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Sample records for vietnam shifting species

  1. A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies. Methods Here we compare microbiological, clinical and epidemiological data from patients with shigellosis over three different periods in southern Vietnam spanning14 years. Results Our data demonstrates a shift in dominant infecting species (S. flexneri to S. sonnei) and resistance profile of the organisms circulating in southern Vietnam. We find that there was no significant variation in the syndromes associated with either S. sonnei or S. flexneri, yet the clinical features of the disease are more severe in later observations. Conclusions Our findings show a change in clinical presentation of shigellosis in this setting, as the disease may be now more pronounced, this is concurrent with a change in antimicrobial resistance profile. These data highlight the socio-economic development of southern Vietnam and should guide future vaccine development and deployment strategies. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55945881 PMID:20003464

  2. Two new species of Nemouridae (Plecoptera) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2017-05-23

    Two new species belonging to the family Nemouridae, Nemoura kontumensis sp. nov. and Amphinemura konplongensis sp. nov. are described from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Remarks on the affinities with related species are given.

  3. Three new species of the water strider genus Rhyacobates Esaki, 1923 (Hemiptera: Gerridae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, A D; Nguyen, X Q

    2016-06-13

    Three new species: Rhyacobates zetteli sp.n., R. angustus sp.n., and R. constrictus sp.n., all from mountainous areas of northern Vietnam, are described. With these new taxa, a total of six species of Rhyacobates has been recorded from       Vietnam. A key to species of Rhyacobates occurring in Vietnam is provided.

  4. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  5. Indonemoura annamensis-a new species of stonefly from Vietnam (Plecoptera: Nemouridae).

    PubMed

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2016-06-07

    The amphinemurine genus Indonemoura Baumann (1975) was proposed for species previously included in the genera Protonemura Kempny and Nemoura Latreille. Baumann (1975) designated P. indica Kimmins, 1947 (in Kimmins 1946) as the type species. He also transferred 14 additional species from Protonemura and Nemoura into this genus. The genus is distributed mainly in the Oriental region (only one species from Tibet, close to the eastern border of the Palaearctic Region) and many new species have been added in the last decades (Zwick & Sivec 1980; Shimizu 1994a & b; Zhu et al. 2002; Li et al. 2005; Li & Yang 2005, 2006; Wang et al. 2006; Sivec & Stark 2010) including presently 53 species (DeWalt et al. 2009). Sivec & Stark (2010) first described three Indonemoura species from Vietnam, I. angulata, I. clavata, and I. tricantha. These three species are the only Indonemoura presently known for Vietnam.

  6. Psammon rotifers in Central Vietnam, with the descriptions of three new species (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Dang, Mau Trinh; Segers, Hendrik; Sanoamuang, La-Orsri

    2015-09-15

    In order to address the dearth of information on Rotifera in Vietnam, and especially on rotifers inhabiting freshwater psammon in Southeast Asia, we collected and examined twenty-five hygropsammon samples from Bau Thiem Lake, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam. A total of eighty-nine species-level rotifer taxa were identified, belonging to 21 genera and 13 families. Of these, 48 taxa (54%) are new to Vietnam, including three species, Lecane climacois Harring & Myers, 1926, Notommata cerberus (Gosse, 1886) and Trichocerca intermedia (Stenroos, 1898) that are new to the Oriental region, and three species, Lecane phapi n. sp., Lecane dorysimilis n. sp. and Trichocerca bauthiemensis n. sp. that are new to science. These, and some additional rare species are commented upon and illustrated. We estimated that the α-diversity of psammon rotifers in Bau Thiem Lake may be as high as 99 (SD=8.4; Chao2) or 115 (Jacknife2) taxa. These results indicate a high potential of rotifer diversity in the hygropsammon at Bau Thiem Lake, central Vietnam.

  7. Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-06-22

    Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium are described and figured: P. striatum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh and Thai Nguyen) and P. concavum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Cao Bang). A key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  8. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam. PMID:27695048

  9. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country's status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam.

  10. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic diversity and cross-species transmission of kobuviruses in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Ivens, Alasdair; O’Toole, Aine; Bryant, Juliet E; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Thwaites, Guy E; Baker, Stephen; Simmonds, Peter; Woolhouse, Mark Ej

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Cross-species transmission of viruses poses a sustained threat to public health. Due to increased contact between humans and other animal species the possibility exists for cross-species transmissions and ensuing disease outbreaks. By using conventional PCR amplification and next generation sequencing, we obtained 130 partial or full genome kobuvirus sequences from humans in a sentinel cohort in Vietnam and various mammalian hosts including bats, rodents, pigs, cats, and civets. The evolution of kobuviruses in different hosts was analysed using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. We estimated and compared time of origin of kobuviruses in different host orders; we also examined the cross-species transmission of kobuviruses within the same host order and between different host orders. Our data provide new knowledge of rodent and bat kobuviruses, which are most closely related to human kobuviruses. The novel bat kobuviruses isolated from bat roosts in Southern Vietnam were genetically distinct from previously described bat kobuviruses, but closely related to kobuviruses found in rodents. We additionally found evidence of frequent cross-species transmissions of kobuviruses within rodents. Overall, our phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple cross-species transmissions both within and among mammalian species, which increases our understanding of kobuviruses genetic diversity and the complexity of their evolutionary history. PMID:29449965

  12. Cyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa.

    PubMed

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Perse, Amanda; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Desmecht, Daniel; Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Daniel, Achukwi Mbunkah; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Randriamampionona, Njary; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-12-18

    Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution.

  13. Taxonomic notes on the species of the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-02

    A taxonomic study on the solitary wasps in the vespid genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, from Vietnam is presented. One species previously identified as A. (Anterhynchium) abdominale abdominale (Illiger, 1802) is described as new, namely A. punctatum Nguyen, sp. nov. Antechynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) and A. (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852) are newly recorded from Vietnam. New synonymy is proposed for A. flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) =A. flavolineatum malaisei van der Vecht, 1963, syn. nov. A. coracinum van der Vecht sensu Girish Kumar (2013) is a misidentification of A. f. flavomarginatum (Smith), and the record of this species from Pakistan and India belongs to A. f. flavolineatum. A key to species of the genus from Vietnam is provided. 

  14. First record of the cicada genus Semia Matsumura (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Vietnam, with the description of one new species and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Hayashi, Masami; Yang, Jeng-Tze

    2012-01-01

    The first record of the genus Semia Matsumura (Cicadidae: Cicadinae, Cicadini) from Vietnam is presented. One new species, Semia spinosasp. n., is described from southern Vietnam. Photos of the adult, illustrations of the male genitalia, a distribution map and biological data are provided. A key to the species of Semia based on the male adults is also given.

  15. Macrosolen bidoupensis (Loranthaceae), a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Binh, Hoang Thi; Komada, Natsuki; Wai, Jarearnsak Sae; Naiki, Akiyo; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Toyama, Hironori; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Macrosolen bidoupensis Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov. (Loranthaceae) is newly described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park in Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam. The new species is characterized by small broadly elliptic to circular leaves, sessile to short petioles, slightly cordate to rounded leaf bases, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins and a basally green corolla tube. An illustration, a summary of DNA barcoding of the plastid genes rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Macrosolen in Vietnam are provided. PMID:28781562

  16. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Pham, Anh Van; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Hoang, Chung Van; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-07-13

    We describe two new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of a new reptile collection from the limestone karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus otai sp. nov. from Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve and Cyrtodactylus bobrovi sp. nov. from Ngoc Son-Ngo Luong Nature Reserve can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by their genetic distinction and morphological differences in number of precloacal pores, femoral scales, ventral scales, lamellae, subcaudals and dorsal tubercle arrangement, as well as in size and color pattern. In phylogenetic analyses, both new species are nested in a clade containing taxa from northwestern and northcentral Vietnam and northern Laos, i.e., C. bichnganae and C. cf. martini from northwestern Vietnam, C. puhuensis from northcentral Vietnam, and C. spelaeus, C. vilaphongi, and C. wayakonei from northern Laos.

  17. The millipede genus Enghoffosoma Golovatch, 1993 recorded in Vietnam
    for the first time, with descriptions of three new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh D; Golovatch, Sergei I

    2016-07-20

    The genus Enghoffosoma is recorded from Vietnam for the first time, altogether with six species involved. Two species, E. lanceolatum Likhitrakarn et al., 2014 and E. anchoriforme Likhitrakarn et al., 2014, were previously known only from the western part of Laos, thus being new to the fauna of Vietnam. One more species, Sundanina fedorenkoi Golovatch, 2016, very recently described from Dak Lak Province, southern Vietnam, is formally transferred to Enghoffosoma, comb. nov., based both on a strict topotype and a sample from Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam. Three other species are described as new: E. triangulare sp. nov., E. retrorsum sp. nov. and E. digitatum sp. nov. A key to all six species of Enghoffosoma currently known to occur in Vietnam is provided.

  18. Seven new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) in Northern Vietnam and Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hong; Radbouchoom, Sirilak; Nguyen, Hieu Quang; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Nguyen4, Khang Sinh; Shui, Yu-Min

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Since 2016, KIB (Kunming Institute of Botany) and CPC (Centre for Plant Conservation of Vietnam) have conducted several surveys in the transboundary karst regions in Northern Vietnam and Southern China and seven new species in the genus Begonia Linn. (Begoniaceae) are firstly described. Amongst them, two species, Begonia albopunctata Y.M. Shui, W.H. Chen & H.Q. Nguyen and B. erectocarpa H.Q. Nguyen, Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen, respectively belong to section Sphenanthera with berry fruits and section Leprosae with clavate berry fruits; four species, B. gulongshanensis Y.M. Shui & W. H. Chen, B. minissima H.Q. Nguyen, Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen, B. mollissima Y.M. Shui, H.Q. Nguyen & W.H. Chen, B. rhytidophylla Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen, belong to section Coelocentrum with parietal placentation; one species, Begonia bambusetorum H.Q. Nguyen, Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen, belongs to section Diploclinium with 3-loculed ovary and capsules. The diagnostic characters of these species are described and illustrated in the text and photographs. PMID:29416422

  19. Two new species and new records of chiggers (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae,
    Trombiculidae) from birds in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kaluz, Stanislav K; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-11

    A total of 12 chigger species (Acariformes: Trombiculidae) occurred on 7 bird species in Vietnam. Two new species, namely Neoschoengastia vietnamensis sp. nov. and Hypogastia stekolnikovi sp. nov. are described, figured and compared with similar species placed in relevant genera using differential diagnoses of related species. Figures and diagnosis of Leptotrombidium taiyuanense Tian and Wen, 1984 are added. Odontacarus audy (Radford, 1946), Leptotrombidium allosetum Wang, Liao and Lin, 1981, L. taiyuanense, Leptotrombidium hanseni Traub and Lakshana, 1966, Leptotrombidium kunshui Wen and Xiang, 1984, Leptotrombidium paradux Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, Leptotrombidium turdicola Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, Neotrombicula elegans Schluger, 1966 and Neoschoengastia longitar-salis Schluger and Belskaya, 1966 were recorded in Vietnam for the first time.

  20. Description of a new tick species, Ixodes collaris n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), from bats (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő

    2016-06-10

    In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.

  1. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang; Chen, Xue-xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus (Planitonia subg. n.: type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n.) is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided. PMID:29362527

  2. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-11-05

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams.

  3. A new species of Chirixalus from Vietnam (Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Orlov, Nikolai

    2004-06-01

    A new rhacophorid species is described on the basis of two specimens collected from Vu Quang Nature Reserve, Ha Tinh Province, central Vietnam. The species has inner and outer fingers that are not opposable, but in order to avoid taxonomic confusion, it is tentatively assigned to the genus Chirixalus. It is a large Chirixalus, having robust body with warty, grayish dorsum and immaculate ventrum, and lacking large pollex, white granules around anus and on limbs, and dark markings on sides of body. It is most similar to C. eiffingeri and C. idiootocus in external morphology, and much different from the other congeners. Generic definition of the genera Chirixalus and Kurixalus is discussed.

  4. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, VAN Lun; Pham, Xuan DA; Adler, Peter H

    2017-05-05

    The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country.      Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex

  5. Scorpions from the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam and description of a new species of Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2011-10-01

    The scorpion fauna of the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam is briefly discussed and a new species, Chaerilus phami sp. n. is described. The new species is morphologically distinct from all the other species of Chaerilus described from the mainland in Vietnam. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of the cicada genus Semia Matsumura, 1917 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-thai; Constant, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    A new species of cicada, Semia gialaiensis, is described from Kon Ka Kinh National Park in central Vietnam. Photos of the adult, illustrations of the male genitalia, a distribution map and biological data are provided. A key to the species of Semia based on the male adults is also given.

  7. Descriptions of four new species of Semia Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Psithyristriini) from Vietnam, with a key to the species of Semia.

    PubMed

    Emery, David L; Lee, Young June; Pham, Hong-Thai

    2017-01-04

    This paper provides descriptions of four new species of the genus Semia Matsumura, 1917 from Vietnam: Semia magna sp. nov., Semia spiritus sp. nov., Semia pallida sp. nov., and Semia albusequi sp. nov. A key to the 13 species of Semia is provided.

  8. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Ivana; De Patrizio, Alessandro; Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  9. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  10. Cicada genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia, with a new species, a new record, and a key to the species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Lee, Young June; Constant, Jerome

    2015-03-03

    The genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 from Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed . Pomponia brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov. is described from Vietnam. Pomponia backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009 is added to the Cambodian cicada fauna. A key to the seven Vietnamese and Cambodian species of the genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 is provided: P. linearis (Walker, 1850), P. backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009, P. brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov., P. subtilita Lee, 2009, P. piceata Distant, 1905, P. daklakensis Sanborn, 2009, and P. orientalis (Distant, 1912). Synonymic lists, information on geographical distributions, and material examined for the Vietnamese and Cambodian species of Pomponia are provided.

  11. First record of Otibazo (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) outside of Japan, with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Grebennikov, Vasily V; Pham, Hong Thai

    2014-10-03

    A new species of wingless leaf litter weevil, Otibazo polyphemus sp. n., is described from Tam Dao, northern Vietnam. This is the fourth named species in the genus, with its three other species known only from Japan. Habitus and genitalia of the male holotype are illustrated and DNA barcoding data are provided. 

  12. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kohei Takenaka; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thi Huong; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Yasunami, Michio; Nguyen, Manh Duc; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-04-30

    During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A) among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1) the geographic distribution, which is potentially spreading along the Vietnam, China, Laos, and Myanmar borders

  13. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  14. A new species of Theloderma (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-09-14

    We describe a new species of Theloderma from northwestern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Theloderma annae sp. nov. is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following characters:  Size small, SVL 27.1-28.5 mm in males, 30.3-32.6 mm in females; head longer than wide;  vomerine teeth absent; snout long (SL/SVL 0.16-0.19); spines on upper eyelid absent;  tibiotarsal projection absent; dorsal skin smooth; dermal fringes on forearm and tarsus absent; dorsal surface grayish green; and throat and ventral surface of arms and thighs brown with white spots.

  15. Inconsistent Range Shifts within Species Highlight Idiosyncratic Responses to Climate Warming

    PubMed Central

    Gibson-Reinemer, Daniel K.; Rahel, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate in part determines species’ distributions, and species’ distributions are shifting in response to climate change. Strong correlations between the magnitude of temperature changes and the extent of range shifts point to warming temperatures as the single most influential factor causing shifts in species’ distributions species. However, other abiotic and biotic factors may alter or even reverse these patterns. The importance of temperature relative to these other factors can be evaluated by examining range shifts of the same species in different geographic areas. When the same species experience warming in different geographic areas, the extent to which they show range shifts that are similar in direction and magnitude is a measure of temperature’s importance. We analyzed published studies to identify species that have documented range shifts in separate areas. For 273 species of plants, birds, mammals, and marine invertebrates with range shifts measured in multiple geographic areas, 42-50% show inconsistency in the direction of their range shifts, despite experiencing similar warming trends. Inconsistency of within-species range shifts highlights how biotic interactions and local, non-thermal abiotic conditions may often supersede the direct physiological effects of temperature. Assemblages show consistent responses to climate change, but this predictability does not appear to extend to species considered individually. PMID:26162013

  16. A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung T; Nguyen, Anh D; Tran, Binh T T; Blakemore, Robert J

    2016-07-25

    The comprehensive checklist of earthworms in Vietnam is presented here listing 24 genera and 212 species arranged in eight families. For each species, bibliographic citations are given, including the original descriptions as well as notable citations affecting taxonomic status or distributional reports of a species. Distributions of each species are also provided. The bibliography contains all relevant papers for Vietnamese earthworms. Of 212 species, 114 have been recorded only in Vietnam, and 25 are cosmopolitan. New combinations are made for Amynthas acalifornicus (Do & Huynh, 1991) comb. nov., A. binhgiaensis (Le, 1994) comb. nov., Metaphire catbaensis (Thai & Le, 1993) comb. nov., M. khoii (Do & Tran, 1994) comb. nov., M. phaluongana (Do & Huynh, 1992) comb. nov., and M. mangophila (Nguyen, 2011) comb. nov., M. tripidoporophoratus (Thai & Nguyen, 1993) comb. nov. Additionally, Pheretima paraalexandri Nguyen, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Amynthas polychaetiferus (Thai, 1984).

  17. TET Offensive II Field Force Vietnam After Action Report 31 January - 18 February 1968

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-03-01

    and the 5th VC Division. V During this same period of time there were no majur shifts in ARVN forces . However III Corps shifted three...8217-".•: ’ ’SSIFJED U.S. ARMY. VIETNAM. II FIELD FORCE . TET OFFENSIVE II FIELD FORCE VIETNAM AFTER ACTION REPORT, 31 JANUARY-18 FEB- RUARY 1968...H FIELD FORCE VIETNAM AFTER ACTION REPORT 31 January-18 February 1968 RECORD K0- ! FlSjl fi-.-A-,>-•: it tT*\\ : *si h s» -wP Mr-, £< St

  18. Patterns of climate-induced density shifts of species: poleward shifts faster in northern boreal birds than in southern birds.

    PubMed

    Virkkala, Raimo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2014-10-01

    Climate change has been shown to cause poleward range shifts of species. These shifts are typically demonstrated using presence-absence data, which can mask the potential changes in the abundance of species. Moreover, changes in the mean centre of weighted density of species are seldom examined, and comparisons between these two methods are even rarer. Here, we studied the change in the mean weighted latitude of density (MWLD) of 94 bird species in Finland, northern Europe, using data covering a north-south gradient of over 1000 km from the 1970s to the 2010s. The MWLD shifted northward on average 1.26 km yr(-1) , and this shift was significantly stronger in northern species compared to southern species. These shifts can be related to climate warming during the study period, because the annual temperature had increased more in northern Finland (by 1.7 °C) than in southern Finland (by 1.4 °C), although direct causal links cannot be shown. Density shifts of species distributed over the whole country did not differ from shifts in species situated on the edge of the species range in southern and northern species. This means that density shifts occur both in the core and on the edge of species distribution. The species-specific comparison of MWLD values with corresponding changes in the mean weighted latitude using presence-absence atlas data (MWL) revealed that the MWLD moved more slowly than the MWL in the atlas data in the southern species examined, but more rapidly in the northern species. Our findings highlight that population densities are also moving rapidly towards the poles and the use of presence-absence data can mask the shift of population densities. We encourage use of abundance data in studies considering the effects of climate change on biodiversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.

  20. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  1. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  2. A new species of Limnonectes (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Ziegler, Thomas; Wu, Zheng Jun; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2017-05-24

    A new species of Limnonectes is described from northeastern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: Large size (SVL 50.1-68.9 in males, 45.5-63.0 mm in females); males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.48), head longer than wide; vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.16 in males, 0.15 in females); tympanum distinct (TD/ED 0.63 in males, 0.60 in females); dorsal surface of head, body and flanks with flattened tubercles; dorsal surface of tibia possessing small tubercles; supratympanic fold present; dorsolateral fold absent; webbing formula I0-0II0-1/3III0-1/3IV1/2-0V; in life, dorsum yellowish brown with a dark brown marking; throat and chest white with dark brown marking; ventral surface of fore and hind limbs as well as belly white. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is placed as the sister taxon to Limnonectes fujianensis with strong statistical support in all analyses.

  3. Mitogenic activity of new lectins from seeds of wild Artocarpus species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Blasco, E; Ngoc, L D; Aucouturier, P; Preud'Homme, J L; Barra, A

    1996-05-01

    Proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by new lectins purified from seeds of differents Artocarpus species from Vietnam (A. asperulus, A. heterophyllus, A. masticata, A. melinoxylus, A. parva and A. petelotii) was studied and compared to those of the lectin jacalin purified from jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) seeds collected in the island La Réunion. All lectins stimulated human PBMC to proliferate, with a variable efficiency of the mitogenic activity. Phenotypic analysis of cells recovered after 7 day-cultures showed that these lectins mostly stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results suggest that these lectins from different Artocarpus species are similar in terms of their mitogenic activity although their structural features are not identical.

  4. Constraints to species' elevational range shifts as climate changes.

    PubMed

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas; Pimm, Stuart L

    2011-02-01

    Predicting whether the ranges of tropical species will shift to higher elevations in response to climate change requires models that incorporate data on topography and land use. We incorporated temperature gradients and land-cover data from the current ranges of species in a model of range shifts in response to climate change. We tested four possible scenarios of amphibian movement on a tropical mountain: movement upslope through and to land cover suitable for the species; movement upslope to land-cover types that will not sustain survival and reproduction; movement upslope to areas that previously were outside the species' range; and movement upslope to cooler areas within the current range. Areas in the final scenario will become isolated as climate continues to change. In our scenarios more than 30% of the range of 21 of 46 amphibian species in the tropical Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is likely to become isolated as climate changes. More than 30% of the range of 13 amphibian species would shift to areas that currently are unlikely to sustain survival and reproduction. Combined, over 70% of the current range of seven species would become thermally isolated or shift to areas that currently are unlikely to support survival and reproduction. The constraints on species' movements to higher elevations in response to climate change can increase considerably the number of species threatened by climate change in tropical mountains. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the western Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Rowley, Jodi J L; Gogoleva, Svetlana I; Vassilieva, Anna B; Galoyan, Eduard A; Orlov, Nikolai L

    2015-03-12

    We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Loc Bac forest in the western part of the Langbian Plateau in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam. Leptolalax pyrrhops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) presence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings, including blackish spots on flanks and dark canthal and/or temporal streaks; (2) rudimentary webbing on toes; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin finely shagreened with numerous small tubercles and pustules; (5) medium size for the genus (30.3-33.9 mm in 2 adult males, 30.8-34.3 mm in 7 females); (6) grey-pinkish to dark brownish-violet chest and belly with numerous whitish speckles, also covering the lateral sides of body; (7) ventrolateral glands small, indistinct, do not form a distinct line; (8) pectoral glands comparatively small, comprising 1-3% of adult SVL; (10) iris bicolored, typically bright orange-red in upper two-thirds, fading to silvery green in lower third. The male advertisement call of the new species is also unique among those Leptolalax species for which calls are known, with a single long 'introductory' note, consisting of 5-12 pulses, followed by of 4-5 predominantly single-pulsed notes, and an average dominant frequency of 1.91-2.23 kHz. From the morphologically similar L. applebyi, L. melicus and L. bidoupensis, Leptolalax pyrrhops sp. nov. can be further distinguished by 13.5%, 13.7% and 10.3% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA mtDNA gene. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 800-1100 m elevation. We suggest the species should be considered as Data Deficient following IUCN's Red List categories. To date our finding represents the southernmost known record of the genus Leptolalax from Vietnam.

  6. Revision of the family Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) from Vietnam, with the description of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, T. C.; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A total of 16 genera and 68 species of Chalcididae of Vietnam are taxonomically treated. Thirteen new species are described; the remaining 55 species are keyed, redescribed or provided with a diagnosis. Among these 37 species and eleven genera are recorded for the first time from Vietnam. The thirteen new species are: Antrocephalus neogalleriae Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n.; Brachymeria neowiebesina Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Brachymeria semirusula Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Dirhinus neoclaviger Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Epitranus narendrani van Achterberg, sp. n., Epitranus neonigriceps Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Heydoniella vietnamensis Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Megachalcis vietnamicus Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Notaspidium vietnamicum Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Oxycoryphe neotenax Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Sthulapada neopadata Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., Sthulapada vietnamensis Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n., and Tanycoryphus masii Narendran & van Achterberg, sp. n. The newly recorded genera are: Antrocephalus Kirby, 1883; Haltichella Spinola, 1811; Heydoniella Narendran, 2003; Hockeria Walker, 1834; Kriechbaumerella Dalla Torre, 1894; Notaspidium Dalla Torre, 1897; Oxycoryphe Kriechbaumer, 1894; Psilochalcis Kieffer, 1904; Sthulapada Narendran, 1989; Tanycorphus Cameron, 1905, and Trigonura Sichel, 1865. The following known species are recorded for the first time from Vietnam: Antrocephalus decipiens (Masi, 1929); Antrocephalus lugubris (Masi, 1932); Antrocephalus maculipennis (Cameron, 1905); Antrocephalus nasutus (Holmgren, 1869); Antrocephalus sepyra (Walker, 1846); Antrocephalus validicornis (Holmgren, 1868); Brachymeria alternipes (Walker, 1871); Brachymeria aurea (Girault, 1915); Brachymeria coxodentata Joseph, Narendran & Joy, 1972; Brachymeria euploeae (Westwood, 1837); Brachymeria hime Habu, 1960; Brachymeria jambolana Gahan, 1942; Brachymeria kamijoi

  7. Effects of species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity on simulated tree species distribution shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Thompson, Frank R; Spetich, Martin A; Fraser, Jacob S

    2018-09-01

    Demographic processes (fecundity, dispersal, colonization, growth, and mortality) and their interactions with environmental changes are not well represented in current climate-distribution models (e.g., niche and biophysical process models) and constitute a large uncertainty in projections of future tree species distribution shifts. We investigate how species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity affect species distribution shifts. We used a species-specific, spatially explicit forest dynamic model LANDIS PRO, which incorporates site-scale tree species demography and competition, landscape-scale dispersal and disturbances, and regional-scale abiotic controls, to simulate the distribution shifts of four representative tree species with distinct biological traits in the central hardwood forest region of United States. Our results suggested that biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age) were important for determining tree species distribution shifts. Environmental heterogeneity, on average, reduced shift rates by 8% compared to perfect environmental conditions. The average distribution shift rates ranged from 24 to 200myear -1 under climate change scenarios, implying that many tree species may not able to keep up with climate change because of limited dispersal capacity, long generation time, and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that climate-distribution models should include species demographic processes (e.g., fecundity, dispersal, colonization), biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age), and environmental heterogeneity (e.g., habitat fragmentation) to improve future predictions of species distribution shifts in response to changing climates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  9. Paragonimus and Paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes. PMID:24516264

  10. After-shift Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms in Female Workers and Work-related Factors: A Cross-sectional Study in a Seafood Processing Factory in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy Thi Thu; Phan, Chinh Thi Thuy; Pham, Tuan Cong; Nguyen, Quynh Thuy

    2016-01-01

    The seafood processing industry has been developing and providing marked contribution to Vietnam's economic growth in recent years. However, information on working conditions and their impacts to workers' health in this sector, focusing on musculoskeletal problems in female workers, has been poorly documented. This paper examines the prevalence of after-shift musculoskeletal disorder symptoms (A-MSDS) and work-related factors in female workers in a seafood processing factory in Vietnam. As part of a comprehensive study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in one seafood processing factory in the center of Vietnam in 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 394 female workers to collect information about their A-MSDS state, demographic characteristics, health status and work conditions. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were applied to describe and analyse the results. Nearly four-fifths of female workers experienced MSDs in at least one body part (77.7%) and 20.1% of them had MSDs in all investigated regions. The prevalence of A-MSDS in different body parts markedly varied, with the proportion of pain in the hips and lower extremities being as high as 53.3%, followed by pain in the shoulders and upper extremities (42.6%) and the neck (41.1%). A humid working environment, exposure to vibration and chemicals as well as taxing task demands and work organizations were found to significantly contribute to the increased risk of after-shift musculoskeletal disorders in female workers. Approximately 80% of female workers in the seafood processing factory experienced musculoskeletal pains after work, especially in the hips, extremities, neck and shoulders which were contributed by work conditions and task demands.

  11. After-shift Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms in Female Workers and Work-related Factors: A Cross-sectional Study in a Seafood Processing Factory in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy Thi Thu; Phan, Chinh Thi Thuy; Pham, Tuan Cong; Nguyen, Quynh Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The seafood processing industry has been developing and providing marked contribution to Vietnam's economic growth in recent years. However, information on working conditions and their impacts to workers' health in this sector, focusing on musculoskeletal problems in female workers, has been poorly documented. Objectives This paper examines the prevalence of after-shift musculoskeletal disorder symptoms (A-MSDS) and work-related factors in female workers in a seafood processing factory in Vietnam. Materials and Methods As part of a comprehensive study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in one seafood processing factory in the center of Vietnam in 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 394 female workers to collect information about their A-MSDS state, demographic characteristics, health status and work conditions. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were applied to describe and analyse the results. Results Nearly four-fifths of female workers experienced MSDs in at least one body part (77.7%) and 20.1% of them had MSDs in all investigated regions. The prevalence of A-MSDS in different body parts markedly varied, with the proportion of pain in the hips and lower extremities being as high as 53.3%, followed by pain in the shoulders and upper extremities (42.6%) and the neck (41.1%). A humid working environment, exposure to vibration and chemicals as well as taxing task demands and work organizations were found to significantly contribute to the increased risk of after-shift musculoskeletal disorders in female workers. Conclusion Approximately 80% of female workers in the seafood processing factory experienced musculoskeletal pains after work, especially in the hips, extremities, neck and shoulders which were contributed by work conditions and task demands. PMID:29546192

  12. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-02-26

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis.

  13. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  14. Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ching; Hill, Jane K; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Roy, David B; Thomas, Chris D

    2011-08-19

    The distributions of many terrestrial organisms are currently shifting in latitude or elevation in response to changing climate. Using a meta-analysis, we estimated that the distributions of species have recently shifted to higher elevations at a median rate of 11.0 meters per decade, and to higher latitudes at a median rate of 16.9 kilometers per decade. These rates are approximately two and three times faster than previously reported. The distances moved by species are greatest in studies showing the highest levels of warming, with average latitudinal shifts being generally sufficient to track temperature changes. However, individual species vary greatly in their rates of change, suggesting that the range shift of each species depends on multiple internal species traits and external drivers of change. Rapid average shifts derive from a wide diversity of responses by individual species.

  15. Prevalence, genetic diversity and recombination of species G enteroviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E.; Bryant, Juliet E.

    2014-01-01

    Picornaviruses infecting pigs, described for many years as ‘porcine enteroviruses’, have recently been recognized as distinct viruses within three distinct genera (Teschovirus, Sapelovirus and Enterovirus). To better characterize the epidemiology and genetic diversity of members of the Enterovirus genus, faecal samples from pigs from four provinces in Vietnam were screened by PCR using conserved enterovirus (EV)-specific primers from the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). High rates of infection were recorded in pigs on all farms, with detection frequencies of approximately 90 % in recently weaned pigs but declining to 40 % in those aged over 1 year. No differences in EV detection rates were observed between pigs with and without diarrhoea [74 % (n = 70) compared with 72 % (n = 128)]. Genetic analysis of consensus VP4/VP2 and VP1 sequences amplified from a subset of EV-infected pigs identified species G EVs in all samples. Among these, VP1 sequence comparisons identified six type 1 and seven type 6 variants, while four further VP1 sequences failed to group with any previously identified EV-G types. These have now been formally assigned as EV-G types 8–11 by the Picornavirus Study Group. Comparison of VP1, VP4/VP2, 3Dpol and 5′ UTRs of study samples and those available on public databases showed frequent, bootstrap-supported differences in their phylogenies indicative of extensive within-species recombination between genome regions. In summary, we identified extremely high frequencies of infection with EV-G in pigs in Vietnam, substantial genetic diversity and recombination within the species, and evidence for a much larger number of circulating EV-G types than currently described. PMID:24323635

  16. Description of two new Calicnemia from Vietnam and central Laos with notes on their congeners in Vietnam (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom; Karube, Haruki

    2017-02-16

    Descriptions are given of two new species of Calicnemia: C. akahara sp. nov. from central and southern Vietnam and C. hamata sp. nov. from central Laos. C. soccifera Yu & Chen, 2013, and C. haksik Wilson & Reels, 2003, are recorded for the first time from Vietnam; C. uenoi Asahina, 1997, is redescribed with new illustrations provided of its anal appendages and genital ligula; and the occurrence of C. mortoni (Laidlaw, 1917) in Vietnam is discussed.

  17. More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Mcleod, David S; Kurlbaum, Scuyler; Hoang, Ngoc Van

    2015-04-15

    A new species in the dicroglossid genus Limnonectes known only from Ha Giang province, Vietnam is described. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial 12S and 16S gene regions places the species within the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex and demonstrates it to be the sister taxon to an Indochinese clade containing L. isanensis, L. jarujini, L. megastomias, and L. taylori. The new species occurs in syntopy with L. bannaensis. Both molecular and morphological data support the recognition of this lineage as a new species. Notably, the relatively diminutive size of this species distinguishes Limnonectes nguyenorum sp. nov. from all other members of the L. kuhlii Complex.

  18. Tracking lags in historical plant species' shifts in relation to regional climate change.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jeremy D; Givnish, Thomas J; Waller, Donald M

    2017-03-01

    Can species shift their distributions fast enough to track changes in climate? We used abundance data from the 1950s and the 2000s in Wisconsin to measure shifts in the distribution and abundance of 78 forest-understory plant species over the last half-century and compare these shifts to changes in climate. We estimated temporal shifts in the geographic distribution of each species using vectors to connect abundance-weighted centroids from the 1950s and 2000s. These shifts in distribution reflect colonization, extirpation, and changes in abundance within sites, separately quantified here. We then applied climate analog analyses to compute vectors representing the climate change that each species experienced. Species shifted mostly to the northwest (mean: 49 ± 29 km) primarily reflecting processes of colonization and changes in local abundance. Analog climates for these species shifted even further to the northwest, however, exceeding species' shifts by an average of 90 ± 40 km. Most species thus failed to match recent rates of climate change. These lags decline in species that have colonized more sites and those with broader site occupancy, larger seed mass, and higher habitat fidelity. Thus, species' traits appear to affect their responses to climate change, but relationships are weak. As climate change accelerates, these lags will likely increase, potentially threatening the persistence of species lacking the capacity to disperse to new sites or locally adapt. However, species with greater lags have not yet declined more in abundance. The extent of these threats will likely depend on how other drivers of ecological change and interactions among species affect their responses to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Serum dioxin in Vietnam-era veterans - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-14

    Agent orange, a defoliant used in Vietnam, was a mixture of 2,4-DD and 2,4,5-TS. During manufacture 2,4,5-T was contaminated with TCDD, a compound with marked toxicity in some species of experimental animals. In 1979, the US Congress responded to concerns of Vietnam veterans by passing Public Law 96-151 mandating epidemiologic studies of the possible health effects on Vietnam veterans of exposure to herbicides and their associated dioxin contaminants. In 1983, CDC developed a protocol for a historical cohort study of US Army veterans who had served in heavily sprayed areas of Vietnam. A report on that study is presented.

  20. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-04-02

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation.

  1. U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    contributing factor is over 20 years of rapid economic growth in Vietnam, ushered in by a 1986 shift to a more market -oriented economic system. Bilateral...the United States officially recognize it as a market economy. There have also been problems with U.S. imports of specific products from Vietnam. In...111th Congress may also weigh in on clothing and fish imports from Vietnam, or its designation as a market or non- market economy. Finally, if

  2. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Dau, Vinh Q; Cao, Trung T

    2017-06-01

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from north central Vietnam. Leptolalax puhoatensis sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of having a body size range of 24.2-28.1 mm in eight adult males and 27.3-31.5 mm in three adult females; distinct dorsolateral markings including blackish spots on the flank and dark canthal and/or temporal streaks; males with a reddish-brown venter, often with faint white dusting and females with a pale pink venter; skin on dorsum with tiny, indistinct, low tubercles in preservative, more distinct and forming low dorsal ridges on dorsal surface in life; toes with webbing basal and narrow lateral fringes; iris copper in upper half and golden in lower half; and a call consisting of a single note and a dominant frequency of 4.9-5.6 kHz (at 22.3-25.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. puhoatensis sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available for known species in the genus are ≥6.3%.

  3. Distribution and nests of paper wasps of Polistes (Polistella) in northeastern Vietnam, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong; Kojima, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of the subgenus Polistella Ashmead of the genus Polistes Latreille including a new species, P. brunetus Nguyen & Kojima, sp. n. described here, are recognized to occur in northeastern Vietnam, the easternmost part of the eastern slope of the Himalayas. A key to these species is provided. Their distributional records are remarked. Nests of P. delhiensis Das & Gupta, P. mandarinus de Saussure and P. brunetus are also described. PMID:24478582

  4. A new species of Perichaena (Myxomycetes) with reticulate spores from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Novozhilov, Yuri K; Stephenson, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Perichaena, described herein as P. echinolophospora, was isolated in moist chamber cultures from substrate samples collected in the monsoon deciduous lowland tropical forests (Cat Tien National Park, Vinh Cuu Nature Reserve) and mixed montane tropical forests (Bi Dup-Nui Ba Nature Reserve) of southern Vietnam. Perichaena echinolophospora was recovered from ground litter, aerial litter and the bark of living trees. The morphology of representative specimens was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, and micrographs of relevant details are provided. Spore ornamentation consists of a regular reticulum with large meshes, 3-4 μm in wide and limited by denticulate ridges, 1.7-2.2 μm tall, and clusters of small warts and rods densely distributed over the spore surface within the meshes of the reticulum and visible only by SEM. The stability of the taxonomic characters of the species was confirmed by several collections obtained during three field seasons. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Longer growing seasons shift grassland vegetation towards more-productive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridley, Jason D.; Lynn, Josh S.; Grime, J. P.; Askew, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in plant functional ecology that provide a framework for predicting the responses of vegetation to environmental change, links between plant functional strategies and elevated temperatures are poorly understood. Here, we analyse the response of a species-rich grassland in northern England to two decades of temperature and rainfall manipulations in the context of the functional attributes of 21 coexisting species that represent a large array of resource-use strategies. Three principal traits, including body size (canopy height), tissue investment (leaf construction cost), and seed size, varied independently across species and reflect tradeoffs associated with competitiveness, stress tolerance, and colonization ability. Unlike past studies, our results reveal a strong association between functional traits and temperature regime; species favoured by extended growing seasons have taller canopies and faster assimilation rates, which has come at the expense of those species of high tissue investment. This trait-warming association was three times higher in deep soils, suggesting species shifts have been strongly mediated by competition. In contrast, vegetation shifts from rainfall manipulations have been associated only with tissue investment. Functional shifts towards faster growing species in response to warming may be responsible for a marginal increase in productivity in a system that was assumed to be nutrient-limited.

  6. Species invasion shifts the importance of predator dependence.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Delaney, David G

    2007-12-01

    The strength of interference between foraging individuals can influence per capita consumption rates, with important consequences for predator and prey populations and system stability. Here we demonstrate how the replacement of a previously established invader, the predatory crab Carcinus maenas, by the recently invading predatory crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus shifts predation from a species that experiences strong predator interference (strong predator dependence) to one that experiences weak predator interference (weak predator dependence). We demonstrate using field experiments that differences in the strength of predator dependence persist for these species both when they forage on a single focal prey species only (the mussel Mytilus edulis) and when they forage more broadly across the entire prey community. This shift in predator dependence with species replacement may be altering the biomass across trophic levels, consistent with theoretical predictions, as we show that H. sanguineus populations are much larger than C. maenas populations throughout their invaded ranges. Our study highlights that predator dependence may differ among predator species and demonstrates that different predatory impacts of two conspicuous invasive predators may be explained at least in part by different strengths of predator dependence.

  7. First molecular verification of Dixonius vietnamensis Das, 2004 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) with the description of a new species from Vinh Cuu Nature Reserve, Dong Nai Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Thomas; Botov, Andreas; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Bauer, Aaron M; Brennan, Ian G; Ngo, Hanh Thi; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2016-07-07

    Based on near-topotypic specimens of Dixonius vietnamensis from Khanh Hoa Province in southern Vietnam genetic analyses showed that the recently described D. taoi is sister to D. vietnamensis and several separate forms exist which previously have been misidentified as D. vietnamensis and D. siamensis. The Dixonius population from Vinh Cuu Nature Reserve, Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, represents an undescribed species. Dixonius minhlei sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners based on the following diagnostic characters: small size (up to 47.5 mm SVL); 7-9 supralabials; 14-15 rows of keeled tubercles on dorsum; 20-23 ventral scale rows; 7 or 8 precloacal pores in males; a canthal stripe running from rostrum through the eye and terminating at back of head; lateral second pair of postmentals maximum one quarter the size of first pair; dorsum olive gray with more or less discernible brownish olive blotches. This is the sixth species of Dixonius known to occur in Vietnam.

  8. Projecting shifts in thermal habitat for 686 species on the North American continental shelf

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Rebecca L.; Latour, Robert J.; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Seagraves, Richard J.; Pinsky, Malin L.

    2018-01-01

    Recent shifts in the geographic distribution of marine species have been linked to shifts in preferred thermal habitats. These shifts in distribution have already posed challenges for living marine resource management, and there is a strong need for projections of how species might be impacted by future changes in ocean temperatures during the 21st century. We modeled thermal habitat for 686 marine species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans using long-term ecological survey data from the North American continental shelves. These habitat models were coupled to output from sixteen general circulation models that were run under high (RCP 8.5) and low (RCP 2.6) future greenhouse gas emission scenarios over the 21st century to produce 32 possible future outcomes for each species. The models generally agreed on the magnitude and direction of future shifts for some species (448 or 429 under RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6, respectively), but strongly disagreed for other species (116 or 120 respectively). This allowed us to identify species with more or less robust predictions. Future shifts in species distributions were generally poleward and followed the coastline, but also varied among regions and species. Species from the U.S. and Canadian west coast including the Gulf of Alaska had the highest projected magnitude shifts in distribution, and many species shifted more than 1000 km under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Following a strong mitigation scenario consistent with the Paris Agreement would likely produce substantially smaller shifts and less disruption to marine management efforts. Our projections offer an important tool for identifying species, fisheries, and management efforts that are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. PMID:29768423

  9. Projecting shifts in thermal habitat for 686 species on the North American continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Morley, James W; Selden, Rebecca L; Latour, Robert J; Frölicher, Thomas L; Seagraves, Richard J; Pinsky, Malin L

    2018-01-01

    Recent shifts in the geographic distribution of marine species have been linked to shifts in preferred thermal habitats. These shifts in distribution have already posed challenges for living marine resource management, and there is a strong need for projections of how species might be impacted by future changes in ocean temperatures during the 21st century. We modeled thermal habitat for 686 marine species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans using long-term ecological survey data from the North American continental shelves. These habitat models were coupled to output from sixteen general circulation models that were run under high (RCP 8.5) and low (RCP 2.6) future greenhouse gas emission scenarios over the 21st century to produce 32 possible future outcomes for each species. The models generally agreed on the magnitude and direction of future shifts for some species (448 or 429 under RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6, respectively), but strongly disagreed for other species (116 or 120 respectively). This allowed us to identify species with more or less robust predictions. Future shifts in species distributions were generally poleward and followed the coastline, but also varied among regions and species. Species from the U.S. and Canadian west coast including the Gulf of Alaska had the highest projected magnitude shifts in distribution, and many species shifted more than 1000 km under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Following a strong mitigation scenario consistent with the Paris Agreement would likely produce substantially smaller shifts and less disruption to marine management efforts. Our projections offer an important tool for identifying species, fisheries, and management efforts that are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts.

  10. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D; LE, Duong T T; Cutajar, Timothy P; Nguyen, Tao T

    2017-03-16

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from Vietnam. Leptolalax petrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of having a medium-sized body (23.6-27.6 mm in 21 adult males, 30.3-47.0 mm in 17 adult females), immaculate white chest and belly, no distinct black markings on the head, highly tuberculate skin texture, toes lacking webbing and with narrow lateral fringes, and a call consisting of an average of four notes and a dominant frequency of 5.6-6.4 kHz (at 24.5-25.3 °C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. petrops sp. nov. and all homologous DNA sequences available for the 16S rRNA gene are >8%.

  11. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Son Tra Peninsula, central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr; Le, Dzung Trung; Vo, Ba Dinh; Phan, Hoa Thi; Duong, Tang van; Murphy, Robert W; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc

    2018-02-28

    Morphological, acoustic and molecular analyses result in the description of Leptolalax rowleyae sp. nov., a new species of frog in the Megophryidae, belonging to the L. applebyi Rowley Cao species group from central Vietnam. It differs from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) adult SVL 23.4-25.4 mm in males and 27-27.8 mm in females; (2) presence of distinct dark/brown dorsolateral markings, including black spots on flanks; (3) pinkish milk-white to light brown chest and belly with numerous white speckles; (4) tympanum distinct; (5) absence of webbing or lateral dermal fringes on fingers and toes; (6) pectoral glands comparatively small (3.3-4.7% of SVL); (7) ventrolateral glands indistinct; and (8) iris bicolored with copper tint in upper half fading to golden in lower third of iris. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of 4-6 notes, lacking a distinct introductory note, with an average dominant frequency of 3.2-3.5 kHz. The description of the tadpole constitutes the first description of larval morphology for a member of the L. appleybi species group. Genetically, an uncorrected sequence divergence of 7.4% for 16S rRNA separates the new species from its two closest relatives, L. ardens and L. melicus in the L. applebyi species group.

  12. The Vietnamese population of Megophrys kuatunensis (Amphibia: Megophryidae) represents a new species of Asian horned frog from Vietnam and southern China.

    PubMed

    Tapley, Benjamin; Cutajar, Timothy; Mahony, Stephen; Nguyen, Chung Thanh; Dau, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Luong, Hao VAN; Rowley, Jodi J L

    2017-11-08

    The Asian frog genus Megophrys is a diverse group of morphologically conserved, forest-dwelling frogs. The genus harbours highly localised species diversification and new species continue to be described on a regular basis. We examined the taxonomic status of a population of Megophrys frogs from the Hoang Lien Range in northern Vietnam and southern China previously identified as M. kuatunensis (subgenus Panophrys). Preliminary phylogenetic analyses using a fragment of 16S rDNA places the species in question within the Megophrys (subgenus Panophrys) species group, a primarily Chinese radiation within the genus. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, we conclude that this population does not represent M. kuatunensis, or any known species in the genus. We herein describe this species of Megophrys as new. Known only from Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province in Vietnam and Jinping County, Yunnan Province in China, the new species is likely to be threatened by ongoing deforestation in the region. We provide an updated species description of M. kuatunensis based on type specimens, and suggest that M. kuatunensis is likely to be restricted to eastern China.

  13. A synopsis of the Euphaeidae (Odonata: Zygoptera) of Vietnam, with descriptions of two new species of Euphaea.

    PubMed

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom; Karube, Haruki; Hayashi, Fumio

    2018-01-24

    23 species of Euphaeidae (Odonata: Zygoptera) are reported from Vietnam including two new species of Euphaea, E. saola Phan Hayashi, sp. nov. and E. sanguinea Kompier Hayashi, sp. nov., and four species not recorded previously, Bayadera continentalis Asahina, 1973, B. hyalina Selys, 1879, B. nephelopennis Davies Yang, 1996 and Euphaea pahyapi Hämäläinen, 1985. The females of Anisopleura bipugio Hämäläinen Karube, 2013, Bayadera serrata Davies Yang, 1996 and Euphaea hirta Hämäläinen Karube, 2001 are described for the first time. The mutual taxonomic status of Bayadera hyalina and B. strigata Davies Yang, 1996 is discussed. Distribution maps of all known Vietnamese species, with detailed distribution records, are provided.

  14. Evidence of tree species' range shifts in a complex landscape.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Vicente J; Lintz, Heather E

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C). The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species' distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change.

  15. Latitudinal shifts of introduced species: possible causes and implications

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Dov F. Sax; Hong Qian; Regan Early

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to document shifts in the latitudinal distributions of non-native species relative to their own native distributions and to discuss possible causes and implications of these shifts. We used published and newly compiled data on intercontinentally introduced birds, mammals and plants. We found strong correlations between the latitudinal distributions...

  16. Pseudofornicia gen. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), a new Indo-Australian genus and one new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang; Chen, Xue-Xin; You, Lan-Shao

    2015-01-01

    Pseudofornicia gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is described (type species: Pseudofornicia nigrisoma sp. n. from Vietnam) including three Oriental (type species, Pseudofornicia flavoabdominis (He & Chen, 1994), comb. n. and Pseudofornicia vanachterbergi Long, (nom. n. for Fornicia achterbergi Long, 2007; not Fornicia achterbergi Yang & Chen, 2006) and one Australian species (Pseudofornicia commoni (Austin & Dangerfield, 1992), comb. n.). Keys to genera with similar metasomal carapace and to species of the new genus are provided. The new genus shares the curved inner middle tibial spur, the comparatively small head, the median carina of the first metasomal tergite and the metasomal carapace with Fornicia Brullé, 1846, but has the first tergite movably joined to the second tergite and the third tergite 1.1-1.6 × as long as the second tergite medially and is flattened in lateral view. One of the included species is a primary homonym and is renamed in this paper.

  17. Disentangling climate change effects on species interactions: effects of temperature, phenological shifts, and body size.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Singh, Manasvini

    2013-11-01

    Climate-mediated shifts in species' phenologies are expected to alter species interactions, but predicting the consequences of this is difficult because phenological shifts may be driven by different climate factors that may or may not be correlated. Temperature could be an important factor determining effects of phenological shifts by altering species' growth rates and thereby the relative size ratios of interacting species. We tested this hypothesis by independently manipulating temperature and the relative hatching phenologies of two competing amphibian species. Relative shifts in hatching time generally altered the strength of competition, but the presence and magnitude of this effect was temperature dependent and joint effects of temperature and hatching phenology were non-additive. Species that hatched relatively early or late performed significantly better or worse, respectively, but only at higher temperatures and not at lower temperatures. As a consequence, climate-mediated shifts in hatching phenology or temperature resulted in stronger or weaker effects than expected when both factors acted in concert. Furthermore, consequences of phenological shifts were asymmetric; arriving relatively early had disproportional stronger (or weaker) effects than arriving relatively late, and this varied with species identity. However, consistent with recent theory, these seemingly idiosyncratic effects of phenological shifts could be explained by species-specific differences in growth rates across temperatures and concordant shifts in relative body size of interacting species. Our results emphasize the need to account for environmental conditions when predicting the effects of phenological shifts, and suggest that shifts in size-structured interactions can mediate the impact of climate change on natural communities.

  18. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.

  19. Two new species of Oreocharis (Gesneriaceae) from Fan Si Pan, the highest mountain in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen Hong; Nguyen, Quang Hieu; Chen, Run Zheng; Nguyen, Tien Hiep; Nguyen, Sinh Khang; Nguyen, Van Tap; Möller, Michael; Middleton, David J.; Shui, Yu-Min

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Oreocharis Benth. from Fan Si Pan, the highest mountain in Vietnam (Sa Pa) are described and illustrated. Oreocharis grandiflora W.H.Chen, Q.H.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui, is similar to O. flavida Merr. from Hainan province, China, but differs mainly by its larger and infundibuliform corolla, stamens adnate to the base of the corolla tube and stamens coherent in two pairs. The second, Oreocharis longituba W.H.Chen, Q.H.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui, is similar to O. hirsuta Barnett, endemic to northern Thailand, but mainly differs in its pubescence, coherent stamens and glabrous filaments. PMID:29416424

  20. Nine new species of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini) from China and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Shavrin, Alexey V; Smetana, Aleš

    2016-11-22

    Nine new species of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 are described and illustrated: D. bisbisinuatum sp.n. and D. draco sp.n. from China, Sichuan (Gongga Shan), D. emeicola sp.n., D. minor sp.n., D. ruzickai sp.n., D. sextuberculatum sp.n. and D. yinyang sp.n. from China, Sichuan (Emei Shan), D. rougemonti sp.n. from China, Yunnan (Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture) and D. vesiculosum sp.n. from North Vietnam. Three species groups within the genus are identified and characterized and closely relationships among them are briefly discussed. A check-list and key to the species of Deinopteroloma are provided. The distribution of all described and recorded species is mapped. Additional records of D. spectabile Smetana, 1996 from Nepal are given.

  1. Investigating Vietnam's ornamental bird trade: implications for transmission of zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly; Roberton, Scott I; Few, Roger; Mahood, Simon; Bui, Phuong L; Hunter, Paul R; Bell, Diana J

    2011-03-01

    Global wildlife trade is financially lucrative, frequently illegal and increases the risk for zoonotic disease transmission. This paper presents the first interdisciplinary study of Vietnam's illegal wild bird trade focussing on those aspects which may contribute to the transmission of diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Comparing January 2009 data with that of May 2007, we found a five-fold increase to 9,117 birds on sale in Hanoi. Ninety-five percent of Hanoian bird vendors appear unaware of trade regulations and across Vietnam vendors buy birds sourced outside of their province. Approximately 25% of the species common to Vietnam's bird trade are known to be HPAI H5N1 susceptible. The anthropogenic movement of birds within the trade chain and the range of HPAI-susceptible species, often traded alongside poultry, increase the risk Vietnam's bird trade presents for the transmission of pathogens such as HPAI H5N1. These results will assist in the control and monitoring of emerging zoonotic diseases and conservation of Southeast Asia's avifauna.

  2. Morphological and molecular review of Jacob's Mountain Stream Keelback Opisthotropis jacobi Angel Bourret, 1933 (Squamata: Natricidae) with description of a sibling species from northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Thomas; David, Patrick; Ziegler, Tim N; Pham, Cuong T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Le, Minh D

    2018-01-21

    New morphological data including hemipenis morphology is provided for Opisthotropis jacobi, a poorly known Mountain Stream Keelback from Vietnam and China, based on three newly collected individuals from Sa Pa (Lao Cai Province) and Tam Dao (Vinh Phuc Province) in northern Vietnam. In addition, morphological data from Vietnam is summarized based on the original description (Angel Bourret 1933), on the overview book by Bourret (1936) and on a number of smaller, little-known contributions by the latter author along with re-examination of specimens deposited in the herpetological collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. We also sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b from the newly collected specimens of the Jacob's Mountain Stream Keelback and performed molecular analyses of new and existing data of the genus. A recently discovered Opisthotropis population from Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve in Bac Giang Province, northern Vietnam, which at the first glance resembled O. jacobi morphologically, is shown to diverge both genetically and morphologically from the existing species and is herein described as a new species. Opisthotropis voquyi sp. nov. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: internasal not in contact with loreal; one preocular; usually two postoculars; one anterior temporal; one posterior temporal; 7 or 8, rarely 9 supralabials; 25 maxillary teeth; subcaudals 74-86; 15 dorsal scale rows at neck, at midbody and before vent; body scales smooth or only with few faint keels; and dorsal scales being greyish, greyish-brown or brown in preservative, posteriorly more or less edged with pale greyish-brown. Phylogenetically, the new species is supported as a sister taxon to O. jacobi, but the two taxa are approximately 10% divergent based on cytochrome b data.

  3. Grasshopper species composition shifts following a severe rangeland grasshopper outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about how grasshopper species abundances shift during and following severe outbreaks, as sampling efforts usually end when outbreaks subside. Grasshopper densities, species composition and vegetation have infrequently been sampled during and after a severe outbreak in the western U.S...

  4. Mechanistic species distribution modeling reveals a niche shift during invasion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel S; Scalone, Romain; Štefanić, Edita; Bullock, James M

    2017-06-01

    Niche shifts of nonnative plants can occur when they colonize novel climatic conditions. However, the mechanistic basis for niche shifts during invasion is poorly understood and has rarely been captured within species distribution models. We quantified the consequence of between-population variation in phenology for invasion of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) across Europe. Ragweed is of serious concern because of its harmful effects as a crop weed and because of its impact on public health as a major aeroallergen. We developed a forward mechanistic species distribution model based on responses of ragweed development rates to temperature and photoperiod. The model was parameterized and validated from the literature and by reanalyzing data from a reciprocal common garden experiment in which native and invasive populations were grown within and beyond the current invaded range. It could therefore accommodate between-population variation in the physiological requirements for flowering, and predict the potentially invaded ranges of individual populations. Northern-origin populations that were established outside the generally accepted climate envelope of the species had lower thermal requirements for bud development, suggesting local adaptation of phenology had occurred during the invasion. The model predicts that this will extend the potentially invaded range northward and increase the average suitability across Europe by 90% in the current climate and 20% in the future climate. Therefore, trait variation observed at the population scale can trigger a climatic niche shift at the biogeographic scale. For ragweed, earlier flowering phenology in established northern populations could allow the species to spread beyond its current invasive range, substantially increasing its risk to agriculture and public health. Mechanistic species distribution models offer the possibility to represent niche shifts by varying the traits and niche responses of individual

  5. A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Duong, Tang; Do, Dang Trong; Ngo, Chung Dac; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Poyarkov, Nikolay A.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0–29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I–II and II–III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0.44–0.45 in males); and (10) eyes large and protuberant (ED/SVL 0.15–0.16 in males). From all congeners for which comparable sequences are available, the new species differs markedly in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequence (P-distance>5.7%). The new species is currently known only from montane evergreen tropical forests of Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, and M’Drak District of Dak Lak Province at elevations of 470–630 m a.s.l.. We suggest the new species should be considered as Data Deficient following the IUCN’s Red List categories. We also report a previously unknown Leptolalax mtDNA lineage from an evergreen tropical forest in the Hoa Thinh District of Phu Yen Province, which may also represent an undescribed species. PMID:29643325

  6. A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tang Van; Do, Dang Trong; Ngo, Chung Dac; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-05-18

    We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0-29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I-II and II-III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0.44-0.45 in males); and (10) eyes large and protuberant (ED/SVL 0.15-0.16 in males). From all congeners for which comparable sequences are available, the new species differs markedly in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequence (P-distance>5.7%). The new species is currently known only from montane evergreen tropical forests of Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, and M'Drak District of Dak Lak Province at elevations of 470-630 m a.s.l. We suggest the new species should be considered as Data Deficient following the IUCN's Red List categories. We also report a previously unknown Leptolalax mtDNA lineage from an evergreen tropical forest in the Hoa Thinh District of Phu Yen Province, which may also represent an undescribed species.

  7. RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam's Development: Risk and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, David

    2004-01-01

    To help bridge the gap between demand and supply for tertiary education, Vietnam has opened to direct, foreign providers, and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam is the first of this category. By sponsoring a large project in a country that some see as risky, RMIT Vietnam needs to be triply viable.…

  8. Species' Traits as Predictors of Range Shifts Under Contemporary Climate Change: A Meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, S. A.; Beissinger, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature seeks to explain variation in range shifts using species' ecological and life history traits, with expectations that shifts should be greater in species with greater dispersal ability, reproductive potential, and ecological generalization. If trait-based arguments, hold, then traits would provide valuable evidence-based tools for conservation and management that could increase the accuracy of future range projections, vulnerability assessments, and predictions of novel community assemblages. However, empirical support is limited in extent and consensus, and trait-based relationships remain largely unvalidated. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of species' traits as predictors of range shifts, collecting results from over 11,000 species' responses across multiple taxa from studies that directly compared 20th century and contemporary distributions for multispecies assemblages. We then performed a meta-analysis to calculate the mean study-level effects of body size, fecundity, diet breadth, habitat breadth, and historic range limit, while directly controlling for ecological and methodological heterogeneity across studies that could bias reported effect sizes. We show that ecological and life history traits have had limited success in accounting for variation among species in range shifts over the past century. Of the five traits analyzed, only habitat breadth and historic range limit consistently supported range shift predictions across multiple studies. Fecundity, body size, and diet breadth showed no clear relationship with range shifts, and some traits identified in our literature review (e.g. migratory ecology) have consistently contradicted range shift predictions. Current understanding of species' traits as predictors of range shifts is limited, and standardized study is needed before traits can be reliably incorporated into projections of climate change impacts.

  9. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  10. Compositional shifts in Costa Rican forests due to climate-driven species migrations.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Hurtado, Johanna; Saatchi, Sassan; Silman, Miles R; Clark, David B

    2013-11-01

    Species are predicted to shift their distributions upslope or poleward in response to global warming. This prediction is supported by a growing number of studies documenting species migrations in temperate systems but remains poorly tested for tropical species, and especially for tropical plant species. We analyzed changes in tree species composition in a network of 10 annually censused 1-ha plots spanning an altitudinal gradient of 70-2800 m elevation in Costa Rica. Specifically, we combined plot data with herbarium records (accessed through GBIF) to test if the plots' community temperature scores (CTS, average thermal mean of constituent species weighted by basal area) have increased over the past decade as is predicted by climate-driven species migrations. In addition, we quantified the contributions of stem growth, recruitment, and mortality to the observed patterns. Supporting our a priori hypothesis of upward species migrations, we found that there have been consistent directional shifts in the composition of the plots, such that the relative abundance of lowland species, and hence CTS, increased in 90% of plots. The rate of the observed compositional shifts corresponds to a mean thermal migration rate (TMR) of 0.0065 °C yr(-1) (95% CI = 0.0005-0.0132 °C yr(-1) ). While the overall TMR is slower than predicted based on concurrent regional warming of 0.0167 °C yr(-1) , migrations were on pace with warming in 4 of the 10 plots. The observed shifts in composition were driven primarily by mortality events (i.e., the disproportionate death of highland vs. lowland species), suggesting that individuals of many tropical tree species will not be able to tolerate future warming and thus their persistence in the face of climate change will depend on successful migrations. Unfortunately, in Costa Rica and elsewhere, land area inevitably decreases at higher elevations; hence, even species that are able to migrate successfully will face heightened risks of

  11. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  12. Vietnam Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  13. Sternaspidae (Annelida, Sedentaria) from Vietnam with description of three new species and clarification of some morphological features.

    PubMed

    Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-01-25

    Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.

  14. A new species of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Tay Nguyen Plateau, central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Kropachev, Ivan I; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Orlov, Nikolai L

    2018-04-20

    A new species of small tree frog from a primary montane tropical forest of central Vietnam, Tay Nguyen Plateau, is described based on morphological, molecular, and acoustic evidence. The Golden Bug-Eyed Frog, Theloderma auratum sp. nov., is distinguishable from its congeners and other small rhacophorid species based on a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) bony ridges on head absent; (2) smooth skin completely lacking calcified warts or asperities; (3) pointed elongated tapering snout; (4) vocal opening in males absent; (5) vomerine teeth absent; (6) males of small body size (SVL 21.8-26.4 mm); (7) head longer than wide; ED/SVL ratio 13%-15%; ESL/SVL ratio 16%-20%; (8) small tympanum (TD/EL ratio 50%-60%) with few tiny tubercles; (9) supratympanic fold absent; (10) ventral surfaces completely smooth; (11) webbing between fingers absent; (12) outer and inner metacarpal tubercles present, supernumerary metacarpal tubercle single, medial, oval in shape; (13) toes half-webbed: I 2-2¼ II 1½-2¾ III 2-3¼ IV 3-1½ V; (14) inner metatarsal tubercle present, oval; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; (15) iris bicolored; (16) dorsal surfaces golden-yellow with sparse golden-orange speckling or reticulations and few small dark-brown spots; (17) lateral sides of head and body with wide dark reddish-brown to black lateral stripes, clearly separated from lighter dorsal coloration by straight contrasting edge; (18) ventral surfaces of body, throat, and chest greyish-blue with indistinct brown confluent blotches; (19) upper eyelids with few (3-5) very small flat reddish superciliary tubercles; (20) limbs dorsally reddish-brown, ventrally brown with small bluish-white speckles. The new species is also distinct from all congeners in 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences (uncorrected genetic distance P>8.9%). Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the new species are described. Our molecular data showed Theloderma auratum sp. nov. to

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Lymnaeid Snails and Their Potential Role in Transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. PMID:24516270

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of lymnaeid snails and their potential role in transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated.

  17. Potential of satellite-derived ecosystem functional attributes to anticipate species range shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Lomba, Angela; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Alves, Paulo; Georges, Damien; Vicente, Joana R.; Honrado, João P.

    2017-05-01

    In a world facing rapid environmental changes, anticipating their impacts on biodiversity is of utmost relevance. Remotely-sensed Ecosystem Functional Attributes (EFAs) are promising predictors for Species Distribution Models (SDMs) by offering an early and integrative response of vegetation performance to environmental drivers. Species of high conservation concern would benefit the most from a better ability to anticipate changes in habitat suitability. Here we illustrate how yearly projections from SDMs based on EFAs could reveal short-term changes in potential habitat suitability, anticipating mid-term shifts predicted by climate-change-scenario models. We fitted two sets of SDMs for 41 plant species of conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula: one calibrated with climate variables for baseline conditions and projected under two climate-change-scenarios (future conditions); and the other calibrated with EFAs for 2001 and projected annually from 2001 to 2013. Range shifts predicted by climate-based models for future conditions were compared to the 2001-2013 trends from EFAs-based models. Projections of EFAs-based models estimated changes (mostly contractions) in habitat suitability that anticipated, for the majority (up to 64%) of species, the mid-term shifts projected by traditional climate-change-scenario forecasting, and showed greater agreement with the business-as-usual scenario than with the sustainable-development one. This study shows how satellite-derived EFAs can be used as meaningful essential biodiversity variables in SDMs to provide early-warnings of range shifts and predictions of short-term fluctuations in suitable conditions for multiple species.

  18. Phylodynamics of epidemic and asymptomatic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam 2010-2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in Vietnam, a country that plays an important role in animal trade within Southeast Asia. The large populations of buffalo, cattle and pigs (all FMDV susceptible species) in Vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelih...

  19. Estimating the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Vietnam: a pilot descriptive cancer registration study.

    PubMed

    Soeberg, Matthew J; Luong, Mai Anh; Tran, Van Thuan; Tran, Anh Thanh; Nguyen, Thị Thu Huyen; Bui, Dieu; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Takahashi, Ken; van Zandwijk, Nico

    2016-04-01

    Global asbestos consumption has shifted toward lower income countries, particularly in the Asian region including Vietnam where asbestos and asbestos-containing products have been imported since the late 1960s. This pilot descriptive epidemiological study aimed to provide contemporary estimates of malignant mesothelioma incidence (histological subtype M9050/3; ICD-O-3) by gender and age group as recorded across nine cancer registries in Vietnam. We identified 148 incident cases of malignant mesothelioma during 1987-2013. The majority of cases were recorded in the Hanoi region (n = 93) and were aged 55 years or older (n = 96). By carefully reviewing existing cancer registry records in Vietnam, we identified a larger number of malignant mesothelioma cases than previously estimated. We recommend the use of cancer registry data in tracking future asbestos-related disease in Vietnam.

  20. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    PubMed

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  1. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...reach the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...Major Exports to Vietnam aircraft, mining equipment, electronic machinery, steel wire, raw cotton, plastics Source: Mark E. Manyin, The Vietnam

  2. Climate Warming and Seasonal Precipitation Change Interact to Limit Species Distribution Shifts across Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Harsch, Melanie A.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Using an extensive network of occurrence records for 293 plant species collected over the past 40 years across a climatically diverse geographic section of western North America, we find that plant species distributions were just as likely to shift upwards (i.e., towards higher elevations) as downward (i.e., towards lower elevations)–despite consistent warming across the study area. Although there was no clear directional response to climate warming across the entire study area, there was significant region- to region- variation in responses (i.e. from as many as 73% to as few as 32% of species shifting upward). To understand the factors that might be controlling region-specific distributional shifts of plant species, we explored the relationship between the direction of change in distribution limits and the nature of recent climate change. We found that the direction that distribution limits shifted was explained by an interaction between the rate of change in local summer temperatures and seasonal precipitation. Specifically, species were more likely to shift upward at their upper elevational limit when minimum temperatures increased and snowfall was unchanging or declined at slower rates (<0.5 mm/year). This suggests that both low temperature and water availability limit upward shifts at upper elevation limits. By contrast, species were more likely to shift upwards at their lower elevation limit when maximum temperatures increased, but also shifted upwards under conditions of cooling temperatures when precipitation decreased. This suggests increased water stress may drive upward shifts at lower elevation limits. Our results suggest that species’ elevational distribution shifts are not predictable by climate warming alone but depend on the interaction between seasonal temperature and precipitation change. PMID:27447834

  3. Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift, and the hybridization of a coastal fish species.

    PubMed

    Potts, Warren M; Henriques, Romina; Santos, Carmen V; Munnik, Kate; Ansorge, Isabelle; Dufois, Francois; Booth, Anthony J; Kirchner, Carola; Sauer, Warwick H H; Shaw, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing awareness of large-scale climate-driven distribution shifts in the marine environment, no study has linked rapid ocean warming to a shift in distribution and consequent hybridization of a marine fish species. This study describes rapid warming (0.8 °C per decade) in the coastal waters of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone over the last three decades and a concomitant shift by a temperature sensitive coastal fish species (Argyrosomus coronus) southward from Angola into Namibia. In this context, rapid shifts in distribution across Economic Exclusive Zones will complicate the management of fishes, particularly when there is a lack of congruence in the fisheries policy between nations. Evidence for recent hybridization between A. coronus and a congener, A. inodorus, indicate that the rapid shift in distribution of A. coronus has placed adults of the two species in contact during their spawning events. Ocean warming may therefore revert established species isolation mechanisms and alter the evolutionary history of fishes. While the consequences of the hybridization on the production of the resource remain unclear, this will most likely introduce additional layers of complexity to their management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Geographical limits to species-range shifts are suggested by climate velocity.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Michael T; Schoeman, David S; Richardson, Anthony J; Molinos, Jorge García; Hoffmann, Ary; Buckley, Lauren B; Moore, Pippa J; Brown, Christopher J; Bruno, John F; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Sydeman, William J; Ferrier, Simon; Williams, Kristen J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2014-03-27

    The reorganization of patterns of species diversity driven by anthropogenic climate change, and the consequences for humans, are not yet fully understood or appreciated. Nevertheless, changes in climate conditions are useful for predicting shifts in species distributions at global and local scales. Here we use the velocity of climate change to derive spatial trajectories for climatic niches from 1960 to 2009 (ref. 7) and from 2006 to 2100, and use the properties of these trajectories to infer changes in species distributions. Coastlines act as barriers and locally cooler areas act as attractors for trajectories, creating source and sink areas for local climatic conditions. Climate source areas indicate where locally novel conditions are not connected to areas where similar climates previously occurred, and are thereby inaccessible to climate migrants tracking isotherms: 16% of global surface area for 1960 to 2009, and 34% of ocean for the 'business as usual' climate scenario (representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5) representing continued use of fossil fuels without mitigation. Climate sink areas are where climate conditions locally disappear, potentially blocking the movement of climate migrants. Sink areas comprise 1.0% of ocean area and 3.6% of land and are prevalent on coasts and high ground. Using this approach to infer shifts in species distributions gives global and regional maps of the expected direction and rate of shifts of climate migrants, and suggests areas of potential loss of species richness.

  5. Estimating the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Vietnam: a pilot descriptive cancer registration study

    PubMed Central

    Soeberg, Matthew J.; Luong, Mai Anh; Tran, Van Thuan; Tran, Anh Thanh; Nguyen, Thị Thu Huyen; Bui, Dieu; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Takahashi, Ken; van Zandwijk, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Global asbestos consumption has shifted toward lower income countries, particularly in the Asian region including Vietnam where asbestos and asbestos-containing products have been imported since the late 1960s. Methods This pilot descriptive epidemiological study aimed to provide contemporary estimates of malignant mesothelioma incidence (histological subtype M9050/3; ICD-O-3) by gender and age group as recorded across nine cancer registries in Vietnam. Results We identified 148 incident cases of malignant mesothelioma during 1987–2013. The majority of cases were recorded in the Hanoi region (n = 93) and were aged 55 years or older (n = 96). Discussion By carefully reviewing existing cancer registry records in Vietnam, we identified a larger number of malignant mesothelioma cases than previously estimated. We recommend the use of cancer registry data in tracking future asbestos-related disease in Vietnam. PMID:27388204

  6. Effects of species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity on simulated tree species distribution shifts under climate change

    Treesearch

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Martin A. Spetich; Jacob S. Fraser

    2018-01-01

    Demographic processes (fecundity, dispersal, colonization, growth, and mortality) and their interactions with environmental changes are notwell represented in current climate-distribution models (e.g., niche and biophysical process models) and constitute a large uncertainty in projections of future tree species distribution shifts.We investigate how species biological...

  7. Tree-species range shifts in a changing climate: detecting, modeling, assisting

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Donald McKenzie

    2013-01-01

    In these times of rapidly changing climate, the science of detecting and modeling shifts in the ranges of tree species is advancing of necessity. We briefly review the current state of the science on several fronts. First, we review current and historical evidence for shifting ranges and migration. Next, we review two broad categories of methods, focused on the spatial...

  8. [Artyfechinostomum sufratyfex Lane, 1915 (Trematoda:Echinostomatidae), a parasite of mammals in Southern Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Ha Duy Ngo; Ermolenko, A V; Gerasev, P I

    2011-01-01

    Trematoda Artyfechinostomumn sufratyfex Lane, 1915 was found in different mammal species of Southern Vietnam. Original measurements of this species from domestic pig, black rat, and Asian palm civet are given.

  9. A new species of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Tay Nguyen Plateau, central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A.; Kropachev, Ivan I.; Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Orlov, Nikolai L.

    2018-01-01

    A new species of small tree frog from a primary montane tropical forest of central Vietnam, Tay Nguyen Plateau, is described based on morphological, molecular, and acoustic evidence. The Golden Bug-Eyed Frog, Theloderma auratum sp. nov., is distinguishable from its congeners and other small rhacophorid species based on a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) bony ridges on head absent; (2) smooth skin completely lacking calcified warts or asperities; (3) pointed elongated tapering snout; (4) vocal opening in males absent; (5) vomerine teeth absent; (6) males of small body size (SVL 21.8–26.4 mm); (7) head longer than wide; ED/SVL ratio 13%–15%; ESL/SVL ratio 16%–20%; (8) small tympanum (TD/EL ratio 50%–60%) with few tiny tubercles; (9) supratympanic fold absent; (10) ventral surfaces completely smooth; (11) webbing between fingers absent; (12) outer and inner metacarpal tubercles present, supernumerary metacarpal tubercle single, medial, oval in shape; (13) toes half-webbed: I 2–2¼ II 1½–2¾ III 2–3¼ IV 3–1½ V; (14) inner metatarsal tubercle present, oval; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; (15) iris bicolored; (16) dorsal surfaces golden-yellow with sparse golden-orange speckling or reticulations and few small dark-brown spots; (17) lateral sides of head and body with wide dark reddish-brown to black lateral stripes, clearly separated from lighter dorsal coloration by straight contrasting edge; (18) ventral surfaces of body, throat, and chest greyish-blue with indistinct brown confluent blotches; (19) upper eyelids with few (3–5) very small flat reddish superciliary tubercles; (20) limbs dorsally reddish-brown, ventrally brown with small bluish-white speckles. The new species is also distinct from all congeners in 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences (uncorrected genetic distance P>8.9%). Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the new species are described. Our molecular data showed Theloderma

  10. A rapid multiplex PCR assay for presumptive species identification of rhinoceros horns and its implementation in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, Greta J.; McEwing, Ross; The, Dang Tat; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Lo, Nathan; Johnson, Rebecca N.

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoceros (rhinos) have suffered a dramatic increase in poaching over the past decade due to the growing demand for rhino horn products in Asia. One way to reverse this trend is to enhance enforcement and intelligence gathering tools used for species identification of horns, in particular making them fast, inexpensive and accurate. Traditionally, species identification tests are based on DNA sequence data, which, depending on laboratory resources, can be either time or cost prohibitive. This study presents a rapid rhino species identification test, utilizing species-specific primers within the cytochrome b gene multiplexed in a single reaction, with a presumptive species identification based on the length of the resultant amplicon. This multiplex PCR assay can provide a presumptive species identification result in less than 24 hours. Sequence-based definitive testing can be conducted if/when required (e.g. court purposes). This work also presents an actual casework scenario in which the presumptive test was successfully utlitised, in concert with sequence-based definitive testing. The test was carried out on seized suspected rhino horns tested at the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, the CITES mandated laboratory in Vietnam, a country that is known to be a major source of demand for rhino horns. This test represents the basis for which future ‘rapid species identification tests’ can be trialed. PMID:29902212

  11. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  12. A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, J; Gégout, J C; Marquet, P A; de Ruffray, P; Brisse, H

    2008-06-27

    Spatial fingerprints of climate change on biotic communities are usually associated with changes in the distribution of species at their latitudinal or altitudinal extremes. By comparing the altitudinal distribution of 171 forest plant species between 1905 and 1985 and 1986 and 2005 along the entire elevation range (0 to 2600 meters above sea level) in west Europe, we show that climate warming has resulted in a significant upward shift in species optimum elevation averaging 29 meters per decade. The shift is larger for species restricted to mountain habitats and for grassy species, which are characterized by faster population turnover. Our study shows that climate change affects the spatial core of the distributional range of plant species, in addition to their distributional margins, as previously reported.

  13. Competition from below for light and nutrients shifts productivity among tropical species.

    PubMed

    Ewel, John J; Mazzarino, María Julia

    2008-12-02

    Chance events such as seed dispersal determine the potential composition of plant communities, but the eventual assemblage is determined in large part by subsequent interactions among species. Postcolonization sorting also affects the ultimate composition of communities assembled by people for restoration, horticulture, or conservation. Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms controlling interspecific interactions in plant communities is important for explaining patterns observed in nature and predicting success or failure of utilitarian combinations. Relationships among species, especially those from studies of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning, are largely based on studies of short-lived, temperate-zone plants. Extrapolation to perennial plants in the humid tropics is risky because functional relationships among large-stature species change with time. Shifts in competitive relationships among 3 life forms--trees, palms, and perennial herbs--occurred during 13 yr in experimental tropical ecosystems. In 2 cases the novel competitive mechanism responsible for the shift was reduction in crown volume, and therefore light-capturing capability, of overtopping deciduous trees by intrusive growth from below a palm. In a third case, complementary resource use developed between 2 evergreen life forms (overstory tree and palm), probably because of differential nutrient acquisition. Species-level traits and adequate time for shifts in interspecific relationships to emerge are crucial for predicting community trajectories.

  14. Comment on "Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species' optimum elevations"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Crimmins et al. (Reports, 21 January 2011, p. 324) attributed an apparent downward elevational shift of California plant species to a precipitation-induced decline in climatic water deficit. We show that the authors miscalculated deficit, that the apparent decline in species' elevations is likely a consequence of geographic biases, and that unlike temperature changes, precipitation changes should not be expected to cause coordinated directional shifts in species' elevations.

  15. Pollinator shifts drive petal epidermal evolution on the Macaronesian Islands bird-flowered species.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Dario I; Valido, Alfredo; Fernández de Castro, Alejandro G; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier; Carvalho, José A; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    Pollinator shifts are considered to drive floral trait evolution, yet little is still known about the modifications of petal epidermal surface at a biogeographic region scale. Here we investigated how independent shifts from insects to passerine birds in the Macaronesian Islands consistently modified this floral trait (i.e. absence of papillate cells). Using current phylogenies and extensive evidence from field observations, we selected a total of 81 plant species and subspecies for petal microscopy and comparative analysis, including 19 of the 23 insular species pollinated by opportunistic passerine birds (Macaronesian bird-flowered element). Species relying on passerine birds as the most effective pollinators (bird-pollinated) independently evolved at least five times and in all instances associated with a loss of papillate cells, whereas species with a mixed pollination system (birds plus insects and/or other vertebrates) evolved at least five times in Macaronesia and papillate cells were lost in only 25% of these transitions. Our findings suggest that petal micromorphology is a labile trait during pollinator shifts and that papillate cells tend to be absent on those species where pollinators have limited mechanical interaction with flowers, including opportunistic passerine birds that forage by hovering or from the ground. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Genomic conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in wild gaur (Bos gaurus) and current genetic status of this species in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Genini, Sem; Bui, Linh Chi; Voegeli, Peter; Stranzinger, Gerald; Renard, Jean-Paul; Maillard, Jean-Charles; Nguyen, Bui Xuan

    2007-11-06

    The wild gaur (Bos gaurus) is an endangered wild cattle species. In Vietnam, the total number of wild gaurs is estimated at a maximum of 500 individuals. Inbreeding and genetic drift are current relevant threats to this small population size. Therefore, information about the genetic status of the Vietnamese wild gaur population is essential to develop strategies for conservation and effective long-term management for this species. In the present study, we performed cross-species amplification of 130 bovine microsatellite markers, in order to evaluate the applicability and conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in the wild gaur genome. The genetic diversity of Vietnamese wild gaur was also investigated, based on data collected from the 117 successfully amplified loci. One hundred-thirty cattle microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of 11 animals. Efficient amplifications were observed for 117 markers (90%) with a total of 264 alleles, and of these, 68 (58.1%) gave polymorphic band patterns. The number of alleles per locus among the polymorphic markers ranged from two to six. Thirteen loci (BM1314, BM2304, BM6017, BMC2228, BMS332, BMS911, CSSM023, ETH123, HAUT14, HEL11, HEL5, ILSTS005 and INRA189) distributed on nine different cattle chromosomes failed to amplify wild gaur genomic DNA. Three cattle Y-chromosome specific microsatellite markers (INRA124, INRA126 and BM861) were also highly specific in wild gaur, only displaying an amplification product in the males. Genotype data collected from the 117 successfully amplified microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity of this species in Vietnam. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values varied between 0.083 and 0.767 with a mean of 0.252 while observed heterozygosities (Ho) ranged from 0.091 to 0.909 (mean of 0.269). Nei's unbiased mean heterozygosity and the mean allele number across loci were 0.298 and 2.2, respectively. Extensive conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in the wild gaur

  17. Evolution and phylogeographic dissemination of endemic porcine picornaviruses in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Van Dung, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Honh; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen; Simmonds, Peter; Woolhouse, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Picornaviridae are important and often zoonotic viruses responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases. However, the evolution and spatial dissemination of different picornaviruses circulating in domestic animals are not well studied. We examined the rate of evolution and time of origin of porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) and porcine kobuvirus species C lineages (PKV-C) circulating in pig farms in Vietnam and from other countries. We further explored the spatiotemporal spread of EV-G and PKV-C in Southwest Vietnam using phylogeographic models. Multiple types of EV-G are co-circulating in Vietnam. The two dominant EV-G types among isolates from Vietnam (G1 and G6) showed strong phylogenetic clustering. Three clades of PKV-C (PKV-C1-3) represent more recent introductions into Vietnam; PKV-C2 is closely related to PKV-C from Southwest China, indicating possible cross-border dissemination. In addition, high virus lineage migration rates were estimated within four districts in Dong Thap province in Vietnam for both EV-G types (G1, G6) and all PKV-C (C1-3) clades. We found that Chau Thanh district is a primary source of both EV-G and PKV-C clades, consistent with extensive pig trading in and out of the district. Understanding the evolution and spatial dissemination of endemic picornaviruses in pigs may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of picornaviruses. PMID:27774295

  18. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  19. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  20. Elevational range shifts in four mountain ungulate species from the Swiss Alps

    Treesearch

    Ulf Büntgen; Lucie Greuter; Kurt Bollmann; Hannes Jenny; Andrew Liebhold; J. Diego Galván; Nils C. Stenseth; Carrie Andrew; Atle Mysterud

    2017-01-01

    Warming-induced range shifts along elevational and latitudinal gradients have been observed in several species from various taxa. The mobility and behavioral plasticity of large endothermic mammals, however, complicate the detection of climatic effects on their spatial distributions. Here, we analyzed 230,565 hunting locations of the four most abundant ungulate species...

  1. On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2011-09-01

    Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae) also from D. kurroides, has long, slender, winding lemnisci, many epidermal nuclei, and a narrow anterior trunk with a shoulder armed with 20 circles of tightly packed spines, the posterior four circles of which have abruptly larger spines than those in the anterior circles. Neorhadinorhynchus atypicalis n. sp. (Cavisomidae) from the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) (Siganidae), has the largest number of proboscis hooks per row, testes wider than long, and four clustered cement glands. Micracanthorhynchica kuwaitensis Amin and Sey 1996 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from the spottail needlefish Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) (Belonidae) was similar to specimens originally described from the Arabian Gulf off the Kuwaiti coast. These acanthocephalans were collected in small numbers but stood out as uniquely and considerably different from their closest relatives to warrant their reporting. All species of acanthocephalans and their host and geographic distribution are described, and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus is provided.

  2. Species traits and climate velocity explain geographic range shifts in an ocean-warming hotspot.

    PubMed

    Sunday, Jennifer M; Pecl, Gretta T; Frusher, Stewart; Hobday, Alistair J; Hill, Nicole; Holbrook, Neil J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick; Barrett, Neville; Wernberg, Thomas; Watson, Reg A; Smale, Dan A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Slawinski, Dirk; Feng, Ming; Radford, Ben T; Thompson, Peter A; Bates, Amanda E

    2015-09-01

    Species' ranges are shifting globally in response to climate warming, with substantial variability among taxa, even within regions. Relationships between range dynamics and intrinsic species traits may be particularly apparent in the ocean, where temperature more directly shapes species' distributions. Here, we test for a role of species traits and climate velocity in driving range extensions in the ocean-warming hotspot of southeast Australia. Climate velocity explained some variation in range shifts, however, including species traits more than doubled the variation explained. Swimming ability, omnivory and latitudinal range size all had positive relationships with range extension rate, supporting hypotheses that increased dispersal capacity and ecological generalism promote extensions. We find independent support for the hypothesis that species with narrow latitudinal ranges are limited by factors other than climate. Our findings suggest that small-ranging species are in double jeopardy, with limited ability to escape warming and greater intrinsic vulnerability to stochastic disturbances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Vietnam plunges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    Vietnam is moving fast. Facing the need to double its installed power generation capacity by the year 2000, Vietnam is pursuing a range of development alternatives to add an estimated 3,000 MW of new power plants. As part of the country`s progress toward a market economy, Vietnam has relaxed its rules regarding investment in power plants. The country enacted a new electricity law early in 1995, paving the way for private participation in the power sector.

  4. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and the first record of C. otai from Son La Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Pham, Anh VAN; Ziegler, Thomas; Ngo, Hanh Thi; LE, Minh Duc

    2017-10-30

    We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of four specimens collected from the limestone karst forest of Phu Yen District, Son La Province, Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus sonlaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL of 83.2 mm; dorsal tubercles in 13-15 irregular rows; ventral scales in 34-42 rows; ventrolateral folds prominent without interspersed tubercles; enlarged femoral scales 15-17 on each thigh; femoral pores 14-15 on each thigh in males, absent in females; precloacal pores 8, in a continuous row in males, absent in females; postcloacal tubercles 2 or 3; lamellae under toe IV 18-21; dorsal head with dark brown markings, in oval and arched shapes; nuchal loop discontinuous; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions, third and fourth bands discontinuous; subcaudal scales distinctly enlarged. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is nested in a clade consisting of C. huongsonensis and C. soni from northern Vietnam and C. cf. pulchellus from Malaysia based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. In addition, we record Cyrtodactylus otai Nguyen, Le, Pham, Ngo, Hoang, Pham & Ziegler for the first time from Son La Province based on specimens collected from Van Ho District.

  5. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  6. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  7. Host shifts result in parallel genetic changes when viruses evolve in closely related species

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jonathan P.; Smith, Sophia C. L.; Houslay, Thomas M.; Tagliaferri, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Host shifts, where a pathogen invades and establishes in a new host species, are a major source of emerging infectious diseases. They frequently occur between related host species and often rely on the pathogen evolving adaptations that increase their fitness in the novel host species. To investigate genetic changes in novel hosts, we experimentally evolved replicate lineages of an RNA virus (Drosophila C Virus) in 19 different species of Drosophilidae and deep sequenced the viral genomes. We found a strong pattern of parallel evolution, where viral lineages from the same host were genetically more similar to each other than to lineages from other host species. When we compared viruses that had evolved in different host species, we found that parallel genetic changes were more likely to occur if the two host species were closely related. This suggests that when a virus adapts to one host it might also become better adapted to closely related host species. This may explain in part why host shifts tend to occur between related species, and may mean that when a new pathogen appears in a given species, closely related species may become vulnerable to the new disease. PMID:29649296

  8. Land Degradation on Barren Hills: A Case Study in Northeast Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, Nina; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Nikolic, Miroslav; Böcker, Reinhard; Holz, Ingo

    2008-07-01

    The term “barren hills” has been a keyword for land degradation in the uplands of Vietnam for over a decade. Nevertheless, the “barren” land is still not adequately ecologically characterized. In this work, we analyze land use-induced changes in vegetation and soil properties along a sequence of barren hills types formed on one physiotope. The study is undertaken in the Bac Kan province, one of the poorest upland regions where livestock plays an important role. A transition from an old-growth laurel forest to a sparse manmade grassland is characterized by a total of 177 species, rapid species turnover, and discrete dominants, and an overwhelming effect of disturbance history on both soil and vegetation patterning. Land degradation is most apparent in land use-induced maintenance of arrested successions, and the regeneration course is shifted towards drier formations. We hypothesize a conceptual model as an aid to understanding the process of early fallow differentiation in response to the patterned, fine-scale disturbances. The larger-scale implications of the observed trends in regeneration potentials deviation, and, in particular, the effect of water buffaloes in halting fallow successions, are discussed.

  9. A New Tool for Exploring Climate Change Induced Range Shifts of Conifer Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Zhao, Yiheng; Liu, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I), overlapping (O), and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz), based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index). A graphical tool (PRS_Chart) was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement) than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management. PMID:25268604

  10. A new tool for exploring climate change induced range shifts of conifer species in China.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Zhao, Yiheng; Liu, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I), overlapping (O), and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz), based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index). A graphical tool (PRS_Chart) was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement) than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management.

  11. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  12. [Epiphytic communities of arboreal formations in Southern Vietnam: an analysis of species composition and synusias structure in dependence on the extent of anthropogenic impact].

    PubMed

    Es'kov, A K

    2013-01-01

    Species composition of epiphytic communities within different formations of Phú Quôc Island (Southern Vietnam) is studied. The dependence of species composition and structural complexity of epiphytic communities on formation quality is demonstrated. Representatives of different families differ notably in their sensitivity to disturbances. Most vulnerable are Orchidaceae which represent the dominant group in epiphytic community of rain forest and which drop out almost completely under anthropogenic impacts. In less disturbed forests, epiphyte species diversity increases mainly at the expense of "lower" synusias and directly depends on the formation layering. Diminishing of layering numbers leads to dropping out of species belonging to "lower" synusias. Among epiphytes, the indicators of disturbed communities can be detected, namely species of ruderal strategy (explerents). In primal rain forest, they are absent or barely noticeable. An index is proposed for estimation of epiphytic communitiy complexity.

  13. Teaching about Vietnam and the Vietnam War. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vicki J.

    This digest discusses the need for teaching about the Vietnam War, possible reasons for the negligible treatment the subject receives in social studies classes, and some instructional approaches to the material. Currently, students lack a systematic and detailed knowledge of this turning point in U.S. history. The impact of the Vietnam War on U.S.…

  14. Rapid upslope shifts in New Guinean birds illustrate strong distributional responses of tropical montane species to global warming

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Benjamin G.; Class Freeman, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperate-zone species have responded to warming temperatures by shifting their distributions poleward and upslope. Thermal tolerance data suggests that tropical species may respond to warming temperatures even more strongly than temperate-zone species, but this prediction has yet to be tested. We addressed this data gap by conducting resurveys to measure distributional responses to temperature increases in the elevational limits of the avifaunas of two geographically and faunally independent New Guinean mountains, Mt. Karimui and Karkar Island, 47 and 44 y after they were originally surveyed. Although species richness is roughly five times greater on mainland Mt. Karimui than oceanic Karkar Island, distributional shifts at both sites were similar: upslope shifts averaged 113 m (Mt. Karimui) and 152 m (Karkar Island) for upper limits and 95 m (Mt. Karimui) and 123 m (Karkar Island) for lower limits. We incorporated these results into a metaanalysis to compare distributional responses of tropical species with those of temperate-zone species, finding that average upslope shifts in tropical montane species match local temperature increases significantly more closely than in temperate-zone montane species. That tropical species appear to be strong responders has global conservation implications and provides empirical support to hitherto untested models that predict widespread extinctions in upper-elevation tropical endemics with small ranges. PMID:24550460

  15. Genomic conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in wild gaur (Bos gaurus) and current genetic status of this species in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Genini, Sem; Bui, Linh Chi; Voegeli, Peter; Stranzinger, Gerald; Renard, Jean-Paul; Maillard, Jean-Charles; Nguyen, Bui Xuan

    2007-01-01

    Background The wild gaur (Bos gaurus) is an endangered wild cattle species. In Vietnam, the total number of wild gaurs is estimated at a maximum of 500 individuals. Inbreeding and genetic drift are current relevant threats to this small population size. Therefore, information about the genetic status of the Vietnamese wild gaur population is essential to develop strategies for conservation and effective long-term management for this species. In the present study, we performed cross-species amplification of 130 bovine microsatellite markers, in order to evaluate the applicability and conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in the wild gaur genome. The genetic diversity of Vietnamese wild gaur was also investigated, based on data collected from the 117 successfully amplified loci. Results One hundred-thirty cattle microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of 11 animals. Efficient amplifications were observed for 117 markers (90%) with a total of 264 alleles, and of these, 68 (58.1%) gave polymorphic band patterns. The number of alleles per locus among the polymorphic markers ranged from two to six. Thirteen loci (BM1314, BM2304, BM6017, BMC2228, BMS332, BMS911, CSSM023, ETH123, HAUT14, HEL11, HEL5, ILSTS005 and INRA189) distributed on nine different cattle chromosomes failed to amplify wild gaur genomic DNA. Three cattle Y-chromosome specific microsatellite markers (INRA124, INRA126 and BM861) were also highly specific in wild gaur, only displaying an amplification product in the males. Genotype data collected from the 117 successfully amplified microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity of this species in Vietnam. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values varied between 0.083 and 0.767 with a mean of 0.252 while observed heterozygosities (Ho) ranged from 0.091 to 0.909 (mean of 0.269). Nei's unbiased mean heterozygosity and the mean allele number across loci were 0.298 and 2.2, respectively. Conclusion Extensive conservation of cattle

  16. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  17. Hybridization and differential introgression associated with environmental shifts in a mistletoe species complex.

    PubMed

    Baena-Díaz, Fernanda; Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2018-04-03

    Host specialization after host shifting is traditionally viewed as the pathway to speciation in parasitic plants. However, geographical and environmental changes can also influence parasite speciation, through hybridization processes. Here we investigated the impact of past climatic fluctuations, environment, and host shifts on the genetic structure and patterns of hybridization and gene flow between Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. schiedeanus, a Mesoamerican species complex. Using microsatellites (408 individuals), we document moderate genetic diversity but high genetic differentiation between widespread parental clusters, calyculatus in dry pine-oak forests and schiedeanus in cloud forests. Bayesian analyses identified a third cluster, with admixture between parental clusters in areas of xeric and tropical dry forests and high levels of migration rates following secondary contact. Coincidently host associations in these areas differ from those in areas of parental species, suggesting that past hybridization played a role in environmental and host shifts. Overall, the observed genetic and geographic patterns suggest that these Psittacanthus populations could have entered a distinct evolutionary pathway. The results provide evidence for highlights on the importance of the Pleistocene climate changes, habitat differences, and potential host shifts in the evolutionary history of Neotropical mistletoes.

  18. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    PubMed

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  19. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  20. Vietnam and American Government Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)

  1. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  2. Adaptive evolution to novel predators facilitates the evolution of damselfly species range shifts.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2017-04-01

    Most species have evolved adaptations to reduce the chances of predation. In many cases, adaptations to coexist with one predator generate tradeoffs in the ability to live with other predators. Consequently, the ability to live with one predator may limit the geographic distributions of species, such that adaptive evolution to coexist with novel predators may facilitate range shifts. In a case study with Enallagma damselflies, we used a comparative phylogenetic approach to test the hypothesis that adaptive evolution to live with a novel predator facilitates range size shifts. Our results suggest that the evolution of Enallagma shifting from living in ancestral lakes with fish as top predators, to living in lakes with dragonflies as predators, may have facilitated an increase in their range sizes. This increased range size likely arose because lakes with dragonflies were widespread, but unavailable as a habitat throughout much of the evolutionary history of Enallagma because they were historically maladapted to coexist with dragonfly predators. Additionally, the traits that have evolved as defenses against dragonflies also likely enhanced damselfly dispersal abilities. While many factors underlie the evolutionary history of species ranges, these results suggest a role for the evolution of predator-prey interactions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. English Takes Root in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablonka, Marc Phillip

    1999-01-01

    English has emerged as an important language in Vietnam, and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education exists at all levels of schooling and in business. This paper explains Vietnam's post-embargo quest for English, the effect of economic hardships on education in Vietnam, incoming ESL instructors, and the past, present, and future of languages…

  5. EPA Collaboration with Vietnam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vietnam, one of Asia’s emerging economies, is an important environmental partner for EPA in Asia. EPA’s current cooperation with Vietnam primarily focuses on dioxin remediation and technical assistance to reduce methane emissions.

  6. Surveillance of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mosquitoes in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Nga, Phan Thi; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Higa, Yukiko; Hoang, Nguyen Vet; Trang, Bui Minh; Loan, Do Phuong; Phong, Tran Vu; Sasaki, Toshinori; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Takagi, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in mosquitoes was monitored in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008. A total of 15,225 mosquitoes, identified as 26 species in five genera were collected and 12,621 were grouped into 447 pools for examination of JEV infection by assays for cytopathic effects in C6/36 cells and by RT-PCR to detect flavivirus RNA. Three JEV strains were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles collected in northern and southern Vietnam and two JEV strains were isolated from Culex vishnui Theobald collected in the highlands of Vietnam. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses, based on complete E gene nucleotide sequences, revealed that the five JEV strains were classified into the genotype I group and six amino acid differences were found in these five strains. These results indicated that multiple JEV genotype I populations are circulating countrywide in Vietnam, transmitted by bites of their Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui. PMID:23358634

  7. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  8. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary sequence at Lung Cam, Vietnam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Nestell, Galina P.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lan, Luu Thi Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The occurrences of a few specimens of Clarkina and many specimens of Hindeodus at the Permian-Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam, Vietnam allow accurate graphic correlation to the P-T boundary stratotype at Meishan, China. One species of Clarkina, ten species and two subspecies of Hindeodus, and the apparatuses of Hindeodus latidentatus and Merrillina ultima are described and illustrated.

  9. Two new species of Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838 (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Annamite mountains in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vassilieva, Anna B; Galoyan, Eduard A; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2014-05-20

    We describe two new mountain-dwelling microhylid species of the genus Kalophrynus from the southern part of the Annamite Mountains in Vietnam. The two new species differ from all known congeners in morphological characters and mtDNA; phylogenetically, they form a sister clade to the large-bodied K. interlineatus (1009 bp, 16S rRNA gene, mtDNA). Both species share the following characteristics: snout pointed in dorsal and lateral views, slightly sloping in profile; tympanum distinct, smaller than eye in diameter; toe webbing moderate; outer metatarsal tubercle present; light dorsolateral line absent. Kalophrynus cryptophonus sp. nov. from Loc Bao, Lam Dong Province is a small-sized species distinguishing from its congeners by a combination of: SVL 27.9-30.4 mm in males, 23.4 mm in female; canthus rostralis indistinct; males with large sharp conical spines on the skin covering mandible margins and finely asperous nuptial pads on the dorsal surface of fingers I-III; dark ocelli in the inguinal region usually present, small, without a light border; anterior palatal dermal ridge short, restricted to medial part of palate. Kalophrynus honbaensis sp. nov. from Hon Ba, Khanh Hoa Province is a medium-sized Kalophrynus, distinguishing from its congeners by a combination of: SVL 26.7-36.8 mm in males; canthus rostralis distinct; males without distinguishable spines on the mandible margins nor the nuptial pads; dark ocelli in the inguinal region present, large, without a distinct light border, anterior palatal dermal ridge developed, parallel to posterior one. Kalophrynus cryptophonus sp. nov. reproduces in hollow bamboo stems; we describe larval morphology and bioacoustics of this species in relation to phytotelm breeding. A review of the distribution of the genus Kalophrynus in Indochina is provided.

  10. Clinical and microbiological features of melioidosis in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Doan Mai; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Breitbach, Katrin; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Nübel, Ulrich; Flunker, Gisela; Khang, Dinh Duy; Quang, Nguyen Xuan; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2008-12-01

    Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from Vietnam for decades, but clinical and epidemiological data for the indigenous population are still scarce. In this study, we reviewed clinical and demographic data of patients with culture-proven melioidosis diagnosed at a single large referral hospital in Hanoi between November 1997 and December 2005. We found that the clinical manifestations of melioidosis (with fatal septicaemia as the most common presentation), a high rate of underlying diseases, and a peak of cases admitted during the wet season, were similar to studies from other endemic areas. The geographical origin of patients with melioidosis showed that melioidosis existed in at least 18 northern provinces. The characterization of clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei strains by multilocus sequence typing identified 17 different sequence types (STs), 11 of which have (as yet) not been found outside Vietnam. Several of these STs presumably were generated through recent evolutionary events in this rapidly diversifying bacterial species, and thus, restricted geographic distribution may be a consequence of limited time passed since emergence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of cases describing clinical and epidemiological features of melioidosis and corresponding B. pseudomallei strains from northern Vietnam.

  11. Incorporating spatial autocorrelation into species distribution models alters forecasts of climate-mediated range shifts.

    PubMed

    Crase, Beth; Liedloff, Adam; Vesk, Peter A; Fukuda, Yusuke; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-08-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to forecast changes in the spatial distributions of species and communities in response to climate change. However, spatial autocorrelation (SA) is rarely accounted for in these models, despite its ubiquity in broad-scale ecological data. While spatial autocorrelation in model residuals is known to result in biased parameter estimates and the inflation of type I errors, the influence of unmodeled SA on species' range forecasts is poorly understood. Here we quantify how accounting for SA in SDMs influences the magnitude of range shift forecasts produced by SDMs for multiple climate change scenarios. SDMs were fitted to simulated data with a known autocorrelation structure, and to field observations of three mangrove communities from northern Australia displaying strong spatial autocorrelation. Three modeling approaches were implemented: environment-only models (most frequently applied in species' range forecasts), and two approaches that incorporate SA; autologistic models and residuals autocovariate (RAC) models. Differences in forecasts among modeling approaches and climate scenarios were quantified. While all model predictions at the current time closely matched that of the actual current distribution of the mangrove communities, under the climate change scenarios environment-only models forecast substantially greater range shifts than models incorporating SA. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences intensified with increasing increments of climate change across the scenarios. When models do not account for SA, forecasts of species' range shifts indicate more extreme impacts of climate change, compared to models that explicitly account for SA. Therefore, where biological or population processes induce substantial autocorrelation in the distribution of organisms, and this is not modeled, model predictions will be inaccurate. These results have global importance for conservation efforts as inaccurate

  12. Psychosocial Readjustment of Canadian Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the psychosocial readjustment of 164 Canadian Vietnam veterans. Found significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans and evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems. Suggests that problems are a result, in part, of prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of…

  13. A test for a shift in the boundary of the geographical range of a species.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew; Beet, Andrew; Roll, Uri; Stone, Lewi

    2014-02-01

    One predicted impact of climate change is a poleward shift in the boundaries of species ranges. Existing methods for identifying such a boundary shift based on changes in the observed pattern of occupancy within a grid of cells are sensitive to changes in the overall rate of sightings and their latitudinal distribution that are unconnected to a boundary shift. A formal test for a boundary shift is described that allows for such changes. The test is applied to detect northward shifts in the northern boundary of the Essex skipper (Thymelicus lineola) butterfly and the European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) in Great Britain. A shift is detected in the latter case but not in the former. Results from a simulation study are presented showing that the test performs well.

  14. Managing shifting species: Ancient DNA reveals conservation conundrums in a dynamic world.

    PubMed

    Waters, Jonathan M; Grosser, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    The spread of exotic species represents a major driver of biological change across the planet. While dispersal and colonization are natural biological processes, we suggest that the failure to recognize increasing rates of human-facilitated self-introductions may represent a threat to native lineages. Notably, recent biogeographic analyses have revealed numerous cases of biological range shifts in response to anthropogenic impacts and climate change. In particular, ancient DNA analyses have revealed several cases in which lineages traditionally thought to be long-established "natives" are in fact recent colonizers. Such range expansion events have apparently occurred in response to human-mediated native biodiversity declines and ecosystem change, particularly in recently colonized, isolated ecosystems such as New Zealand. While such events can potentially boost local biodiversity, the spread of exotic lineages may also hasten the decline of indigenous species, so it is essential that conservation managers recognize these rapid biotic shifts.​. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Master of Business Administration (MBA) Student Outcomes in Vietnam: Graduate Student Insights from a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Chau Thi Minh; Vickers, Margaret H.; Fernandez, Santha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Exploratory insights into the graduate student experiences of offshore MBA programmes in Vietnam are presented. Students are considered key stakeholders in the higher education (HE) debate, and their views were sought in light of recent shifts in HE worldwide, associated business education changes, nagging questions around the quality of…

  16. The effectiveness of a Supported Self-management task-shifting intervention for adult depression in Vietnam communities: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jill; Goldsmith, Charles H; Jones, Wayne; Oanh, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Vu Cong

    2017-05-05

    Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces. The MAC-FI program will be assessed using a stepped-wedge, randomized controlled trial. Study participants are adults aged 18 years and over in eight provinces of Vietnam. Study participants will be screened at primary care centres and in the community by health and social workers using the Self-reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Patients scoring >7, indicating depression caseness, will be invited to participate in the study in either the SSM intervention group or the enhanced treatment as usual control group. Recruited participants will be further assessed using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) Questionnaire for alcohol misuse. Intervention-group participants will receive the SSM intervention, delivered with the support of a social worker or social collaborator, for a period of 2 months. Control- group participants will receive treatment as usual and a leaflet with information about depression. SRQ-20, WHODAS 2.0 and CAGE scores will be taken by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, after 1 month and after 2 months. The primary analysis method will be intention-to-treat. This study has the potential to add to the knowledge base about

  17. Analysis of Vietnamization: Summary and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-11-01

    Ellsberg, Daniel . Some Lessons from Failure in Vietnam, P-4036. Santa Monica: The RAND Corp., July 1969. Fulbright, J. William (ed.). The Vietnam...34 Chira and North Vietnam: Two Revolutionary Paths, " Part I, Current Scene, Vol. IX, No. II (Nov 7, 1971), Part II, Current Scene. Vol. IX, No. IZ (Doc 7

  18. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  19. From Pre-Modern to Modern: Ethnic Classification by Language and the Case of the Ngai/Nung of Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Discusses problems in the classification of ethnic groups by language, focusing on the case of a marginal Chinese group from northeast Vietnam and the shifting of ethnic identity according to geographic location. Influences of colonialism and nationalist feeling in this dilemma are examined. (MSE)

  20. Population-environment drivers of H5N1 avian influenza molecular change in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Nguyen, Tung; Jobe, R. Todd; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies population and environment drivers of genetic change in H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Vietnam using a landscape genetics approach. While prior work has examined how combinations of local-level environmental variables influence H5N1 occurrence, this research expands the analysis to the complex genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses. A dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV isolated in Vietnam from 2003–2007 is used to explore which population and environment variables are correlated with increased genetic change among viruses. Results from non-parametric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses indicate that variables relating to both the environmental and social ecology of humans and birds in Vietnam interact to affect the genetic character of viruses. These findings suggest that it is a combination of suitable environments for species mixing, the presence of high numbers of potential hosts, and in particular the temporal characteristics of viral occurrence, that drive genetic change among H5N1 AIV in Vietnam. PMID:22652510

  1. Population-environment drivers of H5N1 avian influenza molecular change in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Nguyen, Tung; Todd Jobe, R; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    This study identifies population and environment drivers of genetic change in H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Vietnam using a landscape genetics approach. While prior work has examined how combinations of local-level environmental variables influence H5N1 occurrence, this research expands the analysis to the complex genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses. A dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007 is used to explore which population and environment variables are correlated with increased genetic change among viruses. Results from non-parametric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses indicate that variables relating to both the environmental and social ecology of humans and birds in Vietnam interact to affect the genetic character of viruses. These findings suggest that it is a combination of suitable environments for species mixing, the presence of high numbers of potential hosts, and in particular the temporal characteristics of viral occurrence, that drive genetic change among H5N1 AIV in Vietnam. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Matthew M.; Freire, Marcelo O.; Gabrilska, Rebecca A.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lemon, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe–microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  3. The Vietnam Era Veteran: Challenge for Change. Administrator's Seminars on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC.

    This report covers 5 regional seminars designed to increase the Veterans Administration understanding of Vietnam Era veterans. The process used was one of involvement and interaction of Veterans Administration officials with returning Vietnam Era veterans and other young people. After the traditional introductions and keynote remarks, there was a…

  4. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  5. Climate-induced elevational range shifts and increase in plant species richness in a Himalayan biodiversity epicentre.

    PubMed

    Telwala, Yasmeen; Brook, Barry W; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperature increase during the last century has induced species geographic range shifts and extinctions. Montane floras, in particular, are highly sensitive to climate change and mountains serve as suitable observation sites for tracing climate-induced biological response. The Himalaya constitute an important global biodiversity hotspot, yet studies on species' response to climate change from this region are lacking. Here we use historical (1849-50) and the recent (2007-2010) data on temperature and endemic species' elevational ranges to perform a correlative study in the two alpine valleys of Sikkim. We show that the ongoing warming in the alpine Sikkim Himalaya has transformed the plant assemblages. This study lends support to the hypothesis that changing climate is causing species distribution changes. We provide first evidence of warmer winters in the region compared to the last two centuries, with mean temperatures of the warmest and the coldest months may have increased by 0.76±0.25°C and 3.65±2°C, respectively. Warming-driven geographical range shifts were recorded in 87% of 124 endemic plant species studied in the region; upper range extensions of species have resulted in increased species richness in the upper alpine zone, compared to the 19(th) century. We recorded a shift of 23-998 m in species' upper elevation limit and a mean upward displacement rate of 27.53±22.04 m/decade in the present study. We infer that the present-day plant assemblages and community structure in the Himalaya is substantially different from the last century and is, therefore, in a state of flux under the impact of warming. The continued trend of warming is likely to result in ongoing elevational range contractions and eventually, species extinctions, particularly at mountaintops.

  6. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  7. Marine species distribution shifts on the U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf under continued ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Hare, Jonathan A.; Moret, Skye; Perretti, Charles T.; Saba, Vincent S.

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf marine ecosystem has warmed much faster than the global ocean and it is expected that this enhanced warming will continue through this century. Complex bathymetry and ocean circulation in this region have contributed to biases in global climate model simulations of the Shelf waters. Increasing the resolution of these models results in reductions in the bias of future climate change projections and indicates greater warming than suggested by coarse resolution climate projections. Here, we used a high-resolution global climate model and historical observations of species distributions from a trawl survey to examine changes in the future distribution of suitable thermal habitat for various demersal and pelagic species on the Shelf. Along the southern portion of the shelf (Mid-Atlantic Bight and Georges Bank), a projected 4.1 °C (surface) to 5.0 °C (bottom) warming of ocean temperature from current conditions results in a northward shift of the thermal habitat for the majority of species. While some southern species like butterfish and black sea bass are projected to have moderate losses in suitable thermal habitat, there are potentially significant increases for many species including summer flounder, striped bass, and Atlantic croaker. In the north, in the Gulf of Maine, a projected 3.7 °C (surface) to 3.9 °C (bottom) warming from current conditions results in substantial reductions in suitable thermal habitat such that species currently inhabiting this region may not remain in these waters under continued warming. We project a loss in suitable thermal habitat for key northern species including Acadian redfish, American plaice, Atlantic cod, haddock, and thorney skate, but potential gains for some species including spiny dogfish and American lobster. We illustrate how changes in suitable thermal habitat of important commercially fished species may impact local fishing communities and potentially impact major fishing ports

  8. Molecular evolution of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A genotype NA1 and ON1 attachment glycoprotein (G) gene in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Keisuke; Le, Minh Nhat; Nagasawa, Koo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Toizumi, Michiko; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ariyoshi, Koya; Dang, Duc Anh; Kimura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2016-11-01

    We performed molecular evolutionary analyses of the G gene C-terminal 3rd hypervariable region of RSV-A genotypes NA1 and ON1 strains from the paediatric acute respiratory infection patients in central Vietnam during the 2010-2012 study period. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and pairwise distances (p-distances) were calculated. Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) was constructed to analyze the time-trend relative genetic diversity of central Vietnam RSV-A strains. We also estimated the N-glycosylation sites within G gene hypervariable region. Amino acid substitutions under positive and negative selection pressure were examined using Conservative Single Likelihood Ancestor Counting (SLAC), Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL), Internal Fixed Effects Likelihood (IFEL) and Mixed Effects Model for Episodic Diversifying Selection (MEME) models. The majority of central Vietnam ON1 strains detected in 2012 were classified into lineage 1 with few positively selected substitutions. As for the Vietnamese NA1 strains, four lineages were circulating during the study period with a few positive selection sites. Shifting patterns of the predominantly circulating NA1 lineage were observed in each year during the investigation period. Median p-distance of central Vietnam NA1 strains was wider (p-distance=0.028) than that of ON1 (p-distance=0.012). The molecular evolutionary rate of central Vietnam ON1 strains was estimated to be 2.55×10 -2 (substitutions/site/year) and was faster than NA1 (7.12×10 -3 (substitutions/site/year)). Interestingly, the evolutionary rates of both genotypes ON1 and NA1 strains from central Vietnam were faster than the global strains respectively. Furthermore, the shifts of N-glycosylation pattern within the G gene 3rd hypervariable region of Vietnamese NA1 strains were observed in each year. BSP analysis indicated the rapid growth of RSV-A effective population size in early 2012. These results

  9. First record of Anopheles minimus C and significant decrease of An. minimus A in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Garros, Claire; Marchand, Ron P; Quang, Nguyen Tuyen; Hai, Nguyen Son; Manguin, Sylvie

    2005-06-01

    Before August 1998, in the Khanh Phu commune (central Vietnam), Anopheles minimus s.l. individuals were identified as species A and showed the typical species A wing form. After a significant decrease over the 3 years 1999-2001, an increase in 2002 of An. minimus s.l. possessing a different wing pattern was observed. To determine the specific status of the An. minimus species collected in 2002 and to follow changes in the species composition, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was applied to samples collected from 1993 to 2002. This study reports the first record of An. minimus C in central Vietnam and, since 1998, a significant reduction of An. minimus A that coincided with the wide use of permethrin-treated bednets. This change in anopheline composition may have important consequences on malaria transmission. This work shows that the geographic distribution of malaria vectors in southeast Asia is only partially known and highlights the importance of species identification for understanding changes in the vector composition as a result of selective vector control.

  10. In Vietnam, Manufacturing Masterworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam, with its cheap labor and lax copyright laws, is a counterfeiter's dream. Books are sold hot off the photocopier and Hollywood's latest blockbusters can be had on DVD's for about a dollar. But it is in art forgery that Vietnam excels. With a stable of neoclassically trained art students, who spend years learning to copy the masters, art…

  11. Temperature-dependent shifts in phenology contribute to the success of exotic species with climate change.

    PubMed

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Davies, T Jonathan; Schaefer, Hanno; Cleland, Elsa E; Cook, Benjamin I; Travers, Steven E; Willis, Charles G; Davis, Charles C

    2013-07-01

    The study of how phenology may contribute to the assembly of plant communities has a long history in ecology. Climate change has brought renewed interest in this area, with many studies examining how phenology may contribute to the success of exotic species. In particular, there is increasing evidence that exotic species occupy unique phenological niches and track climate change more closely than native species. Here, we use long-term records of species’ first flowering dates from fi ve northern hemisphere temperate sites (Chinnor, UK and in the United States, Concord, Massachusetts; Fargo, North Dakota; Konza Prairie, Kansas; and Washington,D.C.) to examine whether invaders have distinct phenologies. Using a broad phylogenetic framework, we tested for differences between exotic and native species in mean annual flowering time, phenological changes in response to temperature and precipitation,and longer-term shifts in first flowering dates during recent pronounced climate change (“flowering time shifts”). Across North American sites, exotic species have shifted flowering with climate change while native species, on average, have not. In the three mesic systems, exotic species exhibited higher tracking of interannual variation in temperature,such that flowering advances more with warming, than native species. Across the two grassland systems, however, exotic species differed from native species primarily in responses to precipitation and soil moisture, not temperature. Our findings provide cross-site support for the role of phenology and climate change in explaining species’ invasions.Further, they support recent evidence that exotic species may be important drivers of extended growing seasons observed with climate change in North America.

  12. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation No...

  13. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation No...

  14. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation No...

  15. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation No...

  16. The Vietnam Conflict: "America's Best Documented War?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems with military documentation during the Vietnam War. Reports poor record keeping practices, destruction of permanent files, and mislabeled and missing records. Describes the National Archives' Vietnam project that organized and preserved the remaining military records. Concludes that the Vietnam War was better documented than the…

  17. Historical droughts in northern Vietnam captured by variability in speleothem δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, B. F.; McGee, D.; Burns, S. J.; Hieu, N.; Hieu, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothem records overlapping with the historical period offer valuable comparisons of documentary evidence with speleothem proxy data. These records provide opportunities to 'ground-truth' the paleo-record, fill in gaps in the historical record, and more confidently extent the paleo-record into deeper time. Here we present isotopic results from a stalagmite collected in northern Vietnam spanning 1200 to 1950 CE, a period with a rich historical record in Vietnam. This sample adds significantly to the relatively sparse paleoclimate record from Southeast Asia. The record includes several multi-decadal positive excursions of ≥1 per mille in calcite δ18O. A preliminary age model, based on six U/Th ages, suggests possible correspondence to noted droughts from the historical record, including the Angkor Droughts, the Ming Dynasty Drought, the Strange Parallels Drought, and the Victorian Holocaust Drought. As modeling studies indicate a strong correlation between rainfall δ18O and both the intensity of summer monsoon winds and summer rainfall over northern Vietnam (e.g., Liu et al., 2014), these excursions are consistent with a decrease in regional precipitation. The Vietnam record shows an overall negative trend during the Little Ice Age. The study site is located well south of the westerly wind belt, ruling out a shift between monsoonal and mid-latitude circulation systems as a likely explanation for the northern Vietnam record. We explore the correspondence between our record and other proxy data from Southeast Asia and suggest possible implications of the differences between Vietnamese and Chinese speleothem records during the Little Ice Age. References cited: Liu Z., Wen X., Brady E. C., Otto-Bliesner B., Yu G., Lu H., Cheng H., Wang Y., Zheng W., Ding Y., Edwards R. L., Cheng J., Liu W. and Yang H. (2014) Chinese cave records and the East Asia Summer Monsoon. Quaternary Science Reviews 83, 115-128.

  18. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  19. The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    De, Nguyen Van; Murrell, K Darwin; Cong, Le Dinh; Cam, Phung Dac; Chau, Le Van; Toan, Nguyen Duy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, numerous surveys for the occurrence and distribution of food-borne trematodes in Vietnam have been carried out. However, the majority of the data obtained have not been published in international journals, and therefore, the seriousness of these trematode parasitic zoonoses in the country has not been fully appreciated. To correct this, over 40 Vietnamese language reports and local publications were translated and organized as a status review for an international audience. The results show that such serious trematode zoonoses as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and fascioliasis are common in many regions of Vietnam, and, in the case of fascioliasis and paragonimiasis, are increasing. Data on the species of intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of these zoonoses, and the effect of host sex and age on infection frequencies are presented, along with findings on food preference/behavior investigations. Finally, the authors present recommendations for further research to provide a more comprehensive picture of the status of these zoonoses, and to obtain the risk assessment information needed to design prevention and control programs.

  20. Molecular, morphological and acoustic assessment of the genus Ophryophryne (Anura, Megophryidae) from Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Jr., Nikolay A. Poyarkov; Duong, Tang Van; Orlov, Nikolai L.; Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Vassilieva, Anna B.; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Che, Jing; Mahony, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asian Mountain Toads (Ophryophryne) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O. gerti, O. synoria and an undescribed species. To help resolve outstanding taxonomic confusion evident in literature (reviewed herein), an expanded redescription of O. gerti is provided based on the examination of type material, and the distributions of both O. gerti and O. synoria are considerably revised based on new locality records. We provide the first descriptions of male mating calls for all three species, permitting a detailed bioacoustics comparison of the species. We describe the new species from highlands of the northern and eastern Langbian Plateau, and distinguish it from its congeners by a combination of morphological, molecular and acoustic characters. The new species represents one of the smallest known members of the genus Ophryophryne. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 700–2200 m a.s.l. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN’s Red List categories. PMID:28769667

  1. Molecular, morphological and acoustic assessment of the genus Ophryophryne (Anura, Megophryidae) from Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Duong, Tang Van; Orlov, Nikolai L; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Vassilieva, Anna B; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Che, Jing; Mahony, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Asian Mountain Toads ( Ophryophryne ) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O. gerti , O. synoria and an undescribed species. To help resolve outstanding taxonomic confusion evident in literature (reviewed herein), an expanded redescription of O. gerti is provided based on the examination of type material, and the distributions of both O. gerti and O. synoria are considerably revised based on new locality records. We provide the first descriptions of male mating calls for all three species, permitting a detailed bioacoustics comparison of the species. We describe the new species from highlands of the northern and eastern Langbian Plateau, and distinguish it from its congeners by a combination of morphological, molecular and acoustic characters. The new species represents one of the smallest known members of the genus Ophryophryne . At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 700-2200 m a.s.l. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN's Red List categories.

  2. Endemic palm species shed light on habitat shifts and the assembly of the Cerrado and Restinga floras.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Moraes R, Monica; Jaramillo, Carlos; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters. To detect habit shifts in absolute time, we used one plastid and nine nuclear genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Allagoptera. We used light microscopy and stable isotope analysis to explore whether morphological adaptations occurred concomitantly with habitat shifts. Phylogenetic relationships were well supported and we found ancestral lineages of Allagoptera to be widely distributed throughout habitats that are currently occupied by extant species. Over the last ca. 7Ma Allagoptera has shifted its preference to increasingly dry habitats. Coincident with the colonization of the Cerrado and Restinga, morphological adaptations also evolved, including subterranean stems that are fire-resistant and long underground stem and root systems that facilitate water access. We did not find differences in metabolic pathway or modifications to pollen morphology when compared to other palm lineages. Assuming that the evolutionary history of Allagoptera is indicative of the habitat in which it occurs, our results infer a recent origin for Cerrado species. Although little is known about the formation of the Restinga habitat, our results also suggest a longer history than currently proposed; with an origin of Restinga habitats dating back to the Late Pliocene

  3. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnam-Era Women Veterans: The Health of Vietnam-Era Women's Study (HealthVIEWS).

    PubMed

    Magruder, Kathryn; Serpi, Tracey; Kimerling, Rachel; Kilbourne, Amy M; Collins, Joseph F; Cypel, Yasmin; Frayne, Susan M; Furey, Joan; Huang, Grant D; Gleason, Theresa; Reinhard, Matthew J; Spiro, Avron; Kang, Han

    2015-11-01

    Many Vietnam-era women veterans served in or near war zones and may have experienced stressful or traumatic events during their service. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well studied among men who served in Vietnam, no major epidemiologic investigation of PTSD among women has been performed. To assess (1) the onset and prevalence of lifetime and current PTSD for women who served during the Vietnam era, stratified by wartime location (Vietnam, near Vietnam, or the United States), and (2) the extent to which wartime location was associated with PTSD, with adjustment for demographics, service characteristics, and wartime exposures. Survey of 8742 women who were active-duty military personnel in the US Armed Forces at any time from July 4, 1965, through March 28, 1973, and alive as of survey receipt as part of Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 579, HealthVIEWS. Data were obtained from mailed and telephone surveys from May 16, 2011, through August 5, 2012, and analyzed from June 26, 2013, through July 30, 2015. Lifetime and current PTSD as measured by the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0; onset of PTSD; and wartime experiences as measured by the Women's Wartime Exposure Scale-Revised. Among the 4219 women (48.3%) who completed the survey and a telephone interview, the weighted prevalence (95% CI) of lifetime PTSD was 20.1% (18.3%-21.8%), 11.5% (9.1%-13.9%), and 14.1% (12.4%-15.8%) for the Vietnam, near-Vietnam, and US cohorts, respectively. The weighted prevalence (95% CI) of current PTSD was 15.9% (14.3%-17.5%), 8.1% (6.0%-10.2%), and 9.1% (7.7%-10.5%) for the 3 cohorts, respectively. Few cases of PTSD among the Vietnam or near-Vietnam cohorts were attributable to premilitary onset (weighted prevalence, 2.9% [95% CI, 2.2%-3.7%] and 2.9% [95% CI, 1.7%-4.2%], respectively). Unadjusted models for lifetime and current PTSD indicated that women who served in Vietnam were more likely to meet PTSD

  4. Shifting plant species composition in response to climate change stabilizes grassland primary production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiying; Mi, Zhaorong; Lin, Li; Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Fawei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lingli; Zhu, Biao; Cao, Guangmin; Zhao, Xinquan; Sanders, Nathan J.; Reich, Peter B.

    2018-01-01

    The structure and function of alpine grassland ecosystems, including their extensive soil carbon stocks, are largely shaped by temperature. The Tibetan Plateau in particular has experienced significant warming over the past 50 y, and this warming trend is projected to intensify in the future. Such climate change will likely alter plant species composition and net primary production (NPP). Here we combined 32 y of observations and monitoring with a manipulative experiment of temperature and precipitation to explore the effects of changing climate on plant community structure and ecosystem function. First, long-term climate warming from 1983 to 2014, which occurred without systematic changes in precipitation, led to higher grass abundance and lower sedge abundance, but did not affect aboveground NPP. Second, an experimental warming experiment conducted over 4 y had no effects on any aspect of NPP, whereas drought manipulation (reducing precipitation by 50%), shifted NPP allocation belowground without affecting total NPP. Third, both experimental warming and drought treatments, supported by a meta-analysis at nine sites across the plateau, increased grass abundance at the expense of biomass of sedges and forbs. This shift in functional group composition led to deeper root systems, which may have enabled plant communities to acquire more water and thus stabilize ecosystem primary production even with a changing climate. Overall, our study demonstrates that shifting plant species composition in response to climate change may have stabilized primary production in this high-elevation ecosystem, but it also caused a shift from aboveground to belowground productivity. PMID:29666319

  5. Shifting plant species composition in response to climate change stabilizes grassland primary production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiying; Mi, Zhaorong; Lin, Li; Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Fawei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lingli; Zhu, Biao; Cao, Guangmin; Zhao, Xinquan; Sanders, Nathan J; Classen, Aimée T; Reich, Peter B; He, Jin-Sheng

    2018-04-17

    The structure and function of alpine grassland ecosystems, including their extensive soil carbon stocks, are largely shaped by temperature. The Tibetan Plateau in particular has experienced significant warming over the past 50 y, and this warming trend is projected to intensify in the future. Such climate change will likely alter plant species composition and net primary production (NPP). Here we combined 32 y of observations and monitoring with a manipulative experiment of temperature and precipitation to explore the effects of changing climate on plant community structure and ecosystem function. First, long-term climate warming from 1983 to 2014, which occurred without systematic changes in precipitation, led to higher grass abundance and lower sedge abundance, but did not affect aboveground NPP. Second, an experimental warming experiment conducted over 4 y had no effects on any aspect of NPP, whereas drought manipulation (reducing precipitation by 50%), shifted NPP allocation belowground without affecting total NPP. Third, both experimental warming and drought treatments, supported by a meta-analysis at nine sites across the plateau, increased grass abundance at the expense of biomass of sedges and forbs. This shift in functional group composition led to deeper root systems, which may have enabled plant communities to acquire more water and thus stabilize ecosystem primary production even with a changing climate. Overall, our study demonstrates that shifting plant species composition in response to climate change may have stabilized primary production in this high-elevation ecosystem, but it also caused a shift from aboveground to belowground productivity.

  6. In-situ identification of meat from different animal species by shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2012-05-01

    The identification of food products and the detection of adulteration are of global interest for food safety and quality control. We present a non-invasive in-situ approach for the differentiation of meat from selected animal species using microsystem diode laser based shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) at 671 nm and 785 nm. In that way, the fingerprint Raman spectra can be used for identification without a disturbing fluorescence background masking Raman signals often occurring in the investigation of biological samples. Two miniaturized SERDS measurement heads including the diode laser and all optical elements are fiber-optically coupled to compact laboratory spectrometers. To realize two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS the 671 nm laser (spectral shift: 0.7 nm, optical power: 50 mW) comprises two separate laser cavities each with a volume Bragg grating for frequency selection whereas the 785 nm light source (spectral shift: 0.5 nm, optical power: 110 mW) is a distributed feedback laser. For our investigations we chose the most consumed meat types in the US and Europe, i.e. chicken and turkey as white meat as well as pork and beef as red meat species. The applied optical powers were sufficient to detect meat Raman spectra with integration times of 10 seconds pointing out the ability for a rapid discrimination of meat samples. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra to reveal spectral differences between the animals suitable for their identification. The results will be discussed with respect to specific characteristics of the analyzed meat species.

  7. Gaining access to Vietnam's cigarette market: British American Tobacco's strategy to enter 'a huge market which will become enormous'.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Kinh, H V; Mackenzie, R; Gilmore, A B; Minh, N T; Collin, J

    2008-01-01

    British American Tobacco (BAT) has made concerted efforts since the late 1980s to establish a major presence in Vietnam, among the world's 10 fastest growing tobacco markets. Until 2000, Vietnam's tight regulation of the industry has been largely driven by trade and investment policy, resulting in a stronger domestic industry but increased production and consumption of tobacco products. BAT gained market access, and achieved a dominant market share among TTCs, through leaf development, licensed manufacturing, and the contraband trade. With impending trade liberalization in Vietnam, the company is now well placed to further expand sales. The ambitious National Tobacco Control Policy, adopted in 2000, signals a shift in political priority towards the protection of public health. Effective implementation and enforcement of its comprehensive measures will depend on the public health community's ability to draw support from regional and global experience, notably the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

  8. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  9. Case report: the first case of human infection by adult of SPIROMETRA ERINACEIEUROPAEI in VIETNAM.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh Tran; Do, Le-Quyen Thi; Nguyen, Huong-Binh Thi; Nguyen, Hong-Ngoc Thi; Do, Anh Ngoc

    2017-10-10

    Tapeworms of the genus Spirometra include species whose larval stages can infect humans, causing a disease called sparganosis. Cases of human infection with adult worms are very rare and have been reported in Korea and China. Here we report the first case of human infection with an adult of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in Vietnam. A 23-year-old male was admitted to 103 Military Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam with fever, weight loss and epigastric discomfort. Preliminary diagnosis based on discovery of parasite eggs in his faeces incorrectly determined a fluke as the agent of the infection and praziquantel was prescribed. Two days later he passed out proglottids in his stool. The tapeworm was identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei using morphological and molecular tools. This is the first case of human infection with adult worm of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in Vietnam.

  10. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    PubMed

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  11. Cultural shift in mental illness: a comparison of stress responses in World War I and the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Rasjid; Kaplick, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops. We have compared historical records from World War I to those of the Vietnam War. Reference is also made to observations of combat trauma reactions in pre-World War I conflicts, World War II, the Korean War, the Falklands War, and the First Gulf War. The data set consisted of literature that was published during and after these armed conflicts. Accounts of World War I Shell Shock that describe symptom presentation, incidence (both acute and delayed), and prognosis were compared to the observations made of Vietnam War post-traumatic stress disorder victims. Results suggest that the conditions observed in Vietnam veterans were not the same as those which were observed in World War I trauma victims. The paper argues that the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder cannot be stretched to cover the typical battle trauma reactions of World War I. It is suggested that relatively subtle changes in culture, over little more than a generation, have had a profound effect on how mental illness forms, manifests itself, and is effectively treated. We add new evidence to the argument that post-traumatic stress disorder in its current conceptualisation does not adequately account, not only for ethnocultural variation but also for historical variation in stress responses within the same culture.

  12. Understanding how seasonality and shifts in species composition impact emission estimates in semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Smith, A. M.; Marshall, J. D.; Tinkham, W.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of wildland fire as a source of trace gas emissions to the atmosphere has been demonstrated in the scientific literature and through numerous NASA funded campaigns to further understand the drivers and impacts of these emissions (e.g., SAFARI 1992, SAFARI 2000, TRACE A, etc). Most studies quantify emissions using remotely sensed data through multiplying the area burned, the quantity of fuel combusted, and the emission factors of a given gas species (EFX, grams of gas, X, emitted per kilogram of fuel consumed). The latter is known to exhibit considerable uncertainty and indeed a prior study as part of NASA's SAFARI 2000 campaign highlighted a seasonal dependence of carbonaceous gas species emissions. In this study, rangeland grass and shrub species were collected periodically from northern Great Basin shrub-steppe ecosystems during the typical burn season and burned in a small-scale laboratory setup where major carbonaceous and nitrogenous emission species were monitored and measured. Preliminary results indicate that emission factors of several major gas species, including carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, vary considerably over the course of a season. Large differences in emission apportionment between the rangeland species also suggests that shifting vegetation composition (via replacement of native with invasive species) can have a significant influence on emissions from semi-arid ecosystems. Further development of this data could lead to an enhanced understanding of how emission factors vary seasonally and how total emissions change with major vegetation shifts in other ecosystems.

  13. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  14. Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists) were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of each species was retained

  15. Current conservation status of Germain's langur (Trachypithecus germaini) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Tran, Bang; Nguyen, Minh Anh; Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Truong, Quan Bich Thi; Ang, Andie; Covert, Herbert H; Hoang, Duc Minh

    2017-07-01

    Following the split of the silvered langurs of Indochina into two species based on molecular and phenotypic data, there is a need to reevaluate their distribution and update their conservation status. Here, we report the distribution and assess the population size of Germain's langur (Trachypithecus germaini) within its known range across Vietnam. We confirmed this species at six of seven survey sites in different habitats within three provinces in the Mekong Delta Region, including semi-evergreen forest at the Seven Mountains of An Giang Province, mangrove forest in Ngoc Hien and Nam Can Districts and Melaleuca forest in U Minh Ha National Park of Ca Mau Province, and limestone forest at Kien Luong Karst Area and semi-evergreen and evergreen forests at Phu Quoc National Park of Kien Giang Province. We found no evidence of this species in Mui Ca Mau National Park, Ca Mau Province where it was previously reported. We conservatively estimate that the total population of Germain's langurs in Vietnam consists of 362-406 individuals, with the largest population found in the Kien Luong Karst Area. Hunting and habitat loss are severely impacting Germain's langur, resulting in the extirpation of the population in Mui Ca Mau National Park and small, isolated populations in the Seven Mountains and Ngoc Hien and Nam Can Districts. However, the ability of this species to inhabit a wide range of forest types, and its increasing population sizes in Phu Quoc National Park and Kien Luong Karst Area, provide signs of hope that continued conservation actions may help in its long-term survival.

  16. Climate-Induced Elevational Range Shifts and Increase in Plant Species Richness in a Himalayan Biodiversity Epicentre

    PubMed Central

    Telwala, Yasmeen; Brook, Barry W.; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperature increase during the last century has induced species geographic range shifts and extinctions. Montane floras, in particular, are highly sensitive to climate change and mountains serve as suitable observation sites for tracing climate-induced biological response. The Himalaya constitute an important global biodiversity hotspot, yet studies on species’ response to climate change from this region are lacking. Here we use historical (1849–50) and the recent (2007–2010) data on temperature and endemic species’ elevational ranges to perform a correlative study in the two alpine valleys of Sikkim. We show that the ongoing warming in the alpine Sikkim Himalaya has transformed the plant assemblages. This study lends support to the hypothesis that changing climate is causing species distribution changes. We provide first evidence of warmer winters in the region compared to the last two centuries, with mean temperatures of the warmest and the coldest months may have increased by 0.76±0.25°C and 3.65±2°C, respectively. Warming-driven geographical range shifts were recorded in 87% of 124 endemic plant species studied in the region; upper range extensions of species have resulted in increased species richness in the upper alpine zone, compared to the 19th century. We recorded a shift of 23–998 m in species’ upper elevation limit and a mean upward displacement rate of 27.53±22.04 m/decade in the present study. We infer that the present-day plant assemblages and community structure in the Himalaya is substantially different from the last century and is, therefore, in a state of flux under the impact of warming. The continued trend of warming is likely to result in ongoing elevational range contractions and eventually, species extinctions, particularly at mountaintops. PMID:23437322

  17. Vietnam Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades Vietnam has emerged as an important oil and natural gas producer in Southeast Asia. Vietnam has boosted exploration activities and allowed for greater foreign company investment and cooperation in the oil and gas sectors, and introduced limited market reforms to support the energy industry. On the demand side, the country’s rapid economic growth, industrialization, and export market expansion have spurred domestic energy consumption over the past decade.

  18. A new species of Clidicus with asymmetrical parameres (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-03-20

    Clidicus Laporte, 1832 currently comprises 27 species distributed in India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines (Mindanao), China (Hainan) and Australia (Queensland). Some species have conspicuously large adults reaching 8.5 mm, and they represent the largest known Scydmaeninae. Species of Clidicus were relatively poorly known until recently, when Orousset (2014) revised a large portion of this genus and described several new species. Other major studies include Besuchet (1971), who described Sri Lankan species, Jałoszyński et al. (2003) who recorded four new species from Vietnam and Laos, Jałoszyński (2009) with the first description of a Philippine species, and Zhou Li (2015), who discovered the first species in China. Another new species, representing the second Clidicus occurring in the Philippines, is described below.

  19. Designing optimized multi-species monitoring networks to detect range shifts driven by climate change: a case study with bats in the North of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Francisco; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Honrado, João; Rebelo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Here we develop a framework to design multi-species monitoring networks using species distribution models and conservation planning tools to optimize the location of monitoring stations to detect potential range shifts driven by climate change. For this study, we focused on seven bat species in Northern Portugal (Western Europe). Maximum entropy modelling was used to predict the likely occurrence of those species under present and future climatic conditions. By comparing present and future predicted distributions, we identified areas where each species is likely to gain, lose or maintain suitable climatic space. We then used a decision support tool (the Marxan software) to design three optimized monitoring networks considering: a) changes in species likely occurrence, b) species conservation status, and c) level of volunteer commitment. For present climatic conditions, species distribution models revealed that areas suitable for most species occur in the north-eastern part of the region. However, areas predicted to become climatically suitable in the future shifted towards west. The three simulated monitoring networks, adaptable for an unpredictable volunteer commitment, included 28, 54 and 110 sampling locations respectively, distributed across the study area and covering the potential full range of conditions where species range shifts may occur. Our results show that our framework outperforms the traditional approach that only considers current species ranges, in allocating monitoring stations distributed across different categories of predicted shifts in species distributions. This study presents a straightforward framework to design monitoring schemes aimed specifically at testing hypotheses about where and when species ranges may shift with climatic changes, while also ensuring surveillance of general population trends.

  20. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  1. Interpersonal Styles of Vietnam Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorr, Maurice; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A comparative analysis is made of the social characteristics of Vietnam veterans and World War II veterans. By use of the Interpersonal Style Inventory, the results showed that the Vietnam veterans were more rebellious, radical, and expedient than older veterans. (DEP)

  2. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taenia saginata. The status of T. asiatica in Central and South Vietnam remains unascertained. To date, five outbreaks of trichinellosis have been reported in the north and northwest of Vietnam, affecting a total of 114 people and responsible for eight fatalities. In the same region, studies of free-roaming pigs showed evidence of high levels of exposure to Trichinella and, in cases where larvae were recovered, the species present were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Based on five studies, the main risk factors for pork-borne zoonoses in Vietnam include the consumption of undercooked/raw meat and vegetables and the use of night-soil for fertilization of local produce. This systematic review draws attention to the importance of these pork-borne zoonoses.

  3. Comparing niche- and process-based models to reduce prediction uncertainty in species range shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Morin, Xavier; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-05-01

    Obtaining reliable predictions of species range shifts under climate change is a crucial challenge for ecologists and stakeholders. At the continental scale, niche-based models have been widely used in the last 10 years to predict the potential impacts of climate change on species distributions all over the world, although these models do not include any mechanistic relationships. In contrast, species-specific, process-based predictions remain scarce at the continental scale. This is regrettable because to secure relevant and accurate predictions it is always desirable to compare predictions derived from different kinds of models applied independently to the same set of species and using the same raw data. Here we compare predictions of range shifts under climate change scenarios for 2100 derived from niche-based models with those of a process-based model for 15 North American boreal and temperate tree species. A general pattern emerged from our comparisons: niche-based models tend to predict a stronger level of extinction and a greater proportion of colonization than the process-based model. This result likely arises because niche-based models do not take phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation into account. Nevertheless, as the two kinds of models rely on different assumptions, their complementarity is revealed by common findings. Both modeling approaches highlight a major potential limitation on species tracking their climatic niche because of migration constraints and identify similar zones where species extirpation is likely. Such convergent predictions from models built on very different principles provide a useful way to offset uncertainties at the continental scale. This study shows that the use in concert of both approaches with their own caveats and advantages is crucial to obtain more robust results and that comparisons among models are needed in the near future to gain accuracy regarding predictions of range shifts under climate change.

  4. Genetic structure of the threatened Dipterocarpus costatus populations in lowland tropical rainforests of southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duc, N M; Duy, V D; Xuan, B T T; Thang, B V; Ha, N T H; Tam, N M

    2016-10-24

    Dipterocarpus costatus is an endangered species restricted to the lowland forests of southern Vietnam. Habitat loss and over-exploitation of D. costatus wood are the major threats to this species. We investigated the level of genetic variability within and among populations of D. costatus in order to provide guidelines for the conservation, management, and restoration of this species to the Forest Protection Department, Vietnam. Nine microsatellite markers were used to analyze 114 samples from four populations representing the natural range of D. costatus in southeast Vietnam. We indicated the low allelic diversity (N A = 2.3) and low genetic diversities with an average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.130 and 0.151, respectively, in the lowland forests of southeast Vietnam. The low genetic diversity might be a consequence of inbreeding within the small and isolated populations of D. costatus owing to its habitat loss and over-exploitation. All populations deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showing reduced heterozygosity. Alleles were lost from the populations by genetic drift. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (average pairwise F ST = 0.405), indicating low gene flow (<1) and isolated populations due to its destructed habitat and large geographical distances (P < 0.05) among populations. Heterozygosity excess tests (except of Bu Gia Map only under infinite allele model) were negative. The high genetic variation (62.7%) was found within populations. The STRUCTURE and neighbor joining tree results suggest strong differentiation among D. costatus populations, with the three genetic clusters, Phu Quoc, Tan Phu and Bu Gia Map, and Lo Go-Xa Mat due to habitat fragmentation and isolation. The threatened status of D. costatus was related to a lack of genetic diversity, with all its populations isolated in small forest patches. We recommend the establishment of an ex situ conservation site for D. costatus with a new big population comprising

  5. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  7. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  8. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  9. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  10. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  11. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  12. Genotypic characterization and species identification of Fasciola spp. with implications regarding the isolates infecting goats in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Giang Thi; Van De, Nguyen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2009-12-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequences (361 or 362bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a portion of mitochondrial cox1 (423bp) for Fasciola spp. obtained from specimens collected in indigenous and hybrid goats and sheep in Vietnam were characterized for genotypic status and hybridization/introgression. Alignment of 48 ITS-2 sequences (also those from goats and sheep in this study) indicates that F. gigantica and F. hepatica differ typically from each other at seven sites whereas one of these is a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. The isolates from the mountainous goats in the North of Vietnam (Yen Bai province) showed the ITS-2 composition relatively identical to that of F. hepatica. The ITS-2 sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in goats had probably experienced introgression/hybridization as reported previously in other ruminants and humans. All Vietnamese goat-of-origin specimens had high pairwise percentage of mitochondrial cox1 sequences to F. gigantica (97-100%), and very low identity to F. hepatica (91-93%), suggesting their maternal linkage to be traced to F. gigantica. The presence of hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the goats/sheep in Vietnam, regardless of indigenous or imported hosts, appears to be the first demonstration from a tropical country.

  13. Experimental soil warming at the treeline shifts fungal communities species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Björn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi play a major role in decomposition processes, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient cycling. In high elevation ecosystems in Alpine and Arctic regions, the fungal community may be particularly sensitive to climate warming due to the removal of temperature limitation in the plant and soil system, faster nutrient cycling and changes in plant carbon allocation to maintain roots systems and sustain the rhizosphere. In our study, we estimated the effects of 9 years CO2 enrichment and three years of experimental soil warming on the community structure of fungal microorganisms in an alpine treeline ecosystem. In the Swiss Alps, we worked on a total of 40 plots, with c. 40-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata trees (20 plots for each tree species). Half of the plots with each tree species were randomly assigned to an elevated CO2 treatment (ambient concentration +200 ppm), whereas the remaining plots received no supplementary CO2. Five individual plots for each combination of CO2 concentration and tree species were heated by an average of 4°C during the growing season with heating cables at the soil surface. At the treeline, the fungal diversity analyzed by high-throughput 454-sequencing of genetic markers, was generally low as compared to low altitude systems and mycorrhizal species made a particularly small contribution to the total fungal DNA. Soil warming led to a shift in the structure and composition of the fungal microbial community, with an increase of litter degraders and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We further observed changes in the productivity of specific fungal fruiting bodies (i.e. more Lactarius rufus sporocarps and less Hygrophorus lucorum sporocarps) during the course of the experiment, that were consistent with the 454-sequencing data. The warming effect was more pronounced in the Larix plots. These shifts were accompanied by an increased soil CO2 efflux (+40%), evidence of increased N availability and a

  14. A pollinator shift explains floral divergence in an orchid species complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peter, Craig I; Johnson, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Floral diversification driven by shifts between pollinators has been one of the key explanations for the radiation of angiosperms. According to the Grant-Stebbins model of pollinator-driven speciation, these shifts result in morphologically distinct 'ecotypes' which may eventually become recognizable as species. The current circumscription of the food-deceptive southern African orchid Eulophia parviflora encompasses a highly variable monophyletic species complex. In this study, two forms were identified within this complex that differ in distribution, floral morphology, scent chemistry and phenology, and a test was made of whether these differences represent adaptations for different pollinators. Multivariate analysis of floral and vegetative traits revealed that there are at least two discrete morphological forms in the species complex. Field observations revealed that each form is pollinated by a different insect species, and thus represent distinct ecotypes. The early-flowering coastal form which has long spurs and floral scent dominated by sesquiterpene compounds is pollinated exclusively by the long-tongued bee Amegilla fallax (Apidae, Anthophorinae), while the late-flowering inland form with short spurs and floral scent dominated by benzenoid compounds is pollinated exclusively by the beetle Cyrtothyrea marginalis (Cetoniinae; Scarabaeidae). Choice experiments in a Y-maze olfactometer showed that beetles are preferentially attracted to the scent of the short-spurred form. A spur-shortening experiment showed that long spurs are required for effective pollination of the bee-pollinated form. Although it was initially thought likely that divergence occurred across a geographical pollinator gradient, plants of the long-spurred form were effectively pollinated when transplanted to an inland locality outside the natural coastal range of this form. Thus, the underlying geographical basis for the evolution of ecotypes in the E. parviflora complex remains uncertain

  15. Voices from Vietnam: The New Literature from America's Longest War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Provides an essay review of seven books, written since 1983, on the Vietnam War. The titles include: THE BAD WAR: AN ORAL HISTORY OF THE VIETNAM WAR (1987); IN THE COMBAT ZONE: AN ORAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN VIETNAM, 1966-1975 (1987); and DEAR AMERICA: LETTERS HOME FROM VIETNAM (1985). (JDH)

  16. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  17. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    PubMed

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available.

  18. Go / NGO success ensures Vietnam project.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    This article reports the results of a joint evaluation by the Japanese Evaluation Team and the People's Committee of Nghe An on the Japan International Cooperation Agency Vietnam Reproductive Health (RH) Project. The evaluation, which was conducted through a workshop, showed that the Vietnam RH Project in Nghe An Province was successful. With two short-term experts dispatched to Vietnam in November and December 1999, the Project¿s activities were realized. Many activities were undertaken, which included retraining of community health centers, improvement of district health centers¿ monitoring capacity, and prenatal examination. Although the evaluation was carried out after only 2 years of actual activities, the Project¿s planned activities showed a smooth implementation as a result of good collaboration among Japan, the Vietnamese government, and nongovernmental organizations. With the successful outcome of the first phase of the project, both Japan and Vietnam have put up plans for future project activities.

  19. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  20. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  1. Using the Arts to Teach Vietnam War Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Starting a unit on Vietnam War literature by having students view slides of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and listen to letters left there is just the first step in how an English teacher uses the arts to enhance student learning about the Vietnam War and its literature. After discussing their reactions to the slides and the offerings left at the…

  2. Elevation Shift in Abies Mill. (Pinaceae) of Subtropical and Temperate China and Vietnam-Corroborative Evidence from Cytoplasmic DNA and Ecological Niche Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi-Zhen; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Phan, Loc Ke; Xiang, Qiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The "elevational shift" scenario has been proposed as a model to explain the response of cold-adapted organisms to Quaternary climatic fluctuations in Europe and North America. However, the elevational shift model has not been well-explored in eastern Asia, which is more topographically complex than the other Northern Hemisphere biogeographic regions. Here, we evaluated the role of elevational shift in the closely related firs, or Abies Mill., of subtropical and temperate China. These firs are typical alpine trees with sensitivity to climate change. We tested the elevational shift hypothesis in firs of China using phylogeographic methods and ecological niche models. Our phylogeographic analyses comprised mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms surveyed across 479 individuals from 43 populations representing 11 species. M1 of the 11 mitotypes and C1 of the 25 chlorotypes were inferred as the ancestral haplotype, and they had the widest distribution. The results of our phylogeographic survey revealed multiple centers of genetic diversity in distinct geographic regions and no latitudinal trend. Moreover, our results showed range expansions for seven taxa during the last glacial (64.9-18.2 or 32.5-9.1 kya), and this was consistent with the Quaternary fossil record of Abies in China. Taken together, our findings support a historical biogeographic pattern in firs of glacial expansions, probably through corridors at lower elevation, and interglacial fragmentations, through isolation at higher elevation peaks. Therefore, Abies in China probably undergoes elevational shift in response to climate change. Facing the forecasting global warming, the risk of several critically endangered firs was further enhanced as these species would have little escape space in situ to higher altitudes. According to our ENMs, we proposed an ex situ conservation strategy in the southern Hengduan Mountains region of south western China.

  3. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions.

  4. Range shift and introgression of the rear and leading populations in two ecologically distinct Rubus species.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Makiko; Mishima, Misako; Lascoux, Martin; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2014-10-25

    The margins of a species' range might be located at the margins of a species' niche, and in such cases, can be highly vulnerable to climate changes. They, however, may also undergo significant evolutionary changes due to drastic population dynamics in response to climate changes, which may increase the chances of isolation and contact among species. Such species interactions induced by climate changes could then regulate or facilitate further responses to climatic changes. We hypothesized that climate changes lead to species contacts and subsequent genetic exchanges due to differences in population dynamics at the species boundaries. We sampled two closely related Rubus species, one temperate (Rubus palmatus) and the other subtropical (R. grayanus) near their joint species boundaries in southern Japan. Coalescent analysis, based on molecular data and ecological niche modelling during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), were used to infer past population dynamics. At the contact zones on Yakushima (Yaku Island), where the two species are parapatrically distributed, we tested hybridization along altitudinal gradients. Coalescent analysis suggested that the southernmost populations of R. palmatus predated the LGM (~20,000 ya). Conversely, populations at the current northern limit of R. grayanus diverged relatively recently and likely represent young outposts of a northbound range shift. These population dynamics were partly supported by the ensemble forecasting of six different species distribution models. Both past and ongoing hybridizations were detected near and on Yakushima. Backcrosses and advanced-generation hybrids likely generated the clinal hybrid zones along altitudinal gradients on the island where the two species are currently parapatrically distributed. Climate oscillations during the Quaternary Period and the response of a species in range shifts likely led to repeated contacts with the gene pools of ecologically distinct relatives. Such species interactions

  5. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F

    2009-09-22

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34-70) M m(3), or approximately 39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries.

  6. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34–70) M m3, or ≈39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries. PMID:19805270

  7. A Macromarketing View of Sustainable Development in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Clifford J; Peterson, Mark

    2017-12-30

    The authors apply methods and perspectives from several disciplines to explore the effects of Vietnam's economic development on various ecosystems, to offer a macromarketing view of sustainable development in Vietnam. An adapted version of the Sustainable Society Index was used to assess Vietnam's sustainability, how Vietnam's measures compare to other countries, with implications for future sustainable-development. Among several findings, Vietnam earns favorable sustainability ratings in absolute terms for water resources, healthy living, energy use, greenhouse gases, genuine savings, and employment. Ominously, Vietnam and some of its nearby neighbors post poor scores for energy savings and education. Going forward, energy savings, a well-educated population, and a coordinated marketing system will be required to ensure favorable sustainability measures. Drawing on macromarketing explorations of complex and interdependent systems, key factors are considered to redress unsustainable resource exploitation and degradation. Particular attention is given to the complexities and dilemmas inherent to waterways, such as the Mekong River Basin and Delta. The authors argue for multi-win goals, systemic understanding, stakeholder inclusion, and resolutions via cooperation and constructive engagement-including projects, products, services, and institutional leadership for best practices designed and administered to enhance sustainability and citizen/societal well-being.

  8. Estimation of Vietnam national burden of disease 2008.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Long, Tran Khanh; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Vos, Theo; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Ngo Duc

    2014-09-01

    Burden of disease has been used to assess population health status. This article presents the first estimations of burden of disease in Vietnam in 2008 using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs were calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) methods. Incidence, prevalence of diseases, and causes of death was extracted from Vietnam data. Disability weights were borrowed from GBD and Dutch research. In 2008, the total burden of disease in Vietnam was 12.3 million DALYs. Noncommunicable diseases dominated the total burden of diseases in Vietnam, accounting for 71% of the total burden, and cardiovascular disease was the leading cause group of premature death. While pneumonia was an important cause of burden in Vietnamese children, stroke and depression were the main causes of disease burden among adults. The study provides a snapshot of Vietnamese health status and offers guidance for health policymaking in Vietnam. © 2013 APJPH.

  9. Vietnam Revised: Are Our Textbooks Changing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Nurse, Ronald J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study which analyzed 10 current and widely used secondary U.S. history textbooks for their coverage of the Vietnam War to determine their accuracy, completeness, and objectivity. Most of the textbooks studied offered a too sketchy account of the Vietnam War. Certain key topics are often neglected. (RM)

  10. Testing hypotheses on distribution shifts and changes in phenology of imperfectly detectable species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambert, Thierry A.; Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Pedrini, Paolo; Waddle, J. Hardin; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Walls, Susan C.; Tenan, Simone

    2015-01-01

    With ongoing climate change, many species are expected to shift their spatial and temporal distributions. To document changes in species distribution and phenology, detection/non-detection data have proven very useful. Occupancy models provide a robust way to analyse such data, but inference is usually focused on species spatial distribution, not phenology.We present a multi-season extension of the staggered-entry occupancy model of Kendall et al. (2013, Ecology, 94, 610), which permits inference about the within-season patterns of species arrival and departure at sampling sites. The new model presented here allows investigation of species phenology and spatial distribution across years, as well as site extinction/colonization dynamics.We illustrate the model with two data sets on European migratory passerines and one data set on North American treefrogs. We show how to derive several additional phenological parameters, such as annual mean arrival and departure dates, from estimated arrival and departure probabilities.Given the extent of detection/non-detection data that are available, we believe that this modelling approach will prove very useful to further understand and predict species responses to climate change.

  11. Incorporating abundance information and guiding variable selection for climate-based ensemble forecasting of species' distributional shifts.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Evan P; Papeş, Monica; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Davis, Craig A

    2017-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENMs) have increasingly been used to estimate the potential effects of climate change on species' distributions worldwide. Recently, predictions of species abundance have also been obtained with such models, though knowledge about the climatic variables affecting species abundance is often lacking. To address this, we used a well-studied guild (temperate North American quail) and the Maxent modeling algorithm to compare model performance of three variable selection approaches: correlation/variable contribution (CVC), biological (i.e., variables known to affect species abundance), and random. We then applied the best approach to forecast potential distributions, under future climatic conditions, and analyze future potential distributions in light of available abundance data and presence-only occurrence data. To estimate species' distributional shifts we generated ensemble forecasts using four global circulation models, four representative concentration pathways, and two time periods (2050 and 2070). Furthermore, we present distributional shifts where 75%, 90%, and 100% of our ensemble models agreed. The CVC variable selection approach outperformed our biological approach for four of the six species. Model projections indicated species-specific effects of climate change on future distributions of temperate North American quail. The Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii) was the only species predicted to gain area in climatic suitability across all three scenarios of ensemble model agreement. Conversely, the scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) was the only species predicted to lose area in climatic suitability across all three scenarios of ensemble model agreement. Our models projected future loss of areas for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail in portions of their distributions which are currently areas of high abundance. Climatic variables that influence local abundance may not always scale up to influence species

  12. Opportunities in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.; Donoghue, N.

    1994-11-01

    Vietnam`s energy needs are clear and acute. Economic reforms have triggered a dynamic development process with a large and growing appetite for power. In view of the Vietnamese government`s own shortages of capital, private international power companies have been identified as key problem-solvers in the country`s efforts to meet a skyrocketing demand for energy resources. There are no restrictions on the nature of projects in which non-Vietnamese investors may participate. A number of legal issues need resolution before independent power producers can take advantage of the Republic`s recently created Builder-Operator-Transfer Contracts (the BOT Regulations). This paper discusses these regulations andmore » how they affect independent power producers« less

  13. Species interactions slow warming-induced upward shifts of treelines on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Yafeng; Piao, Shilong; Lu, Xiaoming; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Zhu, Haifeng; Zhu, Liping; Ciais, Philippe; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The alpine treeline is commonly regarded as being sensitive to climatic warming because regeneration and growth of trees at treeline generally are limited by low temperature. The alpine treelines of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) occur at the highest elevations (4,900 m above sea level) in the Northern Hemisphere. Ongoing climatic warming is expected to shift treelines upward. Studies of treeline dynamics at regional and local scales, however, have yielded conflicting results, indicating either unchanging treeline elevations or upward shifts. To reconcile this conflict, we reconstructed in detail a century of treeline structure and tree recruitment at sites along a climatic gradient of 4 °C and mean annual rainfall of 650 mm on the eastern TP. Species interactions interacted with effects of warming on treeline and could outweigh them. Densification of shrubs just above treeline inhibited tree establishment, and slowed upward movement of treelines on a time scale of decades. Interspecific interactions are major processes controlling treeline dynamics that may account for the absence of an upward shift at some TP treelines despite continued climatic warming. PMID:27044083

  14. Species interactions slow warming-induced upward shifts of treelines on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Yafeng; Piao, Shilong; Lu, Xiaoming; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Zhu, Haifeng; Zhu, Liping; Ellison, Aaron M; Ciais, Philippe; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-04-19

    The alpine treeline is commonly regarded as being sensitive to climatic warming because regeneration and growth of trees at treeline generally are limited by low temperature. The alpine treelines of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) occur at the highest elevations (4,900 m above sea level) in the Northern Hemisphere. Ongoing climatic warming is expected to shift treelines upward. Studies of treeline dynamics at regional and local scales, however, have yielded conflicting results, indicating either unchanging treeline elevations or upward shifts. To reconcile this conflict, we reconstructed in detail a century of treeline structure and tree recruitment at sites along a climatic gradient of 4 °C and mean annual rainfall of 650 mm on the eastern TP. Species interactions interacted with effects of warming on treeline and could outweigh them. Densification of shrubs just above treeline inhibited tree establishment, and slowed upward movement of treelines on a time scale of decades. Interspecific interactions are major processes controlling treeline dynamics that may account for the absence of an upward shift at some TP treelines despite continued climatic warming.

  15. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  16. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus among domestic dogs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dung Van; Suzuki, Junko; Minami, Shohei; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Nagata, Nao; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Vu, Chien Kim; Truong, Thuy Quoc; Maeda, Ken

    2017-01-20

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most serious pathogens found in many species of carnivores, including domestic dogs. In this study, hemagglutinin (H) genes were detected in five domestic Vietnamese dogs with diarrhea, and two CDVs were successfully isolated from dogs positive for H genes. The complete genome of one isolate, CDV/dog/HCM/33/140816, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Vietnamese CDVs belonged to the Asia-1 genotype. In addition, the H proteins of Vietnamese CDV strains were the most homologous to those of Chinese CDVs (98.4% to 99.3% identity). These results indicated that the Asia-1 genotype of CDV was the predominant genotype circulating among the domestic dog population in Vietnam and that transboundary transmission of CDV has occurred between Vietnam and China.

  17. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus among domestic dogs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Dung Van; SUZUKI, Junko; MINAMI, Shohei; YONEMITSU, Kenzo; NAGATA, Nao; KUWATA, Ryusei; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; VU, Chien Kim; TRUONG, Thuy Quoc; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most serious pathogens found in many species of carnivores, including domestic dogs. In this study, hemagglutinin (H) genes were detected in five domestic Vietnamese dogs with diarrhea, and two CDVs were successfully isolated from dogs positive for H genes. The complete genome of one isolate, CDV/dog/HCM/33/140816, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Vietnamese CDVs belonged to the Asia-1 genotype. In addition, the H proteins of Vietnamese CDV strains were the most homologous to those of Chinese CDVs (98.4% to 99.3% identity). These results indicated that the Asia-1 genotype of CDV was the predominant genotype circulating among the domestic dog population in Vietnam and that transboundary transmission of CDV has occurred between Vietnam and China. PMID:27746406

  18. The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to groundmore » combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.« less

  20. A pollinator shift explains floral divergence in an orchid species complex in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Craig I.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral diversification driven by shifts between pollinators has been one of the key explanations for the radiation of angiosperms. According to the Grant–Stebbins model of pollinator-driven speciation, these shifts result in morphologically distinct ‘ecotypes’ which may eventually become recognizable as species. The current circumscription of the food-deceptive southern African orchid Eulophia parviflora encompasses a highly variable monophyletic species complex. In this study, two forms were identified within this complex that differ in distribution, floral morphology, scent chemistry and phenology, and a test was made of whether these differences represent adaptations for different pollinators. Methods and Results Multivariate analysis of floral and vegetative traits revealed that there are at least two discrete morphological forms in the species complex. Field observations revealed that each form is pollinated by a different insect species, and thus represent distinct ecotypes. The early-flowering coastal form which has long spurs and floral scent dominated by sesquiterpene compounds is pollinated exclusively by the long-tongued bee Amegilla fallax (Apidae, Anthophorinae), while the late-flowering inland form with short spurs and floral scent dominated by benzenoid compounds is pollinated exclusively by the beetle Cyrtothyrea marginalis (Cetoniinae; Scarabaeidae). Choice experiments in a Y-maze olfactometer showed that beetles are preferentially attracted to the scent of the short-spurred form. A spur-shortening experiment showed that long spurs are required for effective pollination of the bee-pollinated form. Although it was initially thought likely that divergence occurred across a geographical pollinator gradient, plants of the long-spurred form were effectively pollinated when transplanted to an inland locality outside the natural coastal range of this form. Thus, the underlying geographical basis for the evolution of ecotypes in

  1. Drawing on Experience: A Study of Vietnam Veteran Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Karl F.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the art produced by American veterans of the Vietnam War. In the areas of artistic history, military service, and the creative process, Vietnam veteran artists are a diverse group, and there are many different ways of explaining the connection between Vietnam experience and their art. Some individuals made limited…

  2. A simple simulation model as a tool to assess alternative health care provider payment reform options in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Cheryl; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Shain, Ryan; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is currently considering a revision of its 2008 Health Insurance Law, including the regulation of provider payment methods. This study uses a simple spreadsheet-based, micro-simulation model to analyse the potential impacts of different provider payment reform scenarios on resource allocation across health care providers in three provinces in Vietnam, as well as on the total expenditure of the provincial branches of the public health insurance agency (Provincial Social Security [PSS]). The results show that currently more than 50% of PSS spending is concentrated at the provincial level with less than half at the district level. There is also a high degree of financial risk on district hospitals with the current fund-holding arrangement. Results of the simulation model show that several alternative scenarios for provider payment reform could improve the current payment system by reducing the high financial risk currently borne by district hospitals without dramatically shifting the current level and distribution of PSS expenditure. The results of the simulation analysis provided an empirical basis for health policy-makers in Vietnam to assess different provider payment reform options and make decisions about new models to support health system objectives.

  3. Freshwater Aquaculture Nurseries and Infection of Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Khue Viet; Nguyen, Ha Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam have a long tradition of eating raw fish. Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) are estimated to infect ≈1 million persons in Vietnam. It remains uncertain at what stages in the aquaculture production cycle fish become infected with FZTs. Newly hatched fish (fry) from 8 hatcheries and juveniles from 27 nurseries were therefore examined for FZT infection. No FZTs were found in fry from hatcheries. In nurseries, FZT prevalence in juveniles was 14.1%, 48.6%, and 57.8% after 1 week, 4 weeks, and when overwintered in ponds, respectively. FZT prevalence was higher in grass carp (p<0.001) than in other carp species. Results show that nurseries are hot spots for FZT infections in fish. Thus, sustainable FZT prevention strategies must address aquaculture management practices, particularly in nurseries, to minimize the risk of distributing infected juveniles to grow-out ponds and, subsequently, to markets for human consumption. PMID:21122220

  4. Developing a protocol for long-term population monitoring and habitat projections for a climate-sensitive sentinel species to track ecosystem change and species range shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, A.

    2016-12-01

    As a response to ongoing climate change, many species have started to shift their ranges poleward and toward higher elevations and mountain environments are predicted to experience especially rapid climatic changes. Because of this, there is likely a greater risk of habitat loss and local extinctions for species at high elevations compared to species at lower elevations. Among those potentially threatened habitat specialists is the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a climate sensitive indicator of climate change effects which may already be experiencing climate driven extirpations. Pikas are considered sentinels, indicators of greater ecosystem change. Changes in their distribution speaks to changes in availability of resources they require and shifts in the environment. Pika presence is closely tied to sub-surface ice features that act as a temperature buffer and water source. Those sub-surface ice features are critical in water cycling and long-term water storage and drive downstream hydrological and ecological processes. Understanding how this species responds to climate change therefore provides a model to inform landscape level conservation and management decisions. Pikas may be particularly vulnerable in parts of Colorado, including Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) and the Niwot Ridge LTER (NWT), where they may face population collapse as habitat suitability and connectivity both decline in response to various possible climate change scenarios, in large part because of cold stress and declining functional connectivity. Because of their potential role as an ecosystem indicator, their risk for decline, and how limitations to their survival likely vary across their range, management groups can use place based models of habitat suitability for pikas or other sentinel species in designing long term monitoring protocols to detect ecosystem responses to climate change. In this project we used remotely sensed data, occupancy surveys, and a random tessellation

  5. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance...

  6. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance...

  10. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

  11. Evidence of shift in C4 species range in central Argentina during the late Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silva, L.C.R.; Giorgis, M.A.; Anand, M.; Enrico, L.; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Falczuk, V.; Tieszen, L.L.; Cabido, M.

    2011-01-01

    AimMillennial-scale biogeographic changes are well understood in many parts of the world, but little is known about long-term vegetation dynamics in subtropical regions. Here we investigate shifts in C3/C4 plant abundance occurred in central Argentina during the past few millenniaMethodsWe determined present day soil organic matter δ13C signatures of grasslands, shrublands and woodlands, containing different mixtures of C3 and C4 plants. We measured past changes in the relative cover of C3/C4 plants by comparing δ13C values in soil profiles with present day δ13C signatures. We analyzed 14C activity in soil depths that showed major changes in vegetation.ResultsPresent day relative cover of C3/C4 plants determines whole ecosystem δ13C signatures integrated as litter and superficial soil organic matter (R2 = 0.78; p < 0.01). Deeper soils show a consistent shift in δ13C, indicating a continuous replacement of C4 by C3 plants since 3,870 (±210) YBP. During this period, the relative abundance of C3 plants increased 32% (average across sites) with significant changes being observed in all studied ecosystems.ConclusionsOur results show that C4 species were more abundant in the past, but C3 species became dominant during the late Holocene. We identified increases in the relative C3/C4 cover in grasslands, shrublands and woodlands, suggesting a physiological basis for changes in vegetation. The replacement of C4 by C3 plants coincided with changes in climate towards colder and wetter conditions and could represent a climatically driven shift in the C4 species optimum range.

  12. Supplement to Vietnam 1964-1973: An American Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1991. 161-188. (DS 549 .C66 1991) Cobb, William W. Jr. The American Foundation Myth in Vietnam: Reigning Paradigms and Raining Bombs. Lanham, MD: UP of...Guenter. " The Role of Deception in the Vietnam War." In Deception and Deterrence in "Wars of National Liberation," State-Sponsored Terrorism and Other Forms... the Senate’s Role in War Making." In Looking Back on the Vietnam War: A 1990s Perspective on the Decisions, Combat, and Legacies. Ed. William Head and

  13. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Bui Quang; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Duong, Tran Thanh; Dong, Le Than; Loi, Mai Anh; Ménard, Didier; Tarning, Joel; Bustos, Dorina; Ringwald, Pascal; Galappaththy, Gawrie Loku; Thieu, Nguyen Quang

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process.

  15. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  16. Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Original field data show that forest species richness and tree density in the West African Sahel declined in the last half of the 20th century. Average forest species richness of areas of 4 km2 in Northwest Senegal fell from 64 ?? 2 species ca 1945 to 43 ?? 2 species in 1993, a decrease significant at p < 0.001. Densities of trees of height ???3 m declined from 10 ?? 0.3 trees ha-1 in 1954 to 7.8 ?? 0.3 trees ha-1 in 1989, also significant at p < 0.001. Standing wood biomass fell 2.1 t ha-1 in the period 1956-1993, releasing CO2 at a rate of 60 kgC person-1 yr-1. These changes have shifted vegetation zones toward areas of higher rainfall at an average rate of 500 to 600 m yr-1. Arid Sahel species have expanded in the north, tracking a concomitant retraction of mesic Sudan and Guinean species to the south. Multivariate analyses identify latitude and longitude, proxies for rainfall and temperature, as the most significant factors explaining tree and shrub distribution. The changes also decreased human carrying capacity to below actual population densities. The rural population of 45 people km-2 exceeded the 1993 carrying capacity, for firewood from shrubs, of 13 people km-2 (range 1 to 21 people km-2). As an adaptation strategy, ecological and socioeconomic factors favor the natural regeneration of local species over the massive plantation of exotic species. Natural regeneration is a traditional practice in which farmers select small field trees that they wish to raise to maturity, protect them, and prune them to promote rapid growth of the apical meristem. The results of this research provide evidence for desertification in the West African Sahel. These documented impacts of desertification foreshadow possible future effects of climate change.

  17. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  18. Somalia and Vietnam. Deja Vu All Over Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Rev. 2-89) Pre•cribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR LUNIVRITY SOMALIA AND VIETNAM " DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN" by James M. Comgan A...BASE., ALABAMA APRIL 1994 II II 3 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERITY *! SOMALIA AND VIETNAM S1 " DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN" I 3 by James M. Corrigan A RESEARCH...Vietnam: " Deja Vu All Over Again" AUTHOR. James M. Corrigan, Lieutenant Colonel During the recet involvemen in Somalia, U.S. leadership likely

  19. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  20. Seven new species of Psechrus and additional taxonomic contributions to the knowledge of the spider family Psechridae (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Bayer, Steffen

    2014-01-27

    Seven new Psechrus species are described from South East Asia: P. arietinus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. insulanus sp. nov.(♂, Thailand), P. ampullaceus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. omistes sp. nov.(♂, Indonesia, Sumatra), P. quasillus sp. nov.(♂♀, Malaysia, Borneo), P. huberi sp. nov.(♀, Philippines), and P. wade sp. nov.(♂, Philippines). For the following species, new records are listed and intraspecific variation is discussed and illustrated: P. libelti Kulczyński, 1908, P. norops Bayer, 2012, P. rani Wang & Yin, 2001, P. khammouan Jäger, 2007, P. luangprabang Jäger, 2007, P. jaegeri Bayer, 2012, P. obtectus Bayer, 2012, P. kenting Yoshida, 2009 and P. crepido Bayer, 2012, and Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891. The latter species is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. P. norops, P. libelti and an unidentified Psechrus species from Baluno, Mindanao are for the first time characterised and illustrated by their pre-epigynes and pre-vulvae.

  1. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  2. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam. PMID:27309718

  3. An Unfamiliar Minority: Vietnam Veterans on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, David

    This essay, based on the personal experiences of a professional librarian, who is also a Vietnam veteran, looks at why Vietnam veterans are a minority in higher education and the misconceptions that surround them. The lack of contact with actual veterans by administrators in many institutions of higher education is noted, and the paper goes on to…

  4. Patterns of Drug Usage Among Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allan H., Jr.; And Others

    A factor analysis was performed on an intercorrelation matrix of reported drug usage frequencies for seven drug categories at two consecutive periods of time. Subjects were 1,010 Army Vietnam veterans in pay grade E6 or below, aged 26 years or less. Retrospective reporting identified drug usage prior to a tour of Vietnam and during the tour. Four…

  5. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  6. Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van Minh; Oh, Juhwan; Tran, Tuan Anh; Tran, Thi Giang Huong; Ha, Anh Duc; Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong

    2015-11-01

    Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam.

  7. Shifts in bacterial communities of two caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Anny; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Pizarro, Valeria; Cadavid, Luis F; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are deteriorating at an alarming rate mainly as a consequence of the emergence of coral diseases. The white plague disease (WPD) is the most prevalent coral disease in the southwestern Caribbean, affecting dozens of coral species. However, the identification of a single causal agent has proved problematic. This suggests more complex etiological scenarios involving alterations in the dynamic interaction between environmental factors, the coral immune system and the symbiotic microbial communities. Here we compare the microbiome of healthy and WPD-affected corals from the two reef-building species Diploria strigosa and Siderastrea siderea collected at the Tayrona National Park in the Caribbean of Colombia. Microbiomes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent methods and pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V5-V6 hypervariable regions. A total of 20 410 classifiable 16S rDNA sequences reads were obtained including all samples. No significant differences in operational taxonomic unit diversity were found between healthy and affected tissues; however, a significant increase of Alphaproteobacteria and a concomitant decrease in the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria was observed in WPD-affected corals of both species. Significant shifts were also observed in the orders Rhizobiales, Caulobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, Aleteromonadales and Xanthomonadales, although they were not consistent between the two coral species. These shifts in the microbiome structure of WPD-affected corals suggest a loss of community-mediated growth control mechanisms on bacterial populations specific for each holobiont system. PMID:21955993

  8. U.S.-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Clips, Produced by U.S. State Department Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City Public Affairs Sections; Oxford Analytica ( OA ), “Vietnam/Cambodia/Laos: Crisis Could...Spur Reforms,” October 24 2008. 8 For these contrasting views, see EIU, Vietnam Country Report, October 2008, and OA , “Vietnam/Cambodia/Laos: Crisis...military bases in Bien Hoa, Da Nang, Nha Trang, and Phu Cat. In February 2007, the United States announced it would provide $400,000 to support mitigation

  9. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2017-06-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  10. Latent Classes of PTSD Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Maria M.; Nickerson, Angela; Maguen, Shira; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Nash, William P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom presentation among veterans (n = 335) participating in the clinical interview subsample of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinically homogeneous subgroups of Vietnam War combat veterans. Consistent with…

  11. A novel strain of porcine deltacoronavirus in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Phan; Song, Sok; An, Byung-Hyun; Park, Gyu-Nam; Pham, Ngoc Thach; Le, Dinh Quyen; Nguyen, Van Tam; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Kim, Ki-Sun; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strains (Binh21 and HaNoi6) were isolated from two pig farms in North Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes and the Spike and Membrane genes revealed that the two Vietnam PDCoVs belong to the same lineage as PDCoVs from Thailand and Laos; however, the N genes belonged to the same lineage as PDCoVs from the USA, Korea, China, and Hong Kong. The recombination detection program subsequently identified the major parent (S5011 strain) and minor parent (HKU15-44 strain) of the two Vietnam PDCoV strains (p < 0.01).

  12. Strategy in the Vietnam War: Western Concepts, Eastern Conflict and the Roots of Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weland, James

    1990-01-01

    Critiques U.S. military assumptions concerning the war in Vietnam. Discusses the North Vietnamese strategic approach to gaining control of South Vietnam. Traces the history of the Vietnam War, analyzing specific U.S. military operations in Vietnam and reasons for their failure. Contends that U.S. strategic ethnocentrism lead to defeat in Vietnam.…

  13. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    PubMed

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  14. General Lewis Walt: Operational Art in Vietnam, 1965-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    civic action in Vietnam US Marine Corps Civic Action Effort in Vietnam March 1965 – March 1966 by Russel Stolfi and US Marine Corps Civil Affairs in I... US Marine Corps, 1978), 13. 29 As much as any other factor, geography and climate permeated all facets of life in the I CTZ and had a direct... US Marine Corps Civic Action Effort in Vietnam March 1965 – March 1966 (Washington, DC: Historical Branch, G3 Division, U.S. Marine Corps, 1978), 22

  15. The Army and the Strategic Military Legacy of Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    anxious to know how long U.S. troops will be there. It is only natural given the pre- vious interventions and the memories of involvement in the...hand" institutional memory , future Army leaders will increasingly have to rely on the Vietnam "lessons literature." Future Army leaders will not have the...or may not even resemble, the Vietnam experience. As the Vietnam War begins to pass out of the military’s personal institutional memory by way of

  16. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...)] Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided... of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam. Commissioner Dean A. Pinkert...

  17. 77 FR 55186 - Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam... the Notice of the Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission... Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications section of the Notice of the Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure...

  18. Coping With a Rising Power: Vietnam’s Hedging Strategy Toward China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-01

    again argued that Vietnam used three primary strategies when dealing with China: first, utilize high -level party-to-party talks; second, promote...the period from 2001 to 2008, there were various incidents and causes of tension between China and Vietnam in the South China Sea, but the two... Tensions between Vietnam and China in the South China Sea have generally garnered international support for Vietnam from powerful partners, including

  19. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that are...

  20. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  1. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. and Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda) from the Yen River Estuary of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Nguyen, Vu Thanh

    2015-08-03

    Two nematode species found in Yen River Estuary of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. is similar to S. lamasus Gerlach, 1956, but differs from it in the shorter body, comparatively shorter pharynx and shorter cephalic setae. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Subsphaerolaimus Lorenzen, 1978 is given. Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 is redescribed and reillustrated based on numerous males and females. The genus Micromicron Cobb, 1920 is confirmed as a valid genus with type and only species, M. cephalatum Cobb, 1920.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Vietnam (2006-2009).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh K T; Nguyen, Dong V; Ngo, Giang C; Nguyen, Thu T; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamada, Akio; Dinh, Xuyen K; Nguyen, Dung V; Phan, Thao X; Pham, Bao Q; Nguyen, Hien T; Nguyen, Hanh T H

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus (RABV) circulating in Vietnam. Intra vitam samples (saliva and cerebrospinal fluid) were collected from 31 patients who were believed to have rabies and were admitted to hospitals in northern provinces of Vietnam. Brain samples were collected from 176 sick or furious rabid dogs from all over the country. The human and canine samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The findings showed that 23 patients tested positive for RABV. Interestingly, 5 rabies patients did not have any history of dog or cat bites, but they had an experience of butchering dogs or cats, or consuming their meat. RABV was also detected in 2 of the 100 sick dogs from slaughterhouses. Molecular epidemiological analysis of 27 RABV strains showed that these viruses could be classified into two groups. The RABVs classified into Group 1 were distributed throughout Vietnam and had sequence similarity with the strains from China, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. However, the RABVs classified into Group 2 were only found in the northern provinces of Vietnam and showed high sequence similarity with the strain from southern China. This finding suggested the recent influx of Group 2 RABVs between Vietnam and China across the border. Although the incidence of rabies due to circulating RABVs in slaughterhouses is less common than that due to dog bite, the national program for rabies control and prevention in Vietnam should include monitoring of the health of dogs meant for human consumption and vaccination for workers at dog slaughterhouses. Further, monitoring of and research on the circulating RABVs in dog markets may help to determine the cause of rabies and control the spread of rabies in slaughterhouses in Vietnam.

  3. Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of

  4. A Third New Species of Aporcelinus Andrássy, 2009 (Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae) from Vietnam, with the First SEM Study of a Representative of the Genus

    PubMed Central

    Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña–Santiago, Reyes

    2016-01-01

    A new species, the third one from Vietnam, of the genus Aporcelinus is described from natural areas. Aporcelinus falcicaudatus sp. n. is characterized by its 1.28 to 1.63 mm long body, lip region offset by weak constriction and 16 to 18 µm broad, odontostyle 18 to 21 µm at its ventral side, neck 354 to 406 µm long, uterus tripartite and 61 to 95 µm long, V = 50 to 55, tail strongly recurved dorsad and conical (23–31 µm, c = 43–58, c′ = 0.7–0.9) with finely rounded tip, and male absent. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study, the first of a representative of the genus, shows a lip region pattern significantly different from that observed in the typical aporcelaimid taxa. PMID:27418703

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  6. Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus

  7. The Changing Role of Vietnam in Southeast Asia: Beyond the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Hanoi ," International Affairs (Moscow) (September 1989): 74. 25 D. VIETNAM’S FOREIGN POLICY CONCERNS A resolution of the Congress says that the goal...interests 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This thesis examines the United States relationship with Vietnam...in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and the end of the Cold War. Even though Vietnam’s path toward progress and growth is hindered by internal and

  8. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops).

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (F ST  = 0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species' need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

  9. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  10. Herbicide Exposure, Vietnam Service, and Hypertension Risk in Army Chemical Corps Veterans.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Yasmin S; Kress, Amii M; Eber, Stephanie M; Schneiderman, Aaron I; Davey, Victoria J

    2016-11-01

    We examined hypertension risk in Army Chemical Corps (ACC) veterans who sprayed defoliant in Vietnam. We analyzed data from the 2013 health survey of 3086 ACC veterans and investigated the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed-hypertension (SRH) and herbicide-spray-history adjusting for Vietnam-service-status, rank, age, tobacco/alcohol use, race, and body mass index (BMI). Spray-history was verified against serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (n = 636). SRH was confirmed by blood pressure (BP) measurement by trained medical technicians and medical record reviews. Herbicide-spray-history (ORadjusted[95%confidence interval {CI}] = 1.74[1.44,2.11]) and Vietnam-service-status (ORadjusted = 1.26[1.05,1.53]) were significantly associated with SRH. The association was highest when comparing Vietnam-service-sprayers to non-Vietnam-service-nonsprayers (ORadjusted = 2.21[1.76,2.77]). Serum TCDD was highest for Vietnam-service-sprayers. Mean systolic BPs were significantly higher among veterans with SRH than those without (P ≤ 0.001). Medical records and SRH overall agreement was 89%. Occupational herbicide exposure history and Vietnam-service-status were significantly associated with hypertension risk.

  11. The Vietnam Era Twin Registry: a resource for medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, W G; Eisen, S; Goldberg, J; True, W R; Barnes, J E; Vitek, M E

    1990-01-01

    The Vietnam Era Twin Registry consists of 4,774 male-male twin pairs born between 1939 and 1957 with both brothers having served in the United States military during the Vietnam War. The registry was originally developed to provide the best control group for Vietnam-exposed servicemen to study the long-term health consequences of service in Vietnam. Recognizing the potential value of the registry for other areas of medical research, the Department of Veterans Affairs in 1988 opened the registry for use by both VA and non-VA investigators. The existence of centralized VA data bases for deaths and VA hospitalizations will strengthen future followup of the twins. This article describes the characteristics of the registry population and the process for accessing the registry. PMID:2116638

  12. New data of three rare belondirid species (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Belondiridae) from Vietnam, with the first record and description of the male of Oxybelondira paraperplexa Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1979

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Tam Thi Thanh; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three rare nematode species of the family Belondiridae, originally described from and only known to occur in India are recorded for the first time in Vietnam: Axonchium thoubalicum, Belondira murtazai and Oxybelondira paraperplexa. It is the first report of these three genera in this country. The three species are described, including new morphological data, morphometrics and light microscope pictures. The male of Oxybelondira paraperplexa is collected and described for the first time. It is characterized by its 1.54 mm long body, ad-cloacal pair of genital papillae situated at 9.0 µm from the cloacal aperture, only one ventromedian supplement located at 15 µm from the ad-cloacal pair within the range of spicules, spicules slightly curved ventrad and 42 µm long (7 times as long as wide and 2 times as long as cloacal body diameter), and tail 100 µm long (c = 15, c’ = 5) and similar to that of the female. PMID:25197235

  13. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  14. What Should We Tell Our Children about Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Describes McCloud's efforts to improve coverage of the Vietnam War in the junior high school curriculum. Presents answers to the question "What do you think are the most important things for today's junior high students to understand about the Vietnam War?" from people such as Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Tom Hayden, and Robert S.…

  15. Toxocara malaysiensis infection in domestic cats in Vietnam--An emerging zoonotic issue?

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Thuy, Do Thi Thu; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis of canids is a parasitic nematode (ascaridoid) that infects humans and other hosts, causing different forms of toxocariasis. This species of Toxocara appears to be the most important cause of human disease, likely followed by Toxocara cati from felids. Although some studies from Malaysia and China have shown that cats can harbor another congener, T. malaysiensis, no information is available about this parasite for other countries. Moreover, the zoonotic potential of this parasite is unknown at this point. In the present study, we conducted the first investigation of domestic dogs and cats for Toxocara in Vietnam using molecular tools. Toxocara malaysiensis was identified as a common ascaridoid of domestic cats (in the absence of T. cati), and T. canis was commonly found in dogs. Together with findings from previous studies, the present results emphasize the need to explore the significance and zoonotic potential of T. malaysiensis in Vietnam and other countries where this parasite is endemic and prevalent in cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two new species of the Rhopalopsole magnicerca group (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) from China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Raorao; Wang, Guoquan; Yang, Ding; Li, Weihai

    2018-03-04

    Two leuctrid species of the Rhopalopsole magnicerca group are described as new, R. brevicula sp. nov. and R. jizushana sp. nov. from the Guangxi Autonomous Region of southern China, bordering Vietnam and Yunnan Province of southwestern China, respectively. The new species are compared with related taxa.

  17. Ensemble climate projections of mean and extreme rainfall over Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, S. V.; Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic ensemble high resolution climate modelling study over Vietnam has been performed using the PRECIS model developed by the Hadley Center in UK. A 5 member subset of the 17-member Perturbed Physics Ensembles (PPE) of the Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) project were simulated and analyzed. The PRECIS model simulations were conducted at a horizontal resolution of 25 km for the baseline period 1961-1990 and a future climate period 2061-2090 under scenario A1B. The results of model simulations show that the model was able to reproduce the mean state of climate over Vietnam when compared to observations. The annual cycles and seasonal averages of precipitation over different sub-regions of Vietnam show the ability of the model in also reproducing the observed peak and magnitude of monthly rainfall. The climate extremes of precipitation were also fairly well captured. Projections of future climate show both increases and decreases in the mean climate over different regions of Vietnam. The analyses of future extreme rainfall using the STARDEX precipitation indices show an increase in 90th percentile precipitation (P90p) over the northern provinces (15-25%) and central highland (5-10%) and over southern Vietnam (up to 5%). The total number of wet days (Prcp) indicates a decrease of about 5-10% all over Vietnam. Consequently, an increase in the wet day rainfall intensity (SDII), is likely inferring that the projected rainfall would be much more severe and intense which have the potential to cause flooding in some regions. Risks due to extreme drought also exist in other regions where the number of wet days decreases. In addition, the maximum 5 day consecutive rainfall (R5d) increases by 20-25% over northern Vietnam but decreases in a similar range over the central and southern Vietnam. These results have strong implications for the management water resources, agriculture, bio diversity and economy and serve as some useful findings to be

  18. Fluid nonlinear frequency shift of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in multi-ion species plasmas in small wave number region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qingsong; Xiao, Chengzhuo; Wang, Qing; Zheng, Chunyang; Liu, Zhanjun; Cao, Lihua; He, Xiantu

    2016-10-01

    The properties of the nonlinear frequency shift (NFS) especially the fluid NFS from the harmonic generation of the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) in multi-ion species plasmas has been researched by Vlasov simulation. The pictures of the nonlinear frequency shift from harmonic generation and particles trapping are shown to explain the mechanism of NFS qualitatively. The theoretical model of the fluid NFS from harmonic generation in multi-ion species plasmas is given and the results of Vlasov simulation are consistent to theoretical result of multi-ion species plasmas. When the wave number kλDe is small, such as kλDe = 0.1 , the fluid NFS dominates in the total NFS and will reach as large as nearly 15% when the wave amplitude | eϕ / Te | 0.1 , which indicates that in the condition of small kλDe , the fluid NFS dominates in the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering especially when the nonlinear IAW amplitude is large. National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575035, 11475030 and 11435011) and National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834101).

  19. Fluid nonlinear frequency shift of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in multi-ion species plasmas in the small wave number region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Q. S.; Xiao, C. Z.; Wang, Q.; Zheng, C. Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Cao, L. H.; He, X. T.

    2016-08-01

    The properties of the nonlinear frequency shift (NFS), especially the fluid NFS from the harmonic generation of the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) in multi-ion species plasmas, have been researched by Vlasov simulation. Pictures of the nonlinear frequency shift from harmonic generation and particle trapping are shown to explain the mechanism of NFS qualitatively. The theoretical model of the fluid NFS from harmonic generation in multi-ion species plasmas is given, and the results of Vlasov simulation are consistent with the theoretical result of multi-ion species plasmas. When the wave number k λD e is small, such as k λD e=0.1 , the fluid NFS dominates in the total NFS and will reach as large as nearly 15 % when the wave amplitude |e ϕ / Te|˜0.1 , which indicates that in the condition of small k λD e , the fluid NFS dominates in the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering, especially when the nonlinear IAW amplitude is large.

  20. Fluid nonlinear frequency shift of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in multi-ion species plasmas in the small wave number region.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q S; Xiao, C Z; Wang, Q; Zheng, C Y; Liu, Z J; Cao, L H; He, X T

    2016-08-01

    The properties of the nonlinear frequency shift (NFS), especially the fluid NFS from the harmonic generation of the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) in multi-ion species plasmas, have been researched by Vlasov simulation. Pictures of the nonlinear frequency shift from harmonic generation and particle trapping are shown to explain the mechanism of NFS qualitatively. The theoretical model of the fluid NFS from harmonic generation in multi-ion species plasmas is given, and the results of Vlasov simulation are consistent with the theoretical result of multi-ion species plasmas. When the wave number kλ_{De} is small, such as kλ_{De}=0.1, the fluid NFS dominates in the total NFS and will reach as large as nearly 15% when the wave amplitude |eϕ/T_{e}|∼0.1, which indicates that in the condition of small kλ_{De}, the fluid NFS dominates in the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering, especially when the nonlinear IAW amplitude is large.

  1. Urbanization drives community shifts towards thermophilic and dispersive species at local and landscape scales.

    PubMed

    Piano, Elena; De Wolf, Katrien; Bona, Francesca; Bonte, Dries; Bowler, Diana E; Isaia, Marco; Lens, Luc; Merckx, Thomas; Mertens, Daan; van Kerckvoorde, Marc; De Meester, Luc; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The increasing conversion of agricultural and natural areas to human-dominated urban landscapes is predicted to lead to a major decline in biodiversity worldwide. Two conditions that typically differ between urban environments and the surrounding landscape are increased temperature, and high patch isolation and habitat turnover rates. However, the extent and spatial scale at which these altered conditions shape biotic communities through selection and/or filtering on species traits are currently poorly understood. We sampled carabid beetles at 81 sites in Belgium using a hierarchically nested sampling design wherein three local-scale (200 × 200 m) urbanization levels were repeatedly sampled across three landscape-scale (3 × 3 km) urbanization levels. First, we showed that communities sampled in the most urbanized locations and landscapes displayed a distinct species composition at both local and landscape scale. Second, we related community means of species-specific thermal preferences and dispersal capacity (based on European distribution and wing morphology, respectively) to the urbanization gradients. We showed that urban communities consisted on average of species with a preference for higher temperatures and with better dispersal capacities compared to rural communities. These shifts were caused by an increased number of species tolerating higher temperatures, a decreased richness of species with low thermal preference, and an almost complete depletion of species with very low-dispersal capacity in the most urbanized localities. Effects of urbanization were most clearly detected at the local scale, although more subtle effects could also be found at the scale of entire landscapes. Our results demonstrate that urbanization may fundamentally and consistently alter species composition by exerting a strong filtering effect on species dispersal characteristics and favouring replacement by warm-dwelling species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Duong Bich; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Tran Tan; Thuy, Cao Thu; Loan, Huynh Thi; Hao, Nguyen Van; Minh, Yen Lam; Tan, Le Van; Boni, Maciej F.; Thwaites, C. Louise

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) initiative. Most cases were born before the initiation of EPI. Median age increased from 33 (interquartile range: 20–52) in 1994, to 46 (32–63) in 2012 (P < 0.001). Birth-year distribution was unchanged, indicating the same birth cohorts presented with tetanus in 1994, 2003, and 2012. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements in 90 men and 90 women covered by MNT but not EPI showed 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.9–82.1%) of women had anti-tetanus antibody compared with 24.4% (95% CI: 15.9–34.7%) of men, indicating continued tetanus vulnerability in older men in Vietnam. PMID:27821690

  3. Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Duong Bich; Campbell, James I; Thanh, Tran Tan; Thuy, Cao Thu; Loan, Huynh Thi; Hao, Nguyen Van; Minh, Yen Lam; Tan, Le Van; Boni, Maciej F; Thwaites, C Louise

    2017-01-11

    In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) initiative. Most cases were born before the initiation of EPI. Median age increased from 33 (interquartile range: 20-52) in 1994, to 46 (32-63) in 2012 (P < 0.001). Birth-year distribution was unchanged, indicating the same birth cohorts presented with tetanus in 1994, 2003, and 2012. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements in 90 men and 90 women covered by MNT but not EPI showed 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.9-82.1%) of women had anti-tetanus antibody compared with 24.4% (95% CI: 15.9-34.7%) of men, indicating continued tetanus vulnerability in older men in Vietnam. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human

  5. Bartonella Species and Trombiculid Mites of Rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012–March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7–19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini–Blankaartia and Schoengastiini–Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.–positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.–negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.–positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.–negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human—rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be

  6. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  7. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  8. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has…

  9. Effective Primary Schools in Geographically Isolated Areas of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the major characteristics of "effective" primary schools in isolated areas in Vietnam. It suggests areas in which the implementation of beneficial changes can occur. Pupils in isolated areas of Vietnam are, in many respects, educationally disadvantaged. Usually, these pupils are in schools that have fewer…

  10. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Longmore » Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.« less

  11. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro`s efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Longmore » Basin. This now produces {approximately}130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins` blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco`s gas discoveries. Mitsubishi`s and Petronas` oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro`s acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.« less

  12. Climate Change and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    suggests, such action may come at a cost against competing priorities like modernization and economic development. In that context, it bears inquiring...program including India, 29 Rajaram Panda , “Vietnam and the World: Focus on the U.S. and India

  13. Teacher Development: A Real Need for English Departments in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiep, Pham Hoa

    2001-01-01

    Examines English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher training and teacher development in Vietnam. Suggests ways to promote professional development among EFL teachers in Vietnam, which may be applicable to similar situations in other countries. (Author/VWL)

  14. Reaction of Vietnam Veterans to the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrick, Felice R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews evolution of the concept of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and analyzes reports of Vietnam veterans' reactions to the Persian Gulf War. Presents case study of Vietnam veteran whose traumatic memories were reawakened with the onset of the Persian Gulf War, and discusses implications for social work practice. (Author/NB)

  15. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  16. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis of the record... reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided... pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective May 16, 2013, the Commission...

  17. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  18. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  19. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  20. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  2. Identification of squid species by melting temperature shifts on fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) using single dual-labeled probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Eunjung; Song, Ha Jeong; Kwon, Na Young; Kim, Gi Won; Lee, Kwang Ho; Jo, Soyeon; Park, Sujin; Park, Jihyun; Park, Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2017-06-01

    Real time PCR is a standard method for identification of species. One of limitations of the qPCR is that there would be false-positive result due to mismatched hybridization between target sequence and probe depending on the annealing temperature in the PCR condition. As an alternative, fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) could be applied for species identification. FMCA is based on a dual-labeled probe. Even with subtle difference of target sequence, there are visible melting temperature (Tm) shift. One of FMCA applications is distinguishing organisms distributed and consumed globally as popular food ingredients. Their prices are set by species or country of origin. However, counterfeiting or distributing them without any verification procedure are becoming social problems and threatening food safety. Besides distinguishing them in naked eye is very difficult and almost impossible in any processed form. Therefore, it is necessary to identify species in molecular level. In this research three species of squids which have 1-2 base pair differences each are selected as samples since they have the same issue. We designed a probe which perfectly matches with one species and the others mismatches 2 and 1 base pair respectively and labeled with fluorophore and quencher. In an experiment with a single probe, we successfully distinguished them by Tm shift depending on the difference of base pair. By combining FMCA and qPCR chip, smaller-scale assay with higher sensitivity and resolution could be possible, andc furthermore, enabling results analysis with smart phone would realize point-of-care testing (POCT).

  3. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  4. Teaching English in Primary Schools in Vietnam: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoa, Nguyen Thi Mai; Tuan, Nguyen Quoc

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the English language situation at primary school level in Vietnam from a language planning perspective. It examines language policy for foreign language teaching in Vietnam to provide a picture of the role of English in foreign language education. It analyses language-in-education policy, curriculum and teaching materials, and…

  5. A Map Exercise for Teaching About the War in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a two-part exercise exploring Vietnam's ethnic and political geography as a way for college geography students to examine the lessons of Vietnam. Students analyze maps for geographic factors affecting nationalism and political changes between 1946-68. (AM)

  6. Soft tissue sarcoma and military service in Vietnam: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.; Enziger, F.; Breslin, P.

    1987-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted in men who were of draftable age during the Vietnam conflict to examine the association of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) with military service in Vietnam as well as other host and environmental risk factors. A total of 217 STS cases selected from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were compared to 599 controls for Vietnam service, occupational and nonoccupational exposure to various chemicals, occupational history, medical history, and life-style (smoking, alcohol, coffee, etc.). Military service information was verified by a review of the patient's military personnel records. Other information was ascertained from a telephone interviewmore » with either subjects or their next of kin. Cases and controls were stratified on the basis of the hospital type (civilian, Veterans Administration, and military); the Mantel-Haenszel estimate of the odds ratio (OR), adjusted for the effects of the stratification variable, was calculated. Vietnam veterans in general did not have an increased risk of STS when compared to those men who had never been in Vietnam (OR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.36). Subgroups of Vietnam veterans who had higher estimated opportunities for Agent Orange exposure seemed to be at greater risk of STSs when their counterparts in Vietnam were taken as a reference group. However, this risk was not statistically significant.« less

  7. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of U. S. Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.

    1990-08-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is for the most part attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). A total of 40 Vietnam veterans, 80 non-Vietnam veterans and 80 civilian men were selected from males born between 1936 and 1954 and their adipose tissues were analyzed for 17 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and dibenzofurans. TCDD levels were log normally distributed and the mean level of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in adipose tissue of the Vietnam veterans (13.4 ppt) was not significantly different from that of the non-Vietnam veterans (12.5 ppt) or civilian men (15.8 ppt). Adjusting for demographic variables did notmore » change the conclusions. The study results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange for most Vietnam veterans was very unlikely and that there is no readily available and reliable indirect method of assessing exposure to Agent Orange for Vietnam veterans.« less

  8. Predicted altitudinal shifts and reduced spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum vector species under climate change scenarios in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Camila; Paz, Andrea; Ferro, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi), and is epidemiologically relevant due to its wide geographic distribution, the number of annual cases reported and the increase in its co-infection with HIV. Two vector species have been incriminated in the Americas: Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi. In Colombia, L. longipalpis is distributed along the Magdalena River Valley while L. evansi is only found in the northern part of the Country. Regarding the epidemiology of the disease, in Colombia the incidence of VL has decreased over the last few years without any intervention being implemented. Additionally, changes in transmission cycles have been reported with urban transmission occurring in the Caribbean Coast. In Europe and North America climate change seems to be driving a latitudinal shift of leishmaniasis transmission. Here, we explored the spatial distribution of the two known vector species of L. infantum in Colombia and projected its future distribution into climate change scenarios to establish the expansion potential of the disease. An updated database including L. longipalpis and L. evansi collection records from Colombia was compiled. Ecological niche models were performed for each species using the Maxent software and 13 Worldclim bioclimatic coverages. Projections were made for the pessimistic CSIRO A2 scenario, which predicts the higher increase in temperature due to non-emission reduction, and the optimistic Hadley B2 Scenario predicting the minimum increase in temperature. The database contained 23 records for L. evansi and 39 records for L. longipalpis, distributed along the Magdalena River Valley and the Caribbean Coast, where the potential distribution areas of both species were also predicted by Maxent. Climate change projections showed a general overall reduction in the spatial distribution of the two vector species, promoting a shift in altitudinal distribution for L

  9. Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

  10. U.S.-Vietnam Military Relations: Game Theory Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    the resource-rich Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. These islands are also being claimed by five other countries: Brunei, Malaysia ...other countries: Brunei, Malaysia , the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Currently China claims the entire South China Sea as its territorial waters... Malaysia , the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam.1 The U.S. has great interest in this issue because its trade routes with Southeast Asia go through

  11. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of Pelican Bay and the Pacific Ocean for the Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display near... period will have passed. Basis and Purpose The Vietnam Veterans of America are holding a fireworks...

  12. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  13. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as the major cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit patients at an infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Campbell, James I.; Parry, Christopher M.; Thompson, Corinne; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Le, Vien Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Van Minh, Pham; Nga, Nguyen Thi Thu; Thuy, Cao Thu; Dung, Le Thi; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Van Hao, Nguyen; Loan, Huynh Thi; Yen, Lam Minh; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Hien, Tran Tinh; Thwaites, Louise; Thwaites, Guy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious healthcare-associated infection that affects up to 30 % of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The bacterial aetiology and corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility of VAP is highly variable, and can differ between countries, national provinces and even between different wards in the same hospital. We aimed to understand and document changes in the causative agents of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles retrospectively over an 11 year period in a major infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam. Our analysis outlined a significant shift from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Acinetobacter spp. as the most prevalent bacteria isolated from quantitative tracheal aspirates in patients with VAP in this setting. Antimicrobial resistance was common across all bacterial species and we found a marked proportional annual increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. over a 3 year period from 2008 (annual trend; odds ratio 1.656, P = 0.010). We further investigated the possible emergence of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, finding a blaOXA-23-positive strain that was associated with an upsurge in the isolation of this pathogen. We additionally identified a single blaNDM-1-positive A. baumannii isolate. This work highlights the emergence of a carbapenem-resistant clone of A. baumannii and a worrying trend of antimicrobial resistance in the ICU of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. PMID:25038137

  14. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-04-29

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration.

  15. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined...: 202-482-0238. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on fish from Vietnam...

  16. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  17. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    PubMed

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  18. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.

  19. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  20. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  1. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  2. Five new, microendemic Asian Leaf-litter Frogs (Leptolalax) from the southern Annamite mountains, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Le, Duong T T; Dau, Vinh Q; Peloso, Pedro L V; Nguyen, Truong Q; Hoang, Huy D; Nguyen, Tao T; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Leptolalax applebyi group of Asian leaf-litter frogs currently comprises four species of particularly small-bodied (<40 mm SVL) species distributed in the Central Highlands of Vietnam and northeastern Cambodia. In addition to their small size, the group is characterized by their morphological and genetic similarities, as well as their breeding habitat at headwaters of small mountain streams and seeps. A recent study suggested that at least two-thirds of the diversity of the group remained hidden within morphologically cryptic lineages. We expand upon the molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data and formally delineate and describe five of these lineages as distinct species: Leptolalax ardens sp. nov., Leptolalax kalonensis sp. nov., Leptolalax pallidus sp. nov., Leptolalax maculosus sp. nov., and Leptolalax tadungensis sp. nov. Due to habitat loss, the current ranges of these species are likely to be a fraction of their historical extent and under continued threat from deforestation.

  3. Tropical Storm Gaemi approaching Vietnam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    It is easy to see the effect of the strong northeasterly wind shear battering Tropical Storm Gaemi in satellite imagery from NASA. This true-color image acquired on Oct. 5 shows a large oval-shaped area of showers and thunderstorms associated with the storm, southwest of the exposed center of circulation. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Gaemi as it was approaching Vietnam on Oct. 5, 2012 at 0550 UTC (1:50 a.m. EDT). A true-color image of the storm was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument and shows bulk of showers and thunderstorms were clearly to the southwest of the center. The circulation center appears as a ring of concentric bands of clouds northeast of the large rounded area of clouds and showers associated with the storm. On Tuesday, October 5, 2012 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Storm Gaemi still had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph/65 km/h) as it did 24 hours before. It was located 425 nautical miles (489 miles/787 km) east of Hue, Vietnam near 14.7 North latitude and 117.7 East longitude. Early on October 7, Tropical Storm Gaemi made landfall over Vietnam with wind speeds reported at 34 mph (55 mph), and bringing rainfall of more than 4 inches in some areas of Vietnam. Once ashore, the storm quickly moved inland and rapidly weakened as it headed towards Cambodia. With winds reduced, Gaemi served primarily as a rainmaker, but the rain may bring flooding and landslides to the region. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. [Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat Tien National Park (Southern Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders.

  5. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period... respect to Goldenquality. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  6. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY... (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets the... INFORMATION: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam was published...

  7. 76 FR 17837 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY... fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets the... INFORMATION: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on fish fillets from Vietnam was...

  8. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: in pursuit of the 'Three Criteria'.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Hoang, Tu Anh; Vu, Song Ha; Tan, Hung Minh; Bui, Thi Thanh Mai; Pham, Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to their Confucian role of maintaining family hierarchy and harmony. This paper presents findings from qualitative research examining gender relations at the grassroots level in central Vietnam. It argues that the Vietnam Women's Union could support women more effectively by promoting greater diversity in gender norms and by initiating a public discussion to address the pressures women face in trying to achieve ideals that are often experienced as contradictory and unattainable.

  9. 75 FR 15416 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews AGENCY... fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 19, 2010, and... order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2003. See Notice...

  10. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews AGENCY... (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meet the statutory and regulatory... antidumping duty order on fish from Vietnam was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  11. 31 CFR 500.577 - Authorization of bank transactions with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations. 500.577 Section 500.577 Money and... Licensing Policy § 500.577 Authorization of bank transactions with respect to Vietnam by certain... reference to Vietnam are authorized. Example: A transfer to Vietnam or a Vietnamese national of funds from...

  12. Migration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year. PMID:24188643

  13. Social science research on HIV in Vietnam: a critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dao, Amy; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Social science research can enhance the response to Vietnam's growing HIV epidemic by capturing the country's rapidly changing social and political context. The present paper reviews the published, peer-reviewed and English-language social science literature on HIV in Vietnam in order to identify critical theoretical and substantive gaps, while laying the groundwork for future research. We found four broad foci for work on the social context of HIV and AIDS in Vietnam: the cultural meanings and social relationships that shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic; stigma and discrimination; social inequality and structural violence as contributors to HIV risk; and, finally, how broader global and social systems shape Vietnam's HIV epidemic. We signal the particular need for additional research on the effects of the media on attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, on social movements, and on health systems, as well as on a number of other key areas. Work along these lines, in addition to more effective communication of policy-relevant findings to those responsible for the development and implementation of policies and programmes, will strengthen Vietnam's response to HIV and AIDS.

  14. Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huanan; Tee, Kok Keng; Hase, Saiki; Uenishi, Rie; Li, Xiao-Jie; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Thang, Pham Hong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Pybus, Oliver G; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-08-15

    To estimate the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam and adjacent Guangxi, China, we determined near full-length nucleotide sequences of CRF01_AE from a total of 33 specimens collected in 1997-1998 from different geographic regions and risk populations in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and Bayesian molecular clock analyses were performed to estimate the date of origin of CRF01_AE lineages. Our study reconstructs the timescale of CRF01_AE expansion in Vietnam and neighboring regions and suggests that the series of CRF01_AE epidemics in Vietnam arose by the sequential introduction of founder strains into new locations and risk groups. CRF01_AE appears to have been present among heterosexuals in South-Vietnam for more than a decade prior to its epidemic spread in the early 1990s. In the late 1980s, the virus spread to IDUs in Southern Vietnam and subsequently in the mid-1990s to IDUs further north. Our results indicate the northward dissemination of CRF01_AE during this time.

  15. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Olff, H; Hoorens, B; de Goede, R G M; van der Putten, W H; Gleichman, J M

    2000-10-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of dominant plant species in a grazed grassland over 17 years, and investigated whether local shifts in these dominant species, leading to vegetation mosaics, could be attributed to interactions between plants and soil-borne pathogens. We found that Festuca rubra and Carex arenaria locally alternated in abundance, with different sites close together behaving out of phase, resulting in a shifting mosaic. The net effect of killing all soil biota on the growth of these two species was investigated in a greenhouse experiment using gamma radiation, controlling for possible effects of sterilization on soil chemistry. Both plant species showed a strong net positive response to soil sterilization, indicating that pathogens (e.g., nematodes, pathogenic fungi) outweighed the effect of mutualists (e.g., mycorrhizae). This positive growth response towards soil sterilization appeared not be due to effects of sterilization on soil chemistry. Growth of Carex was strongly reduced by soil-borne pathogens (86% reduction relative to its growth on sterilized soil) on soil from a site where this species decreased during the last decade (and Festuca increased), while it was reduced much less (50%) on soil from a nearby site where it increased in abundance during the last decade. Similarly, Festuca was reduced more (67%) on soil from the site where it decreased (and Carex increased) than on soil from the site where it increased (55%, the site where Carex decreased). Plant-feeding nematodes showed high small-scale variation in densities, and we related this variation to the observed growth reductions in both plant species. Carex growth on unsterilized soil was significantly more reduced at higher densities of plant-feeding nematodes, while the growth reduction in Festuca was independent of plant-feeding nematode densities. At high plant-feeding nematode densities, growth of Carex was reduced more than Festuca, while at low nematode densities the opposite was found

  16. Authoritative Voices and the Vietnam Experience: Teaching about Vietnam during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Laurie J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of a college teacher teaching a course on the Vietnam War during the Persian Gulf Crisis illustrate the impact that teaching history can have on the consciousness of students. Respect for other cultures and other races are essential before students can stop glorifying war. (SLD)

  17. Community Colleges: Key to Vietnam Era GI Bill Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, J. Michael

    The Vietnam Era GI Bill was clearly influenced by the social and educational success of World War II veterans, but also reflected the policy objectives of equity and access of the 1960's. A 1987 monograph by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs reported that 60% of all Vietnam Era veterans received some training benefit from the GI Bill, but…

  18. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New... Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review for this review is February 1, 2010, through July... antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for Quoc Viet Seaproducts Processing Trading and Import-Export...

  19. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009. EFFECTIVE... preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper review in the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for...

  20. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New... Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009... of initiation of the new shipper review in the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat...

  1. 75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February 1, 2008 through January 31, 2009. EFFECTIVE... preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper review in the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for...

  2. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  3. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Bank Transaction With Vietnam Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... With Vietnam Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 2(b)(2)(D) of the Export-Import...,890 to the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Group, a wholly state-owned company, for the purchase...

  4. The China Factor in U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    James Shoal off Malaysian Borneo. Vietnam also claims a sizeable portion of the South China Sea, including the Paracel and Spratly islands in their...rattled Hanoi in recent years include:  Asserting China’s ‘historic’ claim over the South China Sea: In May 2009, China rejected a joint Malaysian ...cooperate with Hanoi in offshore drilling, with a state-owned Indian firm buying out part of BP’s stake in a South China Sea joint venture with PetroVietnam

  5. New and already known acanthocephalans from amphibians and reptiles in Vietnam, with keys to species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1956 (Echinorhynchidae) and Sphaerechinorhynchus Johnston and Deland, 1929 (Plagiorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species in 2 orders of acanthocephalans obtained from the intestines of terrestrial amphibians and reptiles collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam are described here. Pseudoacanthocephalus nguyenthileae n. sp. (Palaeacnthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) was collected from 5 species of terrestrial amphibians: (1) the common Sunda toad Bufo melanostictus Schneider (Bufonidae); (2) Paa verucospinosa (Bourret); (3) Gunther's Amoy frog Rana guentheri Boulenger; (4) Taipei frog R. taipehensis Denburgh (Ranidae), and (5) the Burmese whipping frog Polypedates mutus (Smith) (Racophoridae); as well as from the Chinese cobra Naja atra Cantor (Reptilia: Elapidae) and house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Sphaerechinorhynchus maximesospinus n. sp. (Plagiorhynchidae: Sphaerechinorhynchinae) was isolated from a king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (cantor) (Reptilia: Elapidae). Cystacanths of Porrorchis houdemeri (Joyeux and Baer, 1935) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1967 (Plagiorhynchidae: Porrorchinae) obtained from the mesenteries of banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Reptilia: Elapidae), a paratenic host, are reported for the first time. Keys to the species of Pseudoacanthocephalus and Sphaerechinorhynchus are included. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from related taxa include: P. nguyenthileae has 15-19 (usually 16-18) proboscis hook rows, each with 5-6 hooks that progressively increase in length and size posteriorly. The largest, intermediate, and smallest proboscis hooks of S. maximesospinus are the middle, anterior, and posterior hooks, respectively; the proboscis and neck are enclosed in a membrane. Morphometric characteristics of P. nguyenthileae show host-related variability.

  6. Reassessing the level of unintended pregnancy and its correlates in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Linh Cu; Magnani, Robert; Rice, Janet; Speizer, Ilene; Bertrand, William

    2004-03-01

    Despite rapidly increasing contraceptive use and rapidly declining fertility, unintended pregnancy and induced abortion remain common in Vietnam. This study reassesses the level of unintended pregnancy in Vietnam and its correlates, drawing on retrospective calendar data gathered for the Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey II. Data from 13,540 "segments" of outcomes and contraceptive practice were analyzed. Based on the calendar data, 40 percent of pregnancies during the 1994-97 period are estimated to have been unintended, a proportion 48 percent higher than the prevailing estimate calculated from the reported intendedness of live births. When concealment of pregnancies ending in induced abortions is taken into account, the unintended pregnancy rate in Vietnam is likely to approach levels found only in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy was found to be associated with age, early marriage, spousal age difference, number of living sons, past unintended pregnancy, geographic region, contraceptive use prior to pregnancy, and the family planning supply environment. The findings suggest that broadening the method mix at the community level, targeting high-risk and underserved groups, and expanding postabortion counseling and services are likely to have a dramatic impact on the unintended pregnancy rate in Vietnam.

  7. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  8. Identification by the DArTseq method of the genetic origin of the Coffea canephora cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garavito, Andrea; Montagnon, Christophe; Guyot, Romain; Bertrand, Benoît

    2016-11-04

    The coffee species Coffea canephora is commercially identified as "Conilon" when produced in Brazil, or "Robusta" when produced elsewhere in the world. It represents approximately 40 % of coffee production worldwide. While the genetic diversity of wild C. canephora has been well studied in the past, only few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of currently cultivated varieties around the globe. Vietnam is the largest Robusta producer in the world, while Mexico is the only Latin American country, besides Brazil, that has a significant Robusta production. Knowledge of the genetic origin of Robusta cultivated varieties in countries as important as Vietnam and Mexico is therefore of high interest. Through the use of Sequencing-based diversity array technology-DArTseq method-on a collection of C. canephora composed of known accessions and accessions cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico, 4,021 polymorphic SNPs were identified. We used a multivariate analysis using SNP data from reference accessions in order to confirm and further fine-tune the genetic diversity of C. canephora. Also, by interpolating the data obtained for the varieties from Vietnam and Mexico, we determined that they are closely related to each other, and identified that their genetic origin is the Robusta Congo - Uganda group. The genetic characterization based on SNP markers of the varieties grown throughout the world, increased our knowledge on the genetic diversity of C. canephora, and contributed to the understanding of the genetic background of varieties from very important coffee producers. Given the common genetic origin of the Robusta varieties cultivated in Vietnam, Mexico and Uganda, and the similar characteristics of climatic areas and relatively high altitude where they are grown, we can state that the Vietnamese and the Mexican Robusta have the same genetic potential to produce good cup quality.

  9. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009).

    PubMed

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15-49 years. Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30-34 years (reference 15-19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  10. U.S.-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-28

    Asian Nations (ASEAN — then made up of Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) to condemn and contain the Vietnamese expansion...from Vietnam and have the Commerce Department self-initiate antidumping investigations when warranted. U.S. clothing importers and retailers , along...textile and apparel products for WTO members. Because Vietnam is not a WTO member, its clothing industry generally is considered to be at a disadvantage

  11. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Vinh; Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Thanh et al.

  12. The Vietnam Petroleum Industry: Positioned for Growth but Ripe for Regional Complications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-30

    monopolistic character of PVN means the Vietnamese government is a major part of all aspects of the industry. Secondly, faced with increasing demand for...2013, JSTOR. 17 “U.S. EIA, “Vietnam” 20 18 Trong Vu and Simon Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery,” The Wall...Vietnam to Push Ahead with Offshore Exploration.” 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Vu and Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery

  13. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in US Army Vietnam-era veterans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-02

    This study investigates whether military records can be used to identify US Army Vietnam veterans who were likely to be exposed to the herbicide Agent Orange. Serum levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a toxic contaminant in Agent Orange, were obtained for 646 ground combat troops who served in heavily sprayed areas of Vietnam and for 97 veterans who did not serve in Vietnam. The distributions of current TCDD levels in Vietnam and non-Vietnam veterans were nearly identical (mean in each group, approx. = 4 parts per trillion (ppt)). Only two men (both Vietnam veterans) had clearly elevated levels (> 20 ppt).more » Levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with greater likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either military records of self-reported exposure. This study is consistent with other studies and suggests that most US Army ground troops who served in Vietnam were not heavily exposed to TCDD, except perhaps men whose jobs involved handling herbicides.« less

  14. Characterization of rubella virus genotypes among pregnant women in northern Vietnam, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Son; Le, Duc Hoang; Hoang, Huong Thi; Hoang, Ha; Nguyen, Nam Trung; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus (RV) infection is an unresolved clinical complication that affects children in developing countries including Vietnam. RV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy causes severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. This study reports on the genomic characterization of RV strains circulating in northern Vietnam during 2011-2013. RV-IgM positive amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 38 women from northern Vietnam who presented with clinical rubella at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Hanoi, Vietnam. The RV genes were determined by nested PCR with primers amplifying the 739-nucleotide coding region of the E1 gene. The sequences from the amplified DNA fragments were phylogenetically analyzed and compared to reference RV strains. Seventeen out of 38 samples are positive for RV detecting. All new RV isolates are clustered to genotype 2B. Eighteen amino acid mutations were found in the T and B cell epitopes. These results suggest that genotype 2B RV strains frequently circulate in northern Vietnam. These data describe the RV genotype in Vietnam with the aim of improving maternal and child health in this country. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 78 FR 39708 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews; 2011... frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1...'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  16. A Failure in Strategy: America and the Vietnam War 1965-1968

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    5 Robert S. McNamara, Argument Without End : In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy (New...McNamara, Robert S. Argument Without End : In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy . New York: Public Affairs, 1999. McNamara, Robert S. In Retrospect

  17. Evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam between 2001 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiu-Feng; Nguyen, Tung; Davis, C Todd; Smith, Catherine B; Zhao, Zi-Ming; Carrel, Margaret; Inui, Kenjiro; Do, Hoa T; Mai, Duong T; Jadhao, Samadhan; Balish, Amanda; Shu, Bo; Luo, Feng; Emch, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindstrom, Stephen E; Cox, Nancy J; Nguyen, Cam V; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA), continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA) and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes.

  18. Second Generation Effect of Vietnam: Adolescent Children of Combat Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Virginia Smejkal

    Although extensive research has focused upon the adjustment problems of the veterans of the Vietnam conflict, little data is available concerning their children. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the adolescent children who have lived with Vietnam combat veteran fathers, comparing them (on the basis of social and personal…

  19. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  20. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  1. Assessing potential impacts of the EVFTA on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU: an application of SMART analysis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong Thanh

    2016-01-01

    This paper by adopting the Software on Market Analysis and Restrictions on Trade assessed the ex-ante impact of tariff elimination under the European-Vietnam free trade agreement (EVFTA) on Vietnam's pharmaceutical imports from the EU based on two scenarios. The results showed that although Vietnam's tariff removal for the EU's medicines would not result in a significant increase in Vietnam's imports from the EU, Vietnam's deeper integration with ASEAN + 3 and TPP (the Trans-Pacific Partnership) nations would affect quite slightly on its imports from the EU. Therefore, the EU would be still the most important and biggest source of pharmaceuticals for Vietnam in the near future. In addition, there might be an uneven distribution in Vietnam's import increases by the EU nation, pharmaceutical group and product. The simulation results also pointed out that the EVFTA's trade creation effect would be higher than trade diversion effect and therefore the agreement would improve welfare of Vietnam. When Vietnam extends its coverage of tariff elimination to also TPP and ASEAN + 3, Vietnam's welfare would potentially increase more but Vietnam would face with the relatively high increases of pharmaceutical imports from not only the EU but also the US, Australia, South Korea, Thailand and China. Bases on these results, the paper argued that both the Vietnamese government and pharmaceutical enterprises should not neglect the EVFTA and its impacts on the pharmaceutical sector, and perceive clearly the uneven distribution of Vietnam's import changes from the EU by nation and by product to design appropriate business and investment strategy. In addition, Vietnam should take measures to diversify its European import markets to be less dependent on the traditional ones in the current context of the EU. Finally, Vietnam should promote the integration in the pharmaceutical sector with all three groups of nations, especially ASEAN and ASEAN's key partners, to reduce trade diversion

  2. 78 FR 57352 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted Administrative Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke; 2008-2009 AGENCY: Import... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review (``POR...

  3. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Fernando; Matesanz, Silvia; Guilhaumon, François; Araújo, Miguel B; Balaguer, Luis; Benito-Garzón, Marta; Cornwell, Will; Gianoli, Ernesto; van Kleunen, Mark; Naya, Daniel E; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Poorter, Hendrik; Zavala, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming climate. We first developed a conceptual model linking plasticity and niche breadth, providing five alternative intraspecific scenarios that are consistent with existing literature. Secondly, we used ecological niche-modeling techniques to quantify the impact of each intraspecific scenario on the distribution of a virtual species across a geographically realistic setting. Finally, we performed an analogous modeling exercise using real data on the climatic niches of different tree provenances. We show that when population differentiation is accounted for and dispersal is restricted, forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are even more pessimistic than those using the conventional assumption of homogeneously high plasticity across a species' range. Suitable population-level data are not available for most species so identifying general patterns of population differentiation could fill this gap. However, the literature review revealed contrasting patterns among species, urging greater levels of integration among empirical, modeling and theoretical research on intraspecific phenotypic variation. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  4. When History Talks Back: Teaching Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents student responses to nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Describes reasons for teaching the nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Concludes that this literature is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speak to students in powerful ways. (SG)

  5. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  6. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15–49 years. Design Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30–34 years (reference 15–19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. Conclusions The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area. PMID:26950565

  7. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  8. Nutrient addition shifts plant community composition towards earlier flowering species in some prairie ecoregions in the U.S. Central Plains.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Lori; Mortensen, Brent; Fay, Philip; Hagenah, Nicole; Knops, Johannes; La Pierre, Kimberly; Laungani, Ramesh; Lind, Eric; McCulley, Rebecca; Power, Sally; Seabloom, Eric; Tognetti, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of flowering across the growing season is governed by each species' evolutionary history and climatic variability. However, global change factors, such as eutrophication and invasion, can alter plant community composition and thus change the distribution of flowering across the growing season. We examined three ecoregions (tall-, mixed, and short-grass prairie) across the U.S. Central Plains to determine how nutrient (nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium (+micronutrient)) addition alters the temporal patterns of plant flowering traits. We calculated total community flowering potential (FP) by distributing peak-season plant cover values across the growing season, allocating each species' cover to only those months in which it typically flowers. We also generated separate FP profiles for exotic and native species and functional group. We compared the ability of the added nutrients to shift the distribution of these FP profiles (total and sub-groups) across the growing season. In all ecoregions, N increased the relative cover of both exotic species and C3 graminoids that flower in May through August. The cover of C4 graminoids decreased with added N, but the response varied by ecoregion and month. However, these functional changes only aggregated to shift the entire community's FP profile in the tall-grass prairie, where the relative cover of plants expected to flower in May and June increased and those that flower in September and October decreased with added N. The relatively low native cover in May and June may leave this ecoregion vulnerable to disturbance-induced invasion by exotic species that occupy this temporal niche. There was no change in the FP profile of the mixed and short-grass prairies with N addition as increased abundance of exotic species and C3 graminoids replaced other species that flower at the same time. In these communities a disturbance other than nutrient addition may be required to disrupt phenological patterns.

  9. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  10. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P < 0.05) affected the beetle and tree species diversity as well as the soil nutrients as shown by univariate (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and regression, diversity indices) and multivariate (cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), canonical variate analysis (CVA), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern

  11. Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped.

    PubMed

    Kastak, D; Schusterman, R J; Southall, B L; Reichmuth, C J

    1999-08-01

    Pure-tone sound detection thresholds were obtained in water for one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and one northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) before and immediately following exposure to octave-band noise. Additional thresholds were obtained following a 24-h recovery period. Test frequencies ranged from 100 Hz to 2000 Hz and octave-band exposure levels were approximately 60-75 dB SL (sensation level at center frequency). Each subject was trained to dive into a noise field and remain stationed underwater during a noise-exposure period that lasted a total of 20-22 min. Following exposure, three of the subjects showed threshold shifts averaging 4.8 dB (Phoca), 4.9 dB (Zalophus), and 4.6 dB (Mirounga). Recovery to baseline threshold levels was observed in test sessions conducted within 24 h of noise exposure. Control sessions in which the subjects completed a simulated noise exposure produced shifts that were significantly smaller than those observed following noise exposure. These results indicate that noise of moderate intensity and duration is sufficient to induce TTS under water in these pinniped species.

  12. Female breast cancer in Vietnam: a comparison across Asian specific regions.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Phuong Dung Yun; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Brennan, Patrick C

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the leading cause of cancer death of women over the world. A large number of females with breast cancer in Vietnam and other Southeast Asian (SEA) countries present at an early age with more aggressive tumors compared with women in Australia. Despite experiencing a low incidence rate, the increasing incidence rate among SEA countries exceeds that of the Westernized world. Changes in reproductive factors, environmental exposures, and lifestyle are the possible causes of this trend. However, limited evidence shows that these factors are associated with breast cancer in the Vietnamese population. Breast cancer incidence rates within Vietnam are not uniform and appear to be dependent on geographic location. Findings from this review have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment in Vietnam. A good understanding of the morphology of the breast and the type and nature of breast cancers presenting in Vietnam is required to facilitate the introduction of an effective national breast screening program.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding in Vietnam: an attainable goal.

    PubMed

    Almroth, Stina; Arts, Maaike; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Pham Thi Thuy; Williams, Carol

    2008-08-01

    To explore community views on the feasibility of exclusive breastfeeding in Vietnam. A total of 118 interviews were conducted with mothers, grandmothers, fathers, health workers and 'oldest women' in rural and urban areas in the north and south of Vietnam. Special issues were further examined through 12 'strategic interviews'. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare because it was poorly understood and little appreciated, by health professionals as well as lay persons, as the best way to feed an infant during the first 6 months. Early fluid supplementation was the rule and most infants received water and milk in addition to breast milk. While a majority of the women worked, they had found ways to manage their work so that it did not need to interfere with exclusive breastfeeding. Family members expressed a readiness to support exclusive breastfeeding when it was explained to them. Exclusive breastfeeding in Vietnam, while currently uncommon, is an attainable goal. Establishing exclusive breastfeeding as the norm in the general population would make it easier for HIV-infected women, for whom replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, to breastfeed exclusively.

  14. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  15. Images of Inherited War: Three American Presidents in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    famous for his strong stance against Communism . Comparatively, Kennedy seemed a squire taking on a seasoned statesman. On the radio , the outcome was...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12...action and the enemy’s goals [the] decisive error” in Vietnam (emphasis in original). 11 Undoubtedly, a litany of perspectives and nuances on Vietnam is

  16. Civil-Military Relations: From Vietnam to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. Graduate Degree Programs ii Abstract CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS: FROM VIETNAM TO OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM by MAJOR Brandon...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 285-324. 43 Ibid. 44 Robert M. Gates, 2008 National Defense Strategy (Washington D.C.: Department Of Defense...Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam (New York: HarperCollins, 1997), 13. 60

  17. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-552-813] Steel Wire Garment Hangers... respect to imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) with the... Department of Commerce building. \\3\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  19. Understanding how Seasonality and Shifts in Species Composition Impact Emission Estimates in Semi-Arid Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of wildland fire as a source of trace gas emissions to the atmosphere has been demonstrated in the scientific literature and through numerous NASA funded campaigns to further understand the drivers and impacts of these emissions (e.g., SAFARI 1992, SAFARI 2000, TRACE A, etc). Most studies quantify the emissions using remotely sensed data through multiplying the area burned, the quantity of fuel combusted, and the emission factors of a given gas species (EFX, grams of gas, X, emitted per kilogram of fuel consumed). The latter is known to exhibit considerable uncertainty and indeed a prior study as part of NASA's SAFARI 2000 campaign highlighted a seasonal dependence of carbonaceous gas species emissions. Building off these past studies, the focus of the proposed research is to assess the influence of both seasonality and shifting vegetation composition (via replacement of native with invasive species), on the emissions of trace gases in semi-arid ecosystems. Emissions data will help lower emission factor uncertainties in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems as well as inform management decisions about the best burning times in a season (in terms of air quality and greenhouse gas production).

  20. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  1. John F. Kennedy and Vietnam: The Historical Record Versus the Revisionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes the current historical interpretation (promoted by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and Oliver Stone) that President John F. Kennedy intended to withdraw from Vietnam if elected to a second term. Maintains that the preponderance of historical evidence suggests that Kennedy intended to exit Vietnam only after a military victory. (MJP)

  2. The Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Minority Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Robin A.

    Vietnam veterans from racial or ethnic minority groups have a "double minority" status; clinicians treating these veterans should distinguish between behaviors resulting from experiences in Vietnam and those due to experiences as members of minority groups. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects an estimated 20% of all Vietnam…

  3. The Vietnam Vet's Battle--Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Wayne E.; Radcliff, Jo Ann

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to survey the employment situation of returning Vietnam veterans. The picture appears to be one of frustration. There are a number of programs available but a communications gap seems to exist between the programs and the veterans. (Author)

  4. Performance of American POWs in the Vietnam War: Adequate Training or Creative Leadership?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    training could have fully prepared these airmen for the grueling captivity they faced as POWs in North Vietnam, but rather it was their heroism...intends to show that no amount of training could have fully prepared these airmen for the grueling captivity they faced as POWs in North Vietnam, but...training could have fully prepared our men for the grueling captivity they faced in North Vietnam, but rather it was their heroism, innovation

  5. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Implications for Europe and American Foreign Policy Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Vietnamese daily newspaper, in May 1981. CEMA members were specifically congratulated for their part in constructing the trans -Vietnam railroad. [FBIS, 27 May...constructing the trans -Vietnam railroad. [FBIS, 27 May 1981:K7] As early as June 1978 the East European countries had provided significant aid to...reform fiasco of the fifties, the leadership placed at least part of the blame for Vietnam’s many internal problems on Party shortcomings. In Le Duc

  6. Evolution of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Vietnam between 2001 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine B.; Zhao, Zi-Ming; Carrel, Margaret; Inui, Kenjiro; Do, Hoa T.; Mai, Duong T.; Jadhao, Samadhan; Balish, Amanda; Shu, Bo; Luo, Feng; Emch, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindstrom, Stephen E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Nguyen, Cam V.; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA), continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA) and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes. PMID:18941631

  7. Poverty reduction by improving health and social services in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gien, Lan; Taylor, Sharon; Barter, Ken; Tiep, Nguyen; Mai, Bui X; Lan, Nguyen T

    2007-12-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of a five-year plan for the reduction of poverty and the enhancement of human development through improving public health and social services in rural Vietnam. This plan was achieved by training the trainers and building capacity for the social workers. The project was a collaborative effort between the Schools of Nursing and Social Work at Memorial University, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and the University of Labor and Social Affairs, Hanoi, Vietnam. The collaboration was also committed to improving the quality of social work education and training in Vietnam. All the project's objectives were achieved beyond original expectations. The actual outcomes are sustainable and in addition gender equality has been a cross-cutting theme.

  8. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  9. Upward ant distribution shift corresponds with minimum, not maximum, temperature tolerance

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Warren; Lacy Chick

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change may prompt species distribution shifts upward and poleward, but species movement in itself is not sufficient to establish climate causation. Other dynamics, such as disturbance history, may prompt species distribution shifts resembling those expected from rapid climate change. Links between species distributions, regional climate trends and...

  10. Evolutionary consequences of climate-induced range shifts in insects.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Hansson, Bengt; Ott, Jürgen; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2016-11-01

    Range shifts can rapidly create new areas of geographic overlap between formerly allopatric taxa and evidence is accumulating that this can affect species persistence. We review the emerging literature on the short- and long-term consequences of these geographic range shifts. Specifically, we focus on the evolutionary consequences of novel species interactions in newly created sympatric areas by describing the potential (i) short-term processes acting on reproductive barriers between species and (ii) long-term consequences of range shifts on the stability of hybrid zones, introgression and ultimately speciation and extinction rates. Subsequently, we (iii) review the empirical literature on insects to evaluate which processes have been studied, and (iv) outline some areas that deserve increased attention in the future, namely the genomics of hybridisation and introgression, our ability to forecast range shifts and the impending threat from insect vectors and pests on biodiversity, human health and crop production. Our review shows that species interactions in de novo sympatric areas can be manifold, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing species diversity. A key issue that emerges is that climate-induced hybridisations in insects are much more widespread than anticipated and that rising temperatures and increased anthropogenic disturbances are accelerating the process of species mixing. The existing evidence only shows the tip of the iceberg and we are likely to see many more cases of species mixing following range shifts in the near future. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Evolution of Heat Sensors Drove Shifts in Thermosensation between Xenopus Species Adapted to Different Thermal Niches*

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shigeru; Ohkita, Masashi; Saito, Claire T.; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Ohta, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most critical environmental factors affecting survival, and thus species that inhabit different thermal niches have evolved thermal sensitivities suitable for their respective habitats. During the process of shifting thermal niches, various types of genes expressed in diverse tissues, including those of the peripheral to central nervous systems, are potentially involved in the evolutionary changes in thermosensation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of thermosensation, thermal responses were compared between two species of clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis) adapted to different thermal environments. X. laevis was much more sensitive to heat stimulation than X. tropicalis at the behavioral and neural levels. The activity and sensitivity of the heat-sensing TRPA1 channel were higher in X. laevis compared with those of X. tropicalis. The thermal responses of another heat-sensing channel, TRPV1, also differed between the two Xenopus species. The species differences in Xenopus TRPV1 heat responses were largely determined by three amino acid substitutions located in the first three ankyrin repeat domains, known to be involved in the regulation of rat TRPV1 activity. In addition, Xenopus TRPV1 exhibited drastic species differences in sensitivity to capsaicin, contained in chili peppers, between the two Xenopus species. Another single amino acid substitution within Xenopus TRPV1 is responsible for this species difference, which likely alters the neural and behavioral responses to capsaicin. These combined subtle amino acid substitutions in peripheral thermal sensors potentially serve as a driving force for the evolution of thermal and chemical sensation. PMID:27022021

  12. A new species of Leptolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    A new megophryid species, Leptolalax kecil, is described from the Cameron Highlands of Peninsular Malaysia on the basis of acoustic and morphological characteristics. It has an advertisement call dissimilar to that of other, congeneric species, and is the smallest of the known Leptolalax. It is similar to L. pluvialis from Vietnam in small body size, but differs from it in ventral color, and in the size and color of the pectoral gland. The distributional pattern of the new species Is discussed.

  13. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  14. Community preferences for a social health insurance benefit package: an exploratory study among the uninsured in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Luu, Tinh Viet; Leppert, Gerald; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding public preferences in terms of health benefit packages (HBPs) remains limited, yet gathering community insights is an important endeavour when developing people-centred health systems and moving towards universal health coverage. Our study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by eliciting community preferences for the social health insurance benefit package among the uninsured in Vietnam. We adopted a mixed methods approach that included a ranking exercise followed by focus group discussions. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 174 uninsured people in Bac Giang, a province in northern Vietnam. Study participants were purposively selected from 12 communities and assembled in 14 group sessions that entailed three stages: participants first selected and ranked benefit items individually, then in groups and finally they engaged in a discussion regarding their decisions. The majority of respondents (both as individuals and as groups) preferred an HBP that covers both curative and preventive care, with a strong preference for the inclusion of high-cost care, resulting from rare and costly events (inpatient care), as well as frequent and less costly events (drugs, tests and outpatient care). The process of group discussion highlighted how individual choices could be modified in the context of group negotiation. The shift in preferences was motivated by the wish to protect low-income people from catastrophic expenditure while maximising community access to vital yet costly healthcare services. Future research, interventions and policies can built on this initial exploration of preferences to explore how stakeholders can engage communities and support greater public involvement in the development of HBPs in Vietnam and other low-income and middle-income countries.

  15. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  16. Prevalence of tobacco smoking in Vietnam: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Xuyen, Nguyen Thi

    2017-02-01

    We report the prevalence of tobacco smoking among adult populations in Vietnam, 2015. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey. 9513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Handheld computers were used for capturing data. Data collection was carried-out by National Statistics Office of Vietnam in 2015. Weight was used in all estimates. The Vietnam GATS 2015 found that the prevalence of smoking in Vietnam was 22.5% overall, 45.3% among men, and 1.1% among women. The overall 2015-2010 reduction in prevalence of any tobacco product was 5.3%. However, the reduction was not statistically significant. The significant reduction in prevalence of tobacco smoking was found for any type of cigarette (-8.4%), and especially for hand-rolled cigarettes (-38.3%). The use of cigarettes significantly decreased in urban areas (-14.7%). The reduction in the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Vietnam during the last 5 years (2010-2015) has not been as high as expected, especially in rural areas. Further efforts are needed to continue to reduce the harms caused by tobacco smoking.

  17. Trophic shift, not collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Stow, Craig A.; Roseman, Edward F.; He, Ji X.

    2013-01-01

    scientists who are closely monitoring Lake Huron’s food web, we believe that the ongoing changes are more accurately characterized as a trophic shift in which benthic pathways have become more prominent. While decreases in abundance have occurred for some species, others are experiencing improved reproduction resulting in the restoration of several important native species.

  18. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  19. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for malaria diagnosis in patients from Vietnam and in returned travellers.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thi Kim Duy; Bigot, Patricia; Gazin, Pierre; Sinou, Veronique; De Pina, Jean Jacques; Huynh, Dinh Chien; Fumoux, Francis; Parzy, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Real-time PCR diagnosis of malaria has advantages over traditional microscopic methods, especially when parasitaemia is low and when dealing with mixed infections. We have developed a new real-time PCR with specific genes in each Plasmodium species present only in one copy to identify the four pathogenic Plasmodium spp. for humans. The sensitivity was less than 25 parasites/microl. No cross-hybridisation was observed with human DNA or among the four Plasmodium spp. Using LightCycler PCR and conventional microscopy, we compared the diagnosis of malaria in patients from Vietnam and in returned European travellers with suspicion of malaria. In patients from Vietnam with suspicion of malaria, one mixed infection was observed by PCR only; the remaining data (54 of 55 patients) correlated with microscopy. In 79 patients without symptoms, low parasitaemia was detected in 7 samples by microscopy and in 16 samples by PCR. In returned travellers, PCR results were correlated with microscopy for all four species in 48 of 56 samples. The eight discrepant results were resolved in favour of real-time PCR diagnosis. This new real-time PCR is a rapid, accurate and efficient method for malaria diagnosis in returned travellers as well as for epidemiological studies or antimalarial efficiency trials in the field.

  20. Anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase velocities beneath northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Cédric P.; Zhao, Li; Huang, Win-Gee; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2015-02-01

    We explore the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure beneath northern Vietnam over a broad period range of 5 to 250 s. We use the two-stations technique to derive the dispersion curves from the waveforms of 798 teleseismic events recoded by a set of 23 broadband seismic stations deployed in northern Vietnam. These dispersion curves are then inverted for both isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps in the frequency range of 10 to 50 s. Main findings include a crustal expression of the Red River Shear Zone and the Song Ma Fault. Northern Vietnam displays a northeast/southwest dichotomy in the lithosphere with fast velocities beneath the South China Block and slow velocities beneath the Simao Block and between the Red River Fault and the Song Da Fault. The anisotropy in the region is relatively simple, with a high amplitude and fast directions parallel to the Red River Shear Zone in the western part. In the eastern part, the amplitudes are generally smaller and the fast axis displays more variations with periods.

  1. Competitive and demographic leverage points of community shifts under climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Sorte, Cascade J. B.; White, J. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating rates of climate change and a paucity of whole-community studies of climate impacts limit our ability to forecast shifts in ecosystem structure and dynamics, particularly because climate change can lead to idiosyncratic responses via both demographic effects and altered species interactions. We used a multispecies model to predict which processes and species' responses are likely to drive shifts in the composition of a space-limited benthic marine community. Our model was parametrized from experimental manipulations of the community. Model simulations indicated shifts in species dominance patterns as temperatures increase, with projected shifts in composition primarily owing to the temperature dependence of growth, mortality and competition for three critical species. By contrast, warming impacts on two other species (rendering them weaker competitors for space) and recruitment rates of all species were of lesser importance in determining projected community changes. Our analysis reveals the importance of temperature-dependent competitive interactions for predicting effects of changing climate on such communities. Furthermore, by identifying processes and species that could disproportionately leverage shifts in community composition, our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of climate change impacts, thereby allowing more insightful predictions of future biodiversity patterns. PMID:23658199

  2. 77 FR 9700 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China of utility scale wind towers, provided for in... with material injury by reason of imports from Vietnam of utility scale wind towers, provided for in...

  3. Vietnam’s Drive to Modernize Militarily - Causes and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    56 Clearly, Vietnam has a fear of Chinese aggression and competes with China over maritime claims; however, with Indonesia, Malaysia , Singapore...value of naval expenditures to increase.142 Vietnam has joined Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia as ASEAN’s best navies. Regarding submarines, Thayer...frigates will likely outperform Indonesia’s and rival Singapore’s.145 Regarding trends, Bob Nugent writes, “In Malaysia and Indonesia…each

  4. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...-10 of June 25, 2012--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam... with Vietnam Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 2(b)(2)(D) of the Export Import...,890 to the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Group, a wholly state-owned company, for the purchase...

  5. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. Objective The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. Methods This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. Results We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). Conclusions The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of

  6. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  7. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from Vietnam. See Initiation of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Requests for...

  8. Directionality of recent bird distribution shifts and climate change in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Simon; Balmer, Dawn E; Fuller, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    There is good evidence that species' distributions are shifting poleward in response to climate change and wide interest in the magnitude of such responses for scientific and conservation purposes. It has been suggested from the directions of climatic changes that species' distribution shifts may not be simply poleward, but this has been rarely tested with observed data. Here, we apply a novel approach to measuring range shifts on axes ranging through 360°, to recent data on the distributions of 122 species of British breeding birds during 1988-1991 and 2008-2011. Although previously documented poleward range shifts have continued, with an average 13.5 km shift northward, our analysis indicates this is an underestimate because it ignores common and larger shifts that occurred along axes oriented to the north-west and north-east. Trailing edges contracted from a broad range of southerly directions. Importantly, these results are derived from systematically collected data so confounding observer-effort biases can be discounted. Analyses of climate for the same period show that whilst temperature trends should drive species along a north-north-westerly trajectory, directional responses to precipitation will depend on both the time of year that is important for determining a species' distribution, and the location of the range margin. Directions of species' range centroid shift were not correlated with spatial trends in any single climate variable. We conclude that range shifts of British birds are multidirectional, individualistic and probably determined by species-specific interactions of multiple climate factors. Climate change is predicted to lead to changes in community composition through variation in the rates that species' ranges shift; our results suggest communities could change further owing to constituent species shifting along different trajectories. We recommend more studies consider directionality in climate and range dynamics to produce more

  9. Pollen dispersal slows geographical range shift and accelerates ecological niche shift under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Aguilée, Robin; Raoul, Gaël; Rousset, François; Ronce, Ophélie

    2016-01-01

    Species may survive climate change by migrating to track favorable climates and/or adapting to different climates. Several quantitative genetics models predict that species escaping extinction will change their geographical distribution while keeping the same ecological niche. We introduce pollen dispersal in these models, which affects gene flow but not directly colonization. We show that plant populations may escape extinction because of both spatial range and ecological niche shifts. Exact analytical formulas predict that increasing pollen dispersal distance slows the expected spatial range shift and accelerates the ecological niche shift. There is an optimal distance of pollen dispersal, which maximizes the sustainable rate of climate change. These conclusions hold in simulations relaxing several strong assumptions of our analytical model. Our results imply that, for plants with long distance of pollen dispersal, models assuming niche conservatism may not accurately predict their future distribution under climate change. PMID:27621443

  10. Pollen dispersal slows geographical range shift and accelerates ecological niche shift under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aguilée, Robin; Raoul, Gaël; Rousset, François; Ronce, Ophélie

    2016-09-27

    Species may survive climate change by migrating to track favorable climates and/or adapting to different climates. Several quantitative genetics models predict that species escaping extinction will change their geographical distribution while keeping the same ecological niche. We introduce pollen dispersal in these models, which affects gene flow but not directly colonization. We show that plant populations may escape extinction because of both spatial range and ecological niche shifts. Exact analytical formulas predict that increasing pollen dispersal distance slows the expected spatial range shift and accelerates the ecological niche shift. There is an optimal distance of pollen dispersal, which maximizes the sustainable rate of climate change. These conclusions hold in simulations relaxing several strong assumptions of our analytical model. Our results imply that, for plants with long distance of pollen dispersal, models assuming niche conservatism may not accurately predict their future distribution under climate change.

  11. Limitation on the Development of Skills in Higher Education in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of higher education students, recent graduates and employers in Vietnam on the issue of skill development in the higher education system in Vietnam. Enhancing skill development is considered essential for students, not only to pursue their study, but also for their success later, at work and in life. The…

  12. Education and Earnings in a Transition Economy: The Case of Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Peter R.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Venkataraman, Meera

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the return to education of liberalization of the labor market in Vietnam. Finds, for example, that private rate of return to schooling is greater for primary education than for either secondary or higher education. Overall, estimated returns to schooling in Vietnam are low compared with those for other developing countries. (Contains 6…

  13. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  14. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

  15. 76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty... the administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. DATES: Effective Date...

  16. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to February 28, 2012. The period of review (``POR'') is February 1, 2010, through January 31...

  17. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 2. South Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    form more than in 1-28 THE BDM CORPORATION reality --the American desire was ronger than the Vietnamese.38/ Equally, Vietnamese would sometimes resor...government in South Vietnam. The first objective was at least understandable given the realities which appeared to govern the situation. The second...objective was not, at least in retrospect, given the political realities which both preceded and attended our involvement in the conflict. 1. The

  18. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  19. Alcohol and Drinking Cultures in Vietnam: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data suggest that national levels of alcohol consumption have increased rapidly in contemporary Vietnam; concomitantly, social and public health harms associated with alcohol use are on the rise. Methods Over the last decade, a research literature on alcohol use in Vietnam has begun to develop. Results A consideration of this literature indicates lines of analysis to be extended and gaps to be filled. Conclusion This synopsis provides an overview of the major trends that studies have addressed, evaluates the state of research to date, and suggests avenues for further research on alcohol use in this newly middle-income nation. PMID:26802499

  20. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  1. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of US Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.

    1991-03-01

    The primary reason for concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or dioxin. We studied adipose tissues from 36 Vietnam veterans, a similar group of 79 non-Vietnam veterans, and 80 civilians; the tissue specimens were selected from the 8,000 archived tissues collected from the non-institutionalized general population by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The geometric mean (+/- standard deviation) dioxin levels in adipose tissue for Vietnam veterans, non-Vietnam veterans, and civilian controls were 11.7 (+/- 1.7), 10.9 (+/- 1.7), and 12.4 (+/- 1.9) parts per trillion on a lipidmore » weight basis, respectively. The mean levels for these groups were not significantly different from each other with or without adjustment for age of individuals, body mass index, and specimen collection year. In addition, none of the surrogate measures of Agent Orange exposure such as military branch, service within specific geographic region, military occupation, and troop location in relation to recorded Agent Orange spray was associated with the dioxin levels in adipose tissue of Vietnam veterans. Our results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange or dioxin for most US troops was unlikely.« less

  2. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also

  3. Son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the continuing preference for sons in the context of low fertility in Vietnam. Although the total fertility rate for Vietnam declined from 6.0 children per woman of reproductive age in 1979 to 2.2 children in 1998, demographic evidence shows that son preference remains strong and influences contraceptive and fertility behavior. This study examines the underlying factors for son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam. The methodology includes focus-group discussions, an in-depth study of 25 families, and ethnographic observation. Results indicate that sons are highly desired for their social, symbolic, and economic value. In spite of four decades of socialist policies aimed at reducing gender-based inequalities and at weakening the patriarchal kinship system, the desire for sons continues to drive the family-building process. The article also indicates a gap between discourse and social practice with respect to roles assigned to children on the basis of their sex.

  4. Transforming Hearts and Minds with the Literature of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Noting that the literature of the Vietnam War can have a powerful impact on students, this paper discusses why such literature should be taught, what types of literature should be taught, and how teachers might go about teaching some of the literature. The paper begins by presenting numerous student responses to various novels on the Vietnam War,…

  5. Cost Function and Its Use for Intergovernmental Educational Transfers in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, although many cost function studies have been done in developed countries, there has been no such study for the developing countries such as Vietnam. This paper will make the first attempt at conducting a cost function analysis for Vietnam. Second, it also demonstrates how the results of the cost…

  6. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... new shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February 1, 2010, through July 31, 2010. DATES: Effective Date...

  7. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  8. MMPI-2 profiles of Gulf and Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Glenn, D Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Sampson, William S; Feldman, Michelle E; Hertzberg, Michael A; Moore, Scott D

    2002-04-01

    The current study examined service era differences in a sample of 172 Gulf and Vietnam outpatient veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants completed the MMPI-2 and several additional self-report measures of symptom severity (PTSD, depression, anxiety, hostility, and health complaints). Results indicated that MMPI-2 profiles differed significantly according to service era with Vietnam veterans scoring higher on scales 2, 8, and 0 and lower on scale 9 than did Gulf veterans. Examination of group means derived from parametric analysis of MMPI-2 data suggested a mean two-point code type of 2-8/8-2 for Vietnam veterans and 1-8/8-1 for Gulf veterans. In contrast, when the data were examined using descriptive techniques based on frequency counts of individual MMPI-2 profiles, the most frequently occurring two-point codetype was 7-8/8-7 for Vietnam veterans, and 6-8/8-6 for Gulf veterans. In addition, Gulf veterans reported a greater number of total health complaints than Vietnam veterans, whereas Vietnam veterans reported a greater number of physician-diagnosed physical conditions. Potential advantages of incorporating descriptive approaches versus parametric methods when examining profile data are also presented. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. US firms in middle of Vietnam, China oil battle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1994-04-21

    U.S. oil companies Crestone Energy and Mobil are developing oil fields in the South China Sea and are in the middle of a dispute between China and Vietnam over ownership of two large fields. The two fields together contain an estimated 1.1 billion barrels of petroleum. Vietnam maintains they own both fields since they are located on the Vietnamese continental shelf, while China says they own them historically. Companies from Australia, Japan, and Indonesia are also involved in developing the two fields.

  10. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  11. Intelligence Operations In Small Wars: A Comparison Of The Malayan Emergency And Vietnam War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Effect, 18. 41 Spencer C. Tucker, David Coffey, Nguyen Cong Luan, Nike Nichols, and Sandra Wittman, eds, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War Volume One: A...War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam, (Orlando, FL :Harcourt, Inc ., 1999), 72-73. 91 Sorley, A Better...Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc ., 1999. Stubbs, Richard. Hearts and Minds in

  12. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.

  13. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-08

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  14. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...)] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... material injury by reason of imports from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam of PRCBs that have been found by... notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of PRCBs from Indonesia, Taiwan, and...

  15. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Vietnam’s agricultural sector. 16 NOTES 1 Quy‐ Toan Do and Lakshmi Iyer. "Land Titling and Rural Transition in Vietnam." Economic Development And...pdf 5 5 Quy‐ Toan Do and Lakshmi Iyer. "Land Titling and Rural Transition in Vietnam." Economic Development And Cultural Change no. 3 (2008...accessed October 18, 2013, http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00927.pdf 1 17 10 Quy‐ Toan Do and Lakshmi Iyer

  16. A new species of Illacme Cook & Loomis, 1928 from Sequoia National Park, California, with a world catalog of the Siphonorhinidae (Diplopoda, Siphonophorida).

    PubMed

    Marek, Paul E; Krejca, Jean K; Shear, William A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Siphonorhinidae Cook, 1895 are thread-like eyeless millipedes that possess an astounding number of legs, including one individual with 750. Due to their cryptic lifestyle, rarity in natural history collections, and sporadic study over the last century, the family has an unclear phylogenetic placement, and intrafamilial relationships remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a second species of Illacme , a millipede genus notable for possessing the greatest number of legs of any known animal on the planet. Illacme tobini sp. n. is described from a single male collected in a cave in Sequoia National Park, California, USA. After 90 years since the description of Illacme , the species represents a second of the genus in California. Siphonorhinidae now includes Illacme Cook & Loomis, 1928 (two species, USA), Kleruchus Attems, 1938 (one species, Vietnam), Nematozonium Verhoeff, 1939 (one species, South Africa) and Siphonorhinus Pocock, 1894 (eight species, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Vietnam).

  17. A new species of Illacme Cook & Loomis, 1928 from Sequoia National Park, California, with a world catalog of the Siphonorhinidae (Diplopoda, Siphonophorida)

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Paul E.; Krejca, Jean K.; Shear, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Members of the family Siphonorhinidae Cook, 1895 are thread-like eyeless millipedes that possess an astounding number of legs, including one individual with 750. Due to their cryptic lifestyle, rarity in natural history collections, and sporadic study over the last century, the family has an unclear phylogenetic placement, and intrafamilial relationships remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a second species of Illacme, a millipede genus notable for possessing the greatest number of legs of any known animal on the planet. Illacme tobini sp. n. is described from a single male collected in a cave in Sequoia National Park, California, USA. After 90 years since the description of Illacme, the species represents a second of the genus in California. Siphonorhinidae now includes Illacme Cook & Loomis, 1928 (two species, USA), Kleruchus Attems, 1938 (one species, Vietnam), Nematozonium Verhoeff, 1939 (one species, South Africa) and Siphonorhinus Pocock, 1894 (eight species, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Vietnam). PMID:27833431

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  19. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Bui T T; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M; Duong, Doan T T; Duc, Duong M

    2014-01-01

    In almost 30 years since economic reforms or 'renovation' (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  20. Inequity in maternal health care utilization in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has succeeded in reducing maternal mortality in the last decades. Analysis of survey data however indicate that large inequities exist between different segments of the population. We have analyzed utilization of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance among Vietnamese women of reproductive age in relation to social determinants with the aim to reveal health inequities and identify disadvantaged groups. Method Data on maternal health care utilization and social determinants were derived from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Vietnam in 2006, and analyzed through stratified logistic regressions and g-computation. Results Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Vietnam. Ethnicity, household wealth and education were all significantly associated with antenatal care coverage and skilled birth attendance, individually and in synergy. Although the structural determinants included in this study were closely related to each other, analysis revealed a significant effect of ethnicity over and above wealth and education. Within the group of mothers from poor households ethnic minority mothers were at a three-fold risk of not attending any antenatal care (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27–7.41) and six times more likely not to deliver with skilled birth attendance (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.37–16.6). The association between ethnicity and lack of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance was even stronger within the non-poor group. Conclusions In spite of policies to out rule health inequities, ethnic minority women constitute a disadvantaged group in Vietnam. More efficient ways to target disadvantaged groups, taking synergy effects between multiple social determinants into consideration, are needed in order to assure safe motherhood for all. PMID:22587740

  1. Vulnerabilities of ecosystems across U.S. National Parks to biome shifts, wildfire changes, and invasive species due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Eigenbrod, F.; Early, R.; Wang, F.; Notaro, M.; Williams, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    U.S. national parks conserve globally unique biodiversity. Yet, historical impacts of climate change and future vulnerabilities threaten species and ecosystems across this system of protected areas. Spatial analyses of historical climate and downscaled future climate projections show climate trends across the system. Spatial analyses of vegetation and wildfire (using a dynamic global vegetation model), habitat fragmentation (using remote sensing-derived land cover), and invasive species introduction and establishment show patterns of future vulnerability across the 50 U.S. states and 412 U.S. national parks. Results reveal high historical and projected temperature increases and precipitation changes, projected increases of wildfire across western U.S. national parks, high vulnerability to biome shifts and habitat fragmentation of up to one-third of National Park System area, and high vulnerability to invasive species of one-ninth of National Park System area. Ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range, desert Southwest, and Laurentian Great Lakes are highly vulnerable to upslope and poleward shifts of the North America sequence of biomes: temperate shrubland - temperate broadleaf forest - temperate mixed forest - temperate conifer forest - subalpine and boreal forest - alpine and tundra. These areas include Grand Canyon, Mount Rainier, and Yosemite National Parks. The southwestern U.S., including Grand Canyon and Sequoia National Parks, is vulnerable to increases in wildfire. The eastern and midwestern U.S., including Great Smokey Mountains and Voyageurs National Parks, are highly vulnerable to invasive species. These results identify vulnerable areas and potential refugia to help prioritize areas for future natural resource management actions and biodiversity conservation in U.S. national parks.

  2. Armor in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  3. Criteria for Accreditation in Vietnam's Higher Education: Focus on Input or Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Kim D.; Oliver, Diane E.; Priddy, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the development of accreditation standards and processes in Vietnam and to offer recommendations for the further progress of Vietnam's accreditation model. The authors first provide contextual details of the higher education system and then present the conceptual framework of quality assurance in relation…

  4. Combat and herbicide exposures in Vietnam among a sample of American Legionnaires

    SciTech Connect

    Stellman, S.D.; Stellman, J.M.; Sommer, J.F. Jr.

    A cross-sectional survey of 6,810 randomly selected members of The American Legion in six states who served in the US Armed Forces during the Vietnam Era was conducted by a mailed questionnaire. Combat stress was evaluated by a previously validated eight-item scale. Exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides was estimated via exposure probability index previously developed by the authors which uses an algorithm based on the combined Air Force and Joint Services HERBS files of spray data. Two-fifths of the men had served in Southeast Asia, generally at the same time during which the major proportion of herbicides weremore » used; the remaining subjects served elsewhere. Both combat and Agent Orange exposure exhibited distinct, meaningful distributions among Vietnam veterans with service in Southeast Asia and were also correlated with each other. Our analysis demonstrates conclusively that mere presence in Vietnam cannot be used as a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. Categorization of Vietnam veterans according to herbicide exposure can be successfully accomplished, based on an existing detailed herbicide application data base. This analysis, together with the consistent dose-related results obtained in this series of papers on health and behavioral effects, demonstrates the utility of questionnaire-derived herbicide and combat exposure measures for epidemiologic study of Vietnam veterans.« less

  5. Vietnam's Half-Hearted Welcome Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Vietnam's closed-door policy meant its students were restricted to the former Soviet-bloc countries. Today they study all over the world--about 6,000 are in the United States alone. In many cases, their tuition and living expenses are paid by foreign governments and private charitable organizations. Fulbright, the Ford…

  6. The heat flow study in the Tertiary Basin of Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Huyen, T.

    1994-07-01

    In Vietnam, study of heat flow has paralleled petroleum exploration activities. For a long time there had only been results on temperature gradients in the Tertiary basin. Recently, with its participation in CCOP's project on the establishment of heat flow regional maps (1992-1993) and the government's mineral resources program (1993-1995) (Coded KT-01-18), Vietnam Petroleum Institute's group on heat flow obtained results on heat flow. A heat flow study in the oil basinal area in Vietnam has been conducted using data from 76 exploratory wells. Thermal conductivity of 427 cores was measured using the quick thermal conductivity meter (QTM) within temperaturemore » gradients of wells calculated from well log data and from testing data. The average heat flow of sedimentary basins in Vietnam follows: Hanoi graben, 125 Q (mW/m2); north Gulf of Tonkin, 87 Q (mW/m2); south Gulf of Tonkin, 119 Q (mW/m2); Danang Graben, 89 Q (mW/m2); northeast-south Conson, 88 Q (mW/m2); southwest-south Conson, 85 Q (mW/m2); Mekong Basin, 64 Q (mW/m2).« less

  7. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-812, A-583-849] Steel Wire... investigations of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') and Taiwan.\\1...\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

  8. Caulder's Story: "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Untold Story of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philion, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Calls attention to an important instructional resource that high school English and history teachers can use to engage their students in critical thinking about the Vietnam War. Gives some ideas for helping teenagers to make connections between the young adult novel "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Vietnam War. Suggests the integration of "Chinese…

  9. The Educational Realities of Hmong Communities in Vietnam: The Voices of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Constance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the language policy and sociolinguistic realities of Hmong people in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. Minority children, who have their own mother tongue, are educated in Vietnamese, a language that few understand. In response to this situation, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam in collaboration with UNICEF,…

  10. Effect of Phase Shift from Corals to Zoantharia on Reef Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Igor C. S.; Loiola, Miguel; Albuquerque, Tiago; Reis, Rodrigo; de Anchieta C. C. Nunes, José; Reimer, James D.; Mizuyama, Masaru; Kikuchi, Ruy K. P.; Creed, Joel C.

    2015-01-01

    Consequences of reef phase shifts on fish communities remain poorly understood. Studies on the causes, effects and consequences of phase shifts on reef fish communities have only been considered for coral-to-macroalgae shifts. Therefore, there is a large information gap regarding the consequences of novel phase shifts and how these kinds of phase shifts impact on fish assemblages. This study aimed to compare the fish assemblages on reefs under normal conditions (relatively high cover of corals) to those which have shifted to a dominance of the zoantharian Palythoa cf. variabilis on coral reefs in Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazilian eastern coast. We examined eight reefs, where we estimated cover of corals and P. cf. variabilis and coral reef fish richness, abundance and body size. Fish richness differed significantly between normal reefs (48 species) and phase-shift reefs (38 species), a 20% reduction in species. However there was no difference in fish abundance between normal and phase shift reefs. One fish species, Chaetodon striatus, was significantly less abundant on normal reefs. The differences in fish assemblages between different reef phases was due to differences in trophic groups of fish; on normal reefs carnivorous fishes were more abundant, while on phase shift reefs mobile invertivores dominated. PMID:25629532

  11. Biliary atresia in Vietnam: Management and the burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Max Bolun; Huong, Thuy Bui; Hoang, Xuyen; Doan, Lan; Trinh, Shauna; Anh Nguyen, Hoa Pham; Thanh Le, Hai; Holterman, Ai-Xuan

    2017-02-01

    Biliary atresia is an idiopathic, neonatal liver disease of the bile ducts. The natural evolution of biliary atresia is known in developed countries. This study describes the clinical course of biliary atresia in Vietnam, a developing country. Chart reviews were undertaken of patients treated with or without the Kasai procedure between January 2010 and July 2013 at a children's hospital in Vietnam. Of 287 children with biliary atresia, 149 (52%) were treated without the Kasai procedure and 138 (48%) were treated with the Kasai procedure. Median age at diagnosis was 2.4 months for children treated without the Kasai procedure vs 2.3 months for those treated with the procedure. The percentages of patients in the group treated without the Kasai procedure presenting at <2 months, 2 to <3 months, 3 to <4 months, 4-6 months, and >6 months of age were 31%, 35%, 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, compared to those treated with the Kasai procedure at 36% (P = .38), 44% (P = .12), 16% (P = 1.0), 4% (P = .037), and 0% (P < .001), respectively. The group treated without the Kasai procedure had 1- and 2-year survivals of 52% and 28%, respectively (median survival 6.6 months); in contrast, the group treated with the Kasai procedure had 1- and 2-year transplant-free survivals of 84% and 71%. No patients were treated by liver transplantation because of lack of a liver transplantation program in Vietnam. The majority of biliary atresia in Vietnam remains untreated despite early presentation and reasonable outcomes after a Kasai procedure relative to Western countries. These data illustrate the high health care burden for biliary atresia in Vietnam and the need to improve education about biliary atresia and its treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the cave cricket genus Tamdaotettix Gorochov with a new species and some new descriptions (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae, Aemodogryllinae).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanyan; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Kai

    2016-08-22

    A review of the rhaphidophorid genus Tamdaotettix Gorochov, 1998 is presented. One new species, one newly-recorded species from China and one species from Vietnam are identified and described. These are namely Tamdaotettix (Tamdaotettix) tridenticulatus sp. nov., Tamdaotettix (Laotettix) curvatus Gorochov, 2015 and Tamdaotettix (Tamdaotettix) semipullus Gorochov, 1998. At the same time, Megadiestramima extensa Gorochov, 1998 is redescribed. A key to the species of Tamdaotettix is provided.

  13. Systematic Review on Irrational Use of Medicines in China and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenhui; Vu, Huyen; Xie, Zening; Chen, Wen; Tang, Shenglan

    2015-01-01

    Background Irrational use of medicines has been an issue concerned all over the world and the outlooks in developing countries are more severe. This study aimed to assess the different patterns of irrational use of medicines and its influential factors in China and Vietnam. Methods A systematic review was performed on both published and grey literatures in English, Chinese and Vietnamese languages between 1993 and 2013 based on the WHO framework. Quality assessment was conducted on the basis of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Key indicators were analyzed to compare the irrational use of medicines in two countries. Results A total of 67 published works about China and 29 about Vietnam were included, the majority of which were cross-sectional prescription studies in both China and Vietnam. Irrational use of medicines was found in both the countries but issues with polypharmacy as well as overuse of antibiotics were more severe in Vietnam while overuse of injections was unique to China. Various patterns of irrational use were also indicated between urban and rural areas, and among different levels of hospitals. Rarely does literature focus on the analysis of influential factors of irrational use of medicines. While lack of proper knowledge from both providers and patients were the most recognized influential factors in both countries, economic incentives from pharmaceutical companies in China, and weak control and regulation over prescriptions in Vietnam were the main factors attributed to this issue. Conclusion Severe irrational use of medicines has been abundantly evidenced in both China and Vietnam, highlighting the importance of policy interventions on the issue. However, limited evidence on the appropriateness or its compliance (conformity) to guidelines of prescription has been found. In addition, convincing evidence on the underlying explanation of this issue is lacking, although economic incentives, health insurance coverage, and knowledge of service

  14. An eye for inequality: how trachoma relates to poverty in Tanzania and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Evertjan; Baltussen, Rob M P M; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Ngirwamungu, Edith; Nguyen, Mai P; Kilima, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    An important challenge for trachoma control strategies is to break the circle of poverty, poor hygiene and poor health by bringing its benefits to the poor. This article aims to assess to what extent trachoma is a disease of the poor, and trachoma services reach the poor in Tanzania and Vietnam. Individual level data on trachoma prevalence (active trachoma and trichiasis) and utilization of trachoma-related services were collected in both countries in 2004. Prevalence data were also available for Vietnam in 2001. We used household level data to construct an asset index as our living standards measure. Next, we related trachoma prevalence and service use to living standards, and used concentration indices to summarize and test the degree of inequality. Trachoma prevalence was higher among the poorest groups in Tanzania. No such relation could be established in Vietnam where prevalence declined over the period 2001-2004 and particularly so among the least poor. Antibiotics were used more by the poorest in Tanzania and by the less poor in Vietnam. In both countries, there was no unequivocal pattern for the relation between living standards and the use of trachoma services. Trachoma is found to be a disease of the poorest in Tanzania, but not in Vietnam. In the latter country there are indications that district characteristics have an important impact on trachoma prevalence. The higher use of antibiotics among the better-off in Vietnam may have contributed to their larger decline in active trachoma prevalence between 2001 and 2004 compared to the poorer segments.

  15. 76 FR 68208 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... Governments of India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans... children of Vietnam veterans—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an evaluation to an...

  17. 76 FR 61088 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, received between... on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was published in the Federal...

  18. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  19. Molecular Diagnosis of an Ocular Toxocariasis Patient in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trung, Nguyen Vu; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    An ocular Toxocara canis infection is reported for the first time in Vietnam. A 34-year-old man residing in a village of Son La Province, North Vietnam, visited the National Eye Hospital (NEH) in August 2011. He felt a bulge-sticking pain in his left eye and loss of vision occurred over 3 months before visiting the hospital. The eye examination in the hospital showed damage of the left eye, red eye, retinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, inflammation of the eye tissues, retinal granulomas, and a parasitic cyst inside. A larva of Toxocara was collected with the cyst by a medical doctor by surgery. Comparison of 264 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA was done between our Vietnamese Toxocara canis and other Toxocara geographical isolates, including Chinese T. canis, Japanese T. canis, Sri Lankan T. canis, and Iranian T. canis. The nucleotide homology was 97-99%, when our T. canis was compared with geographical isolates. Identification of a T. canis infection in the eye by a molecular method was performed for the first time in Vietnam. PMID:24327783

  20. Molecular diagnosis of an ocular toxocariasis patient in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-10-01

    An ocular Toxocara canis infection is reported for the first time in Vietnam. A 34-year-old man residing in a village of Son La Province, North Vietnam, visited the National Eye Hospital (NEH) in August 2011. He felt a bulge-sticking pain in his left eye and loss of vision occurred over 3 months before visiting the hospital. The eye examination in the hospital showed damage of the left eye, red eye, retinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, inflammation of the eye tissues, retinal granulomas, and a parasitic cyst inside. A larva of Toxocara was collected with the cyst by a medical doctor by surgery. Comparison of 264 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA was done between our Vietnamese Toxocara canis and other Toxocara geographical isolates, including Chinese T. canis, Japanese T. canis, Sri Lankan T. canis, and Iranian T. canis. The nucleotide homology was 97-99%, when our T. canis was compared with geographical isolates. Identification of a T. canis infection in the eye by a molecular method was performed for the first time in Vietnam.

  1. Molecular diversity of Rice grassy stunt virus in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Hoang-Anh; Nguyen, Doan-Phuong; Causse, Sandrine; Nguyen, Thanh-Duc; Ngo, Vinh-Vien; Hébrard, Eugénie

    2013-04-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance.

  2. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  3. How might the Trans-Pacific Partnership impact on the pharmaceutical sector in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Binh, Nguyen Hoa; Anh, Pham Ngoc Kieu; Phuong, Nguyen Minh

    2016-07-01

    Ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) will attract a large number of foreign drug companies in the coming years to Vietnam. It is anticipated to bring investment to Vietnam's pharmaceutical industries, lead to increased infrastructure and enable the use of more sophisticated technologies for the discovery, development and manufacture of drugs. However, with respect to pharmaceutical companies, which are producing generic drugs primarily, the availability of biologic will be reduced. Thus, the consequence is, an increase in drug cost resulting in difficulties for patients wishing to procure these drugs. This will be particularly detrimental for developing countries, such as Vietnam and Malaysia.

  4. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts.

    PubMed

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore, we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here, we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed (i) temporal shifts between the surveys and (ii) distributional differences between tree life stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species' environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life stages. © 2016

  5. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final Phase of... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida... Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida... Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida... Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida... Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA...

  10. Collaborative Disaster Preparedness: Vietnam, the United States, and Regional Experiences (Proceedings from Da Nang, Vietnam, August 1820, 2015)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    August 18 –20, 2015) Sarah Weilant Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by...from Da Nang, Vietnam, August 18 –20, 2015) Operation Damayan... 18 Operation Sahayogi Haat

  11. [The current situation and agendas in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kiyoko; Uda, Hidenori; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Yano, Ryosuke; Saijo, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satomi, Maki; Yoshida, Aya; Oishi, Osamu; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Kamenosono, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In Vietnam, the number of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been increasing in recent years in association with the country's remarkable economic growth and corresponding changes in its population's lifestyle. The purposes of this research were to identify the challenges in the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and to discuss countermeasures for NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Methods As a 2015 Regional Public Health Overall Promotion Project, an investigation team consisting of 11 public health physicians visited Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, and its vicinities from January 11, 2016 to January 15, 2016. In Hanoi and its vicinities, we visited local healthcare institutions, such as the World Health Organization(WHO) Representative Office in Vietnam and Ministry of Health of Vietnam, and discussed the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Results According to a survey in 2014, 73% of people of all age groups in Vietnam died from NCDs and the number of people suffering from NCDs has been sharply increasing in recent years. Major behavioral risk factors are dietary risks, tobacco smoke, alcohol use, and physical inactivity. There are four main problems with prevention and control of NCDs: 1) low awareness among the people of NCDs, 2) regional disparity of medical services, 3) shortage of healthcare staff members with professional knowledge, and 4) poor NCD surveillance. In Vietnam, an NCD program with screening methods and medical guidelines for respective diseases was developed in 2002. However, it only covered tertiary prevention and did not fully describe the primary and secondary prevention measures. Currently, with the technical assistance of the WHO, the implementation of countermeasures emphasizing prevention and control to reduce NCD risk factors has only just begun.Conclusion It was considered that educating each person in Vietnam on NCD prevention measures would be necessary and that a national policy

  12. Two new species of the genus Kabakra Dworakowska from Thailand (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

    PubMed

    Song, Yue-Hua; Li, Zi-Zhong; Dietrich, Christopher H

    2016-03-14

    The leafhopper genus Kabakra was established with Kabakra augusta from Vietnam as its type species by Dworakowska (1979). Later, another two species were described from India (Sohi & Mann 1992, Mathew & Ramakrishnan 1996). The genus was reviewed by Cao et al. (2012), who redescribed the genus and added three new species from China and Thailand. So far, six species have been reported, all from the Oriental region (see Dmitriev, 2016). In the present paper, two new species, K. chaiyaphuma and K. sakona spp. nov. are described and illustrated, with a key and a checklist to all known species of Kabakra.

  13. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Bui T. T.; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M.; Duong, Doan T. T.; Duc, Duong M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance. PMID:25262793

  14. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speaks to students in powerful ways. In addition, the literature can help students better understand their parents and grandparents and the effect on them of the Vietnam War. A number of teachers who have taught the nonfiction…

  15. Perceptions of LIS Development in Vietnam: Educational Outcomes and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Janet; Welch, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The authors have been involved in the design and delivery of several LIS training and education programs in Vietnam in recent years. This activity has led them to become aware of library developments and initiatives taking place within Vietnam, and of issues that will affect future development of the library and information industry. Some of these…

  16. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  17. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    PubMed

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  18. The effect of the Vietnam War on numbers of medical school applicants.

    PubMed

    Singer, A

    1989-10-01

    Among the little-noticed but far-reaching side effects of the Vietnam War was its impact on the higher education system. This often-unpopular war, coupled with the military draft and student deferment policies, led many young men to enter educational institutions of all types. Beginning around 1964, there was a surge of enrollments and degrees granted in higher education that began to abate only after the draft ended in 1973. The leading edge of the post-World War II "baby-boom" also became of college age in the mid-1960s and undoubtedly contributed to elevated levels of enrollments and degrees in higher education. But the Vietnam War had an impact over and above the purely demographic, as can be seen when population effects are factored out. This effect largely explains why the numbers of bachelor's degrees and doctorates (Ph.D. degrees and equivalent) granted to men suddenly stopped increasing in 1974 even though the relevant population groups continued to grow throughout the 1970s. The patterns of enrollments and degrees attained by women are quite different from the men's patterns, and they serve to reinforce the evidence of a draft effect. Students in health professions schools of all types were given special consideration under the deferment policies established by the Selective Service System, leading to rapid increases in applications to medical, dental, and other health professions schools during the period 1968-1974. Since then, the health professions schools have had quite similar experiences with applications--those from men have generally declined while those from women have generally increased. Also, career choices are shifting.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Have bird distributions shifted along an elevational gradient on a tropical mountain?

    PubMed

    Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Arendt, Wayne J; Wunderle, Joseph M; Aide, T Mitchell

    2017-12-01

    An upward shift in elevation is one of the most conspicuous species responses to climate change. Nevertheless, downward shifts and, apparently, the absences of response have also been recently reported. Given the growing evidence of multiple responses of species distributions due to climate change and the paucity of studies in the tropics, we evaluated the response of a montane bird community to climate change, without the confounding effects of land-use change. To test for elevational shifts, we compared the distribution of 21 avian species in 1998 and 2015 using occupancy models. The historical data set was based on point counts, whereas the contemporary data set was based on acoustic monitoring. We detected a similar number of species in historical (36) and contemporary data sets (33). We show an overall pattern of no significant change in range limits for most species, although there was a significant shift in the range limit of eight species (38%). Elevation limits shifted mostly upward, and this pattern was more common for upper than lower limits. Our results highlight the variability of species responses to climate change and illustrate how acoustic monitoring provides an easy and powerful way to monitor animal populations along elevational gradients.

  20. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-08

    Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets) isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic isolation by