhancement of high efficiency video coding video streaming in wireless packet networks using multiple description coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumehrez, Farouk; Brai, Radhia; Doghmane, Noureddine; Mansouri, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Recently, video streaming has attracted much attention and interest due to its capability to process and transmit large data. We propose a quality of experience (QoE) model relying on high efficiency video coding (HEVC) encoder adaptation scheme, in turn based on the multiple description coding (MDC) for video streaming. The main contributions of the paper are (1) a performance evaluation of the new and emerging video coding standard HEVC/H.265, which is based on the variation of quantization parameter (QP) values depending on different video contents to deduce their influence on the sequence to be transmitted, (2) QoE support multimedia applications in wireless networks are investigated, so we inspect the packet loss impact on the QoE of transmitted video sequences, (3) HEVC encoder parameter adaptation scheme based on MDC is modeled with the encoder parameter and objective QoE model. A comparative study revealed that the proposed MDC approach is effective for improving the transmission with a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) gain of about 2 to 3 dB. Results show that a good choice of QP value can compensate for transmission channel effects and improve received video quality, although HEVC/H.265 is also sensitive to packet loss. The obtained results show the efficiency of our proposed method in terms of PSNR and mean-opinion-score.

  14. A real-time remote video streaming platform for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.

  15. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Niño, M. A.; Saxena, Paresh; Vazquez-Castro, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture. PMID:26247057

  16. Segment scheduling method for reducing 360° video streaming latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2017-09-01

    360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video

  17. Online and unsupervised face recognition for continuous video stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Hongwen; Feng, Jufu

    2009-10-01

    We present a novel online face recognition approach for video stream in this paper. Our method includes two stages: pre-training and online training. In the pre-training phase, our method observes interactions, collects batches of input data, and attempts to estimate their distributions (Box-Cox transformation is adopted here to normalize rough estimates). In the online training phase, our method incrementally improves classifiers' knowledge of the face space and updates it continuously with incremental eigenspace analysis. The performance achieved by our method shows its great potential in video stream processing.

  18. Effects of Video Streaming Technology on Public Speaking Students' Communication Apprehension and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…

  19. Low latency adaptive streaming of HD H.264 video over 802.11 wireless networks with cross-layer feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Andrew; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo

    2007-09-01

    Streaming video in consumer homes over wireless IEEE 802.11 networks is becoming commonplace. Wireless 802.11 networks pose unique difficulties for streaming high definition (HD), low latency video due to their error-prone physical layer and media access procedures which were not designed for real-time traffic. HD video streaming, even with sophisticated H.264 encoding, is particularly challenging due to the large number of packet fragments per slice. Cross-layer design strategies have been proposed to address the issues of video streaming over 802.11. These designs increase streaming robustness by imposing some degree of monitoring and control over 802.11 parameters from application level, or by making the 802.11 layer media-aware. Important contributions are made, but none of the existing approaches directly take the 802.11 queuing into account. In this paper we take a different approach and propose a cross-layer design allowing direct, expedient control over the wireless packet queue, while obtaining timely feedback on transmission status for each packet in a media flow. This method can be fully implemented on a media sender with no explicit support or changes required to the media client. We assume that due to congestion or deteriorating signal-to-noise levels, the available throughput may drop substantially for extended periods of time, and thus propose video source adaptation methods that allow matching the bit-rate to available throughput. A particular H.264 slice encoding is presented to enable seamless stream switching between streams at multiple bit-rates, and we explore using new computationally efficient transcoding methods when only a high bit-rate stream is available.

  20. Object tracking using multiple camera video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2010-05-01

    Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.

  1. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  2. Streaming Video to Enhance Students' Reflection in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Wildschut, Liesbeth; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students' daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students' reflection processes streaming video was applied as follows: video…

  3. Fragility issues of medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN m-health environments.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yow-Yiong Edwin; Philip, Nada; Istepanian, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some of the fragility issues of a medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN in m-health applications. In particular, we present a medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) scheme for enhanced QoS support for IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), as a modification for the standard 802.11e enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF) is proposed for enhanced medical data performance. The medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) proposed extends the EDCF, by halving the contention window (CW) after zeta consecutive successful transmissions to reduce the collision probability when channel is busy. Simulation results show that MCAFA outperforms EDCF in-terms of overall performance relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G/WLAN wireless environments.

  4. Subjective evaluation of H.265/HEVC based dynamic adaptive video streaming over HTTP (HEVC-DASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) standard is becoming increasingly popular for real-time adaptive HTTP streaming of internet video in response to unstable network conditions. Integration of DASH streaming techniques with the new H.265/HEVC video coding standard is a promising area of research. The performance of HEVC-DASH systems has been previously evaluated by a few researchers using objective metrics, however subjective evaluation would provide a better measure of the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and overall performance of the system. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of an HEVC-DASH system implemented in a hardware testbed. Previous studies in this area have focused on using the current H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) or H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) codecs and moreover, there has been no established standard test procedure for the subjective evaluation of DASH adaptive streaming. In this paper, we define a test plan for HEVC-DASH with a carefully justified data set employing longer video sequences that would be sufficient to demonstrate the bitrate switching operations in response to various network condition patterns. We evaluate the end user's real-time QoE online by investigating the perceived impact of delay, different packet loss rates, fluctuating bandwidth, and the perceived quality of using different DASH video stream segment sizes on a video streaming session using different video sequences. The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results give an insight into the performance of the system and expectation of the users. The results from this study show the impact of different network impairments and different video segments on users' QoE and further analysis and study may help in optimizing system performance.

  5. A Stream Runs through IT: Using Streaming Video to Teach Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Jennifer; Nicholson, Darren B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report student and faculty perceptions from an introductory management information systems course that uses multimedia, specifically streaming video, as a vehicle for teaching students skills in Microsoft Excel and Access. Design/methodology/approach: Student perceptions are captured via a qualitative…

  6. Real-time video streaming using H.264 scalable video coding (SVC) in multihomed mobile networks: a testbed approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2011-03-01

    Users of the next generation wireless paradigm known as multihomed mobile networks expect satisfactory quality of service (QoS) when accessing streamed multimedia content. The recent H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension to the Advanced Video Coding standard (AVC), offers the facility to adapt real-time video streams in response to the dynamic conditions of multiple network paths encountered in multihomed wireless mobile networks. Nevertheless, preexisting streaming algorithms were mainly proposed for AVC delivery over multipath wired networks and were evaluated by software simulation. This paper introduces a practical, hardware-based testbed upon which we implement and evaluate real-time H.264 SVC streaming algorithms in a realistic multihomed wireless mobile networks environment. We propose an optimised streaming algorithm with multi-fold technical contributions. Firstly, we extended the AVC packet prioritisation schemes to reflect the three-dimensional granularity of SVC. Secondly, we designed a mechanism for evaluating the effects of different streamer 'read ahead window' sizes on real-time performance. Thirdly, we took account of the previously unconsidered path switching and mobile networks tunnelling overheads encountered in real-world deployments. Finally, we implemented a path condition monitoring and reporting scheme to facilitate the intelligent path switching. The proposed system has been experimentally shown to offer a significant improvement in PSNR of the received stream compared with representative existing algorithms.

  7. Impact of different cloud deployments on real-time video applications for mobile video cloud users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Kashif A.; Wang, Qi; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Xinheng; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The latest trend to access mobile cloud services through wireless network connectivity has amplified globally among both entrepreneurs and home end users. Although existing public cloud service vendors such as Google, Microsoft Azure etc. are providing on-demand cloud services with affordable cost for mobile users, there are still a number of challenges to achieve high-quality mobile cloud based video applications, especially due to the bandwidth-constrained and errorprone mobile network connectivity, which is the communication bottleneck for end-to-end video delivery. In addition, existing accessible clouds networking architectures are different in term of their implementation, services, resources, storage, pricing, support and so on, and these differences have varied impact on the performance of cloud-based real-time video applications. Nevertheless, these challenges and impacts have not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. In our previous work, we have implemented a mobile cloud network model that integrates localized and decentralized cloudlets (mini-clouds) and wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we deploy a real-time framework consisting of various existing Internet cloud networking architectures (Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure and Eucalyptus Cloud) and a cloudlet based on Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud over wireless mesh networking technology for mobile cloud end users. It is noted that the increasing trend to access real-time video streaming over HTTP/HTTPS is gaining popularity among both research and industrial communities to leverage the existing web services and HTTP infrastructure in the Internet. To study the performance under different deployments using different public and private cloud service providers, we employ real-time video streaming over the HTTP/HTTPS standard, and conduct experimental evaluation and in-depth comparative analysis of the impact of different deployments on the quality of service for mobile video cloud users. Empirical

  8. Factors that Influence Learning Satisfaction Delivered by Video Streaming Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Daniel Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, over 100,000 e-Learning courses were offered in over half of all U.S. postsecondary education institutions with nearly 90% of all community colleges and four year institutions offering online education. Streaming video is commonplace across the internet offering seamless video and sound anywhere connectivity is available effectively…

  9. Video streaming technologies using ActiveX and LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoiu, M.; Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, C.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the possibilities of remote image processing through data exchange between two programming technologies: LabVIEW and ActiveX. ActiveX refers to the process of controlling one program from another via ActiveX component; where one program acts as the client and the other as the server. LabVIEW can be either client or server. Both programs (client and server) exist independent of each other but are able to share information. The client communicates with the ActiveX objects that the server opens to allow the sharing of information [7]. In the case of video streaming [1] [2], most ActiveX controls can only display the data, being incapable of transforming it into a data type that LabVIEW can process. This becomes problematic when the system is used for remote image processing. The LabVIEW environment itself provides little if any possibilities for video streaming, and the methods it does offer are usually not high performance, but it possesses high performance toolkits and modules specialized in image processing, making it ideal for processing the captured data. Therefore, we chose to use existing software, specialized in video streaming along with LabVIEW and to capture the data provided by them, for further use, within LabVIEW. The software we studied (the ActiveX controls of a series of media players that utilize streaming technology) provide high quality data and a very small transmission delay, ensuring the reliability of the results of the image processing.

  10. Optimisation Issues of High Throughput Medical Data and Video Streaming Traffic in 3G Wireless Environments.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe some of the optimisation issues relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G wireless environments. In particular we present a challenging 3G mobile health care application that requires a demanding 3G medical data throughput. We also describe the 3G QoS requirement of mObile Tele-Echography ultra-Light rObot system (OTELO that is designed to provide seamless 3G connectivity for real-time ultrasound medical video streams and diagnosis from a remote site (robotic and patient station) manipulated by an expert side (specialists) that is controlling the robotic scanning operation and presenting a real-time feedback diagnosis using 3G wireless communication links.

  11. Adaptive Video Streaming Using Bandwidth Estimation for 3.5G Mobile Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyeong-Min; Park, Chun-Su; Jung, Seung-Won; Ko, Sung-Jea

    Currently deployed mobile networks including High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) offer only best-effort Quality of Service (QoS). In wireless best effort networks, the bandwidth variation is a critical problem, especially, for mobile devices with small buffers. This is because the bandwidth variation leads to packet losses caused by buffer overflow as well as picture freezing due to high transmission delay or buffer underflow. In this paper, in order to provide seamless video streaming over HSDPA, we propose an efficient real-time video streaming method that consists of the available bandwidth (AB) estimation for the HSDPA network and the transmission rate control to prevent buffer overflows/underflows. In the proposed method, the client estimates the AB and the estimated AB is fed back to the server through real-time transport control protocol (RTCP) packets. Then, the server adaptively adjusts the transmission rate according to the estimated AB and the buffer state obtained from the RTCP feedback information. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves seamless video streaming over the HSDPA network providing higher video quality and lower transmission delay.

  12. Record Desktop Activity as Streaming Videos for Asynchronous, Video-Based Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chih-Kai

    As Web-based courses using videos have become popular in recent years, the issue of managing audiovisual aids has become noteworthy. The contents of audiovisual aids may include a lecture, an interview, a featurette, an experiment, etc. The audiovisual aids of Web-based courses are transformed into the streaming format that can make the quality of…

  13. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols.

    PubMed

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-04-12

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.

  14. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-01-01

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay. PMID:28417949

  15. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  16. Exploring inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.

  17. Thermal imagers: from ancient analog video output to state-of-the-art video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.

  18. Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2013-02-01

    The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the

  19. Empirical evaluation of H.265/HEVC-based dynamic adaptive video streaming over HTTP (HEVC-DASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    Real-time HTTP streaming has gained global popularity for delivering video content over Internet. In particular, the recent MPEG-DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) standard enables on-demand, live, and adaptive Internet streaming in response to network bandwidth fluctuations. Meanwhile, emerging is the new-generation video coding standard, H.265/HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding) promises to reduce the bandwidth requirement by 50% at the same video quality when compared with the current H.264/AVC standard. However, little existing work has addressed the integration of the DASH and HEVC standards, let alone empirical performance evaluation of such systems. This paper presents an experimental HEVC-DASH system, which is a pull-based adaptive streaming solution that delivers HEVC-coded video content through conventional HTTP servers where the client switches to its desired quality, resolution or bitrate based on the available network bandwidth. Previous studies in DASH have focused on H.264/AVC, whereas we present an empirical evaluation of the HEVC-DASH system by implementing a real-world test bed, which consists of an Apache HTTP Server with GPAC, an MP4Client (GPAC) with open HEVC-based DASH client and a NETEM box in the middle emulating different network conditions. We investigate and analyze the performance of HEVC-DASH by exploring the impact of various network conditions such as packet loss, bandwidth and delay on video quality. Furthermore, we compare the Intra and Random Access profiles of HEVC coding with the Intra profile of H.264/AVC when the correspondingly encoded video is streamed with DASH. Finally, we explore the correlation among the quality metrics and network conditions, and empirically establish under which conditions the different codecs can provide satisfactory performance.

  20. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

  1. About subjective evaluation of adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso

    2015-03-01

    The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.

  2. A Scalable Multimedia Streaming Scheme with CBR-Transmission of VBR-Encoded Videos over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Md. H.; Shoja, Gholamali C.; Manning, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    Streaming audio/video contents over the Internet requires large network bandwidth and timely delivery of media data. A streaming session is generally long and also needs a large I/O bandwidth at the streaming server. A streaming server, however, has limited network and I/O bandwidth. For this reason, a streaming server alone cannot scale a…

  3. An Innovative Streaming Video System With a Point-of-View Head Camera Transmission of Surgeries to Smartphones and Tablets: An Educational Utility.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pedro Armando Valente; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; David, Joacy Pedro Franco; Ferreira, Sanmari Costa; Santos, Alex de Assis Santos Dos; Melo, Rômulo Müller Dos Santos; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2017-10-01

    In order to engage medical students and residents from public health centers to utilize the telemedicine features of surgery on their own smartphones and tablets as an educational tool, an innovative streaming system was developed with the purpose of streaming live footage from open surgeries to smartphones and tablets, allowing the visualization of the surgical field from the surgeon's perspective. The current study aims to describe the results of an evaluation on level 1 of Kirkpatrick's Model for Evaluation of the streaming system usage during gynecological surgeries, based on the perception of medical students and gynecology residents. Consisted of a live video streaming (from the surgeon's point of view) of gynecological surgeries for smartphones and tablets, one for each volunteer. The volunteers were able to connect to the local wireless network, created by the streaming system, through an access password and watch the video transmission on a web browser on their smartphones. Then, they answered a Likert-type questionnaire containing 14 items about the educational applicability of the streaming system, as well as comparing it to watching an in loco procedure. This study is formally approved by the local ethics commission (Certificate No. 53175915.7.0000.5171/2016). Twenty-one volunteers participated, totalizing 294 items answered, in which 94.2% were in agreement with the items affirmative, 4.1% were neutral, and only 1.7% answers corresponded to negative impressions. Cronbach's α was .82, which represents a good reliability level. Spearman's coefficients were highly significant in 4 comparisons and moderately significant in the other 20 comparisons. This study presents a local streaming video system of live surgeries to smartphones and tablets and shows its educational utility, low cost, and simple usage, which offers convenience and satisfactory image resolution, thus being potentially applicable in surgical teaching.

  4. Video Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

  5. Learning a Continuous-Time Streaming Video QoE Model.

    PubMed

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C

    2018-05-01

    Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.

  6. Wireless live streaming video of laparoscopic surgery: a bandwidth analysis for handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Gandsas, Alex; McIntire, Katherine; George, Ivan M; Witzke, Wayne; Hoskins, James D; Park, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    Over the last six years, streaming media has emerged as a powerful tool for delivering multimedia content over networks. Concurrently, wireless technology has evolved, freeing users from desktop boundaries and wired infrastructures. At the University of Kentucky Medical Center, we have integrated these technologies to develop a system that can wirelessly transmit live surgery from the operating room to a handheld computer. This study establishes the feasibility of using our system to view surgeries and describes the effect of bandwidth on image quality. A live laparoscopic ventral hernia repair was transmitted to a single handheld computer using five encoding speeds at a constant frame rate, and the quality of the resulting streaming images was evaluated. No video images were rendered when video data were encoded at 28.8 kilobytes per second (Kbps), the slowest encoding bitrate studied. The highest quality images were rendered at encoding speeds greater than or equal to 150 Kbps. Of note, a 15 second transmission delay was experienced using all four encoding schemes that rendered video images. We believe that the wireless transmission of streaming video to handheld computers has tremendous potential to enhance surgical education. For medical students and residents, the ability to view live surgeries, lectures, courses and seminars on handheld computers means a larger number of learning opportunities. In addition, we envision that wireless enabled devices may be used to telemonitor surgical procedures. However, bandwidth availability and streaming delay are major issues that must be addressed before wireless telementoring becomes a reality.

  7. Application of MPEG-7 descriptors for content-based indexing of sports videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeynck, Michael; Auweiler, Thorsten; Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2003-06-01

    The amount of multimedia data available worldwide is increasing every day. There is a vital need to annotate multimedia data in order to allow universal content access and to provide content-based search-and-retrieval functionalities. Since supervised video annotation can be time consuming, an automatic solution is appreciated. We review recent approaches to content-based indexing and annotation of videos for different kind of sports, and present our application for the automatic annotation of equestrian sports videos. Thereby, we especially concentrate on MPEG-7 based feature extraction and content description. We apply different visual descriptors for cut detection. Further, we extract the temporal positions of single obstacles on the course by analyzing MPEG-7 edge information and taking specific domain knowledge into account. Having determined single shot positions as well as the visual highlights, the information is jointly stored together with additional textual information in an MPEG-7 description scheme. Using this information, we generate content summaries which can be utilized in a user front-end in order to provide content-based access to the video stream, but further content-based queries and navigation on a video-on-demand streaming server.

  8. Understanding the Perceptions of Network Gatekeepers on Bandwidth and Online Video Streams in Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odigie, Imoisili Ojeime; Gbaje, Ezra Shiloba

    2017-01-01

    Online video streaming is a learning technology used in today's world and reliant on the availability of bandwidth. This research study sought to understand the perceptions of network gatekeepers about bandwidth and online video streams in Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria. To achieve this, the interpretive paradigm and the Network Gatekeeping…

  9. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    PubMed

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  10. High-resolution streaming video integrated with UGS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew

    2010-04-01

    Imagery has proven to be a valuable complement to Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. It provides ultimate verification of the nature of detected targets. However, due to the power, bandwidth, and technological limitations inherent to UGS, sacrifices have been made to the imagery portion of such systems. The result is that these systems produce lower resolution images in small quantities. Currently, a high resolution, wireless imaging system is being developed to bring megapixel, streaming video to remote locations to operate in concert with UGS. This paper will provide an overview of how using Wifi radios, new image based Digital Signal Processors (DSP) running advanced target detection algorithms, and high resolution cameras gives the user an opportunity to take high-powered video imagers to areas where power conservation is a necessity.

  11. Online Discussion Forums with Embedded Streamed Videos on Distance Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Vicenc; Simo, Pep; Castillo, David; Sallan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on education and technology has frequently highlighted the usefulness of online discussion forums for distance courses; however, the majority of such investigations have focused their attention only on text-based forums. The objective of this paper is to determine if the embedding of streamed videos in online discussion forums…

  12. A time-varying subjective quality model for mobile streaming videos with stalling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.

    2015-09-01

    Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.

  13. In-network adaptation of SHVC video in software-defined networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose Maria; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN), when combined with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) represents a paradigm shift in how future networks will behave and be managed. SDN's are expected to provide the underpinning technologies for future innovations such as 5G mobile networks and the Internet of Everything. The SDN architecture offers features that facilitate an abstracted and centralized global network view in which packet forwarding or dropping decisions are based on application flows. Software Defined Networks facilitate a wide range of network management tasks, including the adaptation of real-time video streams as they traverse the network. SHVC, the scalable extension to the recent H.265 standard is a new video encoding standard that supports ultra-high definition video streams with spatial resolutions of up to 7680×4320 and frame rates of 60fps or more. The massive increase in bandwidth required to deliver these U-HD video streams dwarfs the bandwidth requirements of current high definition (HD) video. Such large bandwidth increases pose very significant challenges for network operators. In this paper we go substantially beyond the limited number of existing implementations and proposals for video streaming in SDN's all of which have primarily focused on traffic engineering solutions such as load balancing. By implementing and empirically evaluating an SDN enabled Media Adaptation Network Entity (MANE) we provide a valuable empirical insight into the benefits and limitations of SDN enabled video adaptation for real time video applications. The SDN-MANE is the video adaptation component of our Video Quality Assurance Manager (VQAM) SDN control plane application, which also includes an SDN monitoring component to acquire network metrics and a decision making engine using algorithms to determine the optimum adaptation strategy for any real time video application flow given the current network conditions. Our proposed VQAM application has been implemented and

  14. Constructing a Streaming Video-Based Learning Forum for Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chih-Kai

    2004-01-01

    As web-based courses using videos have become popular in recent years, the issue of managing audio-visual aids has become pertinent. Generally, the contents of audio-visual aids may include a lecture, an interview, a report, or an experiment, which may be transformed into a streaming format capable of making the quality of Internet-based videos…

  15. Exploiting spatio-temporal characteristics of human vision for mobile video applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jillani, Rashad; Kalva, Hari

    2008-08-01

    Video applications on handheld devices such as smart phones pose a significant challenge to achieve high quality user experience. Recent advances in processor and wireless networking technology are producing a new class of multimedia applications (e.g. video streaming) for mobile handheld devices. These devices are light weight and have modest sizes, and therefore very limited resources - lower processing power, smaller display resolution, lesser memory, and limited battery life as compared to desktop and laptop systems. Multimedia applications on the other hand have extensive processing requirements which make the mobile devices extremely resource hungry. In addition, the device specific properties (e.g. display screen) significantly influence the human perception of multimedia quality. In this paper we propose a saliency based framework that exploits the structure in content creation as well as the human vision system to find the salient points in the incoming bitstream and adapt it according to the target device, thus improving the quality of new adapted area around salient points. Our experimental results indicate that the adaptation process that is cognizant of video content and user preferences can produce better perceptual quality video for mobile devices. Furthermore, we demonstrated how such a framework can affect user experience on a handheld device.

  16. An analysis of technology usage for streaming digital video in support of a preclinical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Dev, P; Rindfleisch, T C; Kush, S J; Stringer, J R

    2000-01-01

    Usage of streaming digital video of lectures in preclinical courses was measured by analysis of the data in the log file maintained on the web server. We observed that students use the video when it is available. They do not use it to replace classroom attendance but rather for review before examinations or when a class has been missed. Usage of video has not increased significantly for any course within the 18 month duration of this project.

  17. Visual saliency in MPEG-4 AVC video stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.

    2015-03-01

    Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.

  18. Social learning in nest-building birds watching live-streaming video demonstrators.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2018-02-13

    Determining the role that social learning plays in construction behaviours, such as nest building or tool manufacture, could be improved if more experimental control could be gained over the exact public information that is provided by the demonstrator, to the observing individual. Using video playback allows the experimenter to choose what information is provided, but will only be useful in determining the role of social learning if observers attend to, and learn from, videos in a manner that is similar to live demonstration. The goal of the current experiment was to test whether live-streamed video presentations of nest building by zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata would lead observers to copy the material choice demonstrated to them. Here, males that had not previously built a nest were given an initial preference test between materials of two colours. Those observers then watched live-stream footage of a familiar demonstrator building a nest with material of the colour that the observer did not prefer. After this experience, observers were given the chance to build a nest with materials of the two colours. Although two-thirds of the observer males preferred material of the demonstrated colour after viewing the demonstrator build a nest with material of that colour more than they had previously, their preference for the demonstrated material was not as strong as that of observers that had viewed live demonstrator builders in a previous experiment. Our results suggest researchers should proceed with caution before using video demonstration in tests of social learning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Platform for intraoperative analysis of video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Logan; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Interactive, image-guided surgery (IIGS) has proven to increase the specificity of a variety of surgical procedures. However, current IIGS systems do not compensate for changes that occur intraoperatively and are not reflected in preoperative tomograms. Endoscopes and intraoperative ultrasound, used in minimally invasive surgery, provide real-time (RT) information in a surgical setting. Combining the information from RT imaging modalities with traditional IIGS techniques will further increase surgical specificity by providing enhanced anatomical information. In order to merge these techniques and obtain quantitative data from RT imaging modalities, a platform was developed to allow both the display and processing of video streams in RT. Using a Bandit-II CV frame grabber board (Coreco Imaging, St. Laurent, Quebec) and the associated library API, a dynamic link library was created in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 such that the platform could be incorporated into the IIGS system developed at Vanderbilt University. Performance characterization, using two relatively inexpensive host computers, has shown the platform capable of performing simple image processing operations on frames captured from a CCD camera and displaying the processed video data at near RT rates both independent of and while running the IIGS system.

  20. Using Video to Communicate Scientific Findings -- Habitat Connections in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, D. A.; Moorman, M.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.; McMahon, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film examining effects of urbanization on stream habitat. "Habitat Connections in Urban Streams" explores how urbanization changes some of the physical features that provide in-stream habitat and examines examples of stream restoration projects designed to improve stream form and function. The "connections" theme is emphasized, including the connection of in-stream habitats from the headwaters to the stream mouth; connections between stream habitat and the surrounding floodplains, wetlands and basin; and connections between streams and people-- resource managers, public officials, scientists, and the general public. Examples of innovative stream restoration projects in Baltimore Maryland; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Portland Oregon are shown with interviews of managers, engineers, scientists, and others describing the projects. The film is combined with a website with links to extended film versions of the stream-restoration project interviews. The website and films are an example of USGS efforts aimed at improving science communication to a general audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html. Additional films are

  1. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fox, Geoffrey; Jha, Shantenu; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), weremore » conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  2. Robust and efficient fiducial tracking for augmented reality in HD-laparoscopic video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Groch, A.; Baumhauer, M.; Maier-Hein, L.; Teber, D.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wegner, In.

    2012-02-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a convenient way of porting information from medical images into the surgical field of view and can deliver valuable assistance to the surgeon, especially in laparoscopic procedures. In addition, high definition (HD) laparoscopic video devices are a great improvement over the previously used low resolution equipment. However, in AR applications that rely on real-time detection of fiducials from video streams, the demand for efficient image processing has increased due to the introduction of HD devices. We present an algorithm based on the well-known Conditional Density Propagation (CONDENSATION) algorithm which can satisfy these new demands. By incorporating a prediction around an already existing and robust segmentation algorithm, we can speed up the whole procedure while leaving the robustness of the fiducial segmentation untouched. For evaluation purposes we tested the algorithm on recordings from real interventions, allowing for a meaningful interpretation of the results. Our results show that we can accelerate the segmentation by a factor of 3.5 on average. Moreover, the prediction information can be used to compensate for fiducials that are temporarily occluded or out of scope, providing greater stability.

  3. Use of streamed internet video for cytology training and education: www.PathLab.org.

    PubMed

    Poller, David; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Gonda, Peter

    2009-05-01

    An Internet-based method is described for submission of video clips to a website editor to be reviewed, edited, and then uploaded onto a video server, with a hypertext link to a website. The information on the webpages is searchable via the website sitemap on Internet search engines. A survey of video users who accessed a single 59-minute FNA cytology training cytology video via the website showed a mean score for usefulness for specialists/consultants of 3.75, range 1-5, n = 16, usefulness for trainees mean score was 4.4, range 3-5, n = 12, with a mean score for visual and sound quality of 3.9, range 2-5, n = 16. Fifteen out of 17 respondents thought that posting video training material on the Internet was a good idea, and 9 of 17 respondents would also consider submitting training videos to a similar website. This brief exercise has shown that there is value in posting educational or training video content on the Internet and that the use of streamed video accessed via the Internet will be of increasing importance. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Asynchronous Video Streaming vs. Synchronous Videoconferencing for Teaching a Pharmacogenetic Pharmacotherapy Course

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare students' performance and course evaluations for a pharmacogenetic pharmacotherapy course taught by synchronous videoconferencing method via the Internet and for the same course taught via asynchronous video streaming via the Internet. Methods In spring 2005, a pharmacogenetic therapy course was taught to 73 students located on Amarillo, Lubbock, and Dallas campuses using synchronous videoconferencing, and in spring 2006, to 78 students located on the same 3 campuses using asynchronous video streaming. A course evaluation was administered to each group at the end of the courses. Results Students in the asynchronous setting had final course grades of 89% ± 7% compared to the mean final course grade of 87% ± 7% in the synchronous group (p = 0.05). Regardless of which technology was used, average course grades did not differ significantly among the 3 campus sites. Significantly more of the students in the asynchronous setting agreed (57%) with the statement that they could read the lecture notes and absorb the content on their own without attending the class than students in the synchronous class (23%; chi-square test; p < 0.001). Conclusions Students in both asynchronous and synchronous settings performed well. However, students taught using asynchronous videotaped lectures had lower satisfaction with the method of content delivery, and preferred live interactive sessions or a mix of interactive sessions and asynchronous videos over delivery of content using the synchronous or asynchronous method alone. PMID:17429516

  5. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  6. SIRSALE: integrated video database management tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunie, Lionel; Favory, Loic; Gelas, J. P.; Lefevre, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Ahmed; Nait-Abdesselam, F.

    2002-07-01

    Video databases became an active field of research during the last decade. The main objective in such systems is to provide users with capabilities to friendly search, access and playback distributed stored video data in the same way as they do for traditional distributed databases. Hence, such systems need to deal with hard issues : (a) video documents generate huge volumes of data and are time sensitive (streams must be delivered at a specific bitrate), (b) contents of video data are very hard to be automatically extracted and need to be humanly annotated. To cope with these issues, many approaches have been proposed in the literature including data models, query languages, video indexing etc. In this paper, we present SIRSALE : a set of video databases management tools that allow users to manipulate video documents and streams stored in large distributed repositories. All the proposed tools are based on generic models that can be customized for specific applications using ad-hoc adaptation modules. More precisely, SIRSALE allows users to : (a) browse video documents by structures (sequences, scenes, shots) and (b) query the video database content by using a graphical tool, adapted to the nature of the target video documents. This paper also presents an annotating interface which allows archivists to describe the content of video documents. All these tools are coupled to a video player integrating remote VCR functionalities and are based on active network technology. So, we present how dedicated active services allow an optimized video transport for video streams (with Tamanoir active nodes). We then describe experiments of using SIRSALE on an archive of news video and soccer matches. The system has been demonstrated to professionals with a positive feedback. Finally, we discuss open issues and present some perspectives.

  7. Watermarking textures in video games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  8. User interface using a 3D model for video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Toshihiko; Boh, Satoru; Tsukada, Akihiro; Ozaki, Minoru

    1998-02-01

    These days fewer people, who must carry out their tasks quickly and precisely, are required in industrial surveillance and monitoring applications such as plant control or building security. Utilizing multimedia technology is a good approach to meet this need, and we previously developed Media Controller, which is designed for the applications and provides realtime recording and retrieval of digital video data in a distributed environment. In this paper, we propose a user interface for such a distributed video surveillance system in which 3D models of buildings and facilities are connected to the surveillance video. A novel method of synchronizing camera field data with each frame of a video stream is considered. This method records and reads the camera field data similarity to the video data and transmits it synchronously with the video stream. This enables the user interface to have such useful functions as comprehending the camera field immediately and providing clues when visibility is poor, for not only live video but also playback video. We have also implemented and evaluated the display function which makes surveillance video and 3D model work together using Media Controller with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language employed for multi-purpose and intranet use of 3D model.

  9. MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

  10. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  11. An Evaluation of Streaming Digital Video Resources in On- and Off-Campus Engineering Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    A recent television documentary on the Columbia space shuttle disaster was converted to streaming digital video format for educational use by on- and off-campus students in an engineering management study unit examining issues in professional engineering ethics. An evaluation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of this new resource. Use of…

  12. Simple video format for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Miao, Zhourong; Li, Chung-Sheng

    2000-04-01

    With the advent of pervasive computing, there is a growing demand for enabling multimedia applications on mobile devices. Large numbers of pervasive computing devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), hand-held computer (HHC), smart phones, portable audio players, automotive computing devices, and wearable computers are gaining access to online information sources. However, the pervasive computing devices are often constrained along a number of dimensions, such as processing power, local storage, display size and depth, connectivity, and communication bandwidth, which makes it difficult to access rich image and video content. In this paper, we report on our initial efforts in designing a simple scalable video format with low-decoding and transcoding complexity for pervasive computing. The goal is to enable image and video access for mobile applications such as electronic catalog shopping, video conferencing, remote surveillance and video mail using pervasive computing devices.

  13. MATIN: A Random Network Coding Based Framework for High Quality Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay. PMID:23940530

  14. Data streaming in telepresence environments.

    PubMed

    Lamboray, Edouard; Würmlin, Stephan; Gross, Markus

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss data transmission in telepresence environments for collaborative virtual reality applications. We analyze data streams in the context of networked virtual environments and classify them according to their traffic characteristics. Special emphasis is put on geometry-enhanced (3D) video. We review architectures for real-time 3D video pipelines and derive theoretical bounds on the minimal system latency as a function of the transmission and processing delays. Furthermore, we discuss bandwidth issues of differential update coding for 3D video. In our telepresence system-the blue-c-we use a point-based 3D video technology which allows for differentially encoded 3D representations of human users. While we discuss the considerations which lead to the design of our three-stage 3D video pipeline, we also elucidate some critical implementation details regarding decoupling of acquisition, processing and rendering frame rates, and audio/video synchronization. Finally, we demonstrate the communication and networking features of the blue-c system in its full deployment. We show how the system can possibly be controlled to face processing or networking bottlenecks by adapting the multiple system components like audio, application data, and 3D video.

  15. Our experiences with development of digitised video streams and their use in animal-free medical education.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Miroslav; Cervinková, Zuzana; Novák, Jan; Spicák, Jan; Rudolf, Emil; Peychl, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Alternatives and their teaching are an essential part of the curricula at the Faculty of Medicine. Dynamic screen-based video recordings are the most important type of alternative models employed for teaching purposes. Currently, the majority of teaching materials for this purpose are based on PowerPoint presentations, which are very popular because of their high versatility and visual impact. Furthermore, current developments in the field of image capturing devices and software enable the use of digitised video streams, tailored precisely to the specific situation. Here, we demonstrate that with reasonable financial resources, it is possible to prepare video sequences and to introduce them into the PowerPoint presentation, thereby shaping the teaching process according to individual students' needs and specificities.

  16. Annotation of UAV surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlett, Todd; Robertson, Mark A.; Manthey, Dan; Krol, John

    2004-08-01

    Significant progress toward the development of a video annotation capability is presented in this paper. Research and development of an object tracking algorithm applicable for UAV video is described. Object tracking is necessary for attaching the annotations to the objects of interest. A methodology and format is defined for encoding video annotations using the SMPTE Key-Length-Value encoding standard. This provides the following benefits: a non-destructive annotation, compliance with existing standards, video playback in systems that are not annotation enabled and support for a real-time implementation. A model real-time video annotation system is also presented, at a high level, using the MPEG-2 Transport Stream as the transmission medium. This work was accomplished to meet the Department of Defense"s (DoD"s) need for a video annotation capability. Current practices for creating annotated products are to capture a still image frame, annotate it using an Electric Light Table application, and then pass the annotated image on as a product. That is not adequate for reporting or downstream cueing. It is too slow and there is a severe loss of information. This paper describes a capability for annotating directly on the video.

  17. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueh, Max; Diouris, Jean-François; Diop, Magaye; Devaux, François-Olivier; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit

    2008-12-01

    Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET) traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC) rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS) to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  18. Live streaming video for medical education: a laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Gandsas, Alejandro; McIntire, Katherine; Palli, Guillermo; Park, Adrian

    2002-10-01

    At the University of Kentucky (UK), we applied streaming video technology to develop a webcast model that will allow institutions to broadcast live and prerecorded surgeries, conferences, and courses in real time over networks (the Internet or an intranet). We successfully broadcast a prerecorded laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair to domestic and international clients by using desktop computers equipped with off-the-shelf, streaming-enabled software and standard hardware and operating systems. A web-based user interface made accessing the educational material as simple as a mouse click and allowed clients to participate in the broadcast event via an embedded e-mail/chat module. Three client computers (two connected to the Internet and a third connected to the UK intranet) requested and displayed the surgical film by means of seven common network connection configurations. Significantly, no difference in image resolution was detected with the use of a connection speed faster than 128 kilobytes per second (kbps). At this connection speed, an average bandwidth of 32.7 kbps was used, and although a 15-second delay was experienced from the time of data request to data display, the surgical film streamed continuously from beginning to end at a mean rate of 14.4 frames per second (fps). The clients easily identified all anatomic structures in full color motion, clearly followed all steps of the surgical procedure, and successfully asked questions and made comments by using the e-mail/chat module while viewing the surgery. With minimal financial investment, we have created an interactive virtual classroom with the potential to attract a global audience. Our webcast model represents a simple and practical method for institutions to supplement undergraduate and graduate surgical education and offer continuing medical education credits in a way that is convenient for clients (surgeons, students, residents, others). In the future, physicians may access streaming webcast

  19. Discontinuity minimization for omnidirectional video projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav

    2017-09-01

    Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.

  20. Encryption for confidentiality of the network and influence of this to the quality of streaming video through network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevcik, L.; Uhrin, D.; Frnda, J.; Voznak, M.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Mikulec, M.; Jakovlev, Sergej

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the interest in real-time services, like audio and video, is growing. These services are mostly transmitted over packet networks, which are based on IP protocol. It leads to analyses of these services and their behavior in such networks which are becoming more frequent. Video has become the significant part of all data traffic sent via IP networks. In general, a video service is one-way service (except e.g. video calls) and network delay is not such an important factor as in a voice service. Dominant network factors that influence the final video quality are especially packet loss, delay variation and the capacity of the transmission links. Analysis of video quality concentrates on the resistance of video codecs to packet loss in the network, which causes artefacts in the video. IPsec provides confidentiality in terms of safety, integrity and non-repudiation (using HMAC-SHA1 and 3DES encryption for confidentiality and AES in CBC mode) with an authentication header and ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). The paper brings a detailed view of the performance of video streaming over an IP-based network. We compared quality of video with packet loss and encryption as well. The measured results demonstrated the relation between the video codec type and bitrate to the final video quality.

  1. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-12-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  2. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-01-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  3. Combined Wavelet Video Coding and Error Control for Internet Streaming and Multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianli; Xiong, Zixiang

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes an integrated approach to Internet video streaming and multicast (e.g., receiver-driven layered multicast (RLM) by McCanne) based on combined wavelet video coding and error control. We design a packetized wavelet video (PWV) coder to facilitate its integration with error control. The PWV coder produces packetized layered bitstreams that are independent among layers while being embedded within each layer. Thus, a lost packet only renders the following packets in the same layer useless. Based on the PWV coder, we search for a multilayered error-control strategy that optimally trades off source and channel coding for each layer under a given transmission rate to mitigate the effects of packet loss. While both the PWV coder and the error-control strategy are new—the former incorporates embedded wavelet video coding and packetization and the latter extends the single-layered approach for RLM by Chou et al.—the main distinction of this paper lies in the seamless integration of the two parts. Theoretical analysis shows a gain of up to 1 dB on a channel with 20% packet loss using our combined approach over separate designs of the source coder and the error-control mechanism. This is also substantiated by our simulations with a gain of up to 0.6 dB. In addition, our simulations show a gain of up to 2.2 dB over previous results reported by Chou et al.

  4. Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, Ajay; Topiwala, Pankaj N.

    2003-11-01

    H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is the latest coding standard jointly developed by the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) of ITU-T and Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) of ISO/IEC. It uses state of the art coding tools and provides enhanced coding efficiency for a wide range of applications including video telephony, video conferencing, TV, storage (DVD and/or hard disk based), streaming video, digital video creation, digital cinema and others. In this paper an overview of this standard is provided. Some comparisons with the existing standards, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2, are also provided.

  5. Dashboard Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…

  6. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  7. Video fingerprinting for copy identification: from research to industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian

    2009-02-01

    Research that began a decade ago in video copy detection has developed into a technology known as "video fingerprinting". Today, video fingerprinting is an essential and enabling tool adopted by the industry for video content identification and management in online video distribution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of video fingerprinting technology and its applications in identifying, tracking, and managing copyrighted content on the Internet. The review includes a survey on video fingerprinting algorithms and some fundamental design considerations, such as robustness, discriminability, and compactness. It also discusses fingerprint matching algorithms, including complexity analysis, and approximation and optimization for fast fingerprint matching. On the application side, it provides an overview of a number of industry-driven applications that rely on video fingerprinting. Examples are given based on real-world systems and workflows to demonstrate applications in detecting and managing copyrighted content, and in monitoring and tracking video distribution on the Internet.

  8. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  9. Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Wenger, Seth J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Sowder, Colin; Steel, E. Ashley; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordan, Chris E.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Som, Nicholas; Monestiez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Streams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human populations. Accurate information regarding the status and trends of stream resources is vital for their effective conservation and management. Most statistical techniques applied to data measured on stream networks were developed for terrestrial applications and are not optimized for streams. A new class of spatial statistical model, based on valid covariance structures for stream networks, can be used with many common types of stream data (e.g., water quality attributes, habitat conditions, biological surveys) through application of appropriate distributions (e.g., Gaussian, binomial, Poisson). The spatial statistical network models account for spatial autocorrelation (i.e., nonindependence) among measurements, which allows their application to databases with clustered measurement locations. Large amounts of stream data exist in many areas where spatial statistical analyses could be used to develop novel insights, improve predictions at unsampled sites, and aid in the design of efficient monitoring strategies at relatively low cost. We review the topic of spatial autocorrelation and its effects on statistical inference, demonstrate the use of spatial statistics with stream datasets relevant to common research and management questions, and discuss additional applications and development potential for spatial statistics on stream networks. Free software for implementing the spatial statistical network models has been developed that enables custom applications with many stream databases.

  10. Performance evaluation of MPEG internet video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiajia; Wang, Ronggang; Fan, Kui; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ge; Wang, Wenmin

    2016-09-01

    Internet Video Coding (IVC) has been developed in MPEG by combining well-known existing technology elements and new coding tools with royalty-free declarations. In June 2015, IVC project was approved as ISO/IEC 14496-33 (MPEG- 4 Internet Video Coding). It is believed that this standard can be highly beneficial for video services in the Internet domain. This paper evaluates the objective and subjective performances of IVC by comparing it against Web Video Coding (WVC), Video Coding for Browsers (VCB) and AVC High Profile. Experimental results show that IVC's compression performance is approximately equal to that of the AVC High Profile for typical operational settings, both for streaming and low-delay applications, and is better than WVC and VCB.

  11. Content-based TV sports video retrieval using multimodal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.

  12. Video watermarking for mobile phone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrea, M.; Duta, S.; Petrescu, M.; Preteux, F.

    2005-08-01

    Nowadays, alongside with the traditional voice signal, music, video, and 3D characters tend to become common data to be run, stored and/or processed on mobile phones. Hence, to protect their related intellectual property rights also becomes a crucial issue. The video sequences involved in such applications are generally coded at very low bit rates. The present paper starts by presenting an accurate statistical investigation on such a video as well as on a very dangerous attack (the StirMark attack). The obtained results are turned into practice when adapting a spread spectrum watermarking method to such applications. The informed watermarking approach was also considered: an outstanding method belonging to this paradigm has been adapted and re evaluated under the low rate video constraint. The experimental results were conducted in collaboration with the SFR mobile services provider in France. They also allow a comparison between the spread spectrum and informed embedding techniques.

  13. Schemes for efficient transmission of encoded video streams on high-speed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Srinivas; Vin, Harrick M.; Rangan, P. Venkat

    1994-04-01

    In this paper, we argue that significant performance benefits can accrue if integrated networks implement application-specific mechanisms that account for the diversities in media compression schemes. Towards this end, we propose a simple, yet effective, strategy called Frame Induced Packet Discarding (FIPD), in which, upon detection of loss of a threshold number (determined by an application's video encoding scheme) of packets belonging to a video frame, the network attempts to discard all the remaining packets of that frame. In order to analytically quantify the performance of FIPD so as to obtain fractional frame losses that can be guaranteed to video channels, we develop a finite state, discrete time markov chain model of the FIPD strategy. The fractional frame loss thus computed can serve as the criterion for admission control at the network. Performance evaluations demonstrate the utility of the FIPD strategy.

  14. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  15. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  16. Utilizing Current Commercial-off-the-Shelf Facial Recognition and Public Live Video Streaming to Enhance National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    biometrics technologies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Facial recognition, systems engineering, live video streaming, security cameras, national security ...national security by sharing biometric facial recognition data in real-time utilizing infrastructures currently in place. It should be noted that the...9/11),law enforcement (LE) and Intelligence community (IC)authorities responsible for protecting citizens from threats against national security

  17. Digital Video (DV): A Primer for Developing an Enterprise Video Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovich, Thomas L.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of digital video production and delivery. The thesis presents independent research demonstrating the educational value of incorporating video and multimedia content in training and education programs. The thesis explains the fundamental concepts associated with the process of planning, preparing, and publishing video content and assists in the development of follow-on strategies for incorporation of video content into distance training and education programs. The thesis provides an overview of the following technologies: Digital Video, Digital Video Editors, Video Compression, Streaming Video, and Optical Storage Media.

  18. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmission by a video programming distributor. (8) Children's Programming. Television programming directed at children 16 years of age and under. (b) The following video programming distributors must provide... or on children's programming, on each programming stream on which they carry one of the top four...

  19. Video performance for high security applications.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivitymore » of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.« less

  20. Nonchronological video synopsis and indexing.

    PubMed

    Pritch, Yael; Rav-Acha, Alex; Peleg, Shmuel

    2008-11-01

    The amount of captured video is growing with the increased numbers of video cameras, especially the increase of millions of surveillance cameras that operate 24 hours a day. Since video browsing and retrieval is time consuming, most captured video is never watched or examined. Video synopsis is an effective tool for browsing and indexing of such a video. It provides a short video representation, while preserving the essential activities of the original video. The activity in the video is condensed into a shorter period by simultaneously showing multiple activities, even when they originally occurred at different times. The synopsis video is also an index into the original video by pointing to the original time of each activity. Video Synopsis can be applied to create a synopsis of an endless video streams, as generated by webcams and by surveillance cameras. It can address queries like "Show in one minute the synopsis of this camera broadcast during the past day''. This process includes two major phases: (i) An online conversion of the endless video stream into a database of objects and activities (rather than frames). (ii) A response phase, generating the video synopsis as a response to the user's query.

  1. Evaluation of an interactive web-based nursing course with streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    PubMed

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p < 0.01). The majority of students accessed the course from home and some faced technical difficulties. Significant predictors of satisfaction were ease of access the course and gender (B = 0.35, 0.25, CI = 0.12-0.57, 0.02-0.48 respectively). The mean achievement score of students in the virtual class (7.5 ± 0.34) was significantly higher than that of a previous comparable cohort who was taught in the traditional method (6.0 ± 0.23) (p < 0.05). Nearly 40% of the students

  2. A new display stream compression standard under development in VESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Natan; Thirumalai, Vijayaraghavan; Joshi, Rajan; Goel, James

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Display Stream Compression (ADSC) codec project is in development in response to a call for technologies from the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). This codec targets visually lossless compression of display streams at a high compression rate (typically 6 bits/pixel) for mobile/VR/HDR applications. Functionality of the ADSC codec is described in this paper, and subjective trials results are provided using the ISO 29170-2 testing protocol.

  3. Optimal erasure protection for scalably compressed video streams with limited retransmission.

    PubMed

    Taubman, David; Thie, Johnson

    2005-08-01

    This paper shows how the priority encoding transmission (PET) framework may be leveraged to exploit both unequal error protection and limited retransmission for RD-optimized delivery of streaming media. Previous work on scalable media protection with PET has largely ignored the possibility of retransmission. Conversely, the PET framework has not been harnessed by the substantial body of previous work on RD optimized hybrid forward error correction/automatic repeat request schemes. We limit our attention to sources which can be modeled as independently compressed frames (e.g., video frames), where each element in the scalable representation of each frame can be transmitted in one or both of two transmission slots. An optimization algorithm determines the level of protection which should be assigned to each element in each slot, subject to transmission bandwidth constraints. To balance the protection assigned to elements which are being transmitted for the first time with those which are being retransmitted, the proposed algorithm formulates a collection of hypotheses concerning its own behavior in future transmission slots. We show how the PET framework allows for a decoupled optimization algorithm with only modest complexity. Experimental results obtained with Motion JPEG2000 compressed video demonstrate that substantial performance benefits can be obtained using the proposed framework.

  4. A Video Game Platform for Exploring Satellite and In-Situ Data Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of moving objects are essential to Earth Observation missions, such as tracking, modeling and predicting movement of clouds, dust, plumes and harmful algal blooms. Those missions involve high-volume, multi-source, and multi-modal imagery data analysis. Analytical models intend to reveal inner structure, dynamics, and relationship of things. However, they are not necessarily intuitive to humans. Conventional scientific visualization methods are intuitive but limited by manual operations, such as area marking, measurement and alignment of multi-source data, which are expensive and time-consuming. A new development of video analytics platform has been in progress, which integrates the video game engine with satellite and in-situ data streams. The system converts Earth Observation data into articulated objects that are mapped from a high-dimensional space to a 3D space. The object tracking and augmented reality algorithms highlight the objects' features in colors, shapes and trajectories, creating visual cues for observing dynamic patterns. The head and gesture tracker enable users to navigate the data space interactively. To validate our design, we have used NASA SeaWiFS satellite images of oceanographic remote sensing data and NOAA's in-situ cell count data. Our study demonstrates that the video game system can reduce the size and cost of traditional CAVE systems in two to three orders of magnitude. This system can also be used for satellite mission planning and public outreaching.

  5. Concept of Video Bookmark (Videomark) and Its Application to the Collaborative Indexing of Lecture Video in Video-Based Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haga, Hirohide

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of the video bookmark, hereinafter referred to as the videomark, and its application to the collaborative indexing of the lecture video in video-based distance education system. The combination of the videomark system with the bulletin board system (BBS), which is another network tool used for discussion, is…

  6. Video document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

    1999-08-01

    The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

  7. Image quality assessment for video stream recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.

    2018-04-01

    Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.

  8. Dynamic video encryption algorithm for H.264/AVC based on a spatiotemporal chaos system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Tong, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ling-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Video encryption schemes mostly employ the selective encryption method to encrypt parts of important and sensitive video information, aiming to ensure the real-time performance and encryption efficiency. The classic block cipher is not applicable to video encryption due to the high computational overhead. In this paper, we propose the encryption selection control module to encrypt video syntax elements dynamically which is controlled by the chaotic pseudorandom sequence. A novel spatiotemporal chaos system and binarization method is used to generate a key stream for encrypting the chosen syntax elements. The proposed scheme enhances the resistance against attacks through the dynamic encryption process and high-security stream cipher. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high security and high efficiency with little effect on the compression ratio and time cost.

  9. Video sensor architecture for surveillance applications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jordi; Benet, Ginés; Simó, José E

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software) in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%.

  10. Video Sensor Architecture for Surveillance Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jordi; Benet, Ginés; Simó, José E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software) in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%. PMID:22438723

  11. 4DCAPTURE: a general purpose software package for capturing and analyzing two- and three-dimensional motion data acquired from video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, James S.; Hodgson, Peter; Hallamasek, Karen; Palmer, Jake

    2003-07-01

    4DVideo is creating a general purpose capability for capturing and analyzing kinematic data from video sequences in near real-time. The core element of this capability is a software package designed for the PC platform. The software ("4DCapture") is designed to capture and manipulate customized AVI files that can contain a variety of synchronized data streams -- including audio, video, centroid locations -- and signals acquired from more traditional sources (such as accelerometers and strain gauges.) The code includes simultaneous capture or playback of multiple video streams, and linear editing of the images (together with the ancilliary data embedded in the files). Corresponding landmarks seen from two or more views are matched automatically, and photogrammetric algorithms permit multiple landmarks to be tracked in two- and three-dimensions -- with or without lens calibrations. Trajectory data can be processed within the main application or they can be exported to a spreadsheet where they can be processed or passed along to a more sophisticated, stand-alone, data analysis application. Previous attempts to develop such applications for high-speed imaging have been limited in their scope, or by the complexity of the application itself. 4DVideo has devised a friendly ("FlowStack") user interface that assists the end-user to capture and treat image sequences in a natural progression. 4DCapture employs the AVI 2.0 standard and DirectX technology which effectively eliminates the file size limitations found in older applications. In early tests, 4DVideo has streamed three RS-170 video sources to disk for more than an hour without loss of data. At this time, the software can acquire video sequences in three ways: (1) directly, from up to three hard-wired cameras supplying RS-170 (monochrome) signals; (2) directly, from a single camera or video recorder supplying an NTSC (color) signal; and (3) by importing existing video streams in the AVI 1.0 or AVI 2.0 formats. The

  12. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aghdasi, Hadi S; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-08-04

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  13. Vehicle-triggered video compression/decompression for fast and efficient searching in large video databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan; Bernal, Edgar A.; Loce, Robert P.; Wu, Wencheng

    2013-03-01

    Video cameras are widely deployed along city streets, interstate highways, traffic lights, stop signs and toll booths by entities that perform traffic monitoring and law enforcement. The videos captured by these cameras are typically compressed and stored in large databases. Performing a rapid search for a specific vehicle within a large database of compressed videos is often required and can be a time-critical life or death situation. In this paper, we propose video compression and decompression algorithms that enable fast and efficient vehicle or, more generally, event searches in large video databases. The proposed algorithm selects reference frames (i.e., I-frames) based on a vehicle having been detected at a specified position within the scene being monitored while compressing a video sequence. A search for a specific vehicle in the compressed video stream is performed across the reference frames only, which does not require decompression of the full video sequence as in traditional search algorithms. Our experimental results on videos captured in a local road show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the search space (thus reducing time and computational resources) in vehicle search tasks within compressed video streams, particularly those captured in light traffic volume conditions.

  14. Effect of video server topology on contingency capacity requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Martin G.; Dan, Asit; Sitaram, Dinkar; Tetzlaff, William H.

    1996-03-01

    Video servers need to assign a fixed set of resources to each video stream in order to guarantee on-time delivery of the video data. If a server has insufficient resources to guarantee the delivery, it must reject the stream request rather than slowing down all existing streams. Large scale video servers are being built as clusters of smaller components, so as to be economical, scalable, and highly available. This paper uses a blocking model developed for telephone systems to evaluate video server cluster topologies. The goal is to achieve high utilization of the components and low per-stream cost combined with low blocking probability and high user satisfaction. The analysis shows substantial economies of scale achieved by larger server images. Simple distributed server architectures can result in partitioning of resources with low achievable resource utilization. By comparing achievable resource utilization of partitioned and monolithic servers, we quantify the cost of partitioning. Next, we present an architecture for a distributed server system that avoids resource partitioning and results in highly efficient server clusters. Finally, we show how, in these server clusters, further optimizations can be achieved through caching and batching of video streams.

  15. Automatic topics segmentation for TV news video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmayda, Mounira; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    Automatic identification of television programs in the TV stream is an important task for operating archives. This article proposes a new spatio-temporal approach to identify the programs in TV stream into two main steps: First, a reference catalogue for video features visual jingles built. We operate the features that characterize the instances of the same program type to identify the different types of programs in the flow of television. The role of video features is to represent the visual invariants for each visual jingle using appropriate automatic descriptors for each television program. On the other hand, programs in television streams are identified by examining the similarity of the video signal for visual grammars in the catalogue. The main idea of the identification process is to compare the visual similarity of the video signal features in the flow of television to the catalogue. After presenting the proposed approach, the paper overviews encouraging experimental results on several streams extracted from different channels and compounds of several programs.

  16. Objective assessment of MPEG-2 video quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldo, Paolo; Zunino, Rodolfo; Rovetta, Stefano

    2002-07-01

    The increasing use of video compression standards in broadcasting television systems has required, in recent years, the development of video quality measurements that take into account artifacts specifically caused by digital compression techniques. In this paper we present a methodology for the objective quality assessment of MPEG video streams by using circular back-propagation feedforward neural networks. Mapping neural networks can render nonlinear relationships between objective features and subjective judgments, thus avoiding any simplifying assumption on the complexity of the model. The neural network processes an instantaneous set of input values, and yields an associated estimate of perceived quality. Therefore, the neural-network approach turns objective quality assessment into adaptive modeling of subjective perception. The objective features used for the estimate are chosen according to the assessed relevance to perceived quality and are continuously extracted in real time from compressed video streams. The overall system mimics perception but does not require any analytical model of the underlying physical phenomenon. The capability to process compressed video streams represents an important advantage over existing approaches, like avoiding the stream-decoding process greatly enhances real-time performance. Experimental results confirm that the system provides satisfactory, continuous-time approximations for actual scoring curves concerning real test videos.

  17. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

  18. Stream On: Video Servers in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristram, Claire

    1995-01-01

    Despite plans for corporate training networks, digital ad-insertion systems, hotel video-on-demand, and interactive television, only small scale video networks presently work. Four case studies examine the design and implementation decisions for different markets: corporate; advertising; hotel; and commercial video via cable, satellite or…

  19. Learner Outcomes and Satisfaction: A Comparison of Live Video-Streamed Instruction, Satellite Broadcast Instruction, and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Yoshimura, Miki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the final grade and satisfaction level differences among students taking specific courses using three different methods: face-to-face in class, via satellite broadcasting at remote sites, and via live video-streaming at home or at work. In each case, the same course was taught by the same instructor in all three delivery…

  20. Cooperation stimulation strategies for peer-to-peer wireless live video-sharing social networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Sabrina; Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior analysis in video sharing social networks is an emerging research area, which analyzes the behavior of users who share multimedia content and investigates the impact of human dynamics on video sharing systems. Users watching live streaming in the same wireless network share the same limited bandwidth of backbone connection to the Internet, thus, they might want to cooperate with each other to obtain better video quality. These users form a wireless live-streaming social network. Every user wishes to watch video with high quality while paying as little as possible cost to help others. This paper focuses on providing incentives for user cooperation. We propose a game-theoretic framework to model user behavior and to analyze the optimal strategies for user cooperation simulation in wireless live streaming. We first analyze the Pareto optimality and the time-sensitive bargaining equilibrium of the two-person game. We then extend the solution to the multiuser scenario. We also consider potential selfish users' cheating behavior and malicious users' attacking behavior and analyze the performance of the proposed strategies with the existence of cheating users and malicious attackers. Both our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed strategies can effectively stimulate user cooperation, achieve cheat free and attack resistance, and help provide reliable services for wireless live streaming applications.

  1. Evaluating the Use of Streaming Video To Support Student Learning in a First-Year Life Sciences Course for Student Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sue M.; Voegeli, David; Harrison, Maureen; Phillips, Jackie; Knowles, Jess; Weaver, Mike; Shepard, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Nursing students (n=656) used streaming videos on immune, endocrine, and neurological systems using Blackboard software. Of students who viewed all three, 32% found access easy, 59% enjoyed them, and 25% felt very confident in their learning. Results were consistent across three different types and embedding methods. Technical and access problems…

  2. OceanVideoLab: A Tool for Exploring Underwater Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Morton, J. J.; Wiener, C.

    2016-02-01

    Video imagery acquired with underwater vehicles is an essential tool for characterizing seafloor ecosystems and seafloor geology. It is a fundamental component of ocean exploration that facilitates real-time operations, augments multidisciplinary scientific research, and holds tremendous potential for public outreach and engagement. Acquiring, documenting, managing, preserving and providing access to large volumes of video acquired with underwater vehicles presents a variety of data stewardship challenges to the oceanographic community. As a result, only a fraction of underwater video content collected with research submersibles is documented, discoverable and/or viewable online. With more than 1 billion users, YouTube offers infrastructure that can be leveraged to help address some of the challenges associated with sharing underwater video with a broad global audience. Anyone can post content to YouTube, and some oceanographic organizations, such as the Schmidt Ocean Institute, have begun live-streaming video directly from underwater vehicles. OceanVideoLab (oceanvideolab.org) was developed to help improve access to underwater video through simple annotation, browse functionality, and integration with related environmental data. Any underwater video that is publicly accessible on YouTube can be registered with OceanVideoLab by simply providing a URL. It is strongly recommended that a navigational file also be supplied to enable geo-referencing of observations. Once a video is registered, it can be viewed and annotated using a simple user interface that integrates observations with vehicle navigation data if provided. This interface includes an interactive map and a list of previous annotations that allows users to jump to times of specific observations in the video. Future enhancements to OceanVideoLab will include the deployment of a search interface, the development of an application program interface (API) that will drive the search and enable querying of

  3. Content-Aware Video Adaptation under Low-Bitrate Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Ming-Ho; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chen, Hua-Tsung; Chou, Kuan-Hung; Lee, Suh-Yin

    2007-12-01

    With the development of wireless network and the improvement of mobile device capability, video streaming is more and more widespread in such an environment. Under the condition of limited resource and inherent constraints, appropriate video adaptations have become one of the most important and challenging issues in wireless multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a novel content-aware video adaptation in order to effectively utilize resource and improve visual perceptual quality. First, the attention model is derived from analyzing the characteristics of brightness, location, motion vector, and energy features in compressed domain to reduce computation complexity. Then, through the integration of attention model, capability of client device and correlational statistic model, attractive regions of video scenes are derived. The information object- (IOB-) weighted rate distortion model is used for adjusting the bit allocation. Finally, the video adaptation scheme dynamically adjusts video bitstream in frame level and object level. Experimental results validate that the proposed scheme achieves better visual quality effectively and efficiently.

  4. Interactive real-time media streaming with reliable communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.

    2014-02-01

    Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software pɛvμa (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, pɛvμa utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a

  5. Protection of HEVC Video Delivery in Vehicular Networks with RaptorQ Codes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rach, Miguel; López, Otoniel; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2014-01-01

    With future vehicles equipped with processing capability, storage, and communications, vehicular networks will become a reality. A vast number of applications will arise that will make use of this connectivity. Some of them will be based on video streaming. In this paper we focus on HEVC video coding standard streaming in vehicular networks and how it deals with packet losses with the aid of RaptorQ, a Forward Error Correction scheme. As vehicular networks are packet loss prone networks, protection mechanisms are necessary if we want to guarantee a minimum level of quality of experience to the final user. We have run simulations to evaluate which configurations fit better in this type of scenarios. PMID:25136675

  6. Application Layer Multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allani, Mouna; Garbinato, Benoît; Pedone, Fernando

    An increasing number of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Internet applications rely today on data dissemination as their cornerstone, e.g., audio or video streaming, multi-party games. These applications typically depend on some support for multicast communication, where peers interested in a given data stream can join a corresponding multicast group. As a consequence, the efficiency, scalability, and reliability guarantees of these applications are tightly coupled with that of the underlying multicast mechanism.

  7. Optimal frame-by-frame result combination strategy for OCR in video stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Konstantin; Lynchenko, Aleksander; Krivtsov, Valeriy

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the problem of combining classification results of multiple observations of one object. This task can be regarded as a particular case of a decision-making using a combination of experts votes with calculated weights. The accuracy of various methods of combining the classification results depending on different models of input data is investigated on the example of frame-by-frame character recognition in a video stream. Experimentally it is shown that the strategy of choosing a single most competent expert in case of input data without irrelevant observations has an advantage (in this case irrelevant means with character localization and segmentation errors). At the same time this work demonstrates the advantage of combining several most competent experts according to multiplication rule or voting if irrelevant samples are present in the input data.

  8. A simulator tool set for evaluating HEVC/SHVC streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    Video streaming and other multimedia applications account for an ever increasing proportion of all network traffic. The recent adoption of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) as the H.265 standard provides many opportunities for new and improved services multimedia services and applications in the consumer domain. Since the delivery of version one of H.265, the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding have been working towards standardisation of a scalable extension (SHVC) to the H.265 standard and a series of range extensions and new profiles. As these enhancements are added to the standard the range of potential applications and research opportunities will expend. For example the use of video is also growing rapidly in other sectors such as safety, security, defence and health with real-time high quality video transmission playing an important role in areas like critical infrastructure monitoring and disaster management. Each of which may benefit from the application of enhanced HEVC/H.265 and SHVC capabilities. The majority of existing research into HEVC/H.265 transmission has focussed on the consumer domain addressing issues such as broadcast transmission and delivery to mobile devices with the lack of freely available tools widely cited as an obstacle to conducting this type of research. In this paper we present a toolset which facilitates the transmission and evaluation of HEVC/H.265 and SHVC encoded video on the popular open source NCTUns simulator. Our toolset provides researchers with a modular, easy to use platform for evaluating video transmission and adaptation proposals on large scale wired, wireless and hybrid architectures. The toolset consists of pre-processing, transmission, SHVC adaptation and post-processing tools to gather and analyse statistics. It has been implemented using HM15 and SHM5, the latest versions of the HEVC and SHVC reference software implementations to ensure that currently adopted proposals for scalable and range extensions to

  9. Novel Uses of Video to Accelerate the Surgical Learning Curve.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Andrew M; Varban, Oliver A; Dimick, Justin B

    2016-04-01

    Surgeons are under enormous pressure to continually improve and learn new surgical skills. Novel uses of surgical video in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative setting are emerging to accelerate the learning curve of surgical skill and minimize harm to patients. In the preoperative setting, social media outlets provide a valuable platform for surgeons to collaborate and plan for difficult operative cases. Live streaming of video has allowed for intraoperative telementoring. Finally, postoperative use of video has provided structure for peer coaching to evaluate and improve surgical skill. Applying these approaches into practice is becoming easier as most of our surgical platforms (e.g., laparoscopic, and endoscopy) now have video recording technology built in and video editing software has become more user friendly. Future applications of video technology are being developed, including possible integration into accreditation and board certification.

  10. Real-Time Transmission and Storage of Video, Audio, and Health Data in Emergency and Home Care Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Ivano; Lambruschini, Paolo; Raggio, Marco; Stagnaro, Riccardo

    2007-12-01

    The increase in the availability of bandwidth for wireless links, network integration, and the computational power on fixed and mobile platforms at affordable costs allows nowadays for the handling of audio and video data, their quality making them suitable for medical application. These information streams can support both continuous monitoring and emergency situations. According to this scenario, the authors have developed and implemented the mobile communication system which is described in this paper. The system is based on ITU-T H.323 multimedia terminal recommendation, suitable for real-time data/video/audio and telemedical applications. The audio and video codecs, respectively, H.264 and G723.1, were implemented and optimized in order to obtain high performance on the system target processors. Offline media streaming storage and retrieval functionalities were supported by integrating a relational database in the hospital central system. The system is based on low-cost consumer technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS) and wireless local area network (WLAN or WiFi) for lowband data/video transmission. Implementation and testing were carried out for medical emergency and telemedicine application. In this paper, the emergency case study is described.

  11. StreamStats in North Carolina: a water-resources Web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2012-01-01

    A statewide StreamStats application for North Carolina was developed in cooperation with the North Carolina Department of Transportation following completion of a pilot application for the upper French Broad River basin in western North Carolina (Wagner and others, 2009). StreamStats for North Carolina, available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/north_carolina.html, is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in consultation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (Esri) to provide access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management (Ries and others, 2008). The StreamStats application provides an accurate and consistent process that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection sites and user-selected ungaged sites. In the North Carolina application, users can compute 47 basin characteristics and peak-flow frequency statistics (Weaver and others, 2009; Robbins and Pope, 1996) for a delineated drainage basin. Selected streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for data-collection sites have been compiled from published reports and also are immediately accessible by querying individual sites from the web interface. Examples of basin characteristics that can be computed in StreamStats include drainage area, stream slope, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forested area (Ries and others, 2008). Examples of streamflow statistics that were previously available only through published documents include peak-flow frequency, flow-duration, and precipitation data. These data are valuable for making decisions related to bridge design, floodplain delineation, water-supply permitting, and sustainable stream quality and ecology. The StreamStats application also allows users to identify stream reaches upstream and downstream from user-selected sites

  12. Multicast for savings in cache-based video distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griwodz, Carsten; Zink, Michael; Liepert, Michael; On, Giwon; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-12-01

    Internet video-on-demand (VoD) today streams videos directly from server to clients, because re-distribution is not established yet. Intranet solutions exist but are typically managed centrally. Caching may overcome these management needs, however existing web caching strategies are not applicable because they work in different conditions. We propose movie distribution by means of caching, and study the feasibility from the service providers' point of view. We introduce the combination of our reliable multicast protocol LCRTP for caching hierarchies combined with our enhancement to the patching technique for bandwidth friendly True VoD, not depending on network resource guarantees.

  13. Streaming Media Seminar--Effective Development and Distribution of Streaming Multimedia in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainhart, Robert; Gerraughty, James; Anderson, Kristine M.

    2004-01-01

    Concisely defined, "streaming media" is moving video and/or audio transmitted over the Internet for immediate viewing/listening by an end user. However, at Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA), streaming media is approached from a broader perspective. The working definition includes…

  14. Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala; Thiruvengadam, S J

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i) generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES) and (ii) generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security.

  15. Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala; Thiruvengadam, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i) generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES) and (ii) generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security. PMID:26550603

  16. Development of a web-based video management and application processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Shermann S.; Wu, Yi; Li, Qing; Zhuang, Yueting

    2001-07-01

    How to facilitate efficient video manipulation and access in a web-based environment is becoming a popular trend for video applications. In this paper, we present a web-oriented video management and application processing system, based on our previous work on multimedia database and content-based retrieval. In particular, we extend the VideoMAP architecture with specific web-oriented mechanisms, which include: (1) Concurrency control facilities for the editing of video data among different types of users, such as Video Administrator, Video Producer, Video Editor, and Video Query Client; different users are assigned various priority levels for different operations on the database. (2) Versatile video retrieval mechanism which employs a hybrid approach by integrating a query-based (database) mechanism with content- based retrieval (CBR) functions; its specific language (CAROL/ST with CBR) supports spatio-temporal semantics of video objects, and also offers an improved mechanism to describe visual content of videos by content-based analysis method. (3) Query profiling database which records the `histories' of various clients' query activities; such profiles can be used to provide the default query template when a similar query is encountered by the same kind of users. An experimental prototype system is being developed based on the existing VideoMAP prototype system, using Java and VC++ on the PC platform.

  17. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    PubMed

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  18. Compact full-motion video hyperspectral cameras: development, image processing, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaev, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Emergence of spectral pixel-level color filters has enabled development of hyper-spectral Full Motion Video (FMV) sensors operating in visible (EO) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The new class of hyper-spectral cameras opens broad possibilities of its utilization for military and industry purposes. Indeed, such cameras are able to classify materials as well as detect and track spectral signatures continuously in real time while simultaneously providing an operator the benefit of enhanced-discrimination-color video. Supporting these extensive capabilities requires significant computational processing of the collected spectral data. In general, two processing streams are envisioned for mosaic array cameras. The first is spectral computation that provides essential spectral content analysis e.g. detection or classification. The second is presentation of the video to an operator that can offer the best display of the content depending on the performed task e.g. providing spatial resolution enhancement or color coding of the spectral analysis. These processing streams can be executed in parallel or they can utilize each other's results. The spectral analysis algorithms have been developed extensively, however demosaicking of more than three equally-sampled spectral bands has been explored scarcely. We present unique approach to demosaicking based on multi-band super-resolution and show the trade-off between spatial resolution and spectral content. Using imagery collected with developed 9-band SWIR camera we demonstrate several of its concepts of operation including detection and tracking. We also compare the demosaicking results to the results of multi-frame super-resolution as well as to the combined multi-frame and multiband processing.

  19. Stackable middleware services for advanced multimedia applications. Final report for period July 14, 1999 - July 14, 2001

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Feng, Wu-chi; Crawfis, Roger, Weide, Bruce

    2002-02-01

    In this project, the authors propose the research, development, and distribution of a stackable component-based multimedia streaming protocol middleware service. The goals of this stackable middleware interface include: (1) The middleware service will provide application writers and scientists easy to use interfaces that support their visualization needs. (2) The middleware service will support a variety of image compression modes. Currently, many of the network adaptation protocols for video have been developed with DCT-based compression algorithms like H.261, MPEG-1, or MPEG-2 in mind. It is expected that with advanced scientific computing applications that the lossy compression of the image data willmore » be unacceptable in certain instances. The middleware service will support several in-line lossless compression modes for error-sensitive scientific visualization data. (3) The middleware service will support two different types of streaming video modes: one for interactive collaboration of scientists and a stored video streaming mode for viewing prerecorded animations. The use of two different streaming types will allow the quality of the video delivered to the user to be maximized. Most importantly, this service will happen transparently to the user (with some basic controls exported to the user for domain specific tweaking). In the spirit of layered network protocols (like ISO and TCP/IP), application writers should not have to know a large amount about lower level network details. Currently, many example video streaming players have their congestion management techniques tightly integrated into the video player itself and are, for the most part, ''one-off'' applications. As more networked multimedia and video applications are written in the future, a larger percentage of these programmers and scientist will most likely know little about the underlying networking layer. By providing a simple, powerful, and semi-transparent middleware layer, the successful

  20. Data Streams: An Overview and Scientific Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.

    In recent years, advances in hardware technology have facilitated the ability to collect data continuously. Simple transactions of everyday life such as using a credit card, a phone, or browsing the web lead to automated data storage. Similarly, advances in information technology have lead to large flows of data across IP networks. In many cases, these large volumes of data can be mined for interesting and relevant information in a wide variety of applications. When the volume of the underlying data is very large, it leads to a number of computational and mining challenges: With increasing volume of the data, it is no longer possible to process the data efficiently by using multiple passes. Rather, one can process a data item at most once. This leads to constraints on the implementation of the underlying algorithms. Therefore, stream mining algorithms typically need to be designed so that the algorithms work with one pass of the data. In most cases, there is an inherent temporal component to the stream mining process. This is because the data may evolve over time. This behavior of data streams is referred to as temporal locality. Therefore, a straightforward adaptation of one-pass mining algorithms may not be an effective solution to the task. Stream mining algorithms need to be carefully designed with a clear focus on the evolution of the underlying data. Another important characteristic of data streams is that they are often mined in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, the individual processors may have limited processing and memory. Examples of such cases include sensor networks, in which it may be desirable to perform in-network processing of data stream with limited processing and memory [1, 2]. This chapter will provide an overview of the key challenges in stream mining algorithms which arise from the unique setup in which these problems are encountered. This chapter is organized as follows. In the next section, we will discuss the generic challenges that

  1. [Assessment of learning activities using streaming video for laboratory practice education: aiming for development of E-learning system that promotes self-learning].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naohito; Takeuchi, Isao; Haruna, Mitsumasa

    2007-12-01

    In order to develop an e-learning system that promotes self-learning, lectures and basic operations in laboratory practice of chemistry were recorded and edited on DVD media, consisting of 8 streaming videos as learning materials. Twenty-six students wanted to watch the DVD, and answered the following questions after they had watched it: "Do you think the video would serve to encourage you to study independently in the laboratory practice?" Almost all students (95%) approved of its usefulness, and more than 60% of them watched the videos repeatedly in order to acquire deeper knowledge and skill of the experimental operations. More than 60% answered that the demonstration-experiment should be continued in the laboratory practice, in spite of distribution of the DVD media.

  2. StreamStats: A water resources web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Guthrie, John G.; Rea, Alan H.; Steeves, Peter A.; Stewart, David W.

    2008-01-01

    . Streamflow measurements are collected systematically over a period of years at partial-record stations to estimate peak-flow or low-flow statistics. Streamflow measurements usually are collected at miscellaneous-measurement stations for specific hydrologic studies with various objectives.StreamStats is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application that was created by the USGS, in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI)1, to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats functionality is based on ESRI’s ArcHydro Data Model and Tools, described on the Web at http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/hydro/01vn0000000s000000.htm. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection stations and user-selected ungaged sites. It also allows users to identify stream reaches that are upstream and downstream from user-selected sites, and to identify and obtain information for locations along the streams where activities that may affect streamflow conditions are occurring. This functionality can be accessed through a map-based user interface that appears in the user’s Web browser, or individual functions can be requested remotely as Web services by other Web or desktop computer applications. StreamStats can perform these analyses much faster than historically used manual techniques.StreamStats was designed so that each state would be implemented as a separate application, with a reliance on local partnerships to fund the individual applications, and a goal of eventual full national implementation. Idaho became the first state to implement StreamStats in 2003. By mid-2008, 14 states had applications available to the public, and 18 other states were in various stages of implementation.

  3. An improvement analysis on video compression using file segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.

    2017-11-01

    From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.

  4. StreamStats in Georgia: a water-resources web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-07-31

    StreamStats is being implemented on a State-by-State basis to allow for customization of the data development and underlying datasets to address their specific needs, issues, and objectives. The USGS, in cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Protection Division and Georgia Department of Transportation, has implemented StreamStats for Georgia. The Georgia StreamStats Web site is available through the national StreamStats Web-page portal at http://streamstats.usgs.gov. Links are provided on this Web page for individual State applications, instructions for using StreamStats, definitions of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics, and other supporting information.

  5. Delivering Instruction via Streaming Media: A Higher Education Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Mark; Schlieve, Paul; Young, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Describes streaming media, an audio/video presentation that is delivered across a network so that it is viewed while being downloaded onto the user's computer, including a continuous stream of video that can be pre-recorded or live. Discusses its use for nontraditional students in higher education and reports on implementation experiences. (LRW)

  6. Using Learning Styles and Viewing Styles in Streaming Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of learning when students observe video lectures becomes urgent with the rising advent of (web-based) video materials. Vital questions are how students differ in their learning preferences and what patterns in viewing video can be detected in log files. Our experiments inventory students' viewing patterns while watching…

  7. Secured web-based video repository for multicenter studies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ling; Hicks, Matt; Winslow, Korey; Comella, Cynthia; Ludlow, Christy; Jinnah, H. A; Rosen, Ami R; Wright, Laura; Galpern, Wendy R; Perlmutter, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed a novel secured web-based dystonia video repository for the Dystonia Coalition, part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research network funded by the Office of Rare Diseases Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A critical component of phenotypic data collection for all projects of the Dystonia Coalition includes a standardized video of each participant. We now describe our method for collecting, serving and securing these videos that is widely applicable to other studies. Methods Each recruiting site uploads standardized videos to a centralized secured server for processing to permit website posting. The streaming technology used to view the videos from the website does not allow downloading of video files. With appropriate institutional review board approval and agreement with the hosting institution, users can search and view selected videos on the website using customizable, permissions-based access that maintains security yet facilitates research and quality control. Results This approach provides a convenient platform for researchers across institutions to evaluate and analyze shared video data. We have applied this methodology for quality control, confirmation of diagnoses, validation of rating scales, and implementation of new research projects. Conclusions We believe our system can be a model for similar projects that require access to common video resources. PMID:25630890

  8. Internet Teleprescence by Real-Time View-Dependent Image Generation with Omnidirectional Video Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shinji; Yamazawa, Kazumasa; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new networked telepresence system which realizes virtual tours into a visualized dynamic real world without significant time delay. Our system is realized by the following three steps: (1) video-rate omnidirectional image acquisition, (2) transportation of an omnidirectional video stream via internet, and (3) real-time view-dependent perspective image generation from the omnidirectional video stream. Our system is applicable to real-time telepresence in the situation where the real world to be seen is far from an observation site, because the time delay from the change of user"s viewing direction to the change of displayed image is small and does not depend on the actual distance between both sites. Moreover, multiple users can look around from a single viewpoint in a visualized dynamic real world in different directions at the same time. In experiments, we have proved that the proposed system is useful for internet telepresence.

  9. A novel multiple description scalable coding scheme for mobile wireless video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haifeng; Yu, Lun; Chen, Chang Wen

    2005-03-01

    We proposed in this paper a novel multiple description scalable coding (MDSC) scheme based on in-band motion compensation temporal filtering (IBMCTF) technique in order to achieve high video coding performance and robust video transmission. The input video sequence is first split into equal-sized groups of frames (GOFs). Within a GOF, each frame is hierarchically decomposed by discrete wavelet transform. Since there is a direct relationship between wavelet coefficients and what they represent in the image content after wavelet decomposition, we are able to reorganize the spatial orientation trees to generate multiple bit-streams and employed SPIHT algorithm to achieve high coding efficiency. We have shown that multiple bit-stream transmission is very effective in combating error propagation in both Internet video streaming and mobile wireless video. Furthermore, we adopt the IBMCTF scheme to remove the redundancy for inter-frames along the temporal direction using motion compensated temporal filtering, thus high coding performance and flexible scalability can be provided in this scheme. In order to make compressed video resilient to channel error and to guarantee robust video transmission over mobile wireless channels, we add redundancy to each bit-stream and apply error concealment strategy for lost motion vectors. Unlike traditional multiple description schemes, the integration of these techniques enable us to generate more than two bit-streams that may be more appropriate for multiple antenna transmission of compressed video. Simulate results on standard video sequences have shown that the proposed scheme provides flexible tradeoff between coding efficiency and error resilience.

  10. Application of robust face recognition in video surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-xin; An, Peng; Zhang, Hao-xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a video searching system that utilizes face recognition as searching indexing feature. As the applications of video cameras have great increase in recent years, face recognition makes a perfect fit for searching targeted individuals within the vast amount of video data. However, the performance of such searching depends on the quality of face images recorded in the video signals. Since the surveillance video cameras record videos without fixed postures for the object, face occlusion is very common in everyday video. The proposed system builds a model for occluded faces using fuzzy principal component analysis (FPCA), and reconstructs the human faces with the available information. Experimental results show that the system has very high efficiency in processing the real life videos, and it is very robust to various kinds of face occlusions. Hence it can relieve people reviewers from the front of the monitors and greatly enhances the efficiency as well. The proposed system has been installed and applied in various environments and has already demonstrated its power by helping solving real cases.

  11. Dashboard Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted

    2012-11-01

    Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his Lab Out Loud blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing this website and video, I decided to create my own dashboard videos to show to my high school physics students. I have produced and synchronized 12 separate dashboard videos, each about 10 minutes in length, driving around the city of Lawrence, KS, and Douglas County, and posted them to a website.2 Each video reflects different types of driving: both positive and negative accelerations and constant speeds. As shown in Fig. 1, I was able to capture speed, distance, and miles per gallon from my dashboard instrumentation. By linking this with a stopwatch, each of these quantities can be graphed with respect to time. I anticipate and hope that teachers will find these useful in their own classrooms, i.e., having physics students watch the videos and create their own motion maps (distance-time, speed-time) for study.

  12. Deriving video content type from HEVC bitstream semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio R.

    2014-05-01

    As network service providers seek to improve customer satisfaction and retention levels, they are increasingly moving from traditional quality of service (QoS) driven delivery models to customer-centred quality of experience (QoE) delivery models. QoS models only consider metrics derived from the network however, QoE models also consider metrics derived from within the video sequence itself. Various spatial and temporal characteristics of a video sequence have been proposed, both individually and in combination, to derive methods of classifying video content either on a continuous scale or as a set of discrete classes. QoE models can be divided into three broad categories, full reference, reduced reference and no-reference models. Due to the need to have the original video available at the client for comparison, full reference metrics are of limited practical value in adaptive real-time video applications. Reduced reference metrics often require metadata to be transmitted with the bitstream, while no-reference metrics typically operate in the decompressed domain at the client side and require significant processing to extract spatial and temporal features. This paper proposes a heuristic, no-reference approach to video content classification which is specific to HEVC encoded bitstreams. The HEVC encoder already makes use of spatial characteristics to determine partitioning of coding units and temporal characteristics to determine the splitting of prediction units. We derive a function which approximates the spatio-temporal characteristics of the video sequence by using the weighted averages of the depth at which the coding unit quadtree is split and the prediction mode decision made by the encoder to estimate spatial and temporal characteristics respectively. Since the video content type of a sequence is determined by using high level information parsed from the video stream, spatio-temporal characteristics are identified without the need for full decoding and can

  13. Audio-video feature correlation: faces and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gwenael; Montacie, Claude; Caraty, Marie-Jose; Faudemay, Pascal

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlation of features automatically extracted from the audio stream and the video stream of audiovisual documents. In particular, we were interested in finding out whether speech analysis tools could be combined with face detection methods, and to what extend they should be combined. A generic audio signal partitioning algorithm as first used to detect Silence/Noise/Music/Speech segments in a full length movie. A generic object detection method was applied to the keyframes extracted from the movie in order to detect the presence or absence of faces. The correlation between the presence of a face in the keyframes and of the corresponding voice in the audio stream was studied. A third stream, which is the script of the movie, is warped on the speech channel in order to automatically label faces appearing in the keyframes with the name of the corresponding character. We naturally found that extracted audio and video features were related in many cases, and that significant benefits can be obtained from the joint use of audio and video analysis methods.

  14. VLSI-based video event triggering for image data compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-02-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  15. VLSI-based Video Event Triggering for Image Data Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  16. Distributed Coding/Decoding Complexity in Video Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Paulo J.; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality. PMID:22736972

  17. Distributed coding/decoding complexity in video sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Paulo J; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality.

  18. Streaming video-based 3D reconstruction method compatible with existing monoscopic and stereoscopic endoscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.

  19. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  20. A Usability Survey of a Contents-Based Video Retrieval System by Combining Digital Video and an Electronic Bulletin Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haga, Hirohide; Kaneda, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the survey of the usability of a novel content-based video retrieval system. This system combines video streaming and an electronic bulletin board system (BBS). Comments submitted to the BBS are used to index video data. Following the development of the prototype system an experimental survey with ten subjects was performed.…

  1. Representing videos in tangible products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

  2. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming distributor. (8) Children's Programming. Television programming directed at children 16 years of... provide 50 hours of video description per calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's... calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's programming, on each programming stream on...

  3. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming distributor. (8) Children's Programming. Television programming directed at children 16 years of... provide 50 hours of video description per calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's... calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's programming, on each programming stream on...

  4. A digital audio/video interleaving system. [for Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of interleaving an audio signal with its associated video signal for simultaneous transmission or recording, and the subsequent separation of the two signals, is described. Comparisons are made between the new audio signal interleaving system and the Skylab Pam audio/video interleaving system, pointing out improvements gained by using the digital audio/video interleaving system. It was found that the digital technique is the simplest, most effective and most reliable method for interleaving audio and/or other types of data into the video signal for the Shuttle Orbiter application. Details of the design of a multiplexer capable of accommodating two basic data channels, each consisting of a single 31.5-kb/s digital bit stream are given. An adaptive slope delta modulation system is introduced to digitize audio signals, producing a high immunity of work intelligibility to channel errors, primarily due to the robust nature of the delta-modulation algorithm.

  5. A Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.; Kula, Stephanie P.; Puskas, Barry M.

    2006-01-01

    A StreamStats Web application was developed for Ohio that implements equations for estimating a variety of streamflow statistics including the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year peak streamflows, mean annual streamflow, mean monthly streamflows, harmonic mean streamflow, and 25th-, 50th-, and 75th-percentile streamflows. StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application designed to facilitate the estimation of streamflow statistics at ungaged locations on streams. StreamStats can also serve precomputed streamflow statistics determined from streamflow-gaging station data. The basic structure, use, and limitations of StreamStats are described in this report. To facilitate the level of automation required for Ohio's StreamStats application, the technique used by Koltun (2003)1 for computing main-channel slope was replaced with a new computationally robust technique. The new channel-slope characteristic, referred to as SL10-85, differed from the National Hydrography Data based channel slope values (SL) reported by Koltun (2003)1 by an average of -28.3 percent, with the median change being -13.2 percent. In spite of the differences, the two slope measures are strongly correlated. The change in channel slope values resulting from the change in computational method necessitated revision of the full-model equations for flood-peak discharges originally presented by Koltun (2003)1. Average standard errors of prediction for the revised full-model equations presented in this report increased by a small amount over those reported by Koltun (2003)1, with increases ranging from 0.7 to 0.9 percent. Mean percentage changes in the revised regression and weighted flood-frequency estimates relative to regression and weighted estimates reported by Koltun (2003)1 were small, ranging from -0.72 to -0.25 percent and -0.22 to 0.07 percent, respectively.

  6. Video error concealment using block matching and frequency selective extrapolation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. K., Rajani; Khaparde, Arti

    2017-06-01

    Error Concealment (EC) is a technique at the decoder side to hide the transmission errors. It is done by analyzing the spatial or temporal information from available video frames. It is very important to recover distorted video because they are used for various applications such as video-telephone, video-conference, TV, DVD, internet video streaming, video games etc .Retransmission-based and resilient-based methods, are also used for error removal. But these methods add delay and redundant data. So error concealment is the best option for error hiding. In this paper, the error concealment methods such as Block Matching error concealment algorithm is compared with Frequency Selective Extrapolation algorithm. Both the works are based on concealment of manually error video frames as input. The parameter used for objective quality measurement was PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and SSIM(Structural Similarity Index). The original video frames along with error video frames are compared with both the Error concealment algorithms. According to simulation results, Frequency Selective Extrapolation is showing better quality measures such as 48% improved PSNR and 94% increased SSIM than Block Matching Algorithm.

  7. Video streaming with SHVC to HEVC transcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan; Xiu, Xiaoyu

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes an efficient Scalable High efficiency Video Coding (SHVC) to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) transcoder, which can reduce the transcoding complexity significantly, and provide a desired trade-off between the transcoding complexity and the transcoded video quality. To reduce the transcoding complexity, some of coding information, such as coding unit (CU) depth, prediction mode, merge mode, motion vector information, intra direction information and transform unit (TU) depth information, in the SHVC bitstream are mapped and transcoded to single layer HEVC bitstream. One major difficulty in transcoding arises when trying to reuse the motion information from SHVC bitstream since motion vectors referring to inter-layer reference (ILR) pictures cannot be reused directly in transcoding. Reusing motion information obtained from ILR pictures for those prediction units (PUs) will reduce the complexity of the SHVC transcoder greatly but a significant reduction in the quality of the picture is observed. Pictures corresponding to the intra refresh pictures in the base layer (BL) will be coded as P pictures in enhancement layer (EL) in the SHVC bitstream; and directly reusing the intra information from the BL for transcoding will not get a good coding efficiency. To solve these problems, various transcoding technologies are proposed. The proposed technologies offer different trade-offs between transcoding speed and transcoding quality. They are implemented on the basis of reference software SHM-6.0 and HM-14.0 for the two layer spatial scalability configuration. Simulations show that the proposed SHVC software transcoder reduces the transcoding complexity by up to 98-99% using low complexity transcoding mode when compared with cascaded re-encoding method. The transcoder performance at various bitrates with different transcoding modes are compared in terms of transcoding speed and transcoded video quality.

  8. Construction of a multimodal CT-video chest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Bronchoscopy enables a number of minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. For example, using the bronchoscope's continuous video stream as a guide, a physician can navigate through the lung airways to examine general airway health, collect tissue samples, or administer a disease treatment. In addition, physicians can now use new image-guided intervention (IGI) systems, which draw upon both three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scans and bronchoscopic video, to assist with bronchoscope navigation. Unfortunately, little use is made of the acquired video stream, a potentially invaluable source of information. In addition, little effort has been made to link the bronchoscopic video stream to the detailed anatomical information given by a patient's 3D MDCT chest scan. We propose a method for constructing a multimodal CT-video model of the chest. After automatically computing a patient's 3D MDCT-based airway-tree model, the method next parses the available video data to generate a positional linkage between a sparse set of key video frames and airway path locations. Next, a fusion/mapping of the video's color mucosal information and MDCT-based endoluminal surfaces is performed. This results in the final multimodal CT-video chest model. The data structure constituting the model provides a history of those airway locations visited during bronchoscopy. It also provides for quick visual access to relevant sections of the airway wall by condensing large portions of endoscopic video into representative frames containing important structural and textural information. When examined with a set of interactive visualization tools, the resulting fused data structure provides a rich multimodal data source. We demonstrate the potential of the multimodal model with both phantom and human data.

  9. A system for endobronchial video analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2017-03-01

    Image-guided bronchoscopy is a critical component in the treatment of lung cancer and other pulmonary disorders. During bronchoscopy, a high-resolution endobronchial video stream facilitates guidance through the lungs and allows for visual inspection of a patient's airway mucosal surfaces. Despite the detailed information it contains, little effort has been made to incorporate recorded video into the clinical workflow. Follow-up procedures often required in cancer assessment or asthma treatment could significantly benefit from effectively parsed and summarized video. Tracking diagnostic regions of interest (ROIs) could potentially better equip physicians to detect early airway-wall cancer or improve asthma treatments, such as bronchial thermoplasty. To address this need, we have developed a system for the postoperative analysis of recorded endobronchial video. The system first parses an input video stream into endoscopic shots, derives motion information, and selects salient representative key frames. Next, a semi-automatic method for CT-video registration creates data linkages between a CT-derived airway-tree model and the input video. These data linkages then enable the construction of a CT-video chest model comprised of a bronchoscopy path history (BPH) - defining all airway locations visited during a procedure - and texture-mapping information for rendering registered video frames onto the airwaytree model. A suite of analysis tools is included to visualize and manipulate the extracted data. Video browsing and retrieval is facilitated through a video table of contents (TOC) and a search query interface. The system provides a variety of operational modes and additional functionality, including the ability to define regions of interest. We demonstrate the potential of our system using two human case study examples.

  10. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  11. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  12. A professional and cost effective digital video editing and image storage system for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Scollato, A; Perrini, P; Benedetto, N; Di Lorenzo, N

    2007-06-01

    We propose an easy-to-construct digital video editing system ideal to produce video documentation and still images. A digital video editing system applicable to many video sources in the operating room is described in detail. The proposed system has proved easy to use and permits one to obtain videography quickly and easily. Mixing different streams of video input from all the devices in use in the operating room, the application of filters and effects produces a final, professional end-product. Recording on a DVD provides an inexpensive, portable and easy-to-use medium to store or re-edit or tape at a later time. From stored videography it is easy to extract high-quality, still images useful for teaching, presentations and publications. In conclusion digital videography and still photography can easily be recorded by the proposed system, producing high-quality video recording. The use of firewire ports provides good compatibility with next-generation hardware and software. The high standard of quality makes the proposed system one of the lowest priced products available today.

  13. Indexing and retrieval of MPEG compressed video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobla, Vikrant; Doermann, David S.

    1998-04-01

    To keep pace with the increased popularity of digital video as an archival medium, the development of techniques for fast and efficient analysis of ideo streams is essential. In particular, solutions to the problems of storing, indexing, browsing, and retrieving video data from large multimedia databases are necessary to a low access to these collections. Given that video is often stored efficiently in a compressed format, the costly overhead of decompression can be reduced by analyzing the compressed representation directly. In earlier work, we presented compressed domain parsing techniques which identified shots, subshots, and scenes. In this article, we present efficient key frame selection, feature extraction, indexing, and retrieval techniques that are directly applicable to MPEG compressed video. We develop a frame type independent representation which normalizes spatial and temporal features including frame type, frame size, macroblock encoding, and motion compensation vectors. Features for indexing are derived directly from this representation and mapped to a low- dimensional space where they can be accessed using standard database techniques. Spatial information is used as primary index into the database and temporal information is used to rank retrieved clips and enhance the robustness of the system. The techniques presented enable efficient indexing, querying, and retrieval of compressed video as demonstrated by our system which typically takes a fraction of a second to retrieve similar video scenes from a database, with over 95 percent recall.

  14. Applications of a New England stream temperature model to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have applied a statistical stream network (SSN) model to predict stream thermal metrics (summer monthly medians, growing season maximum magnitude and timing, and daily rates of change) across New England nontidal streams and rivers, excluding northern Maine watersheds that extend into Canada (Detenbeck et al., in review). We excluded stream temperature observations within one kilometer downstream of dams from our model development, so our predictions for those reaches represent potential thermal regimes in the absence of dam effects. We used stream thermal thresholds for mean July temperatures delineating transitions between coldwater, transitional coolwater, and warmwater fish communities derived by Beauchene et al. (2014) to classify expected stream and river thermal regimes across New England. Within the model domain and based on 2006 land-use and air temperatures, the model predicts that 21.8% of stream + river kilometers would support coldwater fish communities (mean July water temperatures 22.3 degrees C mean July temperatures). Application of the model allows us to assess potential condition given full riparian zone restoration as well as potential loss of cold or coolwater habitat given loss of riparian shading. Given restoration of all ripa

  15. Video Analysis in Multi-Intelligence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Key, Everett Kiusan; Van Buren, Kendra Lu; Warren, Will

    This is a project which was performed by a graduated high school student at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the Multi-intelligence (MINT) project is to determine the state of a facility from multiple data streams. The data streams are indirect observations. The researcher is using DARHT (Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility) as a proof of concept. In summary, videos from the DARHT facility contain a rich amount of information. Distribution of car activity can inform us about the state of the facility. Counting large vehicles shows promise as another feature for identifying the state of operations. Signalmore » processing techniques are limited by the low resolution and compression of the videos. We are working on integrating these features with features obtained from other data streams to contribute to the MINT project. Future work can pursue other observations, such as when the gate is functioning or non-functioning.« less

  16. SCTP as scalable video coding transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Jordi; Graciá, Eduardo Martínez; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Stream Transmission Control Protocol (SCTP) for the transport of the scalable video codec (SVC), proposed by MPEG as an extension to H.264/AVC. Both technologies fit together properly. On the one hand, SVC permits to split easily the bitstream into substreams carrying different video layers, each with different importance for the reconstruction of the complete video sequence at the receiver end. On the other hand, SCTP includes features, such as the multi-streaming and multi-homing capabilities, that permit to transport robustly and efficiently the SVC layers. Several transmission strategies supported on baseline SCTP and its concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) extension are compared with the classical solutions based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Realtime Transmission Protocol (RTP). Using ns-2 simulations, it is shown that CMT-SCTP outperforms TCP and RTP in error-prone networking environments. The comparison is established according to several performance measurements, including delay, throughput, packet loss, and peak signal-to-noise ratio of the received video.

  17. Potential applications of video technology for traffic management and safety in Alabama

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-11-25

    Video technology applications for traffic management and safety are being implemented by state and local government agencies in Alabama. This technology offers both tangible and intangible benefits. Although video technology provides many benefits, i...

  18. Subjective Quality Assessment of Underwater Video for Scientific Applications.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Roldán, José-Miguel; Luque-Nieto, Miguel-Ángel; Poncela, Javier; Díaz-del-Río, Víctor; Otero, Pablo

    2015-12-15

    Underwater video services could be a key application in the better scientific knowledge of the vast oceanic resources in our planet. However, limitations in the capacity of current available technology for underwater networks (UWSNs) raise the question of the feasibility of these services. When transmitting video, the main constraints are the limited bandwidth and the high propagation delays. At the same time the service performance depends on the needs of the target group. This paper considers the problems of estimations for the Mean Opinion Score (a standard quality measure) in UWSNs based on objective methods and addresses the topic of quality assessment in potential underwater video services from a subjective point of view. The experimental design and the results of a test planned according standardized psychometric methods are presented. The subjects used in the quality assessment test were ocean scientists. Video sequences were recorded in actual exploration expeditions and were processed to simulate conditions similar to those that might be found in UWSNs. Our experimental results show how videos are considered to be useful for scientific purposes even in very low bitrate conditions.

  19. Analog Video Authentication and Seal Verification Equipment Development

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gregory Lancaster

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy in support of arms control treaty verification activities, the Savannah River National Laboratory in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Idaho National Laboratory and Milagro Consulting, LLC developed equipment for use within a chain of custody regime. This paper discussed two specific devices, the Authentication Through the Lens (ATL) analog video authentication system and a photographic multi-seal reader. Both of these devices have been demonstrated in a field trial, and the experience gained throughout will also be discussed. Typically, cryptographic methods are used to prove the authenticity of digital imagesmore » and video used in arms control chain of custody applications. However, in some applications analog cameras are used. Since cryptographic authentication methods will not work on analog video streams, a simple method of authenticating analog video was developed and tested. A photographic multi-seal reader was developed to image different types of visual unique identifiers for use in chain of custody and authentication activities. This seal reader is unique in its ability to image various types of seals including the Cobra Seal, Reflective Particle Tags, and adhesive seals. Flicker comparison is used to compare before and after images collected with the seal reader in order to detect tampering and verify the integrity of the seal.« less

  20. Using Video Conferencing in Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Bill; Larson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Duquesne University's department of journalism and multimedia arts supports many of its classes with Mediasite Live, a video conferencing system that captures the output of presentation devices and streams it live to the Web, as well as recording presentations for Web streaming or recording to CD or DVD. Bill Gibbs and Erik Larson examine the…

  1. Transforming Education Research Through Open Video Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Rick O; Adolph, Karen E; Millman, David S; Gordon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Open data sharing promises to accelerate the pace of discovery in the developmental and learning sciences, but significant technical, policy, and cultural barriers have limited its adoption. As a result, most research on learning and development remains shrouded in a culture of isolation. Data sharing is the rare exception (Gilmore, 2016). Many researchers who study teaching and learning in classroom, laboratory, museum, and home contexts use video as a primary source of raw research data. Unlike other measures, video captures the complexity, richness, and diversity of behavior. Moreover, because video is self-documenting, it presents significant potential for reuse. However, the potential for reuse goes largely unrealized because videos are rarely shared. Research videos contain information about participants' identities making the materials challenging to share. The large size of video files, diversity of formats, and incompatible software tools pose technical challenges. The Databrary (databrary.org) digital library enables researchers who study learning and development to store, share, stream, and annotate videos. In this article, we describe how Databrary has overcome barriers to sharing research videos and associated data and metadata. Databrary has developed solutions for respecting participants' privacy; for storing, streaming, and sharing videos; and for managing videos and associated metadata. The Databrary experience suggests ways that videos and other identifiable data collected in the context of educational research might be shared. Open data sharing enabled by Databrary can serve as a catalyst for a truly multidisciplinary science of learning.

  2. Transforming Education Research Through Open Video Data Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Rick O.; Adolph, Karen E.; Millman, David S.; Gordon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Open data sharing promises to accelerate the pace of discovery in the developmental and learning sciences, but significant technical, policy, and cultural barriers have limited its adoption. As a result, most research on learning and development remains shrouded in a culture of isolation. Data sharing is the rare exception (Gilmore, 2016). Many researchers who study teaching and learning in classroom, laboratory, museum, and home contexts use video as a primary source of raw research data. Unlike other measures, video captures the complexity, richness, and diversity of behavior. Moreover, because video is self-documenting, it presents significant potential for reuse. However, the potential for reuse goes largely unrealized because videos are rarely shared. Research videos contain information about participants’ identities making the materials challenging to share. The large size of video files, diversity of formats, and incompatible software tools pose technical challenges. The Databrary (databrary.org) digital library enables researchers who study learning and development to store, share, stream, and annotate videos. In this article, we describe how Databrary has overcome barriers to sharing research videos and associated data and metadata. Databrary has developed solutions for respecting participants’ privacy; for storing, streaming, and sharing videos; and for managing videos and associated metadata. The Databrary experience suggests ways that videos and other identifiable data collected in the context of educational research might be shared. Open data sharing enabled by Databrary can serve as a catalyst for a truly multidisciplinary science of learning. PMID:28042361

  3. Promoting Academic Programs Using Online Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas; Stewart, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the Internet has evolved from simply conveying text and then still photographs and music to the present-day medium in which individuals are contributors and consumers of a nearly infinite number of professional and do-it-yourself videos. In this dynamic environment, new generations of Internet users are streaming video and…

  4. Robust audio-visual speech recognition under noisy audio-video conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise.

  5. A streaming-based solution for remote visualization of 3D graphics on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Mobile devices such as Personal Digital Assistants, Tablet PCs, and cellular phones have greatly enhanced user capability to connect to remote resources. Although a large set of applications are now available bridging the gap between desktop and mobile devices, visualization of complex 3D models is still a task hard to accomplish without specialized hardware. This paper proposes a system where a cluster of PCs, equipped with accelerated graphics cards managed by the Chromium software, is able to handle remote visualization sessions based on MPEG video streaming involving complex 3D models. The proposed framework allows mobile devices such as smart phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), and Tablet PCs to visualize objects consisting of millions of textured polygons and voxels at a frame rate of 30 fps or more depending on hardware resources at the server side and on multimedia capabilities at the client side. The server is able to concurrently manage multiple clients computing a video stream for each one; resolution and quality of each stream is tailored according to screen resolution and bandwidth of the client. The paper investigates in depth issues related to latency time, bit rate and quality of the generated stream, screen resolutions, as well as frames per second displayed.

  6. Shot boundary detection and label propagation for spatio-temporal video segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piramanayagam, Sankaranaryanan; Saber, Eli; Cahill, Nathan D.; Messinger, David

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a two stage algorithm for streaming video segmentation. In the first stage, shot boundaries are detected within a window of frames by comparing dissimilarity between 2-D segmentations of each frame. In the second stage, the 2-D segments are propagated across the window of frames in both spatial and temporal direction. The window is moved across the video to find all shot transitions and obtain spatio-temporal segments simultaneously. As opposed to techniques that operate on entire video, the proposed approach consumes significantly less memory and enables segmentation of lengthy videos. We tested our segmentation based shot detection method on the TRECVID 2007 video dataset and compared it with block-based technique. Cut detection results on the TRECVID 2007 dataset indicate that our algorithm has comparable results to the best of the block-based methods. The streaming video segmentation routine also achieves promising results on a challenging video segmentation benchmark database.

  7. A web-based video annotation system for crowdsourcing surveillance videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Neeraj J.; Tahboub, Khalid; Kirsh, David; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value to prevent threats and identify/investigate criminal activities. Manual analysis of a huge amount of video data from several cameras over a long period of time often becomes impracticable. The use of automatic detection methods can be challenging when the video contains many objects with complex motion and occlusions. Crowdsourcing has been proposed as an effective method for utilizing human intelligence to perform several tasks. Our system provides a platform for the annotation of surveillance video in an organized and controlled way. One can monitor a surveillance system using a set of tools such as training modules, roles and labels, task management. This system can be used in a real-time streaming mode to detect any potential threats or as an investigative tool to analyze past events. Annotators can annotate video contents assigned to them for suspicious activity or criminal acts. First responders are then able to view the collective annotations and receive email alerts about a newly reported incident. They can also keep track of the annotators' training performance, manage their activities and reward their success. By providing this system, the process of video analysis is made more efficient.

  8. Embedded Streaming Deep Neural Networks Accelerator With Applications.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Aysegul; Jin, Jonghoon; Martini, Berin; Culurciello, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have become a very powerful tool in visual perception. DCNNs have applications in autonomous robots, security systems, mobile phones, and automobiles, where high throughput of the feedforward evaluation phase and power efficiency are important. Because of this increased usage, many field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based accelerators have been proposed. In this paper, we present an optimized streaming method for DCNNs' hardware accelerator on an embedded platform. The streaming method acts as a compiler, transforming a high-level representation of DCNNs into operation codes to execute applications in a hardware accelerator. The proposed method utilizes maximum computational resources available based on a novel-scheduled routing topology that combines data reuse and data concatenation. It is tested with a hardware accelerator implemented on the Xilinx Kintex-7 XC7K325T FPGA. The system fully explores weight-level and node-level parallelizations of DCNNs and achieves a peak performance of 247 G-ops while consuming less than 4 W of power. We test our system with applications on object classification and object detection in real-world scenarios. Our results indicate high-performance efficiency, outperforming all other presented platforms while running these applications.

  9. Subjective Quality Assessment of Underwater Video for Scientific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Roldán, José-Miguel; Luque-Nieto, Miguel-Ángel; Poncela, Javier; Díaz-del-Río, Víctor; Otero, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Underwater video services could be a key application in the better scientific knowledge of the vast oceanic resources in our planet. However, limitations in the capacity of current available technology for underwater networks (UWSNs) raise the question of the feasibility of these services. When transmitting video, the main constraints are the limited bandwidth and the high propagation delays. At the same time the service performance depends on the needs of the target group. This paper considers the problems of estimations for the Mean Opinion Score (a standard quality measure) in UWSNs based on objective methods and addresses the topic of quality assessment in potential underwater video services from a subjective point of view. The experimental design and the results of a test planned according standardized psychometric methods are presented. The subjects used in the quality assessment test were ocean scientists. Video sequences were recorded in actual exploration expeditions and were processed to simulate conditions similar to those that might be found in UWSNs. Our experimental results show how videos are considered to be useful for scientific purposes even in very low bitrate conditions. PMID:26694400

  10. Application of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Missouri Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Heasley, John; Cade, Brian S.; Terrell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Natural flow regime concepts and theories have established the justification for maintaining or restoring the range of natural hydrologic variability so that physiochemical processes, native biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian assemblages can be sustained. A synthesis of recent research advances in hydroecology, coupled with stream classification using hydroecologically relevant indices, has produced the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP). HIP consists of (1) a regional classification of streams into hydrologic stream types based on flow data from long-term gaging-station records for relatively unmodified streams, (2) an identification of stream-type specific indices that address 11 subcomponents of the flow regime, (3) an ability to establish environmental flow standards, (4) an evaluation of hydrologic alteration, and (5) a capacity to conduct alternative analyses. The process starts with the identification of a hydrologic baseline (reference condition) for selected locations, uses flow data from a stream-gage network, and proceeds to classify streams into hydrologic stream types. Concurrently, the analysis identifies a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 11 subcomponents of flow for each stream type. Furthermore, regional hydrologic models for synthesizing flow conditions across a region and the development of flow-ecology response relations for each stream type can be added to further enhance the process. The application of HIP to Missouri streams identified five stream types ((1) intermittent, (2) perennial runoff-flashy, (3) perennial runoff-moderate baseflow, (4) perennial groundwater-stable, and (5) perennial groundwater-super stable). Two Missouri-specific computer software programs were developed: (1) a Missouri Hydrologic Assessment Tool (MOHAT) which is used to establish a hydrologic baseline, provide options for setting environmental flow standards, and compare past and

  11. Live video monitoring robot controlled by web over internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokanath, M.; Akhil Sai, Guruju

    2017-11-01

    Future is all about robots, robot can perform tasks where humans cannot, Robots have huge applications in military and industrial area for lifting heavy weights, for accurate placements, for repeating the same task number of times, where human are not efficient. Generally robot is a mix of electronic, electrical and mechanical engineering and can do the tasks automatically on its own or under the supervision of humans. The camera is the eye for robot, call as robovision helps in monitoring security system and also can reach into the places where the human eye cannot reach. This paper presents about developing a live video streaming robot controlled from the website. We designed the web, controlling for the robot to move left, right, front and back while streaming video. As we move to the smart environment or IoT (Internet of Things) by smart devices the system we developed here connects over the internet and can be operated with smart mobile phone using a web browser. The Raspberry Pi model B chip acts as heart for this system robot, the sufficient motors, surveillance camera R pi 2 are connected to Raspberry pi.

  12. Intergraph video and images exploitation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Simone; Manesis, Charalampos

    2013-08-01

    The current paper focuses on the capture, fusion and process of aerial imagery in order to leverage full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have provided critical real-time surveillance and operational support to military organizations, and are a key source of intelligence, particularly when integrated with other geospatial data. In the current workflow, at first, the UAV operators plan the flight by using a flight planning software. During the flight the UAV send a live video stream directly on the field to be processed by Intergraph software, to generate and disseminate georeferenced images trough a service oriented architecture based on ERDAS Apollo suite. The raw video-based data sources provide the most recent view of a situation and can augment other forms of geospatial intelligence - such as satellite imagery and aerial photos - to provide a richer, more detailed view of the area of interest. To effectively use video as a source of intelligence, however, the analyst needs to seamlessly fuse the video with these other types of intelligence, such as map features and annotations. Intergraph has developed an application that automatically generates mosaicked georeferenced image, tags along the video route which can then be seamlessly integrated with other forms of static data, such as aerial photos, satellite imagery, or geospatial layers and features. Consumers will finally have the ability to use a single, streamlined system to complete the entire geospatial information lifecycle: capturing geospatial data using sensor technology; processing vector, raster, terrain data into actionable information; managing, fusing, and sharing geospatial data and video toghether; and finally, rapidly and securely delivering integrated information products, ensuring individuals can make timely decisions.

  13. COTS technologies for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Triunfo, Riccardo; Tumbarello, Roberto; Sulis, Alessandro; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Lianas, Luca; Meloni, Vittorio; Frexia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate a simple low-cost system for tele-echocardiology, focused on paediatric cardiology applications. The system was realized using open-source software and COTS technologies. It is based on the transmission of two simultaneous video streams, obtained by direct digitization of the output of an ultrasound machine and by a netcam showing the examination that is taking place. These streams are then embedded into a web page so they are accessible, together with basic video controls, via a standard web browser. The system can also record video streams on a server for further use. The system was tested on a small group of neonatal cases with suspected cardiopathies for a preliminary assessment of its features and diagnostic capabilities. Both the clinical and technological results were encouraging and are leading the way for further experimentation. The presented system can transfer clinical images and videos in an efficient way and in real time. It can be used in the same hospital to support internal consultancy requests, in remote areas using Internet connections and for didactic purposes using low cost COTS appliances and simple interfaces for end users. The solution proposed can be extended to control different medical appliances in those remote hospitals.

  14. MPEG-7 based video annotation and browsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeynck, Michael; Auweiler, Thorsten; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-11-01

    The huge amount of multimedia data produced worldwide requires annotation in order to enable universal content access and to provide content-based search-and-retrieval functionalities. Since manual video annotation can be time consuming, automatic annotation systems are required. We review recent approaches to content-based indexing and annotation of videos for different kind of sports and describe our approach to automatic annotation of equestrian sports videos. We especially concentrate on MPEG-7 based feature extraction and content description, where we apply different visual descriptors for cut detection. Further, we extract the temporal positions of single obstacles on the course by analyzing MPEG-7 edge information. Having determined single shot positions as well as the visual highlights, the information is jointly stored with meta-textual information in an MPEG-7 description scheme. Based on this information, we generate content summaries which can be utilized in a user-interface in order to provide content-based access to the video stream, but further for media browsing on a streaming server.

  15. Competitive action video game players display rightward error bias during on-line video game play.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, Andrew J; Dubnyk, Aurora J B; Cochran, David; Mandryk, Regan L; Howland, John G; Harms, Victoria

    2017-09-12

    Research in asymmetrical visuospatial attention has identified a leftward bias in the general population across a variety of measures including visual attention and line-bisection tasks. In addition, increases in rightward collisions, or bumping, during visuospatial navigation tasks have been demonstrated in real world and virtual environments. However, little research has investigated these biases beyond the laboratory. The present study uses a semi-naturalistic approach and the online video game streaming service Twitch to examine navigational errors and assaults as skilled action video game players (n = 60) compete in Counter Strike: Global Offensive. This study showed a significant rightward bias in both fatal assaults and navigational errors. Analysis using the in-game ranking system as a measure of skill failed to show a relationship between bias and skill. These results suggest that a leftward visuospatial bias may exist in skilled players during online video game play. However, the present study was unable to account for some factors such as environmental symmetry and player handedness. In conclusion, video game streaming is a promising method for behavioural research in the future, however further study is required before one can determine whether these results are an artefact of the method applied, or representative of a genuine rightward bias.

  16. Bringing Legacy Visualization Software to Modern Computing Devices via Application Streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Ward

    2014-05-01

    Planning software compatibility across forthcoming generations of computing platforms is a problem commonly encountered in software engineering and development. While this problem can affect any class of software, data analysis and visualization programs are particularly vulnerable. This is due in part to their inherent dependency on specialized hardware and computing environments. A number of strategies and tools have been designed to aid software engineers with this task. While generally embraced by developers at 'traditional' software companies, these methodologies are often dismissed by the scientific software community as unwieldy, inefficient and unnecessary. As a result, many important and storied scientific software packages can struggle to adapt to a new computing environment; for example, one in which much work is carried out on sub-laptop devices (such as tablets and smartphones). Rewriting these packages for a new platform often requires significant investment in terms of development time and developer expertise. In many cases, porting older software to modern devices is neither practical nor possible. As a result, replacement software must be developed from scratch, wasting resources better spent on other projects. Enabled largely by the rapid rise and adoption of cloud computing platforms, 'Application Streaming' technologies allow legacy visualization and analysis software to be operated wholly from a client device (be it laptop, tablet or smartphone) while retaining full functionality and interactivity. It mitigates much of the developer effort required by other more traditional methods while simultaneously reducing the time it takes to bring the software to a new platform. This work will provide an overview of Application Streaming and how it compares against other technologies which allow scientific visualization software to be executed from a remote computer. We will discuss the functionality and limitations of existing application streaming

  17. Implementing Network Video for Traditional Security and Innovative Applications: Best Practices and Uses for Network Video in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Administrators are constantly seeking ways to cost-effectively and adequately increase security and improve efficiency in K-12 schools. While video is not a new tool to schools, the shift from analog to network technology has increased the accessibility and usability in a variety of applications. Properly installed and used, video is a powerful…

  18. Evaluation of in-network adaptation of scalable high efficiency video coding (SHVC) in mobile environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the latest video compression standard (also known as H.265), can deliver video streams of comparable quality to the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding (H.264/AVC) standard with a 50% reduction in bandwidth. Research into SHVC, the scalable extension to the HEVC standard, is still in its infancy. One important area for investigation is whether, given the greater compression ratio of HEVC (and SHVC), the loss of packets containing video content will have a greater impact on the quality of delivered video than is the case with H.264/AVC or its scalable extension H.264/SVC. In this work we empirically evaluate the layer-based, in-network adaptation of video streams encoded using SHVC in situations where dynamically changing bandwidths and datagram loss ratios require the real-time adaptation of video streams. Through the use of extensive experimentation, we establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks for SHVC-based highdefinition video streaming in loss prone network environments such as those commonly found in mobile networks. Among other results, we highlight that packet losses of only 1% can lead to a substantial reduction in PSNR of over 3dB and error propagation in over 130 pictures following the one in which the loss occurred. This work would be one of the earliest studies in this cutting-edge area that reports benchmark evaluation results for the effects of datagram loss on SHVC picture quality and offers empirical and analytical insights into SHVC adaptation to lossy, mobile networking conditions.

  19. Study of efficient video compression algorithms for space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poo, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a study on video data compression techniques applicable to space flight communication. This study is directed towards monochrome (black and white) picture communication with special emphasis on feasibility of hardware implementation. The primary factors for such a communication system in space flight application are: picture quality, system reliability, power comsumption, and hardware weight. In terms of hardware implementation, these are directly related to hardware complexity, effectiveness of the hardware algorithm, immunity of the source code to channel noise, and data transmission rate (or transmission bandwidth). A system is recommended, and its hardware requirement summarized. Simulations of the study were performed on the improved LIM video controller which is computer-controlled by the META-4 CPU.

  20. Feasibility of video codec algorithms for software-only playback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Morse, Ken

    1994-05-01

    Software-only video codecs can provide good playback performance in desktop computers with a 486 or 68040 CPU running at 33 MHz without special hardware assistance. Typically, playback of compressed video can be categorized into three tasks: the actual decoding of the video stream, color conversion, and the transfer of decoded video data from system RAM to video RAM. By current standards, good playback performance is the decoding and display of video streams of 320 by 240 (or larger) compressed frames at 15 (or greater) frames-per- second. Software-only video codecs have evolved by modifying and tailoring existing compression methodologies to suit video playback in desktop computers. In this paper we examine the characteristics used to evaluate software-only video codec algorithms, namely: image fidelity (i.e., image quality), bandwidth (i.e., compression) ease-of-decoding (i.e., playback performance), memory consumption, compression to decompression asymmetry, scalability, and delay. We discuss the tradeoffs among these variables and the compromises that can be made to achieve low numerical complexity for software-only playback. Frame- differencing approaches are described since software-only video codecs typically employ them to enhance playback performance. To complement other papers that appear in this session of the Proceedings, we review methods derived from binary pattern image coding since these methods are amenable for software-only playback. In particular, we introduce a novel approach called pixel distribution image coding.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of soap opera videos streamed to smartphones to reduce risk of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in young urban African American women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2013-01-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p < 0.001). This reduction was 18 % greater in the video over the text arm, though this difference was not statistically significant. However, the LSC was highly popular and viewers wanted the series to continue. This is the first study to report streaming soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C

    2016-08-24

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds' benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system's high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  3. The QoE implications of ultra-high definition video adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    As the capabilities of high-end consumer devices increase, streaming and playback of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) is set to become commonplace. The move to these new, higher resolution, video services is one of the main factors contributing to the predicted continuation of growth in video related traffic in the Internet. This massive increases in bandwidth requirement, even when mitigated by the use of new video compression standards such as H.265, will place an ever-increasing burden on network service providers. This will be especially true in mobile environments where users have come to expect ubiquitous access to content. Consequently, delivering UHD and Full UHD (FUHD) video content is one of the key drivers for future Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks. One often voiced, but as yet unanswered question, is whether users of mobile devices with modest screen sizes (e.g. smartphones or smaller tablet) will actually benefit from consuming the much higher bandwidth required to watch online UHD video, in terms of an improved user experience. In this paper, we use scalable H.265 encoded video streams to conduct a subjective evaluation of the impact on a user's perception of video quality across a comprehensive range of adaptation strategies, covering each of the three adaptation domains, for UHD and FUHD video. The results of our subjective study provide insightful and useful indications of which methods of adapting UHD and FUHD streams have the least impact on user's perceived QoE. In particular, it was observed that, in over 70% of cases, users were unable to distinguish between full HD (1080p) and UHD (4K) videos when they were unaware of which version was being shown to them. Our results from this evaluation can be used to provide adaptation rule sets that will facilitate fast, QoE aware in-network adaptation of video streams in support of realtime adaptation objectives. Undoubtedly they will also promote discussion around how network service providers manage

  4. The H.264/AVC advanced video coding standard: overview and introduction to the fidelity range extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Topiwala, Pankaj N.; Luthra, Ajay

    2004-11-01

    H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is the latest international video coding standard. It was jointly developed by the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) of the ITU-T and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) of ISO/IEC. It uses state-of-the-art coding tools and provides enhanced coding efficiency for a wide range of applications, including video telephony, video conferencing, TV, storage (DVD and/or hard disk based, especially high-definition DVD), streaming video, digital video authoring, digital cinema, and many others. The work on a new set of extensions to this standard has recently been completed. These extensions, known as the Fidelity Range Extensions (FRExt), provide a number of enhanced capabilities relative to the base specification as approved in the Spring of 2003. In this paper, an overview of this standard is provided, including the highlights of the capabilities of the new FRExt features. Some comparisons with the existing MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 standards are also provided.

  5. Next-Gen Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnn, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how schools across the US are using the latest videoconference and audio/video streaming technologies creatively to move to the next level of their very specific needs. At the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, the technology that is the backbone of the school's extensive distance learning program has to be…

  6. Stream processing health card application.

    PubMed

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  7. Heterogeneity image patch index and its application to consumer video summarization.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chinh T; Radha, Hayder

    2014-06-01

    Automatic video summarization is indispensable for fast browsing and efficient management of large video libraries. In this paper, we introduce an image feature that we refer to as heterogeneity image patch (HIP) index. The proposed HIP index provides a new entropy-based measure of the heterogeneity of patches within any picture. By evaluating this index for every frame in a video sequence, we generate a HIP curve for that sequence. We exploit the HIP curve in solving two categories of video summarization applications: key frame extraction and dynamic video skimming. Under the key frame extraction frame-work, a set of candidate key frames is selected from abundant video frames based on the HIP curve. Then, a proposed patch-based image dissimilarity measure is used to create affinity matrix of these candidates. Finally, a set of key frames is extracted from the affinity matrix using a min–max based algorithm. Under video skimming, we propose a method to measure the distance between a video and its skimmed representation. The video skimming problem is then mapped into an optimization framework and solved by minimizing a HIP-based distance for a set of extracted excerpts. The HIP framework is pixel-based and does not require semantic information or complex camera motion estimation. Our simulation results are based on experiments performed on consumer videos and are compared with state-of-the-art methods. It is shown that the HIP approach outperforms other leading methods, while maintaining low complexity.

  8. To Stream or Not to Stream in a Quantitative Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhagiar, Tarek; Potter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether there is a difference in student learning in a quantitative business course taught through video streaming with the option of going to a face-to-face lecture, compared to the same course taught only through face-to-face lecture. This topic has been the subject of research in recent years because of the importance of…

  9. Eye movements while viewing narrated, captioned, and silent videos

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nicholas M.; Kowler, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Videos are often accompanied by narration delivered either by an audio stream or by captions, yet little is known about saccadic patterns while viewing narrated video displays. Eye movements were recorded while viewing video clips with (a) audio narration, (b) captions, (c) no narration, or (d) concurrent captions and audio. A surprisingly large proportion of time (>40%) was spent reading captions even in the presence of a redundant audio stream. Redundant audio did not affect the saccadic reading patterns but did lead to skipping of some portions of the captions and to delays of saccades made into the caption region. In the absence of captions, fixations were drawn to regions with a high density of information, such as the central region of the display, and to regions with high levels of temporal change (actions and events), regardless of the presence of narration. The strong attraction to captions, with or without redundant audio, raises the question of what determines how time is apportioned between captions and video regions so as to minimize information loss. The strategies of apportioning time may be based on several factors, including the inherent attraction of the line of sight to any available text, the moment by moment impressions of the relative importance of the information in the caption and the video, and the drive to integrate visual text accompanied by audio into a single narrative stream. PMID:23457357

  10. Innovative hyperchaotic encryption algorithm for compressed video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun; Zhong, Yuzhuo; Yang, Shiqiang

    2002-12-01

    It is accepted that stream cryptosystem can achieve good real-time performance and flexibility which implements encryption by selecting few parts of the block data and header information of the compressed video stream. Chaotic random number generator, for example Logistics Map, is a comparatively promising substitute, but it is easily attacked by nonlinear dynamic forecasting and geometric information extracting. In this paper, we present a hyperchaotic cryptography scheme to encrypt the compressed video, which integrates Logistics Map with Z(232 - 1) field linear congruential algorithm to strengthen the security of the mono-chaotic cryptography, meanwhile, the real-time performance and flexibility of the chaotic sequence cryptography are maintained. It also integrates with the dissymmetrical public-key cryptography and implements encryption and identity authentification on control parameters at initialization phase. In accord with the importance of data in compressed video stream, encryption is performed in layered scheme. In the innovative hyperchaotic cryptography, the value and the updating frequency of control parameters can be changed online to satisfy the requirement of the network quality, processor capability and security requirement. The innovative hyperchaotic cryprography proves robust security by cryptoanalysis, shows good real-time performance and flexible implement capability through the arithmetic evaluating and test.

  11. Stream Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J.

    Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model, in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and predictable control, and memory accesses that can be performed at a coarse granularity. Applications in the streaming model are expressed in a gather-compute-scatter form, yielding programs with explicit control over transferring data to and from on-chip memory. Relying on these characteristics, which are common to many media processing and scientific computing applications, stream architectures redefine the boundary between software and hardware responsibilities with software bearing much of the complexity required to manage concurrency, locality, and latency tolerance. Thus, stream processors have minimal control consisting of fetching medium- and coarse-grained instructions and executing them directly on the many ALUs. Moreover, the on-chip storage hierarchy of stream processors is under explicit software control, as is all communication, eliminating the need for complex reactive hardware mechanisms.

  12. Point-of-View Recording Devices for Intraoperative Neurosurgical Video Capture.

    PubMed

    Porras, Jose L; Khalid, Syed; Root, Brandon K; Khan, Imad S; Singer, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The ability to record and stream neurosurgery is an unprecedented opportunity to further research, medical education, and quality improvement. Here, we appraise the ease of implementation of existing point-of-view devices when capturing and sharing procedures from the neurosurgical operating room and detail their potential utility in this context. Our neurosurgical team tested and critically evaluated features of the Google Glass and Panasonic HX-A500 cameras, including ergonomics, media quality, and media sharing in both the operating theater and the angiography suite. Existing devices boast several features that facilitate live recording and streaming of neurosurgical procedures. Given that their primary application is not intended for the surgical environment, we identified a number of concrete, yet improvable, limitations. The present study suggests that neurosurgical video capture and live streaming represents an opportunity to contribute to research, education, and quality improvement. Despite this promise, shortcomings render existing devices impractical for serious consideration. We describe the features that future recording platforms should possess to improve upon existing technology.

  13. Bonsai: an event-based framework for processing and controlling data streams

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gonçalo; Bonacchi, Niccolò; Frazão, João; Neto, Joana P.; Atallah, Bassam V.; Soares, Sofia; Moreira, Luís; Matias, Sara; Itskov, Pavel M.; Correia, Patrícia A.; Medina, Roberto E.; Calcaterra, Lorenza; Dreosti, Elena; Paton, Joseph J.; Kampff, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    The design of modern scientific experiments requires the control and monitoring of many different data streams. However, the serial execution of programming instructions in a computer makes it a challenge to develop software that can deal with the asynchronous, parallel nature of scientific data. Here we present Bonsai, a modular, high-performance, open-source visual programming framework for the acquisition and online processing of data streams. We describe Bonsai's core principles and architecture and demonstrate how it allows for the rapid and flexible prototyping of integrated experimental designs in neuroscience. We specifically highlight some applications that require the combination of many different hardware and software components, including video tracking of behavior, electrophysiology and closed-loop control of stimulation. PMID:25904861

  14. Dynamic full-scalability conversion in scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Su; Bae, Tae Meon; Thang, Truong Cong; Ro, Yong Man

    2007-02-01

    For outstanding coding efficiency with scalability functions, SVC (Scalable Video Coding) is being standardized. SVC can support spatial, temporal and SNR scalability and these scalabilities are useful to provide a smooth video streaming service even in a time varying network such as a mobile environment. But current SVC is insufficient to support dynamic video conversion with scalability, thereby the adaptation of bitrate to meet a fluctuating network condition is limited. In this paper, we propose dynamic full-scalability conversion methods for QoS adaptive video streaming in SVC. To accomplish full scalability dynamic conversion, we develop corresponding bitstream extraction, encoding and decoding schemes. At the encoder, we insert the IDR NAL periodically to solve the problems of spatial scalability conversion. At the extractor, we analyze the SVC bitstream to get the information which enable dynamic extraction. Real time extraction is achieved by using this information. Finally, we develop the decoder so that it can manage the changing scalability. Experimental results showed that dynamic full-scalability conversion was verified and it was necessary for time varying network condition.

  15. Backwards compatible high dynamic range video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolzhenko, Vladimir; Chesnokov, Vyacheslav; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a two layer CODEC architecture for high dynamic range video compression. The base layer contains the tone mapped video stream encoded with 8 bits per component which can be decoded using conventional equipment. The base layer content is optimized for rendering on low dynamic range displays. The enhancement layer contains the image difference, in perceptually uniform color space, between the result of inverse tone mapped base layer content and the original video stream. Prediction of the high dynamic range content reduces the redundancy in the transmitted data while still preserves highlights and out-of-gamut colors. Perceptually uniform colorspace enables using standard ratedistortion optimization algorithms. We present techniques for efficient implementation and encoding of non-uniform tone mapping operators with low overhead in terms of bitstream size and number of operations. The transform representation is based on human vision system model and suitable for global and local tone mapping operators. The compression techniques include predicting the transform parameters from previously decoded frames and from already decoded data for current frame. Different video compression techniques are compared: backwards compatible and non-backwards compatible using AVC and HEVC codecs.

  16. Automated Music Video Generation Using Multi-level Feature-based Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jong-Chul; Lee, In-Kwon; Byun, Siwoo

    The expansion of the home video market has created a requirement for video editing tools to allow ordinary people to assemble videos from short clips. However, professional skills are still necessary to create a music video, which requires a stream to be synchronized with pre-composed music. Because the music and the video are pre-generated in separate environments, even a professional producer usually requires a number of trials to obtain a satisfactory synchronization, which is something that most amateurs are unable to achieve.

  17. A contourlet transform based algorithm for real-time video encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsigiannis, Stamos; Papaioannou, Georgios; Maroulis, Dimitris

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, real-time video communication over the internet has been widely utilized for applications like video conferencing. Streaming live video over heterogeneous IP networks, including wireless networks, requires video coding algorithms that can support various levels of quality in order to adapt to the network end-to-end bandwidth and transmitter/receiver resources. In this work, a scalable video coding and compression algorithm based on the Contourlet Transform is proposed. The algorithm allows for multiple levels of detail, without re-encoding the video frames, by just dropping the encoded information referring to higher resolution than needed. Compression is achieved by means of lossy and lossless methods, as well as variable bit rate encoding schemes. Furthermore, due to the transformation utilized, it does not suffer from blocking artifacts that occur with many widely adopted compression algorithms. Another highly advantageous characteristic of the algorithm is the suppression of noise induced by low-quality sensors usually encountered in web-cameras, due to the manipulation of the transform coefficients at the compression stage. The proposed algorithm is designed to introduce minimal coding delay, thus achieving real-time performance. Performance is enhanced by utilizing the vast computational capabilities of modern GPUs, providing satisfactory encoding and decoding times at relatively low cost. These characteristics make this method suitable for applications like video-conferencing that demand real-time performance, along with the highest visual quality possible for each user. Through the presented performance and quality evaluation of the algorithm, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves better or comparable visual quality relative to other compression and encoding methods tested, while maintaining a satisfactory compression ratio. Especially at low bitrates, it provides more human-eye friendly images compared to

  18. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C.

    2016-08-01

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds’ benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system’s high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  19. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds’ benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system’s high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health. PMID:27554201

  20. The quality of video information on burn first aid available on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Butler, Daniel P; Perry, Fiona; Shah, Zameer; Leon-Villapalos, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical accuracy and delivery of information on thermal burn first aid available on the leading video-streaming website, YouTube. YouTube was searched using four separate search terms. The first 20 videos identified for each search term were included in the study if their primary focus was on thermal burn first aid. Videos were scored by two independent reviewers using a standardised scoring system and the scores totalled to give each video an overall score out of 20. A total of 47 videos were analysed. The average video score was 8.5 out of a possible 20. No videos scored full-marks. A low correlation was found between the score given by the independent reviewers and the number of views the video received per month (Spearman's rank correlation co-efficient=0.03, p=0.86). The current standard of videos covering thermal burn first aid available on YouTube is unsatisfactory. In addition to this, viewers do not appear to be drawn to videos of higher quality. Organisations involved in managing burns and providing first aid care should be encouraged to produce clear, structured videos that can be made available on leading video streaming websites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    DOE PAGES

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of eithermore » message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.« less

  2. Comparing video and avatar technology for a health education application for deaf people.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Ionuţ Adrian; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Podoleanu, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the steps and results of a parallel research investigating e-health systems design and implementation for deaf people both in avatar and video technology. The application translates medical knowledge and concepts in deaf sign language for impaired users through an avatar. Two types of avatar technologies are taken into consideration: Video Avatar with recorded humans interface and Animated Avatar with animated figure interface. The comparative study investigates the data collection, design, implementation and the impact study. The comparative analysis of video and animated technology for data collection shows that the video format editing requires fewer skills and results are obtained easier, quicker and less expensive. The video technology supports an easier to design and implement architecture. The impact study for 2 deaf students communities is under development and for the time being the video avatar is better perceived.

  3. Characterization, adaptive traffic shaping, and multiplexing of real-time MPEG II video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Barry, Charles F.; Binnai, Vinay; Kazovsky, Leonid G.

    1997-01-01

    We obtain network traffic model for real-time MPEG-II encoded digital video by analyzing video stream samples from real-time encoders from NUKO Information Systems. MPEG-II sample streams include a resolution intensive movie, City of Joy, an action intensive movie, Aliens, a luminance intensive (black and white) movie, Road To Utopia, and a chrominance intensive (color) movie, Dick Tracy. From our analysis we obtain a heuristic model for the encoded video traffic which uses a 15-stage Markov process to model the I,B,P frame sequences within a group of pictures (GOP). A jointly-correlated Gaussian process is used to model the individual frame sizes. Scene change arrivals are modeled according to a gamma process. Simulations show that our MPEG-II traffic model generates, I,B,P frame sequences and frame sizes that closely match the sample MPEG-II stream traffic characteristics as they relate to latency and buffer occupancy in network queues. To achieve high multiplexing efficiency we propose a traffic shaping scheme which sets preferred 1-frame generation times among a group of encoders so as to minimize the overall variation in total offered traffic while still allowing the individual encoders to react to scene changes. Simulations show that our scheme results in multiplexing gains of up to 10% enabling us to multiplex twenty 6 Mbps MPEG-II video streams instead of 18 streams over an ATM/SONET OC3 link without latency or cell loss penalty. This scheme is due for a patent.

  4. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  5. Streamed video clips to reduce anxiety in children during inhaled induction of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Katherine A; Hackmann, Thomas; Chorney, Jill Maclaren

    2012-11-01

    Anesthesia induction in children is frequently achieved by inhalation of nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. Pediatric anesthesiologists commonly use distraction techniques such as humor or nonprocedural talk to reduce anxiety and facilitate a smooth transition at this critical phase. There is a large body of successful distraction research that explores the use of video and television distraction methods for minor medical and dental procedures, but little research on the use of this method for ambulatory surgery. In this randomized control trial study we examined whether video distraction is effective in reducing the anxiety of children undergoing inhaled induction before ambulatory surgery. Children (control = 47, video = 42) between 2 and 10 years old undergoing ambulatory surgery were randomly assigned to a video distraction or control group. In the video distraction group a video clip of the child's preference was played during induction, and the control group received traditional distraction methods during induction. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was used to assess the children's anxiety before and during the process of receiving inhalation anesthetics. All subjects were similar in their age and anxiety scores before entering the operating rooms. Children in the video distraction group were significantly less anxious at induction and showed a significantly smaller change in anxiety from holding to induction than did children in the control group. Playing video clips during the inhaled induction of children undergoing ambulatory surgery is an effective method of reducing anxiety. Therefore, pediatric anesthesiologists may consider using video distraction as a useful, valid, alternative strategy for achieving a smooth transition to the anesthetized state.

  6. Mobile Panoramic Video Applications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multisilta, Jari

    2014-01-01

    The use of videos on the internet has grown significantly in the last few years. For example, Khan Academy has a large collection of educational videos, especially on STEM subjects, available for free on the internet. Professional panoramic video cameras are expensive and usually not easy to carry because of the large size of the equipment.…

  7. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  8. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    PubMed

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  9. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing “Fog Node-End Device” layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard. PMID:29757988

  10. Activity recognition using Video Event Segmentation with Text (VEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Hillary; Jones, Eric K.; Kaluzniacki, Andrew; Blasch, Erik; Tierno, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Multi-Intelligence (multi-INT) data includes video, text, and signals that require analysis by operators. Analysis methods include information fusion approaches such as filtering, correlation, and association. In this paper, we discuss the Video Event Segmentation with Text (VEST) method, which provides event boundaries of an activity to compile related message and video clips for future interest. VEST infers meaningful activities by clustering multiple streams of time-sequenced multi-INT intelligence data and derived fusion products. We discuss exemplar results that segment raw full-motion video (FMV) data by using extracted commentary message timestamps, FMV metadata, and user-defined queries.

  11. StreamWorks: the live and on-demand audio/video server and its applications in medical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrout, Nabil M.; Gordon, Howard; Palisson, Patrice M.; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Facing a world undergoing fundamental and rapid change, healthcare organizations are seeking ways to increase innovation, quality, productivity, and patient value, keys to more effective care. Individual clinics acting alone can respond in only a limited way, so re- engineering the process key which services are delivered demands real-time collaborative technology that provides immediate information sharing, improving the management and coordination of information in cross-functional teams. StreamWorks is a development stage architecture that uses a distribution technique to deliver an advanced information management system for telemedicine. The challenge of StreamWorks in telemedicine is to enable equity of the quality of Health Care of Telecommunications and Information Technology also to patients in less favored regions, like India or China, where the quality of medical care varies greatly by region, but where there are some very current communications facilities.

  12. Layout Study and Application of Mobile App Recommendation Approach Based On Spark Streaming Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Chen, T. T.; Yan, C.; Pan, H.

    2018-05-01

    For App recommended areas of mobile phone software, made while using conduct App application recommended combined weighted Slope One algorithm collaborative filtering algorithm items based on further improvement of the traditional collaborative filtering algorithm in cold start, data matrix sparseness and other issues, will recommend Spark stasis parallel algorithm platform, the introduction of real-time streaming streaming real-time computing framework to improve real-time software applications recommended.

  13. A secure transmission scheme of streaming media based on the encrypted control message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    As the use of streaming media applications increased dramatically in recent years, streaming media security becomes an important presumption, protecting the privacy. This paper proposes a new encryption scheme in view of characteristics of streaming media and the disadvantage of the living method: encrypt the control message in the streaming media with the high security lever and permute and confuse the data which is non control message according to the corresponding control message. Here the so-called control message refers to the key data of the streaming media, including the streaming media header and the header of the video frame, and the seed key. We encrypt the control message using the public key encryption algorithm which can provide high security lever, such as RSA. At the same time we make use of the seed key to generate key stream, from which the permutation list P responding to GOP (group of picture) is derived. The plain text of the non-control message XORs the key stream and gets the middle cipher text. And then obtained one is permutated according to P. In contrast the decryption process is the inverse process of the above. We have set up a testbed for the above scheme and found our scheme is six to eight times faster than the conventional method. It can be applied not only between PCs but also between handheld devices.

  14. Digital Video: Get with It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Several years after the first audiovisual Macintosh computer appeared, most educators are still oblivious of this technology. Almost every other economic sector (including the porn industry) makes abundant use of digital and streaming video. Desktop movie production is so easy that primary grade students can do it. Tips are provided. (MLH)

  15. Reflectance-based skin detection in the short wave infrared band and its application to video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Tye

    2016-10-01

    Robust reflectance-based skin detection is a potentially powerful tool for security and search and rescue applications, especially when applied to video. However, to be useful it must be able to account for the variations of human skin, as well as other items in the environment that could cause false detections. This effort focused on identifying a robust skin detection scheme that is appropriate for video application. Skin reflectance was modeled to identify unique skin features and compare them to potential false positive materials. Based on these comparisons, specific wavelength bands were selected and different combinations of two and three optical filters were used for actively identifying skin, as well as identifying and removing potential false positive materials. One wavelength combination (1072/1250 nm) was applied to video using both single- and dual-camera configurations based on its still image performance, as well as its appropriateness for video application. There are several important factors regarding the extension of still image skin detection to video, including light available for detection (solar irradiance and reflectance intensity), overall intensity differences between different optical filters, optical component light loss, frame rate, time lag when switching between filters, image coregistration, and camera auto gain behavior.

  16. Novel dynamic caching for hierarchically distributed video-on-demand systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogo, Kenta; Matsuda, Chikashi; Nishimura, Kazutoshi

    1998-02-01

    It is difficult to simultaneously serve the millions of video streams that will be needed in the age of 'Mega-Media' networks by using only one high-performance server. To distribute the service load, caching servers should be location near users. However, in previously proposed caching mechanisms, the grade of service depends on whether the data is already cached at a caching server. To make the caching servers transparent to the users, the ability to randomly access the large volume of data stored in the central server should be supported, and the operational functions of the provided service should not be narrowly restricted. We propose a mechanism for constructing a video-stream-caching server that is transparent to the users and that will always support all special playback functions for all available programs to all the contents with a latency of only 1 or 2 seconds. This mechanism uses Variable-sized-quantum-segment- caching technique derived from an analysis of the historical usage log data generated by a line-on-demand-type service experiment and based on the basic techniques used by a time- slot-based multiple-stream video-on-demand server.

  17. Survey of Compressed Video Applications: Higher Education, K-12, and the Private Sector, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John; And Others

    This paper presents the results of three surveys about live, two-way interactive video (compressed video) and discusses some possible trends in its use, applications, and technological development. Surveys are an Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) survey that has not been completed; one from the "International…

  18. Capture and playback synchronization in video conferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Chang, Pao-Chi; Chen, Mon-Song

    1995-03-01

    Packet-switching based video conferencing has emerged as one of the most important multimedia applications. Lip synchronization can be disrupted in the packet network as the result of the network properties: packet delay jitters at the capture end, network delay jitters, packet loss, packet arrived out of sequence, local clock mismatch, and video playback overlay with the graphic system. The synchronization problem become more demanding as the real time and multiparty requirement of the video conferencing application. Some of the above mentioned problem can be solved in the more advanced network architecture as ATM having promised. This paper will present some of the solutions to the problems that can be useful at the end station terminals in the massively deployed packet switching network today. The playback scheme in the end station will consist of two units: compression domain buffer management unit and the pixel domain buffer management unit. The pixel domain buffer management unit is responsible for removing the annoying frame shearing effect in the display. The compression domain buffer management unit is responsible for parsing the incoming packets for identifying the complete data blocks in the compressed data stream which can be decoded independently. The compression domain buffer management unit is also responsible for concealing the effects of clock mismatch, lip synchronization, and packet loss, out of sequence, and network jitters. This scheme can also be applied to the multiparty teleconferencing environment. Some of the schemes presented in this paper have been implemented in the Multiparty Multimedia Teleconferencing (MMT) system prototype at the IBM watson research center.

  19. Weighted-MSE based on saliency map for assessing video quality of H.264 video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Hadar, O.; Ahmed, T.; Bonnet, P.

    2011-01-01

    Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the perceptual quality of decoded video sequences affected by transmission errors and packed loses. The proposed method weights the Mean Square Error (MSE), Weighted-MSE (WMSE), according to the calculated saliency map at each pixel. Our method was validated trough subjective quality experiments.

  20. Surgical videos online: a survey of prominent sources and future trends.

    PubMed

    Dinscore, Amanda; Andres, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This article determines the extent of the online availability and quality of surgical videos for the educational benefit of the surgical community. A comprehensive survey was performed that compared a number of online sites providing surgical videos according to their content, production quality, authority, audience, navigability, and other features. Methods for evaluating video content are discussed as well as possible future directions and emerging trends. Surgical videos are a valuable tool for demonstrating and teaching surgical technique and, despite room for growth in this area, advances in streaming video technology have made providing and accessing these resources easier than ever before.

  1. A review of video security training and assessment-systems and their applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cellucci, J.; Hall, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during the last 10 years computer-aided video data collection and playback systems have been used as nuclear facility security training and assessment tools with varying degrees of success. These mobile systems have been used by trained security personnel for response force training, vulnerability assessment, force-on-force exercises and crisis management. Typically, synchronous recordings from multiple video cameras, communications audio, and digital sensor inputs; are played back to the exercise participants and then edited for training and briefing. Factors that have influence user acceptance include: frequency of use, the demands placed on security personnel, fear of punishment, usermore » training requirements and equipment cost. The introduction of S-VHS video and new software for scenario planning, video editing and data reduction; should bring about a wider range of security applications and supply the opportunity for significant cost sharing with other user groups.« less

  2. Pennsylvania StreamStats--A web-based application for obtaining water-resource-related information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    StreamStats is a national web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., to provide a variety of water-resource-related information. Users can easily obtain descriptive information, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for USGS streamgages and ungaged stream locations throughout Pennsylvania. StreamStats also allows users to search upstream and (or) downstream from user-selected points to identify locations of and obtain information for water-resource-related activities, such as dams and streamgages.

  3. Streaming Media for Web Based Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Chad; Rizzo, Frank; Bangert, Linda

    This paper discusses streaming media for World Wide Web-based training (WBT). The first section addresses WBT in the 21st century, including the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard that allows multimedia content such as text, pictures, sound, and video to be synchronized for a coherent learning experience. The second…

  4. Incorporation of water-use summaries into the StreamStats web application for Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Horn, Marilee A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Tessler, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 25,000 new households and thousands of new jobs will be established in an area that extends from southwest to northeast of Baltimore, Maryland, as a result of the Federal Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process, with consequent new demands on the water resources of the area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment, has extended the area of implementation and added functionality to an existing map-based Web application named StreamStats to provide an improved tool for planning and managing the water resources in the BRAC-affected areas. StreamStats previously was implemented for only a small area surrounding Baltimore, Maryland, and it was extended to cover all BRAC-affected areas. StreamStats could provide previously published streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent probability flood and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, for U.S. Geological Survey data-collection stations and estimates of streamflow statistics for any user-selected point on a stream within the implemented area. The application was modified for this study to also provide summaries of water withdrawals and discharges upstream from any user-selected point on a stream. This new functionality was made possible by creating a Web service that accepts a drainage-basin delineation from StreamStats, overlays it on a spatial layer of water withdrawal and discharge points, extracts the water-use data for the identified points, and sends it back to StreamStats, where it is summarized for the user. The underlying water-use data were extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's Site-Specific Water-Use Database System (SWUDS) and placed into a Microsoft Access database that was created for this study for easy linkage to the Web service and StreamStats. This linkage of StreamStats with water-use information from SWUDS should enable Maryland regulators and planners to make more informed decisions on the use of water resources in the BRAC area, and

  5. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  6. Design of video interface conversion system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heng; Wang, Xiang-jun

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a FPGA based video interface conversion system that enables the inter-conversion between digital and analog video. Cyclone IV series EP4CE22F17C chip from Altera Corporation is used as the main video processing chip, and single-chip is used as the information interaction control unit between FPGA and PC. The system is able to encode/decode messages from the PC. Technologies including video decoding/encoding circuits, bus communication protocol, data stream de-interleaving and de-interlacing, color space conversion and the Camera Link timing generator module of FPGA are introduced. The system converts Composite Video Broadcast Signal (CVBS) from the CCD camera into Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS), which will be collected by the video processing unit with Camera Link interface. The processed video signals will then be inputted to system output board and displayed on the monitor.The current experiment shows that it can achieve high-quality video conversion with minimum board size.

  7. Remote stereoscopic video play platform for naked eyes based on the Android system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Changxin; Sang, Xinzhu; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Mingsheng

    2014-11-01

    As people's life quality have been improved significantly, the traditional 2D video technology can not meet people's urgent desire for a better video quality, which leads to the rapid development of 3D video technology. Simultaneously people want to watch 3D video in portable devices,. For achieving the above purpose, we set up a remote stereoscopic video play platform. The platform consists of a server and clients. The server is used for transmission of different formats of video and the client is responsible for receiving remote video for the next decoding and pixel restructuring. We utilize and improve Live555 as video transmission server. Live555 is a cross-platform open source project which provides solutions for streaming media such as RTSP protocol and supports transmission of multiple video formats. At the receiving end, we use our laboratory own player. The player for Android, which is with all the basic functions as the ordinary players do and able to play normal 2D video, is the basic structure for redevelopment. Also RTSP is implemented into this structure for telecommunication. In order to achieve stereoscopic display, we need to make pixel rearrangement in this player's decoding part. The decoding part is the local code which JNI interface calls so that we can extract video frames more effectively. The video formats that we process are left and right, up and down and nine grids. In the design and development, a large number of key technologies from Android application development have been employed, including a variety of wireless transmission, pixel restructuring and JNI call. By employing these key technologies, the design plan has been finally completed. After some updates and optimizations, the video player can play remote 3D video well anytime and anywhere and meet people's requirement.

  8. Exploring the Usage of a Video Application Tool: Experiences in Film Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Nazlena Mohamad; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores our experiences in deploying a video application tool in film studies, and its evaluation in terms of realistic contextual end-users who have real tasks to perform in a real environment. We demonstrate our experiences and core lesson learnt in deploying our novel movie browser application with undergraduate and graduate…

  9. Comparative study of internet cloud and cloudlet over wireless mesh networks for real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Kashif A.; Wang, Qi; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Xinheng; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    Mobile cloud computing is receiving world-wide momentum for ubiquitous on-demand cloud services for mobile users provided by Amazon, Google etc. with low capital cost. However, Internet-centric clouds introduce wide area network (WAN) delays that are often intolerable for real-time applications such as video streaming. One promising approach to addressing this challenge is to deploy decentralized mini-cloud facility known as cloudlets to enable localized cloud services. When supported by local wireless connectivity, a wireless cloudlet is expected to offer low cost and high performance cloud services for the users. In this work, we implement a realistic framework that comprises both a popular Internet cloud (Amazon Cloud) and a real-world cloudlet (based on Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud (UEC)) for mobile cloud users in a wireless mesh network. We focus on real-time video streaming over the HTTP standard and implement a typical application. We further perform a comprehensive comparative analysis and empirical evaluation of the application's performance when it is delivered over the Internet cloud and the cloudlet respectively. The study quantifies the influence of the two different cloud networking architectures on supporting real-time video streaming. We also enable movement of the users in the wireless mesh network and investigate the effect of user's mobility on mobile cloud computing over the cloudlet and Amazon cloud respectively. Our experimental results demonstrate the advantages of the cloudlet paradigm over its Internet cloud counterpart in supporting the quality of service of real-time applications.

  10. Video in Distance Education: ITFS vs. Web-Streaming--Evaluation of Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisslein, Jana; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The use of video in distance education courses has a long tradition, with many colleges and universities having been delivering distance education courses with video since the 80's using the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) and cable television. With the emergence of the Internet and the increased access bandwidths from private homes…

  11. CUQI: cardiac ultrasound video quality index

    PubMed Central

    Razaak, Manzoor; Martini, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Medical images and videos are now increasingly part of modern telecommunication applications, including telemedicinal applications, favored by advancements in video compression and communication technologies. Medical video quality evaluation is essential for modern applications since compression and transmission processes often compromise the video quality. Several state-of-the-art video quality metrics used for quality evaluation assess the perceptual quality of the video. For a medical video, assessing quality in terms of “diagnostic” value rather than “perceptual” quality is more important. We present a diagnostic-quality–oriented video quality metric for quality evaluation of cardiac ultrasound videos. Cardiac ultrasound videos are characterized by rapid repetitive cardiac motions and distinct structural information characteristics that are explored by the proposed metric. Cardiac ultrasound video quality index, the proposed metric, is a full reference metric and uses the motion and edge information of the cardiac ultrasound video to evaluate the video quality. The metric was evaluated for its performance in approximating the quality of cardiac ultrasound videos by testing its correlation with the subjective scores of medical experts. The results of our tests showed that the metric has high correlation with medical expert opinions and in several cases outperforms the state-of-the-art video quality metrics considered in our tests. PMID:27014715

  12. Robust and Imperceptible Watermarking of Video Streams for Low Power Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Jaffar, M. Arfan; Khan, Muhammad A.; Jan, Zahoor; Mirza, Anwar M.

    With the advent of internet, every aspect of life is going online. From online working to watching videos, everything is now available on the internet. With the greater business benefits, increased availability and other online business advantages, there is a major challenge of security and ownership of data. Videos downloaded from an online store can easily be shared among non-intended or unauthorized users. Invisible watermarking is used to hide copyright protection information in the videos. The existing methods of watermarking are less robust and imperceptible and also the computational complexity of these methods does not suit low power devices. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to address the problem of robustness and imperceptibility. Experiments have shown that our method has better robustness and imperceptibility as well as our method is computationally efficient than previous approaches in practice. Hence our method can easily be applied on low power devices.

  13. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  14. Gaze-Aware Streaming Solutions for the Next Generation of Mobile VR Experiences.

    PubMed

    Lungaro, Pietro; Sjoberg, Rickard; Valero, Alfredo Jose Fanghella; Mittal, Ashutosh; Tollmar, Konrad

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to content delivery for video streaming services. It exploits information from connected eye-trackers embedded in the next generation of VR Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). The proposed solution aims to deliver high visual quality, in real time, around the users' fixations points while lowering the quality everywhere else. The goal of the proposed approach is to substantially reduce the overall bandwidth requirements for supporting VR video experiences while delivering high levels of user perceived quality. The prerequisites to achieve these results are: (1) mechanisms that can cope with different degrees of latency in the system and (2) solutions that support fast adaptation of video quality in different parts of a frame, without requiring a large increase in bitrate. A novel codec configuration, capable of supporting near-instantaneous video quality adaptation in specific portions of a video frame, is presented. The proposed method exploits in-built properties of HEVC encoders and while it introduces a moderate amount of error, these errors are indetectable by users. Fast adaptation is the key to enable gaze-aware streaming and its reduction in bandwidth. A testbed implementing gaze-aware streaming, together with a prototype HMD with in-built eye tracker, is presented and was used for testing with real users. The studies quantified the bandwidth savings achievable by the proposed approach and characterize the relationships between Quality of Experience (QoE) and network latency. The results showed that up to 83% less bandwidth is required to deliver high QoE levels to the users, as compared to conventional solutions.

  15. Compressed ultrasound video image-quality evaluation using a Likert scale and Kappa statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Langer, Steven G.; Andrew, Rex K.

    1998-06-01

    Experiments using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite were conducted to provide an estimate of the compressed video quality required for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. Bandwidth rates of 128, 256 and 384 kbps were used. A five point Likert scale (1 equals no useful information and 5 equals good diagnostic quality) was used for a subjective preference questionnaire to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three compression rates for several anatomical regions of interest. At 384 kbps the Likert scores (mean plus or minus SD) were abdomen (4.45 plus or minus 0.71), carotid artery (4.70 plus or minus 0.36), kidney (5.0 plus or minus 0.0), liver (4.67 plus or minus 0.58) and thyroid (4.03 plus or minus 0.74). Due to the volatile nature of the H.320 compressed digital video stream, no statistically significant results can be derived through this methodology. As the MPEG standard has at its roots many of the same intraframe and motion vector compression algorithms as the H.261 (such as that used in the previous ACTS/AMT experiments), we are using the MPEG compressed video sequences to best gauge what minimum bandwidths are necessary for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. We have been using an MPEG codec board to collect losslessly compressed video clips from high quality S- VHS tapes and through direct digitization of S-video. Due to the large number of videoclips and questions to be presented to the radiologists and for ease of application, we have developed a web browser interface for this video visual perception study. Due to the large numbers of observations required to reach statistical significance in most ROC studies, Kappa statistical analysis is used to analyze the degree of agreement between observers and between viewing assessment. If the degree of agreement amongst readers is high, then there is a possibility that the ratings (i

  16. Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also

  17. 78 FR 78319 - Media Bureau Seeks Comment on Application of the IP Closed Captioning Rules to Video Clips

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Seeks Comment on Application of the IP Closed Captioning Rules to Video Clips AGENCY: Federal... captioning of video clips delivered by Internet protocol (``IP''), including the extent to which industry has voluntarily captioned IP- delivered video clips. The Commission directed the Media Bureau to issue this...

  18. Integrating Time-Synchronized Video with Other Geospatial and Temporal Data for Remote Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar E.; Lees, David S.; Deans, Matthew C.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Lee, Yeon Jin Grace

    2018-01-01

    Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS) supports rapid scientific decision making by synchronizing video in context with map, instrument data visualization, geo-located notes and any other collected data. xGDS is an open source web-based software suite developed at NASA Ames Research Center to support remote science operations in analog missions and prototype solutions for remote planetary exploration. (See Appendix B) Typical video systems are designed to play or stream video only, independent of other data collected in the context of the video. Providing customizable displays for monitoring live video and data as well as replaying recorded video and data helps end users build up a rich situational awareness. xGDS was designed to support remote field exploration with unreliable networks. Commercial digital recording systems operate under the assumption that there is a stable and reliable network between the source of the video and the recording system. In many field deployments and space exploration scenarios, this is not the case - there are both anticipated and unexpected network losses. xGDS' Video Module handles these interruptions, storing the available video, organizing and characterizing the dropouts, and presenting the video for streaming or replay to the end user including visualization of the dropouts. Scientific instruments often require custom or expensive software to analyze and visualize collected data. This limits the speed at which the data can be visualized and limits access to the data to those users with the software. xGDS' Instrument Module integrates with instruments that collect and broadcast data in a single snapshot or that continually collect and broadcast a stream of data. While seeing a visualization of collected instrument data is informative, showing the context for the collected data, other data collected nearby along with events indicating current status helps remote science teams build a better understanding of the environment

  19. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  20. Real-time skin feature identification in a time-sequential video stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramberger, Iztok

    2005-04-01

    Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.

  1. Real-time video quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Narvekar, Niranjan; Wang, Beibei; Ding, Ran; Zou, Dekun; Cash, Glenn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Bloom, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    The ITU-T Recommendation G.1070 is a standardized opinion model for video telephony applications that uses video bitrate, frame rate, and packet-loss rate to measure the video quality. However, this model was original designed as an offline quality planning tool. It cannot be directly used for quality monitoring since the above three input parameters are not readily available within a network or at the decoder. And there is a great room for the performance improvement of this quality metric. In this article, we present a real-time video quality monitoring solution based on this Recommendation. We first propose a scheme to efficiently estimate the three parameters from video bitstreams, so that it can be used as a real-time video quality monitoring tool. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm based on the G.1070 model that provides more accurate quality prediction is proposed. Finally, to use this metric in real-world applications, we present an example emerging application of real-time quality measurement to the management of transmitted videos, especially those delivered to mobile devices.

  2. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  3. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  4. Graphics to H.264 video encoding for 3D scene representation and interaction on mobile devices using region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Minh Tuan; Nguyen, Congdu; Yoon, Dae-Il; Jung, Eun Ku; Jia, Jie; Kim, Hae-Kwang

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of 3D graphics to video encoding and streaming that are embedded into a remote interactive 3D visualization system for rapidly representing a 3D scene on mobile devices without having to download it from the server. In particular, a 3D graphics to video framework is presented that increases the visual quality of regions of interest (ROI) of the video by performing more bit allocation to ROI during H.264 video encoding. The ROI are identified by projection 3D objects to a 2D plane during rasterization. The system offers users to navigate the 3D scene and interact with objects of interests for querying their descriptions. We developed an adaptive media streaming server that can provide an adaptive video stream in term of object-based quality to the client according to the user's preferences and the variation of network bandwidth. Results show that by doing ROI mode selection, PSNR of test sample slightly change while visual quality of objects increases evidently.

  5. An architecture of entropy decoder, inverse quantiser and predictor for multi-standard video decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Leibo; Chen, Yingjie; Yin, Shouyi; Lei, Hao; He, Guanghui; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-07-01

    A VLSI architecture for entropy decoder, inverse quantiser and predictor is proposed in this article. This architecture is used for decoding video streams of three standards on a single chip, i.e. H.264/AVC, AVS (China National Audio Video coding Standard) and MPEG2. The proposed scheme is called MPMP (Macro-block-Parallel based Multilevel Pipeline), which is intended to improve the decoding performance to satisfy the real-time requirements while maintaining a reasonable area and power consumption. Several techniques, such as slice level pipeline, MB (Macro-Block) level pipeline, MB level parallel, etc., are adopted. Input and output buffers for the inverse quantiser and predictor are shared by the decoding engines for H.264, AVS and MPEG2, therefore effectively reducing the implementation overhead. Simulation shows that decoding process consumes 512, 435 and 438 clock cycles per MB in H.264, AVS and MPEG2, respectively. Owing to the proposed techniques, the video decoder can support H.264 HP (High Profile) 1920 × 1088@30fps (frame per second) streams, AVS JP (Jizhun Profile) 1920 × 1088@41fps streams and MPEG2 MP (Main Profile) 1920 × 1088@39fps streams when exploiting a 200 MHz working frequency.

  6. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-04-23

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies' granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications.

  7. Architecture of portable electronic medical records system integrated with streaming media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shih, Chien-Chou

    2012-02-01

    Due to increasing occurrence of accidents and illness during business trips, travel, or overseas studies, the requirement for portable EMR (Electronic Medical Records) has increased. This study proposes integrating streaming media technology into the EMR system to facilitate referrals, contracted laboratories, and disease notification among hospitals. The current study encoded static and dynamic medical images of patients into a streaming video format and stored them in a Flash Media Server (FMS). Based on the Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) standard, EMR records can be converted into XML documents and used to integrate description fields with embedded streaming videos. This investigation implemented a web-based portable EMR interchanging system using streaming media techniques to expedite exchanging medical image information among hospitals. The proposed architecture of the portable EMR retrieval system not only provides local hospital users the ability to acquire EMR text files from a previous hospital, but also helps access static and dynamic medical images as reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed method protects property rights of medical images through information security mechanisms of the Medical Record Interchange Service Center and Health Certificate Authorization to facilitate proper, efficient, and continuous treatment of patients.

  8. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm. PMID:25276862

  9. Improved Techniques for Video Compression and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    Video compression and communication has been an important field over the past decades and critical for many applications, e.g., video on demand, video-conferencing, and remote education. In many applications, providing low-delay and error-resilient video transmission and increasing the coding efficiency are two major challenges. Low-delay and…

  10. Stream Classification Tool User Manual: For Use in Applications in Hydropower-Related Evironmental Mitigation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Troia, Matthew J.; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    Stream classifications are an inventory of different types of streams. Classifications help us explore similarities and differences among different types of streams, make inferences regarding stream ecosystem behavior, and communicate the complexities of ecosystems. We developed a nested, layered, and spatially contiguous stream classification to characterize the biophysical settings of stream reaches within the Eastern United States (~ 900,000 reaches). The classification is composed of five natural characteristics (hydrology, temperature, size, confinement, and substrate) along with several disturbance regime layers, and each was selected because of their relevance to hydropower mitigation. We developed the classification at the stream reach levelmore » using the National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 1 (1:100k scale). The stream classification is useful to environmental mitigation for hydropower dams in multiple ways. First, it creates efficiency in the regulatory process by creating an objective and data-rich means to address meaningful mitigation actions. Secondly, the SCT addresses data gaps as it quickly provides an inventory of hydrology, temperature, morphology, and ecological communities for the immediate project area, but also surrounding streams. This includes identifying potential reference streams as those that are proximate to the hydropower facility and fall within the same class. These streams can potentially be used to identify ideal environmental conditions or identify desired ecological communities. In doing so, the stream provides some context for how streams may function, respond to dam regulation, and an overview of specific mitigation needs. Herein, we describe the methodology in developing each stream classification layer and provide a tutorial to guide applications of the classification (and associated data) in regulatory settings, such as hydropower (re)licensing.« less

  11. Video Self-Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  12. An Unequal Secure Encryption Scheme for H.264/AVC Video Compression Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yibo; Wang, Jidong; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Goto, Satoshi

    H.264/AVC is the newest video coding standard. There are many new features in it which can be easily used for video encryption. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to do video encryption for H.264/AVC video compression standard. We define Unequal Secure Encryption (USE) as an approach that applies different encryption schemes (with different security strength) to different parts of compressed video data. This USE scheme includes two parts: video data classification and unequal secure video data encryption. Firstly, we classify the video data into two partitions: Important data partition and unimportant data partition. Important data partition has small size with high secure protection, while unimportant data partition has large size with low secure protection. Secondly, we use AES as a block cipher to encrypt the important data partition and use LEX as a stream cipher to encrypt the unimportant data partition. AES is the most widely used symmetric cryptography which can ensure high security. LEX is a new stream cipher which is based on AES and its computational cost is much lower than AES. In this way, our scheme can achieve both high security and low computational cost. Besides the USE scheme, we propose a low cost design of hybrid AES/LEX encryption module. Our experimental results show that the computational cost of the USE scheme is low (about 25% of naive encryption at Level 0 with VEA used). The hardware cost for hybrid AES/LEX module is 4678 Gates and the AES encryption throughput is about 50Mbps.

  13. Layered Wyner-Ziv video coding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Xiong, Zixiang

    2006-12-01

    Following recent theoretical works on successive Wyner-Ziv coding (WZC), we propose a practical layered Wyner-Ziv video coder using the DCT, nested scalar quantization, and irregular LDPC code based Slepian-Wolf coding (or lossless source coding with side information at the decoder). Our main novelty is to use the base layer of a standard scalable video coder (e.g., MPEG-4/H.26L FGS or H.263+) as the decoder side information and perform layered WZC for quality enhancement. Similar to FGS coding, there is no performance difference between layered and monolithic WZC when the enhancement bitstream is generated in our proposed coder. Using an H.26L coded version as the base layer, experiments indicate that WZC gives slightly worse performance than FGS coding when the channel (for both the base and enhancement layers) is noiseless. However, when the channel is noisy, extensive simulations of video transmission over wireless networks conforming to the CDMA2000 1X standard show that H.26L base layer coding plus Wyner-Ziv enhancement layer coding are more robust against channel errors than H.26L FGS coding. These results demonstrate that layered Wyner-Ziv video coding is a promising new technique for video streaming over wireless networks.

  14. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  15. Online Class Review: Using Streaming-Media Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Marc; Sharp, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We present an automated system that allows students to replay both audio and video from a large nonmajors' organic chemistry class as streaming RealMedia. Once established, this system requires no technical intervention and is virtually transparent to the instructor. This gives students access to online class review at any time. Assessment has…

  16. Eye gaze correction with stereovision for video-teleconferencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruigang; Zhang, Zhengyou

    2004-07-01

    The lack of eye contact in desktop video teleconferencing substantially reduces the effectiveness of video contents. While expensive and bulky hardware is available on the market to correct eye gaze, researchers have been trying to provide a practical software-based solution to bring video-teleconferencing one step closer to the mass market. This paper presents a novel approach: Based on stereo analysis combined with rich domain knowledge (a personalized face model), we synthesize, using graphics hardware, a virtual video that maintains eye contact. A 3D stereo head tracker with a personalized face model is used to compute initial correspondences across two views. More correspondences are then added through template and feature matching. Finally, all the correspondence information is fused together for view synthesis using view morphing techniques. The combined methods greatly enhance the accuracy and robustness of the synthesized views. Our current system is able to generate an eye-gaze corrected video stream at five frames per second on a commodity 1 GHz PC.

  17. Psychovisual masks and intelligent streaming RTP techniques for the MPEG-4 standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Falconi, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    In today multimedia audio-video communication systems, data compression plays a fundamental role by reducing the bandwidth waste and the costs of the infrastructures and equipments. Among the different compression standards, the MPEG-4 is becoming more and more accepted and widespread. Even if one of the fundamental aspects of this standard is the possibility of separately coding video objects (i.e. to separate moving objects from the background and adapt the coding strategy to the video content), currently implemented codecs work only at the full-frame level. In this way, many advantages of the flexible MPEG-4 syntax are missed. This lack is due both to the difficulties in properly segmenting moving objects in real scenes (featuring an arbitrary motion of the objects and of the acquisition sensor), and to the current use of these codecs, that are mainly oriented towards the market of DVD backups (a full-frame approach is enough for these applications). In this paper we propose a codec for MPEG-4 real-time object streaming, that codes separately the moving objects and the scene background. The proposed codec is capable of adapting its strategy during the transmission, by analysing the video currently transmitted and setting the coder parameters and modalities accordingly. For example, the background can be transmitted as a whole or by dividing it into "slightly-detailed" and "highly detailed" zones that are coded in different ways to reduce the bit-rate while preserving the perceived quality. The coder can automatically switch in real-time, from one modality to the other during the transmission, depending on the current video content. Psychovisual masks and other video-content based measurements have been used as inputs for a Self Learning Intelligent Controller (SLIC) that changes the parameters and the transmission modalities. The current implementation is based on the ISO 14496 standard code that allows Video Objects (VO) transmission (other Open Source Codes

  18. An openstack-based flexible video transcoding framework in live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qisen; Song, Jianxin

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid development of mobile live business, transcoding HD video is often a challenge for mobile devices due to their limited processing capability and bandwidth-constrained network connection. For live service providers, it's wasteful for resources to delay lots of transcoding server because some of them are free to work sometimes. To deal with this issue, this paper proposed an Openstack-based flexible transcoding framework to achieve real-time video adaption for mobile device and make computing resources used efficiently. To this end, we introduced a special method of video stream splitting and VMs resource scheduling based on access pressure prediction,which is forecasted by an AR model.

  19. Hierarchical event selection for video storyboards with a case study on snooker video visualization.

    PubMed

    Parry, Matthew L; Legg, Philip A; Chung, David H S; Griffiths, Iwan W; Chen, Min

    2011-12-01

    Video storyboard, which is a form of video visualization, summarizes the major events in a video using illustrative visualization. There are three main technical challenges in creating a video storyboard, (a) event classification, (b) event selection and (c) event illustration. Among these challenges, (a) is highly application-dependent and requires a significant amount of application specific semantics to be encoded in a system or manually specified by users. This paper focuses on challenges (b) and (c). In particular, we present a framework for hierarchical event representation, and an importance-based selection algorithm for supporting the creation of a video storyboard from a video. We consider the storyboard to be an event summarization for the whole video, whilst each individual illustration on the board is also an event summarization but for a smaller time window. We utilized a 3D visualization template for depicting and annotating events in illustrations. To demonstrate the concepts and algorithms developed, we use Snooker video visualization as a case study, because it has a concrete and agreeable set of semantic definitions for events and can make use of existing techniques of event detection and 3D reconstruction in a reliable manner. Nevertheless, most of our concepts and algorithms developed for challenges (b) and (c) can be applied to other application areas. © 2010 IEEE

  20. Use of StreamStats in the Upper French Broad River Basin, North Carolina: A Pilot Water-Resources Web Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Tighe, Kirsten C.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) to provide access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection sites and selected ungaged sites. StreamStats also allows users to identify stream reaches upstream and downstream from user-selected sites and obtain information for locations along streams where activities occur that can affect streamflow conditions. This functionality can be accessed through a map-based interface with the user's Web browser or through individual functions requested remotely through other Web applications.

  1. Application aware approach to compression and transmission of H.264 encoded video for automated and centralized transportation surveillance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    In this report we present a transportation video coding and wireless transmission system specically tailored to automated : vehicle tracking applications. By taking into account the video characteristics and the lossy nature of the wireless channe...

  2. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    PubMed Central

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  3. New Jersey StreamStats: A web application for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Janowicz, Jon A.

    2017-08-02

    StreamStats is an interactive, map-based web application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics and watershed characteristics for both gaged and ungaged sites on streams throughout New Jersey. Users can determine flood magnitude and frequency, monthly flow-duration, monthly low-flow frequency statistics, and watershed characteristics for ungaged sites by selecting a point along a stream, or they can obtain this information for streamgages by selecting a streamgage location on the map. StreamStats provides several additional tools useful for water-resources planning and management, as well as for engineering purposes. StreamStats is available for most states and some river basins through a single web portal.Streamflow statistics for water resources professionals include the 1-percent annual chance flood flow (100-year peak flow) used to define flood plain areas and the monthly 7-day, 10-year low flow (M7D10Y) used in water supply management and studies of recreation, wildlife conservation, and wastewater dilution. Additionally, watershed or basin characteristics, including drainage area, percent area forested, and average percent of impervious areas, are commonly used in land-use planning and environmental assessments. These characteristics are easily derived through StreamStats.

  4. A feasibility study of stateful automaton packet inspection for streaming application detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lo, Jiao; Liu, Yiming; Chang, Shih-Hao; Merabti, Madjid; Ng, Felix, C. K.; Wu, C. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of the internet has brought huge benefits and social impacts; however, internet security has also become a great problem for users, since traditional approaches to packet classification cannot achieve satisfactory detection performance due to their low accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, a new stateful packet inspection method is introduced, which can be embedded in the network gateway and used by a streaming application detection system. This new detection method leverages the inexact automaton approach, using part of the header field and part of the application layer data of a packet. Based on this approach, an advanced detection system is proposed for streaming applications. The workflow of the system involves two stages: the training stage and the detection stage. In the training stage, the system initially captures characteristic patterns from a set of application packet flows. After this training is completed, the detection stage allows the user to detect the target application by capturing new application flows. This new detection approach is also evaluated using experimental analysis; the results of this analysis show that this new approach not only simplifies the management of the state detection system, but also improves the accuracy of data flow detection, making it feasible for real-world network applications.

  5. Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

  6. Flexible video conference system based on ASICs and DSPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang; Yu, Songyu

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, a video conference system we developed recently is presented. In this system the video codec is compatible with CCITT H.261, the audio codec is compatible with G.711 and G.722, the channel interface circuit is designed according to CCITT H.221. In this paper emphasis is given to the video codec, which is both flexible and robust. The video codec is based on LSI LOGIC Corporation's L64700 series video compression chipset. The main function blocks of H.261, such as DCT, motion estimation, VLC, VLD, are performed by this chipset, but the chipset is a nude chipset, no peripheral function, such as memory interface, is integrated into it, this results in great difficulty to implement the system. To implement the frame buffer controller, a DSP-TMS 320c25 and a group of GALs is used, SRAM is used as a current and previous frame buffer, the DSP is not only the controller of the frame buffer, it's also the controller of the whole video codec. Because of the use of the DSP, the architecture of the video codec is very flexible, many system parameters can be reconfigured for different applications. The architecture of the whole video codec is a streamline structure. In H.261, BCH(511,493) coding is recommended to work against random errors in transmission, but if burst error occurs, it causes serious result. To solve this problem, an interleaving method is used, that means the BCH code is interleaved before it's transmitted, in the receiver it is interleaved again and the bit stream is in the original order, but the error bits are distributed into several BCH words, and the BCH decoder is able to correct it. Considering that extreme conditions may occur, a function block is implemented which is somewhat like a watchdog, it assures that the receiver can recover from errors no matter what serious error occurs in transmission. In developing the video conference system, a new synchronization problem must be solved, the monitor on the receiver can't be easily

  7. Detection of illegal transfer of videos over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisorn, Lekha; Sainui, Janya; Manders, Corey

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a method for detecting infringements or modifications of a video in real-time is proposed. The method first segments a video stream into shots, after which it extracts some reference frames as keyframes. This process is performed employing a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique developed in this work. Next, for each input video (represented by its keyframes), ordinal-based signature and SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors are generated. The ordinal-based method employs a two-level bitmap indexing scheme to construct the index for each video signature. The first level clusters all input keyframes into k clusters while the second level converts the ordinal-based signatures into bitmap vectors. On the other hand, the SIFT-based method directly uses the descriptors as the index. Given a suspect video (being streamed or transferred on the Internet), we generate the signature (ordinal and SIFT descriptors) then we compute similarity between its signature and those signatures in the database based on ordinal signature and SIFT descriptors separately. For similarity measure, besides the Euclidean distance, Boolean operators are also utilized during the matching process. We have tested our system by performing several experiments on 50 videos (each about 1/2 hour in duration) obtained from the TRECVID 2006 data set. For experiments set up, we refer to the conditions provided by TRECVID 2009 on "Content-based copy detection" task. In addition, we also refer to the requirements issued in the call for proposals by MPEG standard on the similar task. Initial result shows that our framework is effective and robust. As compared to our previous work, on top of the achievement we obtained by reducing the storage space and time taken in the ordinal based method, by introducing the SIFT features, we could achieve an overall accuracy in F1 measure of about 96% (improved about 8%).

  8. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.

  9. Video monitoring of oxygen saturation during controlled episodes of acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S; Foo, David M H; Jacquel, Dominique; Borg, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    A method for extracting video photoplethysmographic information from an RGB video stream is tested on data acquired during a porcine model of acute hypoxia. Cardiac pulsatile information was extracted from the acquired signals and processed to determine a continuously reported oxygen saturation (SvidO2). A high degree of correlation was found to exist between the video and a reference from a pulse oximeter. The calculated mean bias and accuracy across all eight desaturation episodes were -0.03% (range: -0.21% to 0.24%) and accuracy 4.90% (range: 3.80% to 6.19%) respectively. The results support the hypothesis that oxygen saturation trending can be evaluated accurately from a video system during acute hypoxia.

  10. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model

    Treesearch

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson

    2009-01-01

    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  11. Power-Constrained Fuzzy Logic Control of Video Streaming over a Wireless Interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Rouzbeh; Fleury, Martin; Ghanbari, Mohammed

    2008-12-01

    Wireless communication of video, with Bluetooth as an example, represents a compromise between channel conditions, display and decode deadlines, and energy constraints. This paper proposes fuzzy logic control (FLC) of automatic repeat request (ARQ) as a way of reconciling these factors, with a 40% saving in power in the worst channel conditions from economizing on transmissions when channel errors occur. Whatever the channel conditions are, FLC is shown to outperform the default Bluetooth scheme and an alternative Bluetooth-adaptive ARQ scheme in terms of reduced packet loss and delay, as well as improved video quality.

  12. Regional bankfull geometry relationships for southern California mountain streams and hydrologic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrick, Theresa M.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    2014-09-01

    This study develops and intercompares regional relationships for bankfull channel width, hydraulic depth, and cross-sectional area for southern California mountain streams based on several data sources: surveyed streams, US Geological Survey stream survey reports, and existing literature. Although considerable uncertainty exists in estimating bankfull conditions, the relationships developed from the varying data sources show significant agreement. For small watersheds with drainage area ranging from 15 to ~ 2000 km2, the estimates of bankfull top width ranged from 7.2 to 44.5 m and hydraulic depth estimates ranged from 0.35 to 1.15 m. The utility of the developed bankfull geometry regional curves is demonstrated for southern California catchments through (a) the computation of the bankfull discharge and (b) the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions in the streams at the outlet of these catchments. For selected locations with instantaneous flow records, the occurrence frequency of events exceeding bankfull flow was examined for the available 10-15 year span of observational records. Bankfull discharge estimates for all small watersheds in the region ranged from 1.3 to 74 m3/s, while the range at the selected gauged stream locations was from 2.6 to 16.4 m3/s. Stream locations along the Transverse Mountains of southern California showed an average occurrence frequency of less than 1 year, whereas along the Peninsular Mountains the average return period tended to be greater than 1 year. The application of the regional curves to the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions at the channel outlets of small catchments may be used as an index for conditions of minor flooding with saturated soils. This surface runoff response index ranges from 2.0 to 5.5 mm for a 3-hour rainfall duration for southern California watersheds greater than 15 km2 in area. Differences between the values for the

  13. Using dynamic mode decomposition for real-time background/foreground separation in video

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kutz, Jose Nathan; Grosek, Jacob; Brunton, Steven

    The technique of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is disclosed herein for the purpose of robustly separating video frames into background (low-rank) and foreground (sparse) components in real-time. Foreground/background separation is achieved at the computational cost of just one singular value decomposition (SVD) and one linear equation solve, thus producing results orders of magnitude faster than robust principal component analysis (RPCA). Additional techniques, including techniques for analyzing the video for multi-resolution time-scale components, and techniques for reusing computations to allow processing of streaming video in real time, are also described herein.

  14. Method of determining the necessary number of observations for video stream documents recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlazarov, Vladimir V.; Bulatov, Konstantin; Manzhikov, Temudzhin; Slavin, Oleg; Janiszewski, Igor

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses a task of document recognition on a sequence of video frames. In order to optimize the processing speed an estimation is performed of stability of recognition results obtained from several video frames. Considering identity document (Russian internal passport) recognition on a mobile device it is shown that significant decrease is possible of the number of observations necessary for obtaining precise recognition result.

  15. Development and application of traffic flow information collecting and analysis system based on multi-type video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mujie; Shang, Wenjie; Ji, Xinkai; Hua, Mingzhuang; Cheng, Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, intelligent transportation system (ITS) has already become the new direction of transportation development. Traffic data, as a fundamental part of intelligent transportation system, is having a more and more crucial status. In recent years, video observation technology has been widely used in the field of traffic information collecting. Traffic flow information contained in video data has many advantages which is comprehensive and can be stored for a long time, but there are still many problems, such as low precision and high cost in the process of collecting information. This paper aiming at these problems, proposes a kind of traffic target detection method with broad applicability. Based on three different ways of getting video data, such as aerial photography, fixed camera and handheld camera, we develop a kind of intelligent analysis software which can be used to extract the macroscopic, microscopic traffic flow information in the video, and the information can be used for traffic analysis and transportation planning. For road intersections, the system uses frame difference method to extract traffic information, for freeway sections, the system uses optical flow method to track the vehicles. The system was applied in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, and the application shows that the system for extracting different types of traffic flow information has a high accuracy, it can meet the needs of traffic engineering observations and has a good application prospect.

  16. Automatic attention-based prioritization of unconstrained video for compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Laurent

    2004-06-01

    We apply a biologically-motivated algorithm that selects visually-salient regions of interest in video streams to multiply-foveated video compression. Regions of high encoding priority are selected based on nonlinear integration of low-level visual cues, mimicking processing in primate occipital and posterior parietal cortex. A dynamic foveation filter then blurs (foveates) every frame, increasingly with distance from high-priority regions. Two variants of the model (one with continuously-variable blur proportional to saliency at every pixel, and the other with blur proportional to distance from three independent foveation centers) are validated against eye fixations from 4-6 human observers on 50 video clips (synthetic stimuli, video games, outdoors day and night home video, television newscast, sports, talk-shows, etc). Significant overlap is found between human and algorithmic foveations on every clip with one variant, and on 48 out of 50 clips with the other. Substantial compressed file size reductions by a factor 0.5 on average are obtained for foveated compared to unfoveated clips. These results suggest a general-purpose usefulness of the algorithm in improving compression ratios of unconstrained video.

  17. Adaptive UEP and Packet Size Assignment for Scalable Video Transmission over Burst-Error Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Wei; Yang, Chu-Sing; Su, Yih-Ching

    2006-12-01

    This work proposes an adaptive unequal error protection (UEP) and packet size assignment scheme for scalable video transmission over a burst-error channel. An analytic model is developed to evaluate the impact of channel bit error rate on the quality of streaming scalable video. A video transmission scheme, which combines the adaptive assignment of packet size with unequal error protection to increase the end-to-end video quality, is proposed. Several distinct scalable video transmission schemes over burst-error channel have been compared, and the simulation results reveal that the proposed transmission schemes can react to varying channel conditions with less and smoother quality degradation.

  18. Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  19. Video Transmission for Third Generation Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gharavi, H.; Alamouti, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a twin-class unequal protected video transmission system over wireless channels. Video partitioning based on a separation of the Variable Length Coded (VLC) Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients within each block is considered for constant bitrate transmission (CBR). In the splitting process the fraction of bits assigned to each of the two partitions is adjusted according to the requirements of the unequal error protection scheme employed. Subsequently, partitioning is applied to the ITU-T H.263 coding standard. As a transport vehicle, we have considered one of the leading third generation cellular radio standards known as WCDMA. A dual-priority transmission system is then invoked on the WCDMA system where the video data, after being broken into two streams, is unequally protected. We use a very simple error correction coding scheme for illustration and then propose more sophisticated forms of unequal protection of the digitized video signals. We show that this strategy results in a significantly higher quality of the reconstructed video data when it is transmitted over time-varying multipath fading channels. PMID:27500033

  20. Global optimization for motion estimation with applications to ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Pattichis, Marios; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.

    2010-03-01

    Motion estimation from digital video is an ill-posed problem that requires a regularization approach. Regularization introduces a smoothness constraint that can reduce the resolution of the velocity estimates. The problem is further complicated for ultrasound videos (US), where speckle noise levels can be significant. Motion estimation using optical flow models requires the modification of several parameters to satisfy the optical flow constraint as well as the level of imposed smoothness. Furthermore, except in simulations or mostly unrealistic cases, there is no ground truth to use for validating the velocity estimates. This problem is present in all real video sequences that are used as input to motion estimation algorithms. It is also an open problem in biomedical applications like motion analysis of US of carotid artery (CA) plaques. In this paper, we study the problem of obtaining reliable ultrasound video motion estimates for atherosclerotic plaques for use in clinical diagnosis. A global optimization framework for motion parameter optimization is presented. This framework uses actual carotid artery motions to provide optimal parameter values for a variety of motions and is tested on ten different US videos using two different motion estimation techniques.

  1. High efficiency video coding for ultrasound video communication in m-health systems.

    PubMed

    Panayides, A; Antoniou, Z; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S; Constantinides, A G

    2012-01-01

    Emerging high efficiency video compression methods and wider availability of wireless network infrastructure will significantly advance existing m-health applications. For medical video communications, the emerging video compression and network standards support low-delay and high-resolution video transmission, at the clinically acquired resolution and frame rates. Such advances are expected to further promote the adoption of m-health systems for remote diagnosis and emergency incidents in daily clinical practice. This paper compares the performance of the emerging high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard to the current state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard. The experimental evaluation, based on five atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound videos encoded at QCIF, CIF, and 4CIF resolutions demonstrates that 50% reductions in bitrate requirements is possible for equivalent clinical quality.

  2. "Deja Vu"? A Decade of Research on Language Laboratories, Television and Video in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderplank, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language…

  3. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  4. Three-dimensional face pose detection and tracking using monocular videos: tool and application.

    PubMed

    Dornaika, Fadi; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2009-08-01

    Recently, we have proposed a real-time tracker that simultaneously tracks the 3-D head pose and facial actions in monocular video sequences that can be provided by low quality cameras. This paper has two main contributions. First, we propose an automatic 3-D face pose initialization scheme for the real-time tracker by adopting a 2-D face detector and an eigenface system. Second, we use the proposed methods-the initialization and tracking-for enhancing the human-machine interaction functionality of an AIBO robot. More precisely, we show how the orientation of the robot's camera (or any active vision system) can be controlled through the estimation of the user's head pose. Applications based on head-pose imitation such as telepresence, virtual reality, and video games can directly exploit the proposed techniques. Experiments on real videos confirm the robustness and usefulness of the proposed methods.

  5. StreamStats in Oklahoma - Drainage-Basin Characteristics and Peak-Flow Frequency Statistics for Ungaged Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Program was created to make geographic information systems-based estimation of streamflow statistics easier, faster, and more consistent than previously used manual techniques. The StreamStats user interface is a map-based internet application that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected U.S. Geological Survey data-collection stations and ungaged sites of interest. The application relies on the data collected at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations, computer aided computations of drainage-basin characteristics, and published regression equations for several geographic regions comprising the United States. The StreamStats application interface allows the user to (1) obtain information on features in selected map layers, (2) delineate drainage basins for ungaged sites, (3) download drainage-basin polygons to a shapefile, (4) compute selected basin characteristics for delineated drainage basins, (5) estimate selected streamflow statistics for ungaged points on a stream, (6) print map views, (7) retrieve information for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations, and (8) get help on using StreamStats. StreamStats was designed for national application, with each state, territory, or group of states responsible for creating unique geospatial datasets and regression equations to compute selected streamflow statistics. With the cooperation of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation, StreamStats has been implemented for Oklahoma and is available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/. The Oklahoma StreamStats application covers 69 processed hydrologic units and most of the state of Oklahoma. Basin characteristics available for computation include contributing drainage area, contributing drainage area that is unregulated by Natural Resources Conservation Service floodwater retarding structures, mean-annual precipitation at the

  6. Mathvision: A Mobile Video Application for Math Teacher Noticing of Learning Progressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Stephen T.; Chao, Theodore; Battista, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development and evaluation of MathVision, a mobile-application designed to develop Virtual Professional Learning Communities through asynchronous discussion about 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students' mathematical thinking. MathVision allows teachers to upload videos of problems solving sessions using Cognition Based Assessment…

  7. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2001-12-01

    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  8. Distributed video coding for wireless video sensor networks: a review of the state-of-the-art architectures.

    PubMed

    Imran, Noreen; Seet, Boon-Chong; Fong, A C M

    2015-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a relatively new video coding architecture originated from two fundamental theorems namely, Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv. Recent research developments have made DVC attractive for applications in the emerging domain of wireless video sensor networks (WVSNs). This paper reviews the state-of-the-art DVC architectures with a focus on understanding their opportunities and gaps in addressing the operational requirements and application needs of WVSNs.

  9. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  10. Summarizing Audiovisual Contents of a Video Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yihong

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on video programs that are intended to disseminate information and knowledge such as news, documentaries, seminars, etc, and present an audiovisual summarization system that summarizes the audio and visual contents of the given video separately, and then integrating the two summaries with a partial alignment. The audio summary is created by selecting spoken sentences that best present the main content of the audio speech while the visual summary is created by eliminating duplicates/redundancies and preserving visually rich contents in the image stream. The alignment operation aims to synchronize each spoken sentence in the audio summary with its corresponding speaker's face and to preserve the rich content in the visual summary. A Bipartite Graph-based audiovisual alignment algorithm is developed to efficiently find the best alignment solution that satisfies these alignment requirements. With the proposed system, we strive to produce a video summary that: (1) provides a natural visual and audio content overview, and (2) maximizes the coverage for both audio and visual contents of the original video without having to sacrifice either of them.

  11. The National Capital Region closed circuit television video interoperability project.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, John; Patrone, David; Babin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The National Capital Region (NCR) includes many government jurisdictions and agencies using different closed circuit TV (CCTV) cameras and video management software. Because these agencies often must work together to respond to emergencies and events, a means of providing interoperability for CCTV video is critically needed. Video data from different CCTV systems that are not inherently interoperable is represented in the "data layer." An "integration layer" ingests the data layer source video and normalizes the different video formats. It then aggregates and distributes this video to a "presentation layer" where it can be viewed by almost any application used by other agencies and without any proprietary software. A native mobile video viewing application is also developed that uses the presentation layer to provide video to different kinds of smartphones. The NCR includes Washington, DC, and surrounding counties in Maryland and Virginia. The video sharing architecture allows one agency to see another agency's video in their native viewing application without the need to purchase new CCTV software or systems. A native smartphone application was also developed to enable them to share video via mobile devices even when they use different video management systems. A video sharing architecture has been developed for the NCR that creates an interoperable environment for sharing CCTV video in an efficient and cost effective manner. In addition, it provides the desired capability of sharing video via a native mobile application.

  12. Clinical applications of commercially available video recording and monitoring systems: inexpensive, high-quality video recording and monitoring systems for endoscopy and microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Ishimoto, ShinnIchi; Kimura, Satoko

    2006-01-01

    The exclusive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system for the endoscope and electronic fiberscopes are in widespread use. However, both are usually stationary in an office or examination room, and a wheeled cart is needed for mobility. The total costs of the CCD camera system and electronic fiberscopy system are at least US Dollars 10,000 and US Dollars 30,000, respectively. Recently, the performance of audio and visual instruments has improved dramatically, with a concomitant reduction in their cost. Commercially available CCD video cameras with small monitors have become common. They provide excellent image quality and are much smaller and less expensive than previous models. The authors have developed adaptors for the popular mini-digital video (mini-DV) camera. The camera also provides video and acoustic output signals; therefore, the endoscopic images can be viewed on a large monitor simultaneously. The new system (a mini-DV video camera and an adaptor) costs only US Dollars 1,000. Therefore, the system is both cost-effective and useful for the outpatient clinic or casualty setting, or on house calls for the purpose of patient education. In the future, the authors plan to introduce the clinical application of a high-vision camera and an infrared camera as medical instruments for clinical and research situations.

  13. Integration of Geographical Information Systems and Geophysical Applications with Distributed Computing Technologies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, M. E.; Aktas, M. S.; Aydin, G.; Fox, G. C.; Gadgil, H.; Sayar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We examine the application of Web Service Architectures and Grid-based distributed computing technologies to geophysics and geo-informatics. We are particularly interested in the integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) services with distributed data mining applications. GIS services provide the general purpose framework for building archival data services, real time streaming data services, and map-based visualization services that may be integrated with data mining and other applications through the use of distributed messaging systems and Web Service orchestration tools. Building upon on our previous work in these areas, we present our current research efforts. These include fundamental investigations into increasing XML-based Web service performance, supporting real time data streams, and integrating GIS mapping tools with audio/video collaboration systems for shared display and annotation.

  14. VOTable JAVA Streaming Writer and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Kembhavi, A.; Kale, S.

    2004-07-01

    Virtual Observatory related tools use a new standard for data transfer called the VOTable format. This is a variant of the xml format that enables easy transfer of data over the web. We describe a streaming interface that can bridge the VOTable format, through a user friendly graphical interface, with the FITS and ASCII formats, which are commonly used by astronomers. A streaming interface is important for efficient use of memory because of the large size of catalogues. The tools are developed in JAVA to provide a platform independent interface. We have also developed a stand-alone version that can be used to convert data stored in ASCII or FITS format on a local machine. The Streaming writer is successfully being used in VOPlot (See Kale et al 2004 for a description of VOPlot).We present the test results of converting huge FITS and ASCII data into the VOTable format on machines that have only limited memory.

  15. Compressed-domain video indexing techniques using DCT and motion vector information in MPEG video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobla, Vikrant; Doermann, David S.; Lin, King-Ip; Faloutsos, Christos

    1997-01-01

    Development of various multimedia applications hinges on the availability of fast and efficient storage, browsing, indexing, and retrieval techniques. Given that video is typically stored efficiently in a compressed format, if we can analyze the compressed representation directly, we can avoid the costly overhead of decompressing and operating at the pixel level. Compressed domain parsing of video has been presented in earlier work where a video clip is divided into shots, subshots, and scenes. In this paper, we describe key frame selection, feature extraction, and indexing and retrieval techniques that are directly applicable to MPEG compressed video. We develop a frame-type independent representation of the various types of frames present in an MPEG video in which al frames can be considered equivalent. Features are derived from the available DCT, macroblock, and motion vector information and mapped to a low-dimensional space where they can be accessed with standard database techniques. The spatial information is used as primary index while the temporal information is used to enhance the robustness of the system during the retrieval process. The techniques presented enable fast archiving, indexing, and retrieval of video. Our operational prototype typically takes a fraction of a second to retrieve similar video scenes from our database, with over 95% success.

  16. The compressed average image intensity metric for stereoscopic video quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczewski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The following article depicts insights towards design, creation and testing of a genuine metric designed for a 3DTV video quality evaluation. The Compressed Average Image Intensity (CAII) mechanism is based upon stereoscopic video content analysis, setting its core feature and functionality to serve as a versatile tool for an effective 3DTV service quality assessment. Being an objective type of quality metric it may be utilized as a reliable source of information about the actual performance of a given 3DTV system, under strict providers evaluation. Concerning testing and the overall performance analysis of the CAII metric, the following paper presents comprehensive study of results gathered across several testing routines among selected set of samples of stereoscopic video content. As a result, the designed method for stereoscopic video quality evaluation is investigated across the range of synthetic visual impairments injected into the original video stream.

  17. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of Acoustic streaming (Eckart streaming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, Walid; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Ben Hadid, Hamda

    The application of sound waves in the bulk of a fluid can generate steady or quasi-steady flows reffered to as Acoustic streaming flows. We can distinguish two kind of acoustic streaming: The Rayleigh Streaming is generated when a standing acoustic waves interfere with solid walls to give birth to an acoustic boundary layer. Steady recirculations are then driven out of the boundary layer and can be used in micro-gravity, where the free convection is too weak or absent, to enhance the convective heat or mass transfer and cooling the electronic devises [1]. The second kind is the Eckart streaming, which is a flow generated far from the solid boundaries, it can be used to mix a chemical solutions [2], and to drive a viscous liquids in channels [3-4], in micro-gravity area. Our study focuses on the Eckart streaming configuration, which is investigated both numerical and experimental means. The experimental configuration is restricted to the case of a cylindrical non-heated cavity full of water or of a water+glycerol mixture. At the middle of one side of the cavity, a plane ultrasonic transducer generates a 2MHz wave; an absorber is set at the opposite side of the cavity to avoid any reflections. The velocity field is measured with a standard PIV system. [1] P. Vainshtein, M. Fichman and C. Gutfinger, "Acoustic enhancement of heat transfer between two parallel plates", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfert, 1995, 38(10), 1893. [2] C. Suri, K. Tekenaka, H. Yanagida, Y. Kojima and K. Koyama, "Chaotic mixing generated by acoustic streaming", Ultrasonics, 2002, 40, 393 [3] O.V. Rudenko and A.A. Sukhorukov, "Nonstationnary Eckart streaming and pumping of liquid in ultrasonic field", Acoustical Physics, 1998, 44, 653. [4] Kenneth D. Frampton, Shawn E. Martin and Keith Minor, "The scaling of acoustic streaming for application in micro-fluidic devices", Applied Acoustics, 2003, 64,681

  19. A Video Game-Based Framework for Analyzing Human-Robot Interaction: Characterizing Interface Design in Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    segments video game interaction into domain-independent components which together form a framework that can be used to characterize real-time interactive...multimedia applications in general and HRI in particular. We provide examples of using the components in both the video game and the Unmanned Aerial

  20. Symposium on the Nature of Science—Streaming Video Archive

    Science.gov Websites

    Oddone – Welcome Mark Ratner – Nano 201: A Gentle Introduction to Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Marsha – Incorporating Nanotechnology into the Curriculum (streamed session not available) Rich Marvin – Using

  1. Viewing Michigan's Digital Future: Results of a Survey of Educators' Use of Digital Video in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardis, Marcia A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital video is a growing and important presence in student learning. This paper reports the results of a survey of American educators in Michigan (n = 426) conducted in spring 2008. The survey included questions about educators' attitudes toward the streaming and downloadable video services available to them in their schools. The survey results…

  2. VideoBeam portable laser communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecherle, G. Stephen; Holcomb, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    A VideoBeamTM portable laser communicator has been developed which provides full duplex communication links consisting of high quality analog video and stereo audio. The 3.2-pound unit resembles a binocular-type form factor and has an operational range of over two miles (clear air) with excellent jam-resistance and low probability of interception characteristics. The VideoBeamTM unit is ideally suited for numerous military scenarios, surveillance/espionage, industrial precious mineral exploration, and campus video teleconferencing applications.

  3. Resource optimized TTSH-URA for multimedia stream authentication in swallowable-capsule-based wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Chunqiu; Zhao, Min

    2014-03-01

    To ease the burdens on the hospitalization capacity, an emerging swallowable-capsule technology has evolved to serve as a remote gastrointestinal (GI) disease examination technique with the aid of the wireless body sensor network (WBSN). Secure multimedia transmission in such a swallowable-capsule-based WBSN faces critical challenges including energy efficiency and content quality guarantee. In this paper, we propose a joint resource allocation and stream authentication scheme to maintain the best possible video quality while ensuring security and energy efficiency in GI-WBSNs. The contribution of this research is twofold. First, we establish a unique signature-hash (S-H) diversity approach in the authentication domain to optimize video authentication robustness and the authentication bit rate overhead over a wireless channel. Based on the full exploration of S-H authentication diversity, we propose a new two-tier signature-hash (TTSH) stream authentication scheme to improve the video quality by reducing authentication dependence overhead while protecting its integrity. Second, we propose to combine this authentication scheme with a unique S-H oriented unequal resource allocation (URA) scheme to improve the energy-distortion-authentication performance of wireless video delivery in GI-WBSN. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TTSH with URA scheme achieves considerable gain in both authenticated video quality and energy efficiency.

  4. Video mining using combinations of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Miyahara, Koji; Peker, Kadir A.; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou

    2003-12-01

    We discuss the meaning and significance of the video mining problem, and present our work on some aspects of video mining. A simple definition of video mining is unsupervised discovery of patterns in audio-visual content. Such purely unsupervised discovery is readily applicable to video surveillance as well as to consumer video browsing applications. We interpret video mining as content-adaptive or "blind" content processing, in which the first stage is content characterization and the second stage is event discovery based on the characterization obtained in stage 1. We discuss the target applications and find that using a purely unsupervised approach are too computationally complex to be implemented on our product platform. We then describe various combinations of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques that help discover patterns that are useful to the end-user of the application. We target consumer video browsing applications such as commercial message detection, sports highlights extraction etc. We employ both audio and video features. We find that supervised audio classification combined with unsupervised unusual event discovery enables accurate supervised detection of desired events. Our techniques are computationally simple and robust to common variations in production styles etc.

  5. Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Isaak; Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Seth J. Wenger; Jeffrey A. Falke; Christian E. Torgersen; Colin Sowder; E. Ashley Steel; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Aaron S. Ruesch; Nicholas Som; Pascal Monestiez

    2014-01-01

    Streams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human populations. Accurate information regarding the status and trends of stream resources is vital for their effective conservation and management. Most statistical techniques applied to data measured on stream networks were developed for...

  6. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Steed, Chad A; Beaver, Justin M; BogenII, Paul L.

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing thesemore » contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.« less

  7. Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

  8. A method of mobile video transmission based on J2ee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian-xin; Zhao, Ji-chun; Gong, Jing; Chun, Yang

    2013-03-01

    As 3G (3rd-generation) networks evolve worldwide, the rising demand for mobile video services and the enormous growth of video on the internet is creating major new revenue opportunities for mobile network operators and application developers. The text introduced a method of mobile video transmission based on J2ME, giving the method of video compressing, then describing the video compressing standard, and then describing the software design. The proposed mobile video method based on J2EE is a typical mobile multimedia application, which has a higher availability and a wide range of applications. The users can get the video through terminal devices such as phone.

  9. Video-based convolutional neural networks for activity recognition from robot-centric videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, M. S.; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    In this evaluation paper, we discuss convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approaches for human activity recognition. In particular, we investigate CNN architectures designed to capture temporal information in videos and their applications to the human activity recognition problem. There have been multiple previous works to use CNN-features for videos. These include CNNs using 3-D XYT convolutional filters, CNNs using pooling operations on top of per-frame image-based CNN descriptors, and recurrent neural networks to learn temporal changes in per-frame CNN descriptors. We experimentally compare some of these different representatives CNNs while using first-person human activity videos. We especially focus on videos from a robots viewpoint, captured during its operations and human-robot interactions.

  10. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  11. Video quality assesment using M-SVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Peining; Eskicioglu, Ahmet M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective video quality measurement is a challenging problem in a variety of video processing application ranging from lossy compression to printing. An ideal video quality measure should be able to mimic the human observer. We present a new video quality measure, M-SVD, to evaluate distorted video sequences based on singular value decomposition. A computationally efficient approach is developed for full-reference (FR) video quality assessment. This measure is tested on the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) phase I FR-TV test data set. Our experiments show the graphical measure displays the amount of distortion as well as the distribution of error in all frames of the video sequence while the numerical measure has a good correlation with perceived video quality outperforms PSNR and other objective measures by a clear margin.

  12. Parallax-Robust Surveillance Video Stitching

    PubMed Central

    He, Botao; Yu, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallax-robust video stitching technique for timely synchronized surveillance video. An efficient two-stage video stitching procedure is proposed in this paper to build wide Field-of-View (FOV) videos for surveillance applications. In the stitching model calculation stage, we develop a layered warping algorithm to align the background scenes, which is location-dependent and turned out to be more robust to parallax than the traditional global projective warping methods. On the selective seam updating stage, we propose a change-detection based optimal seam selection approach to avert ghosting and artifacts caused by moving foregrounds. Experimental results demonstrate that our procedure can efficiently stitch multi-view videos into a wide FOV video output without ghosting and noticeable seams. PMID:26712756

  13. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  14. Efficient reversible data hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2014-09-01

    Due to the security and privacy-preserving requirements for cloud data management, it is sometimes desired that video content is accessible in an encrypted form. Reversible data hiding in the encrypted domain is an emerging technology, as it can perform data hiding in encrypted videos without decryption, which preserves the confidentiality of the content. Furthermore, the original cover can be losslessly restored after decryption and data extraction. An efficient reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted H.264/AVC videos is proposed. During H.264/AVC encoding, the intraprediction mode, motion vector difference, and the sign bits of the residue coefficients are encrypted using a standard stream cipher. Then, the data-hider who does not know the original video content, may reversibly embed secret data into the encrypted H.264/AVC video by using a modified version of the histogram shifting technique. A scale factor is utilized for selecting the embedding zone, which is scalable for different capacity requirements. With an encrypted video containing hidden data, data extraction can be carried out either in the encrypted or decrypted domain. In addition, real reversibility is realized so that data extraction and video recovery are free of any error. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  15. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  16. Evaluation of a HDR image sensor with logarithmic response for mobile video-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tektonidis, Marco; Pietrzak, Mateusz; Monnin, David

    2017-10-01

    The performance of mobile video-based applications using conventional LDR (Low Dynamic Range) image sensors highly depends on the illumination conditions. As an alternative, HDR (High Dynamic Range) image sensors with logarithmic response are capable to acquire illumination-invariant HDR images in a single shot. We have implemented a complete image processing framework for a HDR sensor, including preprocessing methods (nonuniformity correction (NUC), cross-talk correction (CTC), and demosaicing) as well as tone mapping (TM). We have evaluated the HDR sensor for video-based applications w.r.t. the display of images and w.r.t. image analysis techniques. Regarding the display we have investigated the image intensity statistics over time, and regarding image analysis we assessed the number of feature correspondences between consecutive frames of temporal image sequences. For the evaluation we used HDR image data recorded from a vehicle on outdoor or combined outdoor/indoor itineraries, and we performed a comparison with corresponding conventional LDR image data.

  17. Statistical data mining of streaming motion data for fall detection in assistive environments.

    PubMed

    Tasoulis, S K; Doukas, C N; Maglogiannis, I; Plagianakos, V P

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of human motion data is interesting for the purpose of activity recognition or emergency event detection, especially in the case of elderly or disabled people living independently in their homes. Several techniques have been proposed for identifying such distress situations using either motion, audio or video sensors on the monitored subject (wearable sensors) or the surrounding environment. The output of such sensors is data streams that require real time recognition, especially in emergency situations, thus traditional classification approaches may not be applicable for immediate alarm triggering or fall prevention. This paper presents a statistical mining methodology that may be used for the specific problem of real time fall detection. Visual data captured from the user's environment, using overhead cameras along with motion data are collected from accelerometers on the subject's body and are fed to the fall detection system. The paper includes the details of the stream data mining methodology incorporated in the system along with an initial evaluation of the achieved accuracy in detecting falls.

  18. Toward a Video Pedagogy: A Teaching Typology with Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrist, Lester; Chepp, Valerie; Dean, Paul; Miller, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Given the massive volume of course-relevant videos now available on the Internet, this article outlines a pedagogy to facilitate the instructional employment of such materials. First, we describe special features of streaming media that have enabled their use in the classroom. Next, we introduce a typology comprised of six categories (conjuncture,…

  19. Application of biochemical and physiological indicators for assessing recovery of fish populations in a disturbed stream.

    PubMed

    Adams, S Marshall; Ham, Kenneth D

    2011-06-01

    Recovery dynamics in a previously disturbed stream were investigated to determine the influence of a series of remedial actions on stream recovery and to evaluate the potential application of bioindicators as an environmental management tool. A suite of bioindicators, representing five different functional response groups, were measured annually for a sentinel fish species over a 15 year period during which a variety of remedial and pollution abatement actions were implemented. Trends in biochemical, physiological, condition, growth, bioenergetic, and nutritional responses demonstrated that the health status of a sentinel fish species in the disturbed stream approached that of fish in the reference stream by the end of the study. Two major remedial actions, dechlorination and water flow management, had large effects on stream recovery resulting in an improvement in the bioenergetic, disease, nutritional, and organ condition status of the sentinel fish species. A subset of bioindicators responded rather dramatically to temporal trends affecting all sites, but some indicators showed little response to disturbance or to restoration activities. In assessing recovery of aquatic systems, application of appropriate integrative structural indices along with a variety of sensitive functional bioindicators should be used to understand the mechanistic basis of stress and recovery and to reduce the risk of false positives. Understanding the mechanistic processes involved between stressors, stress responses of biota, and the recovery dynamics of aquatic systems reduces the uncertainty involved in environmental management and regulatory decisions resulting in an increased ability to predict the consequences of restoration and remedial actions for aquatic systems.

  20. Data Centric Sensor Stream Reduction for Real-Time Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Andre Luiz Lins; Nakamura, Eduardo Freire

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a data-centric strategy to meet deadlines in soft real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This strategy considers three main aspects: (i) The design of real-time application to obtain the minimum deadlines; (ii) An analytic model to estimate the ideal sample size used by data-reduction algorithms; and (iii) Two data-centric stream-based sampling algorithms to perform data reduction whenever necessary. Simulation results show that our data-centric strategies meet deadlines without loosing data representativeness. PMID:22303145

  1. Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.

  2. 78 FR 52854 - Use of Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration in Assessing the Best Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations and removal of... differential income stream as a consideration in assessing the best method in connection with a cost sharing...

  3. 76 FR 80309 - Use of Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Use of Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration in Assessing the Best Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... guidance on how an analysis of the differential income stream may provide a best method consideration for...

  4. A distributed approach for optimizing cascaded classifier topologies in real-time stream mining systems.

    PubMed

    Foo, Brian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss distributed optimization techniques for configuring classifiers in a real-time, informationally-distributed stream mining system. Due to the large volume of streaming data, stream mining systems must often cope with overload, which can lead to poor performance and intolerable processing delay for real-time applications. Furthermore, optimizing over an entire system of classifiers is a difficult task since changing the filtering process at one classifier can impact both the feature values of data arriving at classifiers further downstream and thus, the classification performance achieved by an ensemble of classifiers, as well as the end-to-end processing delay. To address this problem, this paper makes three main contributions: 1) Based on classification and queuing theoretic models, we propose a utility metric that captures both the performance and the delay of a binary filtering classifier system. 2) We introduce a low-complexity framework for estimating the system utility by observing, estimating, and/or exchanging parameters between the inter-related classifiers deployed across the system. 3) We provide distributed algorithms to reconfigure the system, and analyze the algorithms based on their convergence properties, optimality, information exchange overhead, and rate of adaptation to non-stationary data sources. We provide results using different video classifier systems.

  5. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  6. Power-rate-distortion analysis for wireless video communication under energy constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihai; Liang, Yongfang; Ahmad, Ishfaq

    2004-01-01

    In video coding and streaming over wireless communication network, the power-demanding video encoding operates on the mobile devices with limited energy supply. To analyze, control, and optimize the rate-distortion (R-D) behavior of the wireless video communication system under the energy constraint, we need to develop a power-rate-distortion (P-R-D) analysis framework, which extends the traditional R-D analysis by including another dimension, the power consumption. Specifically, in this paper, we analyze the encoding mechanism of typical video encoding systems and develop a parametric video encoding architecture which is fully scalable in computational complexity. Using dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), a hardware technology recently developed in CMOS circuits design, the complexity scalability can be translated into the power consumption scalability of the video encoder. We investigate the rate-distortion behaviors of the complexity control parameters and establish an analytic framework to explore the P-R-D behavior of the video encoding system. Both theoretically and experimentally, we show that, using this P-R-D model, the encoding system is able to automatically adjust its complexity control parameters to match the available energy supply of the mobile device while maximizing the picture quality. The P-R-D model provides a theoretical guideline for system design and performance optimization in wireless video communication under energy constraint, especially over the wireless video sensor network.

  7. Two-stream Convolutional Neural Network for Methane Emissions Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; McGuire, M.; Bell, C.; Tchapmi, L. P.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane, a key component of natural gas, has a 25x higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide on a 100-year basis. Accurately monitoring and mitigating methane emissions require cost-effective detection and quantification technologies. Optical gas imaging, one of the most commonly used leak detection technology, adopted by Environmental Protection Agency, cannot estimate leak-sizes. In this work, we harness advances in computer science to allow for rapid and automatic leak quantification. Particularly, we utilize two-stream deep Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) to estimate leak-size by capturing complementary spatial information from still plume frames, and temporal information from plume motion between frames. We build large leak datasets for training and evaluating purposes by collecting about 20 videos (i.e. 397,400 frames) of leaks. The videos were recorded at six distances from the source, covering 10 -60 ft. Leak sources included natural gas well-heads, separators, and tanks. All frames were labeled with a true leak size, which has eight levels ranging from 0 to 140 MCFH. Preliminary analysis shows that two-stream ConvNets provides significant accuracy advantage over single steam ConvNets. Spatial stream ConvNet can achieve an accuracy of 65.2%, by extracting important features, including texture, plume area, and pattern. Temporal stream, fed by the results of optical flow analysis, results in an accuracy of 58.3%. The integration of the two-stream ConvNets gives a combined accuracy of 77.6%. For future work, we will split the training and testing datasets in distinct ways in order to test the generalization of the algorithm for different leak sources. Several analytic metrics, including confusion matrix and visualization of key features, will be used to understand accuracy rates and occurrences of false positives. The quantification algorithm can help to find and fix super-emitters, and improve the cost-effectiveness of leak detection and repair

  8. A shower look-up table to trace the dynamics of meteoroid streams and their sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Petrus

    2018-04-01

    Meteor showers are caused by meteoroid streams from comets (and some primitive asteroids). They trace the comet population and its dynamical evolution, warn of dangerous long-period comets that can pass close to Earth's orbit, outline volumes of space with a higher satellite impact probability, and define how meteoroids evolve in the interplanetary medium. Ongoing meteoroid orbit surveys have mapped these showers in recent years, but the surveys are now running up against a more and more complicated scene. The IAU Working List of Meteor Showers has reached 956 entries to be investigated (per March 1, 2018). The picture is even more complicated with the discovery that radar-detected streams are often different, or differently distributed, than video-detected streams. Complicating matters even more, some meteor showers are active over many months, during which their radiant position gradually changes, which makes the use of mean orbits as a proxy for a meteoroid stream's identity meaningless. The dispersion of the stream in space and time is important to that identity and contains much information about its origin and dynamical evolution. To make sense of the meteor shower zoo, a Shower Look-Up Table was created that captures this dispersion. The Shower Look-Up Table has enabled the automated identification of showers in the ongoing CAMS video-based meteoroid orbit survey, results of which are presented now online in near-real time at http://cams.seti.org/FDL/. Visualization tools have been built that depict the streams in a planetarium setting. Examples will be presented that sample the range of meteoroid streams that this look-up table describes. Possibilities for further dynamical studies will be discussed.

  9. Surgical video systems.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    Surgical video systems (SVSs), which typically consist of a video camera attached to an optical endoscope, a video processor, a light source, and a video monitor, are now being used to perform a significant number of minimally invasive surgical procedures. SVSs offer several advantages (e.g., multiple viewer visualization of the surgical site, increased clinician comfort) over nonvideo systems and have increased the practicality and convenience of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Currently, SVSs are used by hospitals in their general, obstetric/gynecologic, orthopedic, thoracic, and urologic procedures, as well as in other specialties for which MIS is feasible. In this study, we evaluated 19 SVSs from 10 manufacturers, focusing on their use in laparoscopic applications in general surgery. We based our ratings on the usefulness of each system's video performance and features in helping clinicians provide safe and efficacious laparoscopic surgery. We rated 18 of the systems Acceptable because of their overall good performance and features. We rated 1 system Conditionally Acceptable because, compared with the other evaluated systems, this SVS presents a greater risk of thermal injury resulting from excessive heating at the distal tip of the laparoscope. Readers should be aware that our test results, conclusions, and ratings apply only to the specific systems and components tested in this Evaluation. In addition, although our discussion focuses on the laparoscopic application of SVSs, much of the information in this study also applies to other MIS applications, and the evaluated devices can be used in a variety of surgical procedures. To help hospitals gain the perspectives necessary to assess the appropriateness of specific SVSs to ensure that the needs of their patients, as well as the expectations of their clinicians, will be satisfied, we have included a Selection and Purchasing Guide that can be used as a supplement to our Evaluation findings. We have also

  10. Impacts of multiple applications of fertilizer on stream chemistry in the Ouachita Mountains

    Treesearch

    Hal O. Liechty; Jami Nettles; Stacy Wilson

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported changes in stream chemistry following a late winter application of urea and diammonium phosphate to a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation located in a 176-ha subwatershed in the Ouachita Mountains. This stand was again fertilized with 437 kg/ha of urea in March of 2001. Water chemistry prior to, during, and after...

  11. A Stream Morphology Classification for Eco-hydraulic Purposes Based on Geospatial Data: a Solute Transport Application Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Jaramillo, M. A.; Camacho Botero, L. A.; Vélez Upegui, J. I.

    2010-12-01

    Variation in stream morphology along a basin drainage network leads to different hydraulic patterns and sediment transport processes. Moreover, solute transport processes along streams, and stream habitats for fisheries and microorganisms, rely on stream corridor structure, including elements such as bed forms, channel patterns, riparian vegetation, and the floodplain. In this work solute transport processes simulation and stream habitat identification are carried out at the basin scale. A reach-scale morphological classification system based on channel slope and specific stream power was implemented by using digital elevation models and hydraulic geometry relationships. Although the morphological framework allows identification of cascade, step-pool, plane bed and pool-riffle morphologies along the drainage network, it still does not account for floodplain configuration and bed-forms identification of those channel types. Hence, as a first application case in order to obtain parsimonious three-dimensional characterizations of drainage channels, the morphological framework has been updated by including topographical floodplain delimitation through a Multi-resolution Valley Bottom Flatness Index assessing, and a stochastic bed form representation of the step-pool morphology. Model outcomes were tested in relation to in-stream water storage for different flow conditions and representative travel times according to the Aggregated Dead Zone -ADZ- model conceptualization of solute transport processes.

  12. Global Interoperability of High Definition Video Streams Via ACTS and Intelsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie; Wang, Charles; Bergman, Larry; Pearman, James; Bhasin, Kul; Clark, Gilbert; Shopbell, Patrick; Gill, Mike; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Kadowaki, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, a proposal at the Japan.-U.S. Cooperation in Space Program Workshop lead to a subsequent series of satellite communications experiments and demonstrations, under the title of Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satellite Communications Experiments. The first of which is a joint collaboration between government and industry teams in the United States and Japan that successfully demonstrated distributed high definition video (HDV) post-production on a global scale using a combination of high data rate satellites and terrestrial fiber optic asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks. The HDV experiment is the first GIBN experiment to establish a dual-hop broadband satellite link for the transmission of digital HDV over ATM. This paper describes the team's effort in using the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) at rates up to OC-3 (155 Mbps) between Los Angeles and Honolulu, and using Intelsat at rates up to DS-3 (45 Mbps) between Kapolei and Tokyo, with which HDV source material was transmitted between Sony Pictures High Definition Center (SPHDC) in Los Angeles and Sony Visual Communication Center (VCC) in Shinagawa, Tokyo. The global-scale connection also used terrestrial networks in Japan, the States of Hawaii and California. The 1.2 Gbps digital HDV stream was compressed down to 22.5 Mbps using a proprietary Mitsubishi MPEG-2 codec that was ATM AAL-5 compatible. The codec: employed four-way parallel processing. Improved versions of the codec are now commercially available. The successful post-production activity performed in Tokyo with a HDV clip transmitted from Los Angeles was predicated on the seamless interoperation of all the equipment between the sites, and was an exciting example in deploying a global-scale information infrastructure involving a combination of broadband satellites and terrestrial fiber optic networks. Correlation of atmospheric effects with cell loss, codec drop-out, and picture quality were made. Current efforts in the

  13. Multiple Frequency Audio Signal Communication as a Mechanism for Neurophysiology and Video Data Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Topper, Nicholas C.; Burke, S.N.; Maurer, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current methods for aligning neurophysiology and video data are either prepackaged, requiring the additional purchase of a software suite, or use a blinking LED with a stationary pulse-width and frequency. These methods lack significant user interface for adaptation, are expensive, or risk a misalignment of the two data streams. NEW METHOD A cost-effective means to obtain high-precision alignment of behavioral and neurophysiological data is obtained by generating an audio-pulse embedded with two domains of information, a low-frequency binary-counting signal and a high, randomly changing frequency. This enabled the derivation of temporal information while maintaining enough entropy in the system for algorithmic alignment. RESULTS The sample to frame index constructed using the audio input correlation method described in this paper enables video and data acquisition to be aligned at a sub-frame level of precision. COMPARISONS WITH EXISTING METHOD Traditionally, a synchrony pulse is recorded on-screen via a flashing diode. The higher sampling rate of the audio input of the camcorder enables the timing of an event to be detected with greater precision. CONCLUSIONS While On-line analysis and synchronization using specialized equipment may be the ideal situation in some cases, the method presented in the current paper presents a viable, low cost alternative, and gives the flexibility to interface with custom off-line analysis tools. Moreover, the ease of constructing and implements this set-up presented in the current paper makes it applicable to a wide variety of applications that require video recording. PMID:25256648

  14. Multiple frequency audio signal communication as a mechanism for neurophysiology and video data synchronization.

    PubMed

    Topper, Nicholas C; Burke, Sara N; Maurer, Andrew Porter

    2014-12-30

    Current methods for aligning neurophysiology and video data are either prepackaged, requiring the additional purchase of a software suite, or use a blinking LED with a stationary pulse-width and frequency. These methods lack significant user interface for adaptation, are expensive, or risk a misalignment of the two data streams. A cost-effective means to obtain high-precision alignment of behavioral and neurophysiological data is obtained by generating an audio-pulse embedded with two domains of information, a low-frequency binary-counting signal and a high, randomly changing frequency. This enabled the derivation of temporal information while maintaining enough entropy in the system for algorithmic alignment. The sample to frame index constructed using the audio input correlation method described in this paper enables video and data acquisition to be aligned at a sub-frame level of precision. Traditionally, a synchrony pulse is recorded on-screen via a flashing diode. The higher sampling rate of the audio input of the camcorder enables the timing of an event to be detected with greater precision. While on-line analysis and synchronization using specialized equipment may be the ideal situation in some cases, the method presented in the current paper presents a viable, low cost alternative, and gives the flexibility to interface with custom off-line analysis tools. Moreover, the ease of constructing and implements this set-up presented in the current paper makes it applicable to a wide variety of applications that require video recording. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  16. Internet stream synchronization using Concord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenan, Cormac J.; Narendran, B.; Agrawal, Prathima; Shivakumar, Narayanan

    1996-03-01

    Using packet networks to transport multimedia introduces delay variations within and across streams, necessitating synchronization at the receiver. This requires stream data to be buffered prior to presentation, which also increases its total end to end delay. Concord recognizes that applications may wish to influence the underlying synchronization policy in terms of its effect on quality of service. It provides a single framework for synchronization within and across streams and employs an application specific tradeoff between packet losses, delay and inter- stream skew. We present a new predictive approach for synchronization and a selection of results from an extensive evaluation of Concord for use in the Internet. A trace driven simulator is used, allowing a direct comparison with alternative approaches. We demonstrate that Concord can operate with lower maximum delay and less variation in total end to end delay, which in turn can allow receiver buffer requirements to be reduced.

  17. Sampling the stream landscape: Improving the applicability of an ecoregion-level capture probability model for stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Mouser, Joshua B.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2018-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in streams result in heterogeneous gear capture probability (i.e., the proportion of available individuals identified) that confounds interpretation of data used to monitor fish abundance. We modeled tow-barge electrofishing capture probability at multiple spatial scales for nine Ozark Highland stream fishes. In addition to fish size, we identified seven reach-scale environmental characteristics associated with variable capture probability: stream discharge, water depth, conductivity, water clarity, emergent vegetation, wetted width–depth ratio, and proportion of riffle habitat. The magnitude of the relationship between capture probability and both discharge and depth varied among stream fishes. We also identified lithological characteristics among stream segments as a coarse-scale source of variable capture probability. The resulting capture probability model can be used to adjust catch data and derive reach-scale absolute abundance estimates across a wide range of sampling conditions with similar effort as used in more traditional fisheries surveys (i.e., catch per unit effort). Adjusting catch data based on variable capture probability improves the comparability of data sets, thus promoting both well-informed conservation and management decisions and advances in stream-fish ecology.

  18. Innovative Second Language Speaking Practice with Interactive Videos in a Rich Internet Application Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Juan A.; Sanz-Santamaría, Silvia; Montero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Attaining a satisfactory level of oral communication in a second language is a laborious process. In this action research paper we describe a new method applied through the use of interactive videos and the Babelium Project Rich Internet Application (RIA), which allows students to practice speaking skills through a variety of exercises. We present…

  19. The effect of music video exposure on students' perceived clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.

  20. Fluorescence endoscopic video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayan, G. V.; Kang, Uk

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes a fluorescence endoscopic video system intended for the diagnosis of diseases of the internal organs. The system operates on the basis of two-channel recording of the video fluxes from a fluorescence channel and a reflected-light channel by means of a high-sensitivity monochrome television camera and a color camera, respectively. Examples are given of the application of the device in gastroenterology.

  1. Progressive video coding for noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beong-Jo; Xiong, Zixiang; Pearlman, William A.

    1998-10-01

    We extend the work of Sherwood and Zeger to progressive video coding for noisy channels. By utilizing a 3D extension of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm, we cascade the resulting 3D SPIHT video coder with a rate-compatible punctured convolutional channel coder for transmission of video over a binary symmetric channel. Progressive coding is achieved by increasing the target rate of the 3D embedded SPIHT video coder as the channel condition improves. The performance of our proposed coding system is acceptable at low transmission rate and bad channel conditions. Its low complexity makes it suitable for emerging applications such as video over wireless channels.

  2. Selective encryption for H.264/AVC video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tuo; King, Brian; Salama, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Due to the ease with which digital data can be manipulated and due to the ongoing advancements that have brought us closer to pervasive computing, the secure delivery of video and images has become a challenging problem. Despite the advantages and opportunities that digital video provide, illegal copying and distribution as well as plagiarism of digital audio, images, and video is still ongoing. In this paper we describe two techniques for securing H.264 coded video streams. The first technique, SEH264Algorithm1, groups the data into the following blocks of data: (1) a block that contains the sequence parameter set and the picture parameter set, (2) a block containing a compressed intra coded frame, (3) a block containing the slice header of a P slice, all the headers of the macroblock within the same P slice, and all the luma and chroma DC coefficients belonging to the all the macroblocks within the same slice, (4) a block containing all the ac coefficients, and (5) a block containing all the motion vectors. The first three are encrypted whereas the last two are not. The second method, SEH264Algorithm2, relies on the use of multiple slices per coded frame. The algorithm searches the compressed video sequence for start codes (0x000001) and then encrypts the next N bits of data.

  3. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

    2010-05-01

    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the

  4. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However

  5. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    these effects. These steps include filtering out unusable data, color and luminance balancing, and choosing the most appropriate image descriptors. We apply these techniques to generate automated quality assessment of video data and illustrate their utility with an example application where we perform vision-based substrate classification.

  6. Feasibility study of utilizing ultraportable projectors for endoscopic video display (with videos).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shou-Jiang; Fehring, Amanda; Mclemore, Mac; Griswold, Michael; Wang, Wanmei; Paine, Elizabeth R; Wu, Ruonan; To, Filip

    2014-10-01

    Modern endoscopy requires video display. Recent miniaturized, ultraportable projectors are affordable, durable, and offer quality image display. Explore feasibility of using ultraportable projectors in endoscopy. Prospective bench-top comparison; clinical feasibility study. Masked comparison study of images displayed via 2 Samsung ultraportable light-emitting diode projectors (pocket-sized SP-HO3; pico projector SP-P410M) and 1 Microvision Showwx-II Laser pico projector. BENCH-TOP FEASIBILITY STUDY: Prerecorded endoscopic video was streamed via computer. CLINICAL COMPARISON STUDY: Live high-definition endoscopy video was simultaneously displayed through each processor onto a standard liquid crystal display monitor and projected onto a portable, pull-down projection screen. Endoscopists, endoscopy nurses, and technicians rated video images; ratings were analyzed by linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts. All projectors were easy to set up, adjust, focus, and operate, with no real-time lapse for any. Bench-top study outcomes: Samsung pico preferred to Laser pico, overall rating 1.5 units higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-2.4), P < .001; Samsung pocket preferred to Laser pico, 3.3 units higher (95% CI = 2.4-4.1), P < .001; Samsung pocket preferred to Samsung pico, 1.7 units higher (95% CI = 0.9-2.5), P < .001. The clinical comparison study confirmed the Samsung pocket projector as best, with a higher overall rating of 2.3 units (95% CI = 1.6-3.0), P < .001, than Samsung pico. Low brightness currently limits pico projector use in clinical endoscopy. The pocket projector, with higher brightness levels (170 lumens), is clinically useful. Continued improvements to ultraportable projectors will supply a needed niche in endoscopy through portability, reduced cost, and equal or better image quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Applications of remote sensing to stream discharge predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, F. R.; Winn, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated on the use of remote earth observations for augmenting stream discharge prediction for the design and/or operation of major reservoir systems, pumping systems and irrigation systems. The near-term objectives are the interpolation of sparsely instrumented precipitation surveillance networks and the direct measurement of water loss by evaporation. The first steps of the study covered a survey of existing reservoir systems, stream discharge prediction methods, gage networks and the development of a self-adaptive variation of the Kentucky Watershed model, SNOPSET, that includes snowmelt. As a result of these studies, a special three channel scanner is being built for a small aircraft, which should provide snow, temperature and water vapor maps for the spatial and temporal interpolation of stream gages.

  8. Region-of-interest determination and bit-rate conversion for H.264 video transcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Mei-Juan; Tai, Kuang-Han; Li, Mian-Shiuan

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a video bit-rate transcoder for baseline profile in H.264/AVC standard to fit the available channel bandwidth for the client when transmitting video bit-streams via communication channels. To maintain visual quality for low bit-rate video efficiently, this study analyzes the decoded information in the transcoder and proposes a Bayesian theorem-based region-of-interest (ROI) determination algorithm. In addition, a curve fitting scheme is employed to find the models of video bit-rate conversion. The transcoded video will conform to the target bit-rate by re-quantization according to our proposed models. After integrating the ROI detection method and the bit-rate transcoding models, the ROI-based transcoder allocates more coding bits to ROI regions and reduces the complexity of the re-encoding procedure for non-ROI regions. Hence, it not only keeps the coding quality but improves the efficiency of the video transcoding for low target bit-rates and makes the real-time transcoding more practical. Experimental results show that the proposed framework gets significantly better visual quality.

  9. Measuring fish and their physical habitats: Versatile 2D and 3D video techniques with user-friendly software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of video in fisheries research range from simple biodiversity surveys to three-dimensional (3D) measurement of complex swimming, schooling, feeding, and territorial behaviors. However, researchers lack a transparently developed, easy-to-use, general purpose tool for 3D video measurement and event logging. Thus, we developed a new measurement system, with freely available, user-friendly software, easily obtained hardware, and flexible underlying mathematical methods capable of high precision and accuracy. The software, VidSync, allows users to efficiently record, organize, and navigate complex 2D or 3D measurements of fish and their physical habitats. Laboratory tests showed submillimetre accuracy in length measurements of 50.8 mm targets at close range, with increasing errors (mostly <1%) at longer range and for longer targets. A field test on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) feeding behavior in Alaska streams found that individuals within aggregations avoided the immediate proximity of their competitors, out to a distance of 1.0 to 2.9 body lengths. This system makes 3D video measurement a practical tool for laboratory and field studies of aquatic or terrestrial animal behavior and ecology.

  10. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  11. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  12. Turning Lemons into Lemonade: Teaching Assistive Technology through Wikis and Embedded Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreon, Oliver, Jr.; Dietrich, Nanette I.

    2009-01-01

    The authors teach instructional technology courses to pre-service teachers at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. The focus of the instructional technology courses is on the authentic use of instructional and assistive technology in the K-12 classroom. In this article, the authors describe how they utilize streaming videos in an educational…

  13. Efficient data replication for the delivery of high-quality video content over P2P VoD advertising networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chien-Peng; Yu, Jen-Yu; Lee, Suh-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in modern television systems have had profound consequences for the scalability, stability, and quality of transmitted digital data signals. This is of particular significance for peer-to-peer (P2P) video-on-demand (VoD) related platforms, faced with an immediate and growing demand for reliable service delivery. In response to demands for high-quality video, the key objectives in the construction of the proposed framework were user satisfaction with perceived video quality and the effective utilization of available resources on P2P VoD networks. This study developed a peer-based promoter to support online advertising in P2P VoD networks based on an estimation of video distortion prior to the replication of data stream chunks. The proposed technology enables the recovery of lost video using replicated stream chunks in real time. Load balance is achieved by adjusting the replication level of each candidate group according to the degree-of-distortion, thereby enabling a significant reduction in server load and increased scalability in the P2P VoD system. This approach also promotes the use of advertising as an efficient tool for commercial promotion. Results indicate that the proposed system efficiently satisfies the given fault tolerances.

  14. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  15. COLA: Optimizing Stream Processing Applications via Graph Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandekar, Rohit; Hildrum, Kirsten; Parekh, Sujay; Rajan, Deepak; Wolf, Joel; Wu, Kun-Lung; Andrade, Henrique; Gedik, Buğra

    In this paper, we describe an optimization scheme for fusing compile-time operators into reasonably-sized run-time software units called processing elements (PEs). Such PEs are the basic deployable units in System S, a highly scalable distributed stream processing middleware system. Finding a high quality fusion significantly benefits the performance of streaming jobs. In order to maximize throughput, our solution approach attempts to minimize the processing cost associated with inter-PE stream traffic while simultaneously balancing load across the processing hosts. Our algorithm computes a hierarchical partitioning of the operator graph based on a minimum-ratio cut subroutine. We also incorporate several fusion constraints in order to support real-world System S jobs. We experimentally compare our algorithm with several other reasonable alternative schemes, highlighting the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Bayesian Modeling of Temporal Coherence in Videos for Entity Discovery and Summarization.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Adway; Biswas, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2017-03-01

    A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (e.g., a person), and finding all its occurrences in the video. We represent a video as a sequence of tracklets, each spanning 10-20 frames, and associated with one entity. We pose Entity Discovery as tracklet clustering, and approach it by leveraging Temporal Coherence (TC): the property that temporally neighboring tracklets are likely to be associated with the same entity. Our major contributions are the first Bayesian nonparametric models for TC at tracklet-level. We extend Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) to TC-CRP, and further to Temporally Coherent Chinese Restaurant Franchise (TC-CRF) to jointly model entities and temporal segments using mixture components and sparse distributions. For discovering persons in TV serial videos without meta-data like scripts, these methods show considerable improvement over state-of-the-art approaches to tracklet clustering in terms of clustering accuracy, cluster purity and entity coverage. The proposed methods can perform online tracklet clustering on streaming videos unlike existing approaches, and can automatically reject false tracklets. Finally we discuss entity-driven video summarization- where temporal segments of the video are selected based on the discovered entities, to create a semantically meaningful summary.

  17. Application of Integral Optical Flow for Determining Crowd Movement from Video Images Obtained Using Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Sh.; Nedzvedz, O. V.; Ablameyko, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Study of crowd movement is an important practical problem, and its solution is used in video surveillance systems for preventing various emergency situations. In the general case, a group of fast-moving people is of more interest than a group of stationary or slow-moving people. We propose a new method for crowd movement analysis using a video sequence, based on integral optical flow. We have determined several characteristics of a moving crowd such as density, speed, direction of motion, symmetry, and in/out index. These characteristics are used for further analysis of a video scene.

  18. Toward enhancing the distributed video coder under a multiview video codec framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jiann-Jone; Tsai, Yao-Hong; Chen, Chin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    The advance of video coding technology enables multiview video (MVV) or three-dimensional television (3-D TV) display for users with or without glasses. For mobile devices or wireless applications, a distributed video coder (DVC) can be utilized to shift the encoder complexity to decoder under the MVV coding framework, denoted as multiview distributed video coding (MDVC). We proposed to exploit both inter- and intraview video correlations to enhance side information (SI) and improve the MDVC performance: (1) based on the multiview motion estimation (MVME) framework, a categorized block matching prediction with fidelity weights (COMPETE) was proposed to yield a high quality SI frame for better DVC reconstructed images. (2) The block transform coefficient properties, i.e., DCs and ACs, were exploited to design the priority rate control for the turbo code, such that the DVC decoding can be carried out with fewest parity bits. In comparison, the proposed COMPETE method demonstrated lower time complexity, while presenting better reconstructed video quality. Simulations show that the proposed COMPETE can reduce the time complexity of MVME to 1.29 to 2.56 times smaller, as compared to previous hybrid MVME methods, while the image peak signal to noise ratios (PSNRs) of a decoded video can be improved 0.2 to 3.5 dB, as compared to H.264/AVC intracoding.

  19. Robust Transmission of H.264/AVC Streams Using Adaptive Group Slicing and Unequal Error Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Argyropoulos, Savvas; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V.; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2006-12-01

    We present a novel scheme for the transmission of H.264/AVC video streams over lossy packet networks. The proposed scheme exploits the error-resilient features of H.264/AVC codec and employs Reed-Solomon codes to protect effectively the streams. A novel technique for adaptive classification of macroblocks into three slice groups is also proposed. The optimal classification of macroblocks and the optimal channel rate allocation are achieved by iterating two interdependent steps. Dynamic programming techniques are used for the channel rate allocation process in order to reduce complexity. Simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over other recent algorithms for transmission of H.264/AVC streams.

  20. Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. II. Convolution method and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.M.; DeSimone, L.A.; Moench, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    In this second of two papers, analytical step-response functions, developed in the companion paper for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to streamstage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems in the northeastern and central United States. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties, recharge rates, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage. Analysis of the water-table aquifer adjacent to the Blackstone River in Massachusetts suggests that the very shallow depth of water table and associated thin unsaturated zone at the site cause the aquifer to behave like a confined aquifer (negligible specific yield). This finding is consistent with previous studies that have shown that the effective specific yield of an unconfined aquifer approaches zero when the capillary fringe, where sediment pores are saturated by tension, extends to land surface. Under this condition, the aquifer's response is determined by elastic storage only. Estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, and recharge for a water-table aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River in eastern Iowa, determined by the use of analytical methods, are in close agreement with those estimated by use of a more complex, multilayer numerical model of the aquifer. Streambank leakance of the semipervious streambank materials also was estimated for the site. The streambank-leakance parameter may be considered to be a general (or lumped

  1. Optimizing a neural network for detection of moving vehicles in video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Noëlle M.; Kruithof, Maarten C.; Bouma, Henri

    2017-10-01

    In the field of security and defense, it is extremely important to reliably detect moving objects, such as cars, ships, drones and missiles. Detection and analysis of moving objects in cameras near borders could be helpful to reduce illicit trading, drug trafficking, irregular border crossing, trafficking in human beings and smuggling. Many recent benchmarks have shown that convolutional neural networks are performing well in the detection of objects in images. Most deep-learning research effort focuses on classification or detection on single images. However, the detection of dynamic changes (e.g., moving objects, actions and events) in streaming video is extremely relevant for surveillance and forensic applications. In this paper, we combine an end-to-end feedforward neural network for static detection with a recurrent Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network for multi-frame analysis. We present a practical guide with special attention to the selection of the optimizer and batch size. The end-to-end network is able to localize and recognize the vehicles in video from traffic cameras. We show an efficient way to collect relevant in-domain data for training with minimal manual labor. Our results show that the combination with LSTM improves performance for the detection of moving vehicles.

  2. Literature review on risky driving videos on YouTube: Unknown effects and areas for concern?

    PubMed

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Yıldırım-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Wickens, Christine; Seeley, Jane; Fleiter, Judy; Grushka, Daniel H

    2017-08-18

    Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviors into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high-performance vehicles, high speed, and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos, and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving. A systematic search was performed using the following specialized database sources-Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar-for the years 2005-2015 for articles in the English language. Search words included "YouTube AND driving," "YouTube AND speeding," "YouTube AND racing." No published research was found on the content of risky driving videos or on the effects of these videos on viewers. This literature review presents the current state of our published knowledge on the topic, which includes a review of the effects of mass media on risky driving cognitions; attitudes and behavior; similarities and differences between mass and social media; information on the YouTube platform; psychological theories that could support YouTube's potential effects on driving behavior; and 2 examples of risky driving behaviors ("sidewalk skiing" and "ghost riding the whip") suggestive of varying levels of modeling behavior in subsequent YouTube videos. Every month about 1 billion individuals are reported to view YouTube videos (ebizMBA Guide 2015 ) and young men are the heaviest users, overall streaming more YouTube videos and watching them longer than women and other age groups (Nielsen 2011 ). This group is also the most dangerous group in traffic, engaging in more per capita violations and experiencing more per capita injuries and fatalities (e.g., Parker et al. 1995 ; Reason et al. 1990 ; Transport Canada 2015 ; World Health Organization 2015 ). YouTube also

  3. StreamThermal: A software package for calculating thermal metrics from stream temperature data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Wang, Lizhu; Tingly, Ralph; Thornbrugh, Darren; Cooper, Arthur; Wesley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Improving quality and better availability of continuous stream temperature data allows natural resource managers, particularly in fisheries, to understand associations between different characteristics of stream thermal regimes and stream fishes. However, there is no convenient tool to efficiently characterize multiple metrics reflecting stream thermal regimes with the increasing amount of data. This article describes a software program packaged as a library in R to facilitate this process. With this freely-available package, users will be able to quickly summarize metrics that describe five categories of stream thermal regimes: magnitude, variability, frequency, timing, and rate of change. The installation and usage instruction of this package, the definition of calculated thermal metrics, as well as the output format from the package are described, along with an application showing the utility for multiple metrics. We believe this package can be widely utilized by interested stakeholders and greatly assist more studies in fisheries.

  4. 78 FR 31800 - Accessible Emergency Information, and Apparatus Requirements for Emergency Information and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...] Accessible Emergency Information, and Apparatus Requirements for Emergency Information and Video Description... should be the obligation of the apparatus manufacturer, under section 203, to ensure that the devices are... secondary audio stream on all equipment, including older equipment. In the absence of an industry solution...

  5. Development of a Video Coding Scheme for Analyzing the Usability and Usefulness of Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Usability has been identified as a key issue in health informatics. Worldwide numerous projects have been carried out in an attempt to increase and optimize health system usability. Usability testing, involving observing end users interacting with systems, has been widely applied and numerous publications have appeared describing such studies. However, to date, fewer works have been published describing methodological approaches to analyzing the rich data stream that results from usability testing. This includes analysis of video, audio and screen recordings. In this paper we describe our work in the development and application of a coding scheme for analyzing the usability of health information systems. The phases involved in such analyses are described.

  6. A hardware architecture for real-time shadow removal in high-contrast video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Pablo; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Figueroa, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Broadcasting an outdoor sports event at daytime is a challenging task due to the high contrast that exists between areas in the shadow and light conditions within the same scene. Commercial cameras typically do not handle the high dynamic range of such scenes in a proper manner, resulting in broadcast streams with very little shadow detail. We propose a hardware architecture for real-time shadow removal in high-resolution video, which reduces the shadow effect and simultaneously improves shadow details. The algorithm operates only on the shadow portions of each video frame, thus improving the results and producing more realistic images than algorithms that operate on the entire frame, such as simplified Retinex and histogram shifting. The architecture receives an input in the RGB color space, transforms it into the YIQ space, and uses color information from both spaces to produce a mask of the shadow areas present in the image. The mask is then filtered using a connected components algorithm to eliminate false positives and negatives. The hardware uses pixel information at the edges of the mask to estimate the illumination ratio between light and shadow in the image, which is then used to correct the shadow area. Our prototype implementation simultaneously processes up to 7 video streams of 1920×1080 pixels at 60 frames per second on a Xilinx Kintex-7 XC7K325T FPGA.

  7. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Henken, Kirsten R; Jansen, Frank Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2012-10-01

    Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health care practice. Jurisprudence was searched to exemplify legislation on video recording in health care. In addition, legislation was translated for different applications of video in health care found in the literature. Three principles in Western law are relevant for video recording in health care practice: (1) regulations on privacy regarding personal data, which apply to the gathering and processing of video data in health care settings; (2) the patient record, in which video data can be stored; and (3) professional secrecy, which protects the privacy of patients including video data. Practical implementation of these principles in video recording in health care does not exist. Practical regulations on video recording in health care for different specifically defined purposes are needed. Innovations in video capture technology that enable video data to be made anonymous automatically can contribute to protection for the privacy of all the people involved.

  8. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  9. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  10. Integrating unmanned aerial systems and LSPIV for rapid, cost-effective stream gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Quinn W.; Lindroth, Evan M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying flow in rivers is fundamental to assessments of water supply, water quality, ecological conditions, hydrological responses to storm events, and geomorphological processes. Image-based surface velocity measurements have shown promise in extending the range of discharge conditions that can be measured in the field. The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in image-based measurements of surface velocities has the potential to expand applications of this method. Thus far, few investigations have assessed this potential by evaluating the accuracy and repeatability of discharge measurements using surface velocities obtained from UAS. This study uses large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) derived from videos captured by cameras on a UAS and a fixed tripod to obtain discharge measurements at ten different stream locations in Illinois, USA. Discharge values are compared to reference values measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a propeller meter, and established stream gauges. The results demonstrate the effects of UAS flight height, camera steadiness and leveling accuracy, video sampling frequency, and LSPIV interrogation area size on surface velocities, and show that the mean difference between fixed and UAS cameras is less than 10%. Differences between LSPIV-derived and reference discharge values are generally less than 20%, not systematically low or high, and not related to site parameters like channel width or depth, indicating that results are relatively insensitive to camera setup and image processing parameters typically required of LSPIV. The results also show that standard velocity indices (between 0.85 and 0.9) recommended for converting surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities yield reasonable discharge estimates, but are best calibrated at specific sites. The study recommends a basic methodology for LSPIV discharge measurements using UAS that is rapid, cost-efficient, and does not require major preparatory work at a

  11. Video as a technology for interpersonal communications: a new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Some of the most challenging multimedia applications have involved real- time conferencing, using audio and video to support interpersonal communication. Here we re-examine assumptions about the role, importance and implementation of video information in such systems. Rather than focussing on novel technologies, we present evaluation data relevant to both the classes of real-time multimedia applications we should develop and their design and implementation. Evaluations of videoconferencing systems show that previous work has overestimated the importance of video at the expense of audio. This has strong implications for the implementation of bandwidth allocation and synchronization. Furthermore our recent studies of workplace interaction show that prior work has neglected another potentially vital function of visual information: in assessing the communication availability of others. In this new class of application, rather than providing a supplement to audio information, visual information is used to promote the opportunistic communications that are prevalent in face-to-face settings. We discuss early experiments with such connection applications and identify outstanding design and implementation issues. Finally we examine a different class of application 'video-as-data', where the video image is used to transmit information about the work objects themselves, rather than information about interactants.

  12. Aggressive driving video and non-contact enforcement (ADVANCE): drivers' reaction to violation notices : summary of survey results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    ADVANCE is an integration of state of the practice, off-the-shelf technologies which include video, speed measurement, distance measurement, and digital imaging that detects UDAs in the traffic stream and subsequently notifies violators by ma...

  13. Comparative assessment of H.265/MPEG-HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-AVC encoders for low-delay video applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grois, Dan; Marpe, Detlev; Nguyen, Tung; Hadar, Ofer

    2014-09-01

    The popularity of low-delay video applications dramatically increased over the last years due to a rising demand for realtime video content (such as video conferencing or video surveillance), and also due to the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive heterogeneous devices (such as smartphones and tablets). To this end, this work presents a comparative assessment of the two latest video coding standards: H.265/MPEG-HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding), H.264/MPEG-AVC (Advanced Video Coding), and also of the VP9 proprietary video coding scheme. For evaluating H.264/MPEG-AVC, an open-source x264 encoder was selected, which has a multi-pass encoding mode, similarly to VP9. According to experimental results, which were obtained by using similar low-delay configurations for all three examined representative encoders, it was observed that H.265/MPEG-HEVC provides significant average bit-rate savings of 32.5%, and 40.8%, relative to VP9 and x264 for the 1-pass encoding, and average bit-rate savings of 32.6%, and 42.2% for the 2-pass encoding, respectively. On the other hand, compared to the x264 encoder, typical low-delay encoding times of the VP9 encoder, are about 2,000 times higher for the 1-pass encoding, and are about 400 times higher for the 2-pass encoding.

  14. Teachers' Reports of Learning and Application to Pedagogy Based on Engagement in Collaborative Peer Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Arya, Poonam; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Given international use of video-based reflective discussions in teacher education, and the limited knowledge about whether teachers apply learning from these discussions, we explored teachers' learning of new ideas about pedagogy and their self-reported application of this learning. Nine inservice and 48 preservice teachers participated in…

  15. Design considerations for computationally constrained two-way real-time video communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivolarski, Lazar M.; Saunders, Steven E.; Ralston, John D.

    2009-08-01

    Today's video codecs have evolved primarily to meet the requirements of the motion picture and broadcast industries, where high-complexity studio encoding can be utilized to create highly-compressed master copies that are then broadcast one-way for playback using less-expensive, lower-complexity consumer devices for decoding and playback. Related standards activities have largely ignored the computational complexity and bandwidth constraints of wireless or Internet based real-time video communications using devices such as cell phones or webcams. Telecommunications industry efforts to develop and standardize video codecs for applications such as video telephony and video conferencing have not yielded image size, quality, and frame-rate performance that match today's consumer expectations and market requirements for Internet and mobile video services. This paper reviews the constraints and the corresponding video codec requirements imposed by real-time, 2-way mobile video applications. Several promising elements of a new mobile video codec architecture are identified, and more comprehensive computational complexity metrics and video quality metrics are proposed in order to support the design, testing, and standardization of these new mobile video codecs.

  16. Audiovisual quality evaluation of low-bitrate video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Faller, Christof

    2005-03-01

    Audiovisual quality assessment is a relatively unexplored topic. We designed subjective experiments for audio, video, and audiovisual quality using content and encoding parameters representative of video for mobile applications. Our focus were the MPEG-4 AVC (a.k.a. H.264) and AAC coding standards. Our goals in this study are two-fold: we want to understand the interactions between audio and video in terms of perceived audiovisual quality, and we use the subjective data to evaluate the prediction performance of our non-reference video and audio quality metrics.

  17. Real-time WAMI streaming target tracking in fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Ning; Deng, Anna; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    Real-time information fusion based on WAMI (Wide-Area Motion Imagery), FMV (Full Motion Video), and Text data is highly desired for many mission critical emergency or security applications. Cloud Computing has been considered promising to achieve big data integration from multi-modal sources. In many mission critical tasks, however, powerful Cloud technology cannot satisfy the tight latency tolerance as the servers are allocated far from the sensing platform, actually there is no guaranteed connection in the emergency situations. Therefore, data processing, information fusion, and decision making are required to be executed on-site (i.e., near the data collection). Fog Computing, a recently proposed extension and complement for Cloud Computing, enables computing on-site without outsourcing jobs to a remote Cloud. In this work, we have investigated the feasibility of processing streaming WAMI in the Fog for real-time, online, uninterrupted target tracking. Using a single target tracking algorithm, we studied the performance of a Fog Computing prototype. The experimental results are very encouraging that validated the effectiveness of our Fog approach to achieve real-time frame rates.

  18. Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, T. Russell

    1996-03-01

    Recent advances in communications signal processing and VLSI technology are fostering tremendous interest in transmitting high-speed digital data over ordinary telephone lines at bit rates substantially above the ISDN Basic Access rate (144 Kbit/s). Two new technologies, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines promise transmission over most of the embedded loop plant at 1.544 Mbit/s and beyond. Stimulated by these research promises and rapid advances on video coding techniques and the standards activity, information networks around the globe are now exploring possible business opportunities of offering quality video services (such as distant learning, telemedicine, and telecommuting etc.) through this high-speed digital transport capability in the copper loop plant. Visual communications for residential customers have become more feasible than ever both technically and economically.

  19. Construction of a VISUAL (VIdeo-SUpported Active Learning) Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, Roderick I.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of interactive video for educational purposes focuses on the development of a video-supported active learning (VISUAL) resource on voice disorders that used digitized video and an Apple Macintosh computer. User evaluations are reported, and potential applications for VISUAL resources are suggested. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  20. 78 FR 77074 - Accessibility of User Interfaces, and Video Programming Guides and Menus; Accessible Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Apparatus Requirements for Emergency Information and Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty- First... of apparatus covered by the CVAA to provide access to the secondary audio stream used for audible... availability of accessible equipment and, if so, what those notification requirements should be. The Commission...

  1. Applications and Innovations for Use of High Definition and High Resolution Digital Motion Imagery in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    The first live High Definition Television (HDTV) from a spacecraft was in November, 2006, nearly ten years before the 2016 SpaceOps Conference. Much has changed since then. Now, live HDTV from the International Space Station (ISS) is routine. HDTV cameras stream live video views of the Earth from the exterior of the ISS every day on UStream, and HDTV has even flown around the Moon on a Japanese Space Agency spacecraft. A great deal has been learned about the operations applicability of HDTV and high resolution imagery since that first live broadcast. This paper will discuss the current state of real-time and file based HDTV and higher resolution video for space operations. A potential roadmap will be provided for further development and innovations of high-resolution digital motion imagery, including gaps in technology enablers, especially for deep space and unmanned missions. Specific topics to be covered in the paper will include: An update on radiation tolerance and performance of various camera types and sensors and ramifications on the future applicability of these types of cameras for space operations; Practical experience with downlinking very large imagery files with breaks in link coverage; Ramifications of larger camera resolutions like Ultra-High Definition, 6,000 [pixels] and 8,000 [pixels] in space applications; Enabling technologies such as the High Efficiency Video Codec, Bundle Streaming Delay Tolerant Networking, Optical Communications and Bayer Pattern Sensors and other similar innovations; Likely future operations scenarios for deep space missions with extreme latency and intermittent communications links.

  2. Advantages of Live Microscope Video for Laboratory and Teaching Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Kristin K.; Michels, Zachary D.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    Although spatial reasoning and penetrative thinking skills are essential for many disciplines, these concepts are difficult for students to comprehend. In microscopy, traditional educational materials (i.e., photographs) are static. Conversely, video-based training methods convey dimensionality. We implemented a real-time digital video imaging…

  3. Magnetic Braking: A Video Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a laboratory exercise that introduces students to the use of video analysis software and the Lenz's law demonstration. Digital techniques have proved to be very useful for the understanding of physical concepts. In particular, the availability of affordable digital video offers students the opportunity to actively engage in kinematics in introductory-level physics.1,2 By using digital videos frame advance features and "marking" the position of a moving object in each frame, students are able to more precisely determine the position of an object at much smaller time increments than would be possible with common time devices. Once the student collects data consisting of positions and times, these values may be manipulated to determine velocity and acceleration. There are a variety of commercial and free applications that can be used for video analysis. Because the relevant technology has become inexpensive, video analysis has become a prevalent tool in introductory physics courses.

  4. Illustrating Geology With Customized Video in Introductory Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magloughlin, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    For the past several years, I have been creating short videos for use in large-enrollment introductory physical geology classes. The motivation for this project included 1) lack of appropriate depth in existing videos, 2) engagement of non-science students, 3) student indifference to traditional textbooks, 4) a desire to share the visual splendor of geology through virtual field trips, and 5) a desire to meld photography, animation, narration, and videography in self-contained experiences. These (HD) videos are information-intensive but short, allowing a focus on relatively narrow topics from numerous subdisciplines, incorporation into lectures to help create variety while minimally interrupting flow and holding students' attention, and manageable file sizes. Nearly all involve one or more field locations, including sites throughout the western and central continental U.S., as well as Hawaii, Italy, New Zealand, and Scotland. The limited scope of the project and motivations mentioned preclude a comprehensive treatment of geology. Instead, videos address geologic processes, locations, features, and interactions with humans. The videos have been made available via DVD and on-line streaming. Such a project requires an array of video and audio equipment and software, a broad knowledge of geology, very good computing power, adequate time, creativity, a substantial travel budget, liability insurance, elucidation of the separation (or non-separation) between such a project and other responsibilities, and, preferably but not essentially, the support of one's supervisor or academic unit. Involving students in such projects entails risks, but involving necessary technical expertise is virtually unavoidable. In my own courses, some videos are used in class and/or made available on-line as simply another aspect of the educational experience. Student response has been overwhelmingly positive, particularly when expectations of students regarding the content of the videos is made

  5. Digital cinema video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Video capture of clinical care to enhance patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, M; Gonzales, D; Slagle, J; Syeed, M

    2004-01-01

    

 Experience from other domains suggests that videotaping and analyzing actual clinical care can provide valuable insights for enhancing patient safety through improvements in the process of care. Methods are described for the videotaping and analysis of clinical care using a high quality portable multi-angle digital video system that enables simultaneous capture of vital signs and time code synchronization of all data streams. An observer can conduct clinician performance assessment (such as workload measurements or behavioral task analysis) either in real time (during videotaping) or while viewing previously recorded videotapes. Supplemental data are synchronized with the video record and stored electronically in a hierarchical database. The video records are transferred to DVD, resulting in a small, cheap, and accessible archive. A number of technical and logistical issues are discussed, including consent of patients and clinicians, maintaining subject privacy and confidentiality, and data security. Using anesthesiology as a test environment, over 270 clinical cases (872 hours) have been successfully videotaped and processed using the system. PMID:15069222

  7. Research methods of plasma stream interaction with heat-resistant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Sargsyan, M. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Demirov, N. A.; Kavyrshin, D. I.; Ageev, A. G.; Khromov, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    An experimental automated system was designed and constructed for studying the parameters and characteristics of non-stationary interacting system high-enthalpy-plasma stream-investigated sample: enthalpy of plasma in the incident stream; speed and temperature of plasma stream; temperature of electrons and heavy particles, ionic composition and their spatial distribution; heat flux incident on the sample (kW/cm2); surface temperature of the sample; ablation of the sample material, and others. Measurements of achievable plasma heat flux levels are carried out by calorimetry of plasma streams incident on the surface of multisection copper calorimeter. Determination of acceleration characteristics for profiled plasma torch nozzle, as well as the gas flow rate is produced by measuring the total pressure using the Pitot tube. Video visualization of interacting system is carried out using synchronized high-speed cameras. Micropyrometry of the selected zone on the sample surface is carried out by high-speed, three-wavelength pyrometer. To measure the rate of mass loss of the sample, in addition to the weighing method of evaluation the methods of laser knife and two-position stereoscopy are used. Plasma and sample emission characteristics are performed with two separate spectrometers.

  8. Optimal space communications techniques. [discussion of video signals and delta modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The encoding of video signals using the Song Adaptive Delta Modulator (Song ADM) is discussed. The video signals are characterized as a sequence of pulses having arbitrary height and width. Although the ADM is suited to tracking signals having fast rise times, it was found that the DM algorithm (which permits an exponential rise for estimating an input step) results in a large overshoot and an underdamped response to the step. An overshoot suppression algorithm which significantly reduces the ringing while not affecting the rise time is presented along with formuli for the rise time and the settling time. Channel errors and their effect on the DM encoded bit stream were investigated.

  9. 78 FR 62426 - Use of Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Differential Income Stream as an Application of the Income Method and as a Consideration in Assessing the Best Method; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting amendment... method in connection with a cost sharing arrangement and as a specified application of the income method...

  10. Using Digital Time-Lapse Videos to Teach Geomorphic Processes to Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.; Linneman, S. R.; Fuller, J.

    2004-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of relatively low-cost, computer-based digital imagery to create time-lapse videos of two distinct geomorphic processes in order to help students grasp the significance of the rates, styles, and temporal dependence of geologic phenomena. Student interviews indicate that such videos help them to understand the relationship between processes and landform development. Time-lapse videos have been used extensively in some sciences (e.g., biology - http://sbcf.iu.edu/goodpract/hangarter.html, meteorology - http://www.apple.com/education/hed/aua0101s/meteor/, chemistry - http://www.chem.yorku.ca/profs/hempsted/chemed/home.html) to demonstrate gradual processes that are difficult for many students to visualize. Most geologic processes are slower still, and are consequently even more difficult for students to grasp, yet time-lapse videos are rarely used in earth science classrooms. The advent of inexpensive web-cams and computers provides a new means to explore the temporal dimension of earth surface processes. To test the use of time-lapse videos in geoscience education, we are developing time-lapse movies that record the evolution of two landforms: a stream-table delta and a large, natural, active landslide. The former involves well-known processes in a controlled, repeatable laboratory experiment, whereas the latter tracks the developing dynamics of an otherwise poorly understood slope failure. The stream-table delta is small and grows in ca. 2 days; we capture a frame on an overhead web-cam every 3 minutes. Before seeing the video, students are asked to hypothesize how the delta will grow through time. The final time-lapse video, ca. 20-80 MB, elegantly shows channel migration, progradation rates, and formation of major geomorphic elements (topset, foreset, bottomset beds). The web-cam can also be "zoomed-in" to show smaller-scale processes, such as bedload transfer, and foreset slumping. Post-lab tests and interviews with students indicate that

  11. Content fragile watermarking for H.264/AVC video authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Sadi, K.; Guessoum, A.; Bouridane, A.; Khelifi, F.

    2017-04-01

    Discrete cosine transform is exploited in this work to generate the authentication data that are treated as a fragile watermark. This watermark is embedded in the motion vectors. The advances in multimedia technologies and digital processing tools have brought with them new challenges for the source and content authentication. To ensure the integrity of the H.264/AVC video stream, we introduce an approach based on a content fragile video watermarking method using an independent authentication of each group of pictures (GOPs) within the video. This technique uses robust visual features extracted from the video pertaining to the set of selected macroblocs (MBs) which hold the best partition mode in a tree-structured motion compensation process. An additional security degree is offered by the proposed method through using a more secured keyed function HMAC-SHA-256 and randomly choosing candidates from already selected MBs. In here, the watermark detection and verification processes are blind, whereas the tampered frames detection is not since it needs the original frames within the tampered GOPs. The proposed scheme achieves an accurate authentication technique with a high fragility and fidelity whilst maintaining the original bitrate and the perceptual quality. Furthermore, its ability to detect the tampered frames in case of spatial, temporal and colour manipulations is confirmed.

  12. Flexible server architecture for resource-optimal presentation of Internet multimedia streams to the client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenisch, Holger; Froitzheim, Konrad

    1999-12-01

    The transfer of live media streams such as video and audio over the Internet is subject to several problems, static and dynamic by nature. Important quality of service (QoS) parameters do not only differ between various receivers depending on their network access, service provider, and nationality, the QoS is also variable in time. Moreover the installed receiver base is heterogeneous with respect to operating system, browser or client software, and browser version. We present a new concept for serving live media streams. It is not longer based on the current one-size-fits all paradigm, where the server offers just one stream. Our compresslet system takes the opposite approach: it builds media streams `to order' and `just in time'. Every client subscribing to a media stream uses a servlet loaded into the media server to generate a tailored data stream for his resources and constraints. The server is designed such that commonly used components for media streams are computed once. The compresslets use these prefabricated components, code additional data if necessary, and construct the data stream based on the dynamic available QoS and other client constraints. A client-specific encoding leads to resource- optimal presentation that is especially useful for the presentation of complex multimedia documents on a variety of output devices.

  13. High-definition video display based on the FPGA and THS8200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jia; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a high-definition video display solution based on the FPGA and THS8200. THS8200 is a video decoder chip launched by TI company, this chip has three 10-bit DAC channels which can capture video data in both 4:2:2 and 4:4:4 formats, and its data synchronization can be either through the dedicated synchronization signals HSYNC and VSYNC, or extracted from the embedded video stream synchronization information SAV / EAV code. In this paper, we will utilize the address and control signals generated by FPGA to access to the data-storage array, and then the FPGA generates the corresponding digital video signals YCbCr. These signals combined with the synchronization signals HSYNC and VSYNC that are also generated by the FPGA act as the input signals of THS8200. In order to meet the bandwidth requirements of the high-definition TV, we adopt video input in the 4:2:2 format over 2×10-bit interface. THS8200 is needed to be controlled by FPGA with I2C bus to set the internal registers, and as a result, it can generate the synchronous signal that is satisfied with the standard SMPTE and transfer the digital video signals YCbCr into analog video signals YPbPr. Hence, the composite analog output signals YPbPr are consist of image data signal and synchronous signal which are superimposed together inside the chip THS8200. The experimental research indicates that the method presented in this paper is a viable solution for high-definition video display, which conforms to the input requirements of the new high-definition display devices.

  14. Context-Based Urban Terrain Reconstruction from Uav-Videos for Geoinformation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, D.; Solbrig, P.; Gross, H.; Wernerus, P.; Repasi, E.; Heipke, C.

    2011-09-01

    Urban terrain reconstruction has many applications in areas of civil engineering, urban planning, surveillance and defense research. Therefore the needs of covering ad-hoc demand and performing a close-range urban terrain reconstruction with miniaturized and relatively inexpensive sensor platforms are constantly growing. Using (miniaturized) unmanned aerial vehicles, (M)UAVs, represents one of the most attractive alternatives to conventional large-scale aerial imagery. We cover in this paper a four-step procedure of obtaining georeferenced 3D urban models from video sequences. The four steps of the procedure - orientation, dense reconstruction, urban terrain modeling and geo-referencing - are robust, straight-forward, and nearly fully-automatic. The two last steps - namely, urban terrain modeling from almost-nadir videos and co-registration of models 6ndash; represent the main contribution of this work and will therefore be covered with more detail. The essential substeps of the third step include digital terrain model (DTM) extraction, segregation of buildings from vegetation, as well as instantiation of building and tree models. The last step is subdivided into quasi- intrasensorial registration of Euclidean reconstructions and intersensorial registration with a geo-referenced orthophoto. Finally, we present reconstruction results from a real data-set and outline ideas for future work.

  15. Smartphone based automatic organ validation in ultrasound video.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Pallavi; Bharath, R; Rajalakshmi, P

    2017-07-01

    Telesonography involves transmission of ultrasound video from remote areas to the doctors for getting diagnosis. Due to the lack of trained sonographers in remote areas, the ultrasound videos scanned by these untrained persons do not contain the proper information that is required by a physician. As compared to standard methods for video transmission, mHealth driven systems need to be developed for transmitting valid medical videos. To overcome this problem, we are proposing an organ validation algorithm to evaluate the ultrasound video based on the content present. This will guide the semi skilled person to acquire the representative data from patient. Advancement in smartphone technology allows us to perform high medical image processing on smartphone. In this paper we have developed an Application (APP) for a smartphone which can automatically detect the valid frames (which consist of clear organ visibility) in an ultrasound video and ignores the invalid frames (which consist of no-organ visibility), and produces a compressed sized video. This is done by extracting the GIST features from the Region of Interest (ROI) of the frame and then classifying the frame using SVM classifier with quadratic kernel. The developed application resulted with the accuracy of 94.93% in classifying valid and invalid images.

  16. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  17. Kinematic Measurements from YouTube Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Video analysis of motion has been in use now for some time. However, some teachers may not have video equipment or may be looking for innovative ways to engage students with interesting applications at no cost. The recent advent of YouTube offers opportunities for students to measure kinematic properties of real-life events using their computers.…

  18. Application of laser-video thoracoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Sheng

    1998-11-01

    10 patients were treated by video-assisted-thoracoscopic surgery with laser in this article. No patient has complications of intrathoracic infection and air leakage of lung or died from the operation. Without opening the chest, it has less trauma as well as a better homeostatic effect. It is available for the patients who are old or have poor cardio-pulmonary function.

  19. Overcoming Challenges: "Going Mobile with Your Own Video Models"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, Christina R.; Basham, James D.; Christman, Jennifer; Hollingshead, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be an effective intervention for students with a variety of disabilities. Traditional video models present problems in terms of application across meaningful settings, such as in the community or even across the school environment. However, with advances in mobile technology, portable devices with video capability…

  20. Study of Thread Level Parallelism in a Video Encoding Application for Chip Multiprocessor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, Eric; Kaine, Greg

    2002-11-01

    In media applications there is a high level of available thread level parallelism (TLP). In this paper we study the intra TLP in a video encoder. We show that a well-distributed highly optimized encoder running on a symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) system can run 3.2 faster on a 4-way SMP machine than on a single processor. The multithreaded encoder running on an SMP system is then used to understand the requirements of a chip multiprocessor (CMP) architecture, which is one possible architectural direction to better exploit TLP. In the framework of this study, we use a software approach to evaluate the dataflow between processors for the video encoder running on an SMP system. An estimation of the dataflow is done with L2 cache miss event counters using Intel® VTuneTM performance analyzer. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results.

  1. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data.

    PubMed

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings.

  2. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sit...

  3. Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic

  4. Sub-component modeling for face image reconstruction in video communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiell, Derek J.; Xiao, Jing; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2008-08-01

    Emerging communications trends point to streaming video as a new form of content delivery. These systems are implemented over wired systems, such as cable or ethernet, and wireless networks, cell phones, and portable game systems. These communications systems require sophisticated methods of compression and error-resilience encoding to enable communications across band-limited and noisy delivery channels. Additionally, the transmitted video data must be of high enough quality to ensure a satisfactory end-user experience. Traditionally, video compression makes use of temporal and spatial coherence to reduce the information required to represent an image. In many communications systems, the communications channel is characterized by a probabilistic model which describes the capacity or fidelity of the channel. The implication is that information is lost or distorted in the channel, and requires concealment on the receiving end. We demonstrate a generative model based transmission scheme to compress human face images in video, which has the advantages of a potentially higher compression ratio, while maintaining robustness to errors and data corruption. This is accomplished by training an offline face model and using the model to reconstruct face images on the receiving end. We propose a sub-component AAM modeling the appearance of sub-facial components individually, and show face reconstruction results under different types of video degradation using a weighted and non-weighted version of the sub-component AAM.

  5. Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center,atmospheric scientist Paul Meyer and solar physicist Dr. David Hathaway, developed promising new software, called Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR). VISAR may help law enforcement agencies catch criminals by improving the quality of video recorded at crime scenes. In this photograph, the single frame at left, taken at night, was brightened in order to enhance details and reduce noise or snow. To further overcome the video defects in one frame, Law enforcement officials can use VISAR software to add information from multiple frames to reveal a person. Images from less than a second of videotape were added together to create the clarified image at right. VISAR stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects producing clearer images of moving objects, smoothes jagged edges, enhances still images, and reduces video noise or snow. VISAR could also have applications in medical and meteorological imaging. It could steady images of ultrasounds, which are infamous for their grainy, blurred quality. The software can be used for defense application by improving recornaissance video imagery made by military vehicles, aircraft, and ships traveling in harsh, rugged environments.

  6. Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, atmospheric scientist Paul Meyer and solar physicist Dr. David Hathaway, developed promising new software, called Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR), which is illustrated in this Quick Time movie. VISAR is a computer algorithm that stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects producing clearer images of moving objects, smoothes jagged edges, enhances still images, and reduces video noise or snow. It could steady images of ultrasounds, which are infamous for their grainy, blurred quality. VISAR could also have applications in law enforcement, medical, and meteorological imaging. The software can be used for defense application by improving reconnaissance video imagery made by military vehicles, aircraft, and ships traveling in harsh, rugged environments.

  7. Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center,atmospheric scientist Paul Meyer and solar physicist Dr. David Hathaway, developed promising new software, called Video Image stabilization and Registration (VISAR), which is illustrated in this Quick Time movie. VISAR is a computer algorithm that stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects producing clearer images of moving objects, smoothes jagged edges, enhances still images, and reduces video noise or snow. It could steady images of ultrasounds, which are infamous for their grainy, blurred quality. VISAR could also have applications in law enforcement, medical, and meteorological imaging. The software can be used for defense application by improving reconnaissance video imagery made by military vehicles, aircraft, and ships traveling in harsh, rugged environments.

  8. Photorealistic scene presentation: virtual video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Rogers, Joel Clark W.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a low cost alternative for presenting photo-realistic imagery during the final approach, which often is a peak workload phase of flight. The method capitalizes on `a priori' information. It accesses out-the-window `snapshots' from a mass storage device, selecting the snapshots that deliver the best match for a given aircraft position and runway scene. It then warps the snapshots to align them more closely with the current viewpoint. The individual snapshots, stored as highly compressed images, are decompressed and interpolated to produce a `clear-day' video stream. The paper shows how this warping, when combined with other compression methods, saves considerable amounts of storage; compression factors from 1000 to 3000 were achieved. Thus, a CD-ROM today can store reference snapshots for thousands of different runways. Dynamic scene elements not present in the snapshot database can be inserted as separate symbolic or pictorial images. When underpinned by an appropriate suite of sensor technologies, the methods discussed indicate an all-weather virtual video camera is possible.

  9. StreamStats: a U.S. geological survey web site for stream information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernell, G. Ries; Gray, John R.; Renard, Kenneth G.; McElroy, Stephen A.; Gburek, William J.; Canfield, H. Evan; Scott, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a Web application, named StreamStats, for providing streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year flood and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, to the public. Statistics can be obtained for data-collection stations and for ungaged sites. Streamflow statistics are needed for water-resources planning and management; for design of bridges, culverts, and flood-control structures; and for many other purposes. StreamStats users can point and click on data-collection stations shown on a map in their Web browser window to obtain previously determined streamflow statistics and other information for the stations. Users also can point and click on any stream shown on the map to get estimates of streamflow statistics for ungaged sites. StreamStats determines the watershed boundaries and measures physical and climatic characteristics of the watersheds for the ungaged sites by use of a Geographic Information System (GIS), and then it inserts the characteristics into previously determined regression equations to estimate the streamflow statistics. Compared to manual methods, StreamStats reduces the average time needed to estimate streamflow statistics for ungaged sites from several hours to several minutes.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of video transmitted by DVTS (digital video transport system) in surgical telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yoichiro; Suwa, Akina; Gomi, Yuichiro; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nagata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Real-time video pictures can be transmitted inexpensively via a broadband connection using the DVTS (digital video transport system). However, the degradation of video pictures transmitted by DVTS has not been sufficiently evaluated. We examined the application of DVTS to remote consultation by using images of laparoscopic and endoscopic surgeries. A subjective assessment by the double stimulus continuous quality scale (DSCQS) method of the transmitted video pictures was carried out by eight doctors. Three of the four video recordings were assessed as being transmitted with no degradation in quality. None of the doctors noticed any degradation in the images due to encryption by the VPN (virtual private network) system. We also used an automatic picture quality assessment system to make an objective assessment of the same images. The objective DSCQS values were similar to the subjective ones. We conclude that although the quality of video pictures transmitted by the DVTS was slightly reduced, they were useful for clinical purposes. Encryption with a VPN did not degrade image quality.

  11. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  12. An analysis of lecture video utilization in undergraduate medical education: associations with performance in the courses

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, John A; Hoyt, Amy; Gruener, Gregory; Chandrasekhar, Arcot; Espiritu, Baltazar; Price, Ron; Naheedy, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of medical schools are providing videos of lectures to their students. This study sought to analyze utilization of lecture videos by medical students in their basic science courses and to determine if student utilization was associated with performance on exams. Methods Streaming videos of lectures (n = 149) to first year and second year medical students (n = 284) were made available through a password-protected server. Server logs were analyzed over a 10-week period for both classes. For each lecture, the logs recorded time and location from which students accessed the file. A survey was administered at the end of the courses to obtain additional information about student use of the videos. Results There was a wide disparity in the level of use of lecture videos by medical students with the majority of students accessing the lecture videos sparingly (60% of the students viewed less than 10% of the available videos. The anonymous student survey revealed that students tended to view the videos by themselves from home during weekends and prior to exams. Students who accessed lecture videos more frequently had significantly (p < 0.002) lower exam scores. Conclusion We conclude that videos of lectures are used by relatively few medical students and that individual use of videos is associated with the degree to which students are having difficulty with the subject matter. PMID:19173725

  13. Video image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current technology projections indicate a lack of availability of special purpose computing for Space Station applications. Potential functions for video image special purpose processing are being investigated, such as smoothing, enhancement, restoration and filtering, data compression, feature extraction, object detection and identification, pixel interpolation/extrapolation, spectral estimation and factorization, and vision synthesis. Also, architectural approaches are being identified and a conceptual design generated. Computationally simple algorithms will be research and their image/vision effectiveness determined. Suitable algorithms will be implimented into an overall architectural approach that will provide image/vision processing at video rates that are flexible, selectable, and programmable. Information is given in the form of charts, diagrams and outlines.

  14. Problems with indirect determinations of peak streamflows in steep, desert stream channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glancy, Patrick A.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1994-01-01

    Many peak streamflow values used in flood analyses for desert areas are derived using the Manning equation. Data used in the equation are collected after the flow has subsided, and peak flow is thereby determined indirectly. Most measurement problems and associated errors in peak-flow determinations result from (1) channel erosion or deposition that cannot be discerned or properly evaluated after the fact, (2) unsteady and non-uniform flow that rapidly changes in magnitude, and (3) appreciable sediment transport that has unknown effects on energy dissipation. High calculated velocities and Froude numbers are unacceptable to some investigators. Measurement results could be improved by recording flows with a video camera, installing a recording stream gage and recording rain gages, measuring channel scour with buried chains, analyzing measured data by multiple techniques, and supplementing indirect measurements with direct measurements of stream velocities in similar ephemeral streams.

  15. 3D scene reconstruction based on multi-view distributed video coding in the Zernike domain for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, V.; Carli, M.; Neri, A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper a Multi-view Distributed Video Coding scheme for mobile applications is presented. Specifically a new fusion technique between temporal and spatial side information in Zernike Moments domain is proposed. Distributed video coding introduces a flexible architecture that enables the design of very low complex video encoders compared to its traditional counterparts. The main goal of our work is to generate at the decoder the side information that optimally blends temporal and interview data. Multi-view distributed coding performance strongly depends on the side information quality built at the decoder. At this aim for improving its quality a spatial view compensation/prediction in Zernike moments domain is applied. Spatial and temporal motion activity have been fused together to obtain the overall side-information. The proposed method has been evaluated by rate-distortion performances for different inter-view and temporal estimation quality conditions.

  16. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data*

    PubMed Central

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G.; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings. PMID:29151821

  17. Geospatial datasets for watershed delineation and characterization used in the Hawaii StreamStats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Hawaii StreamStats application uses an integrated suite of raster and vector geospatial datasets to delineate and characterize watersheds. The geospatial datasets used to delineate and characterize watersheds on the StreamStats website, and the methods used to develop the datasets are described in this report. The datasets for Hawaii were derived primarily from 10 meter resolution National Elevation Dataset (NED) elevation models, and the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), using a set of procedures designed to enforce the drainage pattern from the NHD into the NED, resulting in an integrated suite of elevation-derived datasets. Additional sources of data used for computing basin characteristics include precipitation, land cover, soil permeability, and elevation-derivative datasets. The report also includes links for metadata and downloads of the geospatial datasets.

  18. Feasibility and application of single-hole video-assisted thoracoscope in pulmonary peripheral tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ke; Gong, Xiangnan

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility and clinical application of single-hole video-assisted thoracoscope in pulmonary peripheral tumors was examined. From March, 2011 to March, 2015, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data obtained from 32 patients with pulmonary peripheral tumor that received single-hole thoracoscopic surgery. We completed the surgery via a 1.5-cm incision on the seventh or eighth rib in midaxillary line as the observation hole, and a 4.0-5.0-cm incision in the lateral margin of pectoralis major in the fourth or fifth rib in midaxillary line as the operation hole. All the patients had completed the tumor-reductive surgery under single-hole thoracoscope successfully. None required second operation hole or needed a transfer to thoracotomy. Operation time was 40-100 min with an average of 65.78±15.87 min. Intraoperative blood loss was 20-100 ml, with an average of 47.19±26.91 ml. Post-operative chest drainage time was 3-6 days, with an average of 4.22±0.87 days. Hospitalization time after operation was 5-7 days, with an average hospitalization time of 5.97±0.82 days. No patient received a second surgery for pulmonary leak or bleeding and no patient had any complication. All the cases recovered without any problem. In conclusion, for patients with pulmonary peripheral tumor, single-hole video-assisted thoracoscope could further reduce their surgical trauma. The operation was safe and feasible and worthy of wide application.

  19. Human recognition in a video network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir

    2009-10-01

    Video networks is an emerging interdisciplinary field with significant and exciting scientific and technological challenges. It has great promise in solving many real-world problems and enabling a broad range of applications, including smart homes, video surveillance, environment and traffic monitoring, elderly care, intelligent environments, and entertainment in public and private spaces. This paper provides an overview of the design of a wireless video network as an experimental environment, camera selection, hand-off and control, anomaly detection. It addresses challenging questions for individual identification using gait and face at a distance and present new techniques and their comparison for robust identification.

  20. Video game training and the reward system.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  1. PixonVision real-time video processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetter, R. C.; Hier, R. G.

    2007-09-01

    PixonImaging LLC and DigiVision, Inc. have developed a real-time video processor, the PixonVision PV-200, based on the patented Pixon method for image deblurring and denoising, and DigiVision's spatially adaptive contrast enhancement processor, the DV1000. The PV-200 can process NTSC and PAL video in real time with a latency of 1 field (1/60 th of a second), remove the effects of aerosol scattering from haze, mist, smoke, and dust, improve spatial resolution by up to 2x, decrease noise by up to 6x, and increase local contrast by up to 8x. A newer version of the processor, the PV-300, is now in prototype form and can handle high definition video. Both the PV-200 and PV-300 are FPGA-based processors, which could be spun into ASICs if desired. Obvious applications of these processors include applications in the DOD (tanks, aircraft, and ships), homeland security, intelligence, surveillance, and law enforcement. If developed into an ASIC, these processors will be suitable for a variety of portable applications, including gun sights, night vision goggles, binoculars, and guided munitions. This paper presents a variety of examples of PV-200 processing, including examples appropriate to border security, battlefield applications, port security, and surveillance from unmanned aerial vehicles.

  2. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  3. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  4. Differentiated strategies for improving streaming service quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hui; Chen, Xin-Meng

    2005-02-01

    With the explosive growth of streaming services, users are becoming more and more sensitive to its quality of service. To handle these problems, the research community focuses of the application of caching and replication techniques. But most approaches try to find specific strategies of caching of replication that suit for streaming service characteristics and to design some kind of universal policy to deal with all streaming objects. This paper explores the combination of caching and replication for improving streaming service quality and demonstrates that it makes sense to incorporate two technologies. It provides a system model and discusses some related issues of how to determining a refreshable streaming object and which refreshment policies a refreshable object should use.

  5. VideoScheme: A Research, Authoring, and Teaching Tool for Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, James W.; And Others

    The availability of digital multimedia technology poses new challenges to researchers, authors, and educators, even as it creates new opportunities for communication. VideoScheme, a prototype video programming environment is described, along with its applications in research, authoring and education. In terms of research, VideoScheme can help…

  6. Production and evaluation of stereoscopic video presentation in surgical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus; Kawai, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin; Shibata, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    Stereoscopic video teaching can facilitate understanding for current minimally-invasive operative techniques. This project was created to set up a digital stereoscopic teaching environment for training of ENT residents and medical students. We recorded three ENT operative procedures (tympanoplasty, paranasal sinus operation and laser chordectomy) at the University Hospital Aachen. The material was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University and converted into a streaming 3-D video format, which does not depend on PAL or NTSC signal standards. Video clips were evaluated by 5 ENT specialists and 11 residents in single sessions on an LCD monitor (8) and a CRT monitor (8). Emphasis was laid on depth perception, visual fatigue and time to achieve stereoscopic impression. Qualitative results were recorded on a visual analogue scale, ranging from 1 (excellent) to 5 (bad). The overall impression was rated 2,06 to 3,13 in the LCD group and 2,0 to 2,62 in the CRT group. The depth impression was rated 1,63 to 2,88 (LCD) and 1,63 to 2,25 (CRT). Stereoscopic video teaching was regarded as useful in ENT training by all participants. Further points for evaluation will be the quantification of depth information as well as the information gain in teaching junior colleagues.

  7. Standardized access, display, and retrieval of medical video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaire, Gunter; Steines, Daniel; Graschew, Georgi; Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Schlag, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The system presented here enhances documentation and data- secured, second-opinion facilities by integrating video sequences into DICOM 3.0. We present an implementation for a medical video server extended by a DICOM interface. Security mechanisms conforming with DICOM are integrated to enable secure internet access. Digital video documents of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be examined regarding the clip length and size necessary for second opinion and manageable with today's hardware. Image sources relevant for this paper include 3D laparoscope, 3D surgical microscope, 3D open surgery camera, synthetic video, and monoscopic endoscopes, etc. The global DICOM video concept and three special workplaces of distinct applications are described. Additionally, an approach is presented to analyze the motion of the endoscopic camera for future automatic video-cutting. Digital stereoscopic video sequences are especially in demand for surgery . Therefore DSVS are also integrated into the DICOM video concept. Results are presented describing the suitability of stereoscopic display techniques for the operating room.

  8. Influence of audio triggered emotional attention on video perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Freddy; Kalva, Hari

    2014-02-01

    Perceptual video coding methods attempt to improve compression efficiency by discarding visual information not perceived by end users. Most of the current approaches for perceptual video coding only use visual features ignoring the auditory component. Many psychophysical studies have demonstrated that auditory stimuli affects our visual perception. In this paper we present our study of audio triggered emotional attention and it's applicability to perceptual video coding. Experiments with movie clips show that the reaction time to detect video compression artifacts was longer when video was presented with the audio information. The results reported are statistically significant with p=0.024.

  9. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  10. Review of intelligent video surveillance with single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Fan, Jiu-lun; Wang, DianWei

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent video surveillance has found a wide range of applications in public security. This paper describes the state-of- the-art techniques in video surveillance system with single camera. This can serve as a starting point for building practical video surveillance systems in developing regions, leveraging existing ubiquitous infrastructure. In addition, this paper discusses the gap between existing technologies and the requirements in real-world scenario, and proposes potential solutions to reduce this gap.

  11. Efficient 3D Watermarked Video Communication with Chaotic Interleaving, Convolution Coding, and LMMSE Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shafai, W.; El-Bakary, E. M.; El-Rabaie, S.; Zahran, O.; El-Halawany, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2017-06-01

    Three-Dimensional Multi-View Video (3D-MVV) transmission over wireless networks suffers from Macro-Blocks losses due to either packet dropping or fading-motivated bit errors. Thus, the robust performance of 3D-MVV transmission schemes over wireless channels becomes a recent considerable hot research issue due to the restricted resources and the presence of severe channel errors. The 3D-MVV is composed of multiple video streams shot by several cameras around a single object, simultaneously. Therefore, it is an urgent task to achieve high compression ratios to meet future bandwidth constraints. Unfortunately, the highly-compressed 3D-MVV data becomes more sensitive and vulnerable to packet losses, especially in the case of heavy channel faults. Thus, in this paper, we suggest the application of a chaotic Baker interleaving approach with equalization and convolution coding for efficient Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) watermarked 3D-MVV transmission over an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing wireless system. Rayleigh fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise are considered in the real scenario of 3D-MVV transmission. The SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames are primarily converted to their luminance and chrominance components, which are then converted to binary data format. After that, chaotic interleaving is applied prior to the modulation process. It is used to reduce the channel effects on the transmitted bit streams and it also adds a degree of encryption to the transmitted 3D-MVV frames. To test the performance of the proposed framework; several simulation experiments on different SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames have been executed. The experimental results show that the received SVD watermarked 3D-MVV frames still have high Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratios and watermark extraction is possible in the proposed framework.

  12. Inter-view prediction of intra mode decision for high-efficiency video coding-based multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Thaísa Leal; Agostini, Luciano Volcan; da Silva Cruz, Luis A.

    2014-05-01

    Intra prediction is a very important tool in current video coding standards. High-efficiency video coding (HEVC) intra prediction presents relevant gains in encoding efficiency when compared to previous standards, but with a very important increase in the computational complexity since 33 directional angular modes must be evaluated. Motivated by this high complexity, this article presents a complexity reduction algorithm developed to reduce the HEVC intra mode decision complexity targeting multiview videos. The proposed algorithm presents an efficient fast intra prediction compliant with singleview and multiview video encoding. This fast solution defines a reduced subset of intra directions according to the video texture and it exploits the relationship between prediction units (PUs) of neighbor depth levels of the coding tree. This fast intra coding procedure is used to develop an inter-view prediction method, which exploits the relationship between the intra mode directions of adjacent views to further accelerate the intra prediction process in multiview video encoding applications. When compared to HEVC simulcast, our method achieves a complexity reduction of up to 47.77%, at the cost of an average BD-PSNR loss of 0.08 dB.

  13. Functional Objectives for Stream Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Gorman, O. T ., and Karr, J. R . (1978) “Habitat structure and stream fish communities,” Ecology, 59-3, 507-515. Increasing community and habitat...frequency and density. Comparison of above- and below- ground biomass R /S ratio. Biomass production of stream- dependant species. Biomass profile...M., Hauer, F. R ., Lee, L. C., Nutter, W. L., Rheinhardt, R . D., Smith, R . D., and Whigham, D. (1995) “A guidebook for application of

  14. a Cloud-Based Architecture for Smart Video Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, L.; Serrano, S. A.; Oves García, R.; Andrade, A.; Palacios-Alonso, M. A.; Sucar, L. Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Turning a city into a smart city has attracted considerable attention. A smart city can be seen as a city that uses digital technology not only to improve the quality of people's life, but also, to have a positive impact in the environment and, at the same time, offer efficient and easy-to-use services. A fundamental aspect to be considered in a smart city is people's safety and welfare, therefore, having a good security system becomes a necessity, because it allows us to detect and identify potential risk situations, and then take appropriate decisions to help people or even prevent criminal acts. In this paper we present an architecture for automated video surveillance based on the cloud computing schema capable of acquiring a video stream from a set of cameras connected to the network, process that information, detect, label and highlight security-relevant events automatically, store the information and provide situational awareness in order to minimize response time to take the appropriate action.

  15. Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven G.; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

    1998-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

  16. Multicore-based 3D-DWT video encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiano, Vicente; López-Granado, Otoniel; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Migallón, Hector

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional wavelet transform (3D-DWT) encoders are good candidates for applications like professional video editing, video surveillance, multi-spectral satellite imaging, etc. where a frame must be reconstructed as quickly as possible. In this paper, we present a new 3D-DWT video encoder based on a fast run-length coding engine. Furthermore, we present several multicore optimizations to speed-up the 3D-DWT computation. An exhaustive evaluation of the proposed encoder (3D-GOP-RL) has been performed, and we have compared the evaluation results with other video encoders in terms of rate/distortion (R/D), coding/decoding delay, and memory consumption. Results show that the proposed encoder obtains good R/D results for high-resolution video sequences with nearly in-place computation using only the memory needed to store a group of pictures. After applying the multicore optimization strategies over the 3D DWT, the proposed encoder is able to compress a full high-definition video sequence in real-time.

  17. Application of video-based technology for the simultaneous measurement of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Meyers, Jason P; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2007-01-01

    Accommodation and vergence are two ocular motor systems that interact during binocular vision. Independent measurement of the response dynamics of each system has been achieved by the application of optometers and eye trackers. However, relatively few devices, typically earlier model optometers, allow the simultaneous assessment of accommodation and vergence. In this study we describe the development and application of a custom designed high-speed digital photorefractor that allows for rapid measures of accommodation (up to 75Hz). In addition the photorefractor was also synchronized with a video-based stereo eye tracker to allow a simultaneous measurement of accommodation and vergence. Analysis of accommodation and vergence could then be conducted offline. The new instrumentation is suitable for investigation of young children and could be potentially used for clinical populations.

  18. Development and Assessment of Web Courses That Use Streaming Audio and Video Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingebritsen, Thomas S.; Flickinger, Kathleen

    Iowa State University, through a program called Project BIO (Biology Instructional Outreach), has been using RealAudio technology for about 2 years in college biology courses that are offered entirely via the World Wide Web. RealAudio is a type of streaming media technology that can be used to deliver audio content and a variety of other media…

  19. [Serious video games in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Drummond, D; Tesnière, A; Hadchouel, A

    2018-01-01

    Playing video games has been associated with several negative effects in children. However, serious games, which are video games designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment, should not be neglected by pediatricians. In the field of public health, some serious games are a means to decrease drug consumption and improve sexual health behavior in adolescents. In schools, serious games can be used to change students' perception of the disease of one of their classmates, or to train students on basic life support. Serious games are also used with patients: they can distract them from a painful procedure, increase their compliance to treatments, or participate in their rehabilitation. Finally, serious games allow healthcare professionals to train on the management of various medical situations without risk. For every field of application, this review presents the rationale of the use of video games, followed by concrete examples of video games and the results of their scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchronization of spontaneous eyeblinks while viewing video stories

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tamami; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Kitajo, Keiichi; Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Blinks are generally suppressed during a task that requires visual attention and tend to occur immediately before or after the task when the timing of its onset and offset are explicitly given. During the viewing of video stories, blinks are expected to occur at explicit breaks such as scene changes. However, given that the scene length is unpredictable, there should also be appropriate timing for blinking within a scene to prevent temporal loss of critical visual information. Here, we show that spontaneous blinks were highly synchronized between and within subjects when they viewed the same short video stories, but were not explicitly tied to the scene breaks. Synchronized blinks occurred during scenes that required less attention such as at the conclusion of an action, during the absence of the main character, during a long shot and during repeated presentations of a similar scene. In contrast, blink synchronization was not observed when subjects viewed a background video or when they listened to a story read aloud. The results suggest that humans share a mechanism for controlling the timing of blinks that searches for an implicit timing that is appropriate to minimize the chance of losing critical information while viewing a stream of visual events. PMID:19640888

  1. Video game training and the reward system

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  2. Evaluation of a virtual pet visit system with live video streaming of patient images over the Internet in a companion animal intensive care unit in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Robben, Joris H; Melsen, Diede N; Almalik, Osama; Roomer, Wendy; Endenburg, Nienke

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a virtual pet visit system ("TelePet" System, TPS) on owners and staff of a companion animal ICU. Longitudinal interventional study (2010-2013). Companion animal ICU at a university veterinary medical teaching hospital. Pet owners, ICU technicians. The introduction of the TPS, with live video streaming of patient images over the Internet, in a companion animal ICU. Pet owners experienced TPS as a valuable extra service. Most TPS users (72.4%) experienced less anxiety and felt less need (40.4% of TPS users) to visit their hospitalized pet in person. Most users (83.5%) shared TPS access with their family. The introduction of the TPS did not improve overall owner satisfaction, except for the score on "quality of medical treatment." Seven of 26 indicators of owner satisfaction were awarded higher scores by TPS users than by TPS nonusers in the survey after the introduction of the system. However, the lack of randomization of owners might have influenced findings. The enthusiasm of the ICU technicians for the system was tempered by the negative feedback from a small number of owners. Nevertheless they recognized the value of the system for owners. The system was user friendly and ICU staff and TPS users experienced few technical problems. As veterinary healthcare is moving toward a more client-centered approach, a virtual pet visit system, such as TPS, is a relatively simple application that may improve the well-being of most owners during the hospitalization of their pet. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  3. Combining Live Video and Audio Broadcasting, Synchronous Chat, and Asynchronous Open Forum Discussions in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Tian-Lih; Taveras, Marypat

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the evolution of a unique distance education program that began as a hybrid--combining face-to-face instruction with asynchronous online teaching--and evolved to become an innovative combination of synchronous education using live streaming video, audio, and chat over the Internet, blended with asynchronous online discussions…

  4. Experimental application of simulation tools for evaluating UAV video change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Bartelsen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Change detection is one of the most important tasks when unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are used for video reconnaissance and surveillance. In this paper, we address changes on short time scale, i.e. the observations are taken within time distances of a few hours. Each observation is a short video sequence corresponding to the near-nadir overflight of the UAV above the interesting area and the relevant changes are e.g. recently added or removed objects. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are versatile objects like trees and compression or transmission artifacts. To enable the usage of an automatic change detection within an interactive workflow of an UAV video exploitation system, an evaluation and assessment procedure has to be performed. Large video data sets which contain many relevant objects with varying scene background and altering influence parameters (e.g. image quality, sensor and flight parameters) including image metadata and ground truth data are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation. Since the acquisition of real video data is limited by cost and time constraints, from our point of view, the generation of synthetic data by simulation tools has to be considered. In this paper the processing chain of Saur et al. (2014) [1] and the interactive workflow for video change detection is described. We have selected the commercial simulation environment Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3) to generate synthetic data. For an experimental setup, an example scenario "road monitoring" has been defined and several video clips have been produced with varying flight and sensor parameters and varying objects in the scene. Image registration and change mask extraction, both components of the processing chain, are applied to corresponding frames of different video clips. For the selected examples, the images could be registered, the modelled changes could be extracted and the

  5. Development and Application of Flow Duration Curves for Stream Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    hydrograph (TNC 2009). Colorado State University’s GeoTools offers an FDC computation focusing on the geomorphic implications of hydrology (Bledsoe...processes • Assessment of changes in stream metabolism using temperature duration curves • Evaluation of pollutant or contaminant transport using...major concern associated with stream restoration projects, due to the many chemical, ecological, and geomorphic advantages a robust riparian buffer

  6. Enhance Video Film using Retnix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Rasha; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Al-Saleh, Anwar H.; Mohamad, Haidar J.

    2018-05-01

    An enhancement technique used to improve the studied video quality. Algorithms like mean and standard deviation are used as a criterion within this paper, and it applied for each video clip that divided into 80 images. The studied filming environment has different light intensity (315, 566, and 644Lux). This different environment gives similar reality to the outdoor filming. The outputs of the suggested algorithm are compared with the results before applying it. This method is applied into two ways: first, it is applied for the full video clip to get the enhanced film; second, it is applied for every individual image to get the enhanced image then compiler them to get the enhanced film. This paper shows that the enhancement technique gives good quality video film depending on a statistical method, and it is recommended to use it in different application.

  7. Digital video technology and production 101: lights, camera, action.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Goldberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Videos are powerful tools for enhancing the reach and effectiveness of health promotion programs. They can be used for program promotion and recruitment, for training program implementation staff/volunteers, and as elements of an intervention. Although certain brief videos may be produced without technical assistance, others often require collaboration and contracting with professional videographers. To get practitioners started and to facilitate interactions with professional videographers, this Tool includes a guide to the jargon of video production and suggestions for how to integrate videos into health education and promotion work. For each type of video, production principles and issues to consider when working with a professional videographer are provided. The Tool also includes links to examples in each category of video applications to health promotion.

  8. Transverse mixing of simulated piscicides in small montane streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter J.; Ard, Jenifer L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Thorough mixing of piscicides into receiving waters is important for efficient and effective fish eradication. However, no guidance exists for the placement of drip stations with respect to mixing. Salt (NaCl) was used as a tracer to measure the mixing rates of center versus edge applications in riffle–pool, straight, and meandering sections of montane streams. The tracer was applied at either the center or the edge of a channel and measured with a conductivity meter across a downstream grid to determine the distances at which transverse mixing was complete. No advantage was accrued by applying piscicides in different types of channels because transverse mixing distance did not differ among them. However, mixing distance was significantly shorter at center applications. Chemicals entering a stream at the center of the channel mixed thoroughly within 10 stream widths, whereas chemicals entering a stream channel at the edge mixed thoroughly within 20 stream widths.

  9. The calibration of video cameras for quantitative measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Walter L.; Childers, Brooks A.; Shortis, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Several different recent applications of velocimetry at Langley Research Center are described in order to show the need for video camera calibration for quantitative measurements. Problems peculiar to video sensing are discussed, including synchronization and timing, targeting, and lighting. The extension of the measurements to include radiometric estimates is addressed.

  10. Selecting salient frames for spatiotemporal video modeling and segmentation.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomu; Fan, Guoliang

    2007-12-01

    We propose a new statistical generative model for spatiotemporal video segmentation. The objective is to partition a video sequence into homogeneous segments that can be used as "building blocks" for semantic video segmentation. The baseline framework is a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based video modeling approach that involves a six-dimensional spatiotemporal feature space. Specifically, we introduce the concept of frame saliency to quantify the relevancy of a video frame to the GMM-based spatiotemporal video modeling. This helps us use a small set of salient frames to facilitate the model training by reducing data redundancy and irrelevance. A modified expectation maximization algorithm is developed for simultaneous GMM training and frame saliency estimation, and the frames with the highest saliency values are extracted to refine the GMM estimation for video segmentation. Moreover, it is interesting to find that frame saliency can imply some object behaviors. This makes the proposed method also applicable to other frame-related video analysis tasks, such as key-frame extraction, video skimming, etc. Experiments on real videos demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Computer-aided video exposure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Clark, R D; Flaherty, S; Gentry, S J

    2000-01-01

    A computer-aided video exposure monitoring system was used to record exposure information. The system comprised a handheld camcorder, portable video cassette recorder, radio-telemetry transmitter/receiver, and handheld or notebook computers for remote data logging, photoionization gas/vapor detectors (PIDs), and a personal aerosol monitor. The following workplaces were surveyed using the system: dry cleaning establishments--monitoring tetrachoroethylene in the air and in breath; printing works--monitoring white spirit type solvent; tire manufacturing factory--monitoring rubber fume; and a slate quarry--monitoring respirable dust and quartz. The system based on the handheld computer, in particular, simplified the data acquisition process compared with earlier systems in use by our laboratory. The equipment is more compact and easier to operate, and allows more accurate calibration of the instrument reading on the video image. Although a variety of data display formats are possible, the best format for videos intended for educational and training purposes was the review-preview chart superimposed on the video image of the work process. Recommendations for reducing exposure by engineering or by modifying work practice were possible through use of the video exposure system in the dry cleaning and tire manufacturing applications. The slate quarry work illustrated how the technique can be used to test ventilation configurations quickly to see their effect on the worker's personal exposure.

  12. Model-based video segmentation for vision-augmented interactive games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lurng-Kuo

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an architecture and algorithms for model based video object segmentation and its applications to vision augmented interactive game. We are especially interested in real time low cost vision based applications that can be implemented in software in a PC. We use different models for background and a player object. The object segmentation algorithm is performed in two different levels: pixel level and object level. At pixel level, the segmentation algorithm is formulated as a maximizing a posteriori probability (MAP) problem. The statistical likelihood of each pixel is calculated and used in the MAP problem. Object level segmentation is used to improve segmentation quality by utilizing the information about the spatial and temporal extent of the object. The concept of an active region, which is defined based on motion histogram and trajectory prediction, is introduced to indicate the possibility of a video object region for both background and foreground modeling. It also reduces the overall computation complexity. In contrast with other applications, the proposed video object segmentation system is able to create background and foreground models on the fly even without introductory background frames. Furthermore, we apply different rate of self-tuning on the scene model so that the system can adapt to the environment when there is a scene change. We applied the proposed video object segmentation algorithms to several prototype virtual interactive games. In our prototype vision augmented interactive games, a player can immerse himself/herself inside a game and can virtually interact with other animated characters in a real time manner without being constrained by helmets, gloves, special sensing devices, or background environment. The potential applications of the proposed algorithms including human computer gesture interface and object based video coding such as MPEG-4 video coding.

  13. Digital video applications in radiologic education: theory, technique, and applications.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, J G; Fishman, E K; Ney, D R

    1994-05-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has great potential in medical education. The recent explosion of multimedia platforms provides an environment for the seemless integration of text, images, and sound into a single program. This article discusses the role of digital video in the current educational environment as well as its future potential. An indepth review of the technical decisions of this new technology is also presented.

  14. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  15. Application of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard to ROV Video Data for Enhanced Analysis of Deep-Sea Habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, C.; Skarke, A. D.; Mesick, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) is a network of common nomenclature that provides a comprehensive framework for organizing physical, biological, and chemical information about marine ecosystems. It was developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Center, in collaboration with other feral agencies and academic institutions, as a means for scientists to more easily access, compare, and integrate marine environmental data from a wide range of sources and time frames. CMECS has been endorsed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) as a national metadata standard. The research presented here is focused on the application of CMECS to deep-sea video and environmental data collected by the NOAA ROV Deep Discoverer and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico in 2011-2014. Specifically, a spatiotemporal index of the physical, chemical, biological, and geological features observed in ROV video records was developed in order to allow scientist, otherwise unfamiliar with the specific content of existing video data, to rapidly determine the abundance and distribution of features of interest, and thus evaluate the applicability of those video data to their research. CMECS units (setting, component, or modifier) for seafloor images extracted from high-definition ROV video data were established based upon visual assessment as well as analysis of coincident environmental sensor (temperature, conductivity), navigation (ROV position, depth, attitude), and log (narrative dive summary) data. The resulting classification units were integrated into easily searchable textual and geo-databases as well as an interactive web map. The spatial distribution and associations of deep-sea habitats as indicated by CMECS classifications are described and optimized methodological approaches for application of CMECS to deep-sea video and environmental data are presented.

  16. Stream Tracker: Crowd sourcing and remote sensing to monitor stream flow intermittence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puntenney, K.; Kampf, S. K.; Newman, G.; Lefsky, M. A.; Weber, R.; Gerlich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Streams that do not flow continuously in time and space support diverse aquatic life and can be critical contributors to downstream water supply. However, these intermittent streams are rarely monitored and poorly mapped. Stream Tracker is a community powered stream monitoring project that pairs citizen contributed observations of streamflow presence or absence with a network of streamflow sensors and remotely sensed data from satellites to track when and where water is flowing in intermittent stream channels. Citizens can visit sites on roads and trails to track flow and contribute their observations to the project site hosted by CitSci.org. Data can be entered using either a mobile application with offline capabilities or an online data entry portal. The sensor network provides a consistent record of streamflow and flow presence/absence across a range of elevations and drainage areas. Capacitance, resistance, and laser sensors have been deployed to determine the most reliable, low cost sensor that could be mass distributed to track streamflow intermittence over a larger number of sites. Streamflow presence or absence observations from the citizen and sensor networks are then compared to satellite imagery to improve flow detection algorithms using remotely sensed data from Landsat. In the first two months of this project, 1,287 observations have been made at 241 sites by 24 project members across northern and western Colorado.

  17. Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. II. Convolution method and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, P. M.; DeSimone, L. A.; Moench, A. F.

    2000-05-01

    In this second of two papers, analytical step-response functions, developed in the companion paper for several cases of transient hydraulic interaction between a fully penetrating stream and a confined, leaky, or water-table aquifer, are used in the convolution integral to calculate aquifer heads, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage that occur in response to stream-stage fluctuations and basinwide recharge or evapotranspiration. Two computer programs developed on the basis of these step-response functions and the convolution integral are applied to the analysis of hydraulic interaction of two alluvial stream-aquifer systems in the northeastern and central United States. These applications demonstrate the utility of the analytical functions and computer programs for estimating aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties, recharge rates, streambank seepage rates, and bank storage. Analysis of the water-table aquifer adjacent to the Blackstone River in Massachusetts suggests that the very shallow depth of water table and associated thin unsaturated zone at the site cause the aquifer to behave like a confined aquifer (negligible specific yield). This finding is consistent with previous studies that have shown that the effective specific yield of an unconfined aquifer approaches zero when the capillary fringe, where sediment pores are saturated by tension, extends to land surface. Under this condition, the aquifer's response is determined by elastic storage only. Estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, and recharge for a water-table aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River in eastern Iowa, determined by the use of analytical methods, are in close agreement with those estimated by use of a more complex, multilayer numerical model of the aquifer. Streambank leakance of the semipervious streambank materials also was estimated for the site. The streambank-leakance parameter may be considered to be a general (or lumped

  18. Virtual viewpoint synthesis in multi-view video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Yang, Shiqiang

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual viewpoint video synthesis algorithm to satisfy the following three aims: low computing consuming; real time interpolation and acceptable video quality. In contrast with previous technologies, this method obtain incompletely 3D structure using neighbor video sources instead of getting total 3D information with all video sources, so that the computation is reduced greatly. So we demonstrate our interactive multi-view video synthesis algorithm in a personal computer. Furthermore, adopting the method of choosing feature points to build the correspondence between the frames captured by neighbor cameras, we need not require camera calibration. Finally, our method can be used when the angle between neighbor cameras is 25-30 degrees that it is much larger than common computer vision experiments. In this way, our method can be applied into many applications such as sports live, video conference, etc.

  19. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

  20. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.