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Sample records for viral disease outbreaks

  1. Nigerian response to the 2014 Ebola viral disease outbreak: lessons and cautions

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak that initially hit Guinea, Liberia and Senegal in 2014 was projected to affect Nigeria very badly when the first case was reported in July 2014. However, the outbreak was effectively and swiftly contained with only eight deaths out of 20 cases, confounding even the most optimistic predictions of the disease modelers. A combination of health worker and public education, a coordinated field epidemiology and laboratory training program (with prior experience in disease outbreak control in other diseases) and effective set-up of emergency operations centers were some of the measures that helped to confound the critics and contain what would have been an otherwise deadly outbreak in a densely populated country with a highly mobile population. This article highlights the measures taken in Nigeria and looks to the translatable lessons learnt for future disease outbreaks, whether that be from the Ebola virus or other infectious agents. PMID:26740841

  2. Management of rodent viral disease outbreaks: one institutions (r)evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abigail L

    2010-01-01

    At first blush, an outbreak of mouse hepatitis virus or epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus in a research colony of laboratory mice may not seem like a disaster. However, irrespective of magnitude, such an outbreak at an academic institution is disruptive for researchers at all levels. It can be a disaster for the graduate student who may have just a few experiments to finish before writing the thesis or for the postdoctoral fellow who is in the lab for only 1 or 2 years. Infectious disease outbreaks also limit the ability of principal investigators to share their animals with collaborators at their home institution as well as with those at extramural sites, thereby thwarting the expectation that research materials supported by federal funds will be made readily available to colleagues. This article traces the evolution of a change in culture at a large, well-funded academic institution with over 1,800 active IACUC protocols, more than 1,000 of which include mice. During a period of less than 5 years, the institution evolved from virtual paralysis in the face of such outbreaks to the implementation of policies and practices that enable effective outbreak management and the timely resumption of research functionality. This evolution required not only support from the highest levels of leadership in the university and its school of medicine but also a huge outlay of financial resources.

  3. Tracking Viral Evolution during a Disease Outbreak: the Rapid and Complete Selective Sweep of a Circovirus in the Endangered Echo Parakeet

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Christopher G.; Greenwood, Andrew G.; Jones, Carl G.; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D.; Black, Simon A.; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J.

    2012-01-01

    Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

  4. Dengue disease outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Dayama, Pankaj; Sampath, Kameshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of outbreak of a disease may help in timely and effective public health interventions. Our motivation for this work is to assist EHD planning officer to analyze the incidence data and based on it declare whether there is an outbreak or not. In this paper, we develop ensemble of multiple techniques for detecting dengue disease outbreak. These techniques are applied to dengue incidence data from Singapore and results are summarized.

  5. Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabelli, V. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

  7. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  8. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  9. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  11. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  12. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

  14. Exosomes in Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Kashanchi, Fatah; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Viruses have evolved many mechanisms by which to evade and subvert the immune system to ensure survival and persistence. However, for each method undertaken by the immune system for pathogen removal, there is a counteracting mechanism utilized by pathogens. The new and emerging role of microvesicles in immune intercellular communication and function is no different. Viruses across many different families have evolved to insert viral components in exosomes, a subtype of microvesicle, with many varying downstream effects. When assessed cumulatively, viral antigens in exosomes increase persistence through cloaking viral genomes, decoying the immune system, and even by increasing viral infection in uninfected cells. Exosomes therefore represent a source of viral antigen that can be used as a biomarker for disease and targeted for therapy in the control and eradication of these disorders. With the rise in the persistence of new and reemerging viruses like Ebola and Zika, exploring the role of exosomes become more important than ever. PMID:27324390

  15. Incentives for Reporting Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. Methods We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. Findings We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. Interpretation These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks. PMID:24603414

  16. Ebola viral disease and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Achar, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease’s interaction with pregnancy is poorly understood and remains a particular challenge for medical and para-medical personnel responding to an outbreak. This review article is written with the benefit of hindsight and experience from the largest recorded Ebola outbreak in history. We have provided a broad overview of the issues that arise for pregnant women and for the professionals treating them during an Ebola outbreak. The discussion focuses on the specifics of Ebola infection in pregnancy and possible management strategies, including the delivery of an infected woman. We have also discussed the wider challenges posed to pregnant women and their carers during an epidemic, including the identification of suspected Ebola-infected pregnant women and the impact of the disease on pre-existing health services. This paper outlines current practices in the field, as well as highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and the paramount need to protect the health-care workers directly involved in the management of pregnant women. PMID:26457118

  17. [Viral exanthematic childhood diseases].

    PubMed

    Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W

    1997-01-01

    Exanthem is defined as multiple, inflammatory skin alteration with a hematogenic, lymphogenic or neurogenic origin. Typically, so called exanthematic children's diseases are measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) and in the past small pox. The pathogenesis of the viral-caused diseases primarily occurs in the vascular connective tissue. The cytopathogenetic effects result in inflammatory tissue reactions with activation of defence mechanism and producing of immune complexes. First symptoms are hyperemia, edema and inflammatory infiltrates with itchy swellings. Virological laboratory diagnosis are necessary especially for the progress of atypical infectious diseases, for persons with immunological or chronical illness and under chemotherapeutical or immunosuppressival treatment.

  18. Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Ameli, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Infectious disease during an emergency condition can raise the death rate 60 times in comparison to other causes including trauma. An epidemic, or outbreak, can occur when several aspects of the agent (pathogen), population (hosts), and the environment create an ideal situation for spread. Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, dirty drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. Once it has been established that an emergency condition exists, there must be a prompt and thorough response for communicable disease control. A camp should be created, and the disease managed rapidly. The overall goals are rapid assessment, prevention, surveillance, outbreak control, and disease management. PMID:27437528

  19. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation.

  20. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  1. DISEASE OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-two waterborne disease outbreaks were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency in 1981. The outbreaks occurred in 17 states and involved 4430 cases. This was only 64% of the number of outbreaks that were reported in 1980 and...

  2. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  3. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  4. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies.

  5. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J W; McMillan, J H

    1995-08-01

    Over Christmas 1993, an outbreak of food poisoning occurred among guests in a hotel in South West Scotland. Evidence from a cohort study strongly suggested that raw oysters were the vehicle for infection, probably due to a Small Round Structured Virus (SRSV). Detailed enquiry about the source and preparation of the oysters revealed no evidence of any unsafe handling at any stage in the food chain, nor any evidence of bacterial contamination. It is suggested that the present standards of preparation and monitoring are inadequate to protect the consumer, and that bacteriophage monitoring may be a useful method of screening for viral contamination in future.

  6. Ebola viral load at diagnosis associates with patient outcome and outbreak evolution

    PubMed Central

    de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Caleo, Grazia; Audet, Jonathan; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kozak, Robert A.; Brooks, James I.; Kern, Steven; Wolz, Anja; Sprecher, Armand; Greig, Jane; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kargbo, David K.; Kargbo, Brima; Di Caro, Antonino; Grolla, Allen; Kobasa, Darwyn; Strong, James E.; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Van Herp, Michel; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Ebola virus (EBOV) causes periodic outbreaks of life-threatening EBOV disease in Africa. Historically, these outbreaks have been relatively small and geographically contained; however, the magnitude of the EBOV outbreak that began in 2014 in West Africa has been unprecedented. The aim of this study was to describe the viral kinetics of EBOV during this outbreak and identify factors that contribute to outbreak progression. METHODS. From July to December 2014, one laboratory in Sierra Leone processed over 2,700 patient samples for EBOV detection by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Viremia was measured following patient admission. Age, sex, and approximate time of symptom onset were also recorded for each patient. The data was analyzed using various mathematical models to find trends of potential interest. RESULTS. The analysis revealed a significant difference (P = 2.7 × 10–77) between the initial viremia of survivors (4.02 log10 genome equivalents [GEQ]/ml) and nonsurvivors (6.18 log10 GEQ/ml). At the population level, patient viral loads were higher on average in July than in November, even when accounting for outcome and time since onset of symptoms. This decrease in viral loads temporally correlated with an increase in circulating EBOV-specific IgG antibodies among individuals who were suspected of being infected but shown to be negative for the virus by PCR. CONCLUSIONS. Our results indicate that initial viremia is associated with outcome of the individual and outbreak duration; therefore, care must be taken in planning clinical trials and interventions. Additional research in virus adaptation and the impacts of host factors on EBOV transmission and pathogenesis is needed. PMID:26551677

  7. Immunization Against Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wehrle, Paul F.

    1965-01-01

    Means are now at hand, if properly employed, to virtually eliminate clinical poliomyelitis and measles from this country. If such control is to be accomplished, more effective means are required to reach virtually all of the four million infants born each year in this country. Influenza can be suppressed, and improvements in influenza vaccine have been achieved in recent years. It seems likely at this time that at least several of the more important viral diseases can be controlled by utilizing antigens based on the biologic characteristics of the agent, and directed toward the reservoir of infection and the conditions favoring transmission of the infection. The theoretical problem of the effects in man of viruses that are oncogenic in rodents and are derived from various tissue culture systems deserves serious attention. However, this consideration, that of antigenic potency, and other problems reviewed should not be allowed to subvert efforts to solve the real problems that face us, the disability and death resulting from these common infections. PMID:14347979

  8. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  9. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable.

    PubMed

    Brady, Oliver J; Smith, David L; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities) have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  10. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Smith, David L.; Scott, Thomas W.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities) have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings. PMID:25979287

  11. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  12. Countermeasures against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, Frederick S B; Godoy, Marcos G; Fast, Mark; Workenhe, Samuel; Kibenge, Molly J T

    2012-09-01

    Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, including viral infections. Aquaculture, in which farmed fish are kept at high population densities in close proximity with wild fish reservoirs, is ideal for the emergence of wild-type pathogens that exist benignly in local wild fish and/or the spreading of aquatic pathogens to wild fish that enter into or come into close proximity with net cages and with fish escaping from them. This paper provides a general review for the nonspecialist of viral diseases of farmed fish and how they could be prevented or treated. It has five principal objectives: (1) to provide an update on the most important and emerging viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture; (2) to review general aspects of innate antiviral defense against virus infections in fish, including recent advances in antiviral signaling; (3) to discuss current principles and practices of vaccinating fish; (4) to review antiviral drugs that have activity against viruses of farmed fish, and current barriers to employing them in aquaculture; and (5) to discuss the growing use of "functional feeds" in salmonid aquaculture to mitigate viral diseases. In conclusion, despite the challenging aquatic environment, it is expected that well thought-out combinations of vaccination and immunostimulants and/or antiviral drugs could provide solid protection against viral diseases of farmed fish.

  13. Ebola virus disease: history, epidemiology and outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Grobbelaar, Antoinette; Blumberg, Lucille

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 40 years, sporadic Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred mostly in the central African region. In March 2014, an outbreak of EVD was recognized in Guinea which would become the most significant outbreak of haemorrhagic fever in Africa to date. The outbreak started in Guinea and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone, claiming thousands of lives. Many questions still remain regarding the ecology of Ebola viruses, but it is believed that contact with infected bushmeat is an important risk factor for initial spill over of the virus into the human population. At present, there is still no registered prophylaxis or curative biologicals against EVD.

  14. [Global threats from emerging viral diseases].

    PubMed

    Chastel, Claude

    2007-11-01

    Emerging viral diseases are nothing new. Smallpox probably reached Europe from Asia in the 5th century, and yellow fever emerged in the Americas during the 16th century as a consequence of the African slave trade. Dengue fever arose simultaneously in South-East Asia, Africa, and North America during the 18th century. In 1918-1919 the so-called Spanish flu spread like wildfire through all five continents, killing between 25 and 40 million people. The second half of the 20th century saw the emergence of HIV/AIDS (1981), among other viral diseases. Even more worrying is the fact that emerging and re-emerging viral diseases have had a tendency to spread more quickly and more widely during the last decade, invading whole countries and continents; witness the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus, West Nile, Rift Valley fever, SARS, monkeypox, avian flu (H5N1) and Chikungunya. The complex factors underlying these new trends are briefly discussed.

  15. Using GIS to create synthetic disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Eagleson, Serryn; Beckett, Sam; Garner, Graeme; Veenendaal, Bert; Wright, Graeme; Plant, Aileen J

    2007-01-01

    Background The ability to detect disease outbreaks in their early stages is a key component of efficient disease control and prevention. With the increased availability of electronic health-care data and spatio-temporal analysis techniques, there is great potential to develop algorithms to enable more effective disease surveillance. However, to ensure that the algorithms are effective they need to be evaluated. The objective of this research was to develop a transparent user-friendly method to simulate spatial-temporal disease outbreak data for outbreak detection algorithm evaluation. A state-transition model which simulates disease outbreaks in daily time steps using specified disease-specific parameters was developed to model the spread of infectious diseases transmitted by person-to-person contact. The software was developed using the MapBasic programming language for the MapInfo Professional geographic information system environment. Results The simulation model developed is a generalised and flexible model which utilises the underlying distribution of the population and incorporates patterns of disease spread that can be customised to represent a range of infectious diseases and geographic locations. This model provides a means to explore the ability of outbreak detection algorithms to detect a variety of events across a large number of stochastic replications where the influence of uncertainty can be controlled. The software also allows historical data which is free from known outbreaks to be combined with simulated outbreak data to produce files for algorithm performance assessment. Conclusion This simulation model provides a flexible method to generate data which may be useful for the evaluation and comparison of outbreak detection algorithm performance. PMID:17300714

  16. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-05-12

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  17. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  18. Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Chu, Dong; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Carriére, Yves; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-specieg decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia Middle East-Asia Minor I (MEAM1) cryptic biotype by the cryptic Mediterranean (MED) biotype throughout China and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than MEAMJ. While MEAM1 usually excludes MED under natural conditions, insecticide application reverses the MEAM1-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to exclude MEAMI. The insecticide-mediated success of MED has led to TYLCV outbreaks throughout China. Our work strongly supports the hypothesis that insecticide use in China reverses the MEAMl-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to displace MEAM1 in managed landscapes. By promoting the dominance of a Bemisia species that is a competent viral vector, insecticides thus increase the spread and impact of TYLCV in heterogeneous agroecosystems. PMID:26552266

  19. First isolation and genotyping of viruses from recent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Ivan; Hostnik, Peter; Rihtaric, Danijela; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jencic, Vlasta

    2010-10-26

    In November and December 2007, the virus causing viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was detected in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from 2 fish farms in Slovenia. During 2008 and 2009 the infection spread only among rainbow trout farms and 4 new outbreaks were confirmed. High mortality and clinical signs of VHS were observed among the diseased fish. VHSV was confirmed by virus isolation, immunoperoxidase test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 1 complete (1524 nucleotides [nt]) and 9 partial (600 nt) glycoprotein gene nucleotide sequences, 9 VHSV isolates from the 6 VHS outbreaks were genetically closely related (99 to 100% identity), and were classified into the Subgroup I-a of Genotype I, most closely related to the German isolates Dstg21-07, Dstg36-06, and Dstg54-1-07 (99 to 100% identity). Phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological investigations confirmed that the VHS virus had been (re)introduced with imported live fish, and that subsequent outbreaks were linked to the initial infection. Our study shows that direct nucleotide sequencing of RT-PCR products, amplified from the tissue of VHSV-infected fish, represents a reliable tool for fast routine genotyping in diagnostic laboratories. This is the first report of a natural epidemic associated with VHSV infection in Slovenia since the eradication of the disease in 1977. PMID:21166311

  20. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak investigations and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...

  1. OutbreakTools: A new platform for disease outbreak analysis using the R software

    PubMed Central

    Jombart, Thibaut; Aanensen, David M.; Baguelin, Marc; Birrell, Paul; Cauchemez, Simon; Camacho, Anton; Colijn, Caroline; Collins, Caitlin; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Frost, Simon; Hens, Niel; Hugues, Joseph; Höhle, Michael; Opatowski, Lulla; Rambaut, Andrew; Ratmann, Oliver; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Suchard, Marc A.; Wallinga, Jacco; Ypma, Rolf; Ferguson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of infectious disease outbreaks relies on the analysis of increasingly complex and diverse data, which offer new prospects for gaining insights into disease transmission processes and informing public health policies. However, the potential of such data can only be harnessed using a number of different, complementary approaches and tools, and a unified platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks is still lacking. In this paper, we present the new R package OutbreakTools, which aims to provide a basis for outbreak data management and analysis in R. OutbreakTools is developed by a community of epidemiologists, statisticians, modellers and bioinformaticians, and implements classes and methods for storing, handling and visualizing outbreak data. It includes real and simulated outbreak datasets. Together with a number of tools for infectious disease epidemiology recently made available in R, OutbreakTools contributes to the emergence of a new, free and open-source platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks. PMID:24928667

  2. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    PubMed Central

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  3. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  4. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  5. Clinical features of the 1992 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Monreal, L; Villatoro, A J; Hooghuis, H; Ros, I; Timoney, P J

    1995-07-01

    During 1992, a widespread outbreak of Equine viral arteritis (EVA) occurred at a riding establishment near Barcelona, Spain. A total of 31 out of 186 horses on the premises displayed clinical signs, most frequently, fever, depression, mild ventral and limb oedema and a vesicular-erosive stomatitis, with hypersalivation, petechiations and small ulcerations. Affected horses developed illness of varying severity with only a few exhibiting a severe form of the disease and no mortality was recorded. Haematological and blood biochemical examination the most severely affected horses revealed a thrombocytopenia, slight leucocytosis with neutrophilia, lymphopenia and eosinopenia, an increase in plasma fibrinogen and a small rise in serum proteins and indirect bilirubin values. Diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of seroconversion to equine arteritis virus in acute and convalescent phase sera. Attempted isolation of the virus from citrated blood samples proved unsuccessful.

  6. Factors affecting prevention and control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in care homes.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, R; Trainor, E; Oyinloye, A; Keenan, A

    2012-10-01

    We assess the effect of key care quality indicators on viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and control in care homes using mandatory inspection data collected by a non-departmental public body. Outbreak occurrence was associated with care home size but not with overall quality or individual environmental standards. Care home size, hygiene and infection control standard scores were inversely associated with attack rate in residents, whereas delayed reporting to the local public health agency was associated with higher attack rates.

  7. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. S.; Chua, K. B.; Daniels, P. W.; Eaton, B. T.; Field, H. E.; Hall, R. A.; Halpin, K.; Johansen, C. A.; Kirkland, P. D.; Lam, S. K.; McMinn, P.; Nisbet, D. J.; Paru, R.; Pyke, A. T.; Ritchie, S. A.; Siba, P.; Smith, D. W.; Smith, G. A.; van den Hurk, A. F.; Wang, L. F.; Williams, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV. PMID:11485641

  8. Immunoglobulin M-specific serologic testing in an outbreak of foodborne viral hepatitis, type A.

    PubMed

    Osterholm, M T; Kantor, R J; Bradley, D W; Hall, W N; Francis, D P; Aaron, H C; Washburn, J W; Velde, D

    1980-07-01

    Ninety-seven symptomatic and five asymptomatic infections with viral hepatitis, type A (102 cases) were identified in members, guests and employees of a private country club in an outbreak associated with consuming food and ice prepared or handled by an employee of the club's kitchen pantry. Twenty-three symptomatic persons were tested by differential radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (acute-phase) hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) and all 23 were documented to be infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV). Forty-one member/guest cases had only a single exposure at the county club. Their incubation periods ranged from 21 to 40 days, with a mean of 30 days. The exposure of these single-day patrons occurred over a 14-day period. The index case was not icteric and only moderately symptomatic and was diagnosed retrospectively to have viral hepatitis, type A by serologic determination of IgM anti-HAV in blood samples. Four items implicated in disease transmission were potato salad, hot dogs, molded salmon and ice handled by the index case. Serologic screening of controls did not appear to alter the conclusions of the food item analysis.

  9. The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak--model of virus properties on system capacity and function: a lesson for future viral epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

    2007-01-01

    The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the first Ebola outbreaks to be treated in a hospital setting and is one of the most well-studied Ebola epidemics to have occurred to date. Many of the lessons learned from identifying, containing, and treating the epidemic are applicable to future viral outbreaks. This article looks at the characteristics of the Ebola virus and health system issues, which affected the healthcare providers' ability to contain and treat the virus. It specifically examines factors such as the disease characteristics, surge capacity, supply issues, press involvement, and the involvement of voluntary organizations.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus outbreak in a beef cow herd in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of natural bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in a herd of 136 bred heifers. This outbreak was notable in that a total of 36 PI calves were generated. Of the 136 bred heifers, 8 failed to deliver a calf. Eight calves died shortly a...

  11. Molecular Characterization and Viral Origin of the First Dengue Outbreak in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Henglin; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Jinyong; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Hongbin; Zhu, Jin; Yang, Zhonghua; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Hongning; Zhang, Jiusong

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, had its first dengue outbreak. Dengue virus (DENV) RNA detection in sera or viral isolates revealed that all 222 autochthonous patients detected and three Chinese travelers from Laos (imported cases) were positive for DENV-3 serotype, while DENV-1 and DENV-4 were detected in travelers from Myanmar and Thailand during the outbreak. For 33 suspected dengue cases collected before the outbreak, two imported cases from Laos and nine residents living in Laos (Laotian cases) were positive for DENV-3. Further, a random subset of 33 positive cases for DENV-3 was sequenced for the full envelope gene of DENV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the 25 autochthonous cases sequenced were grouped into the same clade, genotype II of DENV-3, with imported cases from Laos and Laotian cases. These results suggest that the genotype II of DENV-3 was associated with the outbreak and may have originated from the virus circulating in Laos.

  12. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations.

  13. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Ligon, Grant; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks. PMID:27240387

  14. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Grant; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-05-27

    Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks.

  15. Predicting meningococcal disease outbreaks in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Ranta, J; Mäkelä, P H; Arjas, E

    2004-03-30

    Rational decision making on whether some form of intervention would be necessary to control the spread of a meningococcal epidemic is based on predictions concerning its potential natural progression. Unfortunately, reliable predictions are difficult to make during the early stages of an outbreak. A stochastic discrete time epidemic model was applied to adaptively predict the development of outbreaks of meningococcal disease in 'closed' populations such as military garrisons or boarding schools, which are further divided into subgroups called 'units'. The performance of the adaptive method was assessed by using 3 simulated epidemics representing substantially different realizations in a 'garrison' of 20 units, with 68 men in each. Predictions of the weekly number of disease cases, of the number of carriers, and of the number of new infections were computed. Simulations suggest that predictions based only on the observed numbers of disease cases are generally inaccurate. These predictions can be improved if temporal observations on asymptomatic carriers in different units are utilized together with observed time series of the disease. A sample of 15 per cent from all units can be sufficient for a major improvement if the alternative is to obtain a full sample of only some units. Exploiting fully such information requires computer intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. PMID:15027081

  16. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    PubMed

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  17. Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T. H.; Burla, E.; Clayman, M.; Sadik, C.; Brown, A.; Goldberger, S.

    2000-01-01

    Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel's community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis (all types) declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased. Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country. PMID:11196499

  18. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections.

  19. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  20. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  1. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  2. [Emerging viral diseases in Europe].

    PubMed

    Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

    2012-04-01

    Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles.

  3. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan M; Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brozik, James A.; Rudolph, Angela R.; Wong, Lillian P.

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  4. [An update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F

    2009-04-15

    In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described.

  5. An Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis B in Modasa Town, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Disha A; Gupta, Praveg A; Kinariwala, Deepa M; Shah, Hetal S; Trivedi, Grishma R; Vegad, Mahendra M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb) out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856) cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5–6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57%) cases and 20/1145 (1.75%) contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:22529628

  6. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water, United States 2009-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite advancements in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories* through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance Syst...

  7. Emerging viral diseases in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Moal, Valérie; Zandotti, Christine; Colson, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are the most important cause of infections and a major source of mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs). These patients may acquire viral infections through exogenous routes including community exposure, donor organs, and blood products or by endogenous reactivation of latent viruses. Beside major opportunistic infections due to CMV and EBV and viral hepatitis B and C, several viral diseases have recently emerged in KTRs. New medical practices or technologies, implementation of new diagnostic tools, and improved medical information have contributed to the emergence of these viral diseases in this special population. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on emerging viral diseases and newly discovered viruses in KTRs over the last two decades. We identified viruses in the field of KT that had shown the greatest increase in numbers of citations in the NCBI PubMed database. BKV was the most cited in the literature and linked to an emerging disease that represents a great clinical concern in KTRs. HHV-8, PVB19, WNV, JCV, H1N1 influenza virus A, HEV, and GB virus were the main other emerging viruses. Excluding HHV8, newly discovered viruses have been infrequently linked to clinical diseases in KTRs. Nonetheless, pathogenicity can emerge long after the discovery of the causative agent, as has been the case for BKV. Overall, antiviral treatments are very limited, and reducing immunosuppressive therapy remains the cornerstone of management. PMID:23132728

  8. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection. PMID:25882125

  9. An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshik, T; Nishizawa, T; Kobayashi, T; Nagano, T; Miyazaki, T

    2001-11-01

    A rhabdoviral disease occurred in farmed populations of market sized Japanese flounder (hirame) Paralichthys olivaceus in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1996. The causative agent was identified as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on morphological, immunological, and genetic analyses. Diseased fish that were artificially injected with a representative virus isolate showed the same pathological signs and high mortality as observed in the natural outbreak. This is the first report of an outbreak of VHSV infection in cultured fish in Japan. Clinical signs of diseased fish included dark body coloration, an expanded abdomen due to ascites, congested liver, splenomegaly, and a swollen kidney. Myocardial necrosis was most prominent and accompanied by inflammatory reactions. Necrotic lesions also occurred in the liver, spleen and hematopoietic tissue, and were accompanied by circulatory disturbances due to cardiac failure. Hemorrhagic lesions did not always appear in the lateral musculature. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many rhabdovirus particles and associated inclusion bodies containing nucleocapsids in the necrotized myocardium. The histopathological findings indicated that the necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathognomonic sign of VHSV infection in Japanese flounder. PMID:11775799

  10. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  11. Breast milk transmission of viral disease.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E R; Keller, M A

    2001-01-01

    Breast milk transmission of maternal viral infection is well established for CMV and HIV-1. In the case of CMV, this usually does not pose a risk to the infant since serious disease is prevented by placentally transferred maternal antibody. However, in HIV infection, breast-feeding increases the risk of maternal-fetal transmission by about 25% with late breast-feeding (after six months of age) constituting a particular risk. In other maternal viral diseases, e.g., other herpes viruses, parvovirus, hepatitis A, B and C, and rubella, the virus is often demonstrated in the breast milk, but transmission is very rare. The highest risk is during an acute viral infection at the time of birth, since the breast milk has a high titer of virus, and a lack of antibody to neutralize the organism. PMID:11795036

  12. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  13. Viral diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Phillip A; McGavern, Dorian B

    2015-04-01

    Virus-induced diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a significant burden to human health worldwide. The complexity of these diseases is influenced by the sheer number of different neurotropic viruses, the diverse routes of CNS entry, viral tropism, and the immune system. Using a combination of human pathological data and experimental animal models, we have begun to uncover many of the mechanisms that viruses use to enter the CNS and cause disease. This review highlights a selection of neurotropic viruses that infect the CNS and explores the means by which they induce neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis.

  14. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  15. Outbreak of herpesviral conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in gouldian finches.

    PubMed

    Paulman, A; Lichtensteiger, C A; Kohrt, L J

    2006-11-01

    An outbreak of tracheitis, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis, originating in recently imported birds, caused high morbidity and mortality in a flock of finches in Central Illinois. Although several species were present, Gouldian finches (Erythrura [Chloebia] gouldiae) were most commonly and severely affected. Birds submitted for necropsy displayed microscopic lesions characteristic of herpesviral infection, including epithelial cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nasopharynx, sinuses, trachea, parabronchi, conjunctiva, and occasionally the lacrimal gland or proximal proventricular glands. Viral particles consistent with herpesvirus were visualized within affected epithelial cells with electron microscopy. Based on a partial sequence of the viral DNA polymerase gene, this virus was found to be identical to a herpesvirus previously implicated in a similar outbreak in Canada and is most likely an alphaherpesvirus.

  16. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country.

  17. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country. PMID:8187657

  18. Approved and experimental countermeasures against pestiviral diseases: Bovine viral diarrhea, classical swine fever and border disease.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, M Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSFV) and border disease virus, are important livestock pathogens in many countries, but current vaccines do not completely prevent the spread of infection. Control of pestiviral diseases is especially difficult due to the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected (PI) animals, which must be identified and eliminated to prevent disease transmission. Existing vaccines are limited by the delay between vaccination and the onset of protection, the difficulty of differentiating serologically between vaccinated and naturally infected animals and the need for broad vaccine cross-protection against diverse virus strains. Antiviral therapy could potentially supplement vaccination by providing immediate protection in the case of an outbreak. Numerous compounds with in vitro antiviral activity against BVDV have been identified through its role as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus. Fewer drugs active against CSFV have been identified, but many compounds that are effective against BVDV will likely inhibit CSFV, given their similar genomic sequences. While in vitro research has been promising, the paucity of efficacy studies in animals has hindered the commercial development of effective antiviral drugs against the pestiviruses. In this article, we summarize the clinical syndromes and routes of transmission of BVD, CSF and border disease, discuss currently approved vaccines, review efforts to develop antiviral therapies for use in outbreak control and suggest promising directions for future research.

  19. Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

    2014-01-01

    Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n = 135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n = 21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n = 20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n = 14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n = 57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n = 16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n = 12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n = 116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n = 45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n = 36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology.

  20. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India.

  1. Modelling the propagation of social response during a disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Wilson, James M.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic trajectories and associated social responses vary widely between populations, with severe reactions sometimes observed. When confronted with fatal or novel pathogens, people exhibit a variety of behaviours from anxiety to hoarding of medical supplies, overwhelming medical infrastructure and rioting. We developed a coupled network approach to understanding and predicting social response. We couple the disease spread and panic spread processes and model them through local interactions between agents. The social contagion process depends on the prevalence of the disease, its perceived risk and a global media signal. We verify the model by analysing the spread of disease and social response during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak in Mexico City and 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome and 2009 H1N1 outbreaks in Hong Kong, accurately predicting population-level behaviour. This kind of empirically validated model is critical to exploring strategies for public health intervention, increasing our ability to anticipate the response to infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:25589575

  2. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found. PMID:26875619

  3. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found.

  4. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-06-12

    Foodborne illnesses are a major health burden in the United States. Most of these illnesses are preventable, and analysis of outbreaks helps identify control measures. Although most cases are sporadic, investigation of the portion that occur as part of recognized outbreaks can provide insights into the pathogens, food vehicles, and food-handling practices associated with foodborne infections. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FBDSS). This report summarizes epidemiologic data on FBDOs reported during 2006 (the most recent year for which data have been analyzed). A total of 1,270 FBDOs were reported, resulting in 27,634 cases and 11 deaths. Among the 624 FBDOs with a confirmed etiology, norovirus was the most common cause, accounting for 54% of outbreaks and 11,879 cases, followed by Salmonella (18% of outbreaks and 3,252 cases). Among the 11 reported deaths, 10 were attributed to bacterial etiologies (six Escherichia coli O157:H7, two Listeria monocytogenes, one Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, and one Clostridium botulinum), and one was attributed to a chemical (mushroom toxin). Among outbreaks caused by a single food vehicle, the most common food commodities to which outbreak-related cases were attributed were poultry (21%), leafy vegetables (17%), and fruits/nuts (16%). Public health professionals can use this information to 1) target control strategies for specific pathogens in particular foods along the farm-to-table continuum and 2) support good food-handling practices among restaurant workers and the public.

  5. Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, U B; Hedges, J F; Nadler, S A; McCollum, W H; Timoney, P J; MacLachlan, N J

    1999-08-01

    An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions. PMID:10466790

  6. Foodborne disease outbreak due to consumption of rancid biscuits.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R V; Vemula, S R; Pokkunuri, Y; Siddula, G; Purnachandra, G K

    1995-01-01

    A foodborne disease outbreak characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, involving mostly children was investigated. Epidemiological, hospital and laboratory investigations indicated that the disease outbreak was associated with consumption of rancid biscuits abandoned in the street corner in a crowded locality of old city Hyderabad. The offensive flavors of rancidity were masked by the strong pineapple flavor used in the biscuits. Rancidity of the biscuits was confirmed by high peroxide value and acidity of extracted fat. Bacterial contamination was excluded by the total aerobic plate counts and negative tests for Staphylococcus and Salmonella.

  7. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle.

  8. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  9. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  10. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  11. Dynamic risk model for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya based on climate and disease outbreak data.

    PubMed

    Gikungu, David; Wakhungu, Jacob; Siamba, Donald; Neyole, Edward; Muita, Richard; Bett, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease that occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, with heavy impact in affected countries. Outbreaks are episodic and related to climate variability, especially rainfall and flooding. Despite great strides towards better prediction of RVF epidemics, there is still no observed climate data-based warning system with sufficient lead time for appropriate response and mitigation. We present a dynamic risk model based on historical RVF outbreaks and observed meteorological data. The model uses 30-year data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, normalised difference vegetation index and sea surface temperature data as predictors. Our research on RVF focused on Garissa, Murang'a and Kwale counties in Kenya using a research design based on a correlational, experimental, and evaluational approach. The weather data were obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department while the RVF data were acquired from International Livestock Research Institute, and the Department of Veterinary Services. Performance of the model was evaluated by using the first 70% of the data for calibration and the remaining 30% for validation. The assessed components of the model accurately predicted already observed RVF events. The Brier score for each of the models (ranging from 0.007 to 0.022) indicated high skill. The coefficient of determination (R2) was higher in Garissa (0.66) than in Murang'a (0.21) and Kwale (0.16). The discrepancy was attributed to data distribution differences and varying ecosystems. The model outputs should complement existing early warning systems to detect risk factors that predispose for RVF outbreaks. PMID:27245792

  12. Dynamic risk model for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya based on climate and disease outbreak data.

    PubMed

    Gikungu, David; Wakhungu, Jacob; Siamba, Donald; Neyole, Edward; Muita, Richard; Bett, Bernard

    2016-05-31

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease that occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, with heavy impact in affected countries. Outbreaks are episodic and related to climate variability, especially rainfall and flooding. Despite great strides towards better prediction of RVF epidemics, there is still no observed climate data-based warning system with sufficient lead time for appropriate response and mitigation. We present a dynamic risk model based on historical RVF outbreaks and observed meteorological data. The model uses 30-year data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, normalised difference vegetation index and sea surface temperature data as predictors. Our research on RVF focused on Garissa, Murang'a and Kwale counties in Kenya using a research design based on a correlational, experimental, and evaluational approach. The weather data were obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department while the RVF data were acquired from International Livestock Research Institute, and the Department of Veterinary Services. Performance of the model was evaluated by using the first 70% of the data for calibration and the remaining 30% for validation. The assessed components of the model accurately predicted already observed RVF events. The Brier score for each of the models (ranging from 0.007 to 0.022) indicated high skill. The coefficient of determination (R2) was higher in Garissa (0.66) than in Murang'a (0.21) and Kwale (0.16). The discrepancy was attributed to data distribution differences and varying ecosystems. The model outputs should complement existing early warning systems to detect risk factors that predispose for RVF outbreaks.

  13. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bovo, G; Gustinelli, A; Quaglio, F; Gobbo, F; Panzarin, V; Fusaro, A; Mutinelli, F; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L

    2011-08-29

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a neuropathological condition affecting > 40 species of fish. Although VER affects mainly marine fish, the disease has also been detected in certain species reared in freshwater environments. There are relatively few reports concerning the disease in freshwater species, and there is not much information on clinical signs. Nevertheless, the most common clinical findings reported from affected freshwater species are consistent with the typical signs observed in marine species. In this paper we describe the main clinical signs and the laboratory results associated with the detection of a betanodavirus in hybrid striped bass x white bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, reared in a freshwater environment. We also detected the virus by real-time PCR and isolated it in cell culture from a batch of pike-perch Sander lucioperca farmed in the same system. PMID:21991664

  14. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection.

  15. Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, or ...

  16. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  17. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

  18. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764

  19. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making.

  20. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system.

  1. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

  2. An outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in holidaymakers travelling to Andorra, January-February 2002.

    PubMed

    Pedalino, B; Feely, E; McKeown, P; Foley, B; Smyth, B; Moren, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritidis that occurred in Irish holidaymakers visiting Andorra, in January-February 2002. Preliminary results showed the risk exposure was higher for tourists who stayed in Soldeu and consumed ice cubes in their drinks (OR = 2.5, 95% CI [1.3-4.6)], after logistic regression and adjusting for sex and water consumption). PMID:12631977

  3. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Watts, D M; el-Tigani, A; Botros, B A; Salib, A W; Olson, J G; McCarthy, M; Ksiazek, T G

    1994-08-01

    An outbreak of acute febrile illness occurred during August and September 1989 in the Northern Province of Sudan coinciding with a high population density of phlebotomine sandflies. An investigation was conducted to determine whether arboviruses were associated with human illness during this outbreak. Sera were obtained from 185 febrile individuals and tested for IgG and IgM antibody to selected arboviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of IgG antibody was 59% for West Nile (WN), 53% for Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFS), 32% for Sandfly Fever Naples (SFN), 39% for Yellow Fever (YF), 24% for dengue-2 (DEN-2), 23% for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), 12% for Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5% for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were about the same for males and females for most of the viruses tested. The prevalence of IgM antibody to SFN was 24% and reciprocal IgM titre exceeded 12,800 for some individuals suggesting that this virus was the cause of recent infection. The prevalence of IgM antibody for the other viruses did not exceed 5%. The study indicated that several arboviruses were endemic and some of them may have caused human disease in the Northern Province of Sudan.

  4. Cause of Legionnaire's Disease outbreak at hospital traced.

    PubMed

    1995-03-01

    The cause of an outbreak of Legionnaire's Disease at St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT, has been traced to the hospital's hot water system after months of testing and decontamination efforts. A total of 28 patients were diagnosed with the disease between January and October 1994, with most of the cases occurring in June and July. Legionnaire's Disease is a kind of pneumonia caused by bacteria that thrive in warm water and can become airborne on tiny water droplets that, if inhaled, spread the disease.

  5. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area. PMID:27597951

  6. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area.

  7. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wasee Ullah, Riasat; Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-Ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area. PMID:27597951

  8. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  9. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible.

  10. Analysis of Enterovirus 68 Strains from the 2014 North American Outbreak Reveals a New Clade, Indicating Viral Evolution.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zheng, Baisong; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Peng; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Markham, Richard; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for the 2014 outbreak, 216 EVD68 strain sequences were retrieved from Genbank, including 22 from the 2014 outbreak. Several geographic and genotypic origins were established for these 22 strains, 19 of which were classified as Clade B. Of these 19 strains, 17 exhibited subsequent clustering and variation in protein residues involved in host-receptor interaction and/or viral antigenicity. Approximately 18 inter-clade variations were detected in VP1, which led to the identification of a new Clade D in EVD68 strains. The classification of this new clade was also verified by the re-construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree during the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, our results indicate that members of Clade B containing highly specific alterations in VP1 protein residues were the foremost contributors to the 2014 outbreak in the US. Altered host-receptor interaction and/or host immune recognition may explain the evolution of EVD68 as well as the global emergence and ongoing adaptation of this virus. PMID:26630383

  11. Analysis of Enterovirus 68 Strains from the 2014 North American Outbreak Reveals a New Clade, Indicating Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Zheng, Baisong; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Peng; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Markham, Richard; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for the 2014 outbreak, 216 EVD68 strain sequences were retrieved from Genbank, including 22 from the 2014 outbreak. Several geographic and genotypic origins were established for these 22 strains, 19 of which were classified as Clade B. Of these 19 strains, 17 exhibited subsequent clustering and variation in protein residues involved in host-receptor interaction and/or viral antigenicity. Approximately 18 inter-clade variations were detected in VP1, which led to the identification of a new Clade D in EVD68 strains. The classification of this new clade was also verified by the re-construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree during the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, our results indicate that members of Clade B containing highly specific alterations in VP1 protein residues were the foremost contributors to the 2014 outbreak in the US. Altered host-receptor interaction and/or host immune recognition may explain the evolution of EVD68 as well as the global emergence and ongoing adaptation of this virus. PMID:26630383

  12. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  13. Global trends in emerging viral diseases of wildlife origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Ip, Hon S.

    2015-01-01

    The following article provides examples of recently emerged viral diseases of wildlife origin. The examples have been selected to illustrate the drivers of emerging viral diseases, both novel pathogens and previously known diseases, the impacts of these diseases, as well as the role of wildlife both as “villains” or reservoirs as well as “victims” of these viral diseases. The article also discusses potential management strategies for emerging viral diseases in wildlife populations and future science directions in wildlife health to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from these disease events. Finally, the concept of One Health and its potential role in developing solutions to these issues of mutual concern is discussed.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

  15. Probability of a disease outbreak in stochastic multipatch epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, Glenn E; Allen, Linda J S

    2013-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity, spatial connectivity, and movement of individuals play important roles in the spread of infectious diseases. To account for environmental differences that impact disease transmission, the spatial region is divided into patches according to risk of infection. A system of ordinary differential equations modeling spatial spread of disease among multiple patches is used to formulate two new stochastic models, a continuous-time Markov chain, and a system of stochastic differential equations. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction is computed by approximating the Markov chain model with a multitype branching process. Numerical examples illustrate some differences between the stochastic models and the deterministic model, important for prevention of disease outbreaks that depend on the location of infectious individuals, the risk of infection, and the movement of individuals. PMID:23666483

  16. Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population. PMID:23251417

  17. Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the first disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.

  18. Structuring an event ontology for disease outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Ai; Chanlekha, Hutchatai; Shigematsu, Mika; Collier, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes the design of an event ontology being developed for application in the machine understanding of infectious disease-related events reported in natural language text. This event ontology is designed to support timely detection of disease outbreaks and rapid judgment of their alerting status by 1) bridging a gap between layman's language used in disease outbreak reports and public health experts' deep knowledge, and 2) making multi-lingual information available. Construction and content This event ontology integrates a model of experts' knowledge for disease surveillance, and at the same time sets of linguistic expressions which denote disease-related events, and formal definitions of events. In this ontology, rather general event classes, which are suitable for application to language-oriented tasks such as recognition of event expressions, are placed on the upper-level, and more specific events of the experts' interest are in the lower level. Each class is related to other classes which represent participants of events, and linked with multi-lingual synonym sets and axioms. Conclusions We consider that the design of the event ontology and the methodology introduced in this paper are applicable to other domains which require integration of natural language information and machine support for experts to assess them. The first version of the ontology, with about 40 concepts, will be available in March 2008. PMID:18426553

  19. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  20. Respiratory disease in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, 1990-2010: outbreaks, clinical course, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Lucy H; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Nyirakaragire, Elisabeth; Lowenstine, Linda J; Cranfield, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Between 1990 and 2010, 18 outbreaks of respiratory disease occurred in Rwanda's wild human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). An outbreak was defined as clinically observable respiratory illness involving at least one third of all the gorillas in a family group (> 30% morbidity) over the course of at least 7 days. Outbreaks lasted 2 wk to 4 mo and affected up to five different gorilla family groups, either concurrently or sequentially. An outbreak was considered over if no further clinical illness was observed in the same or another group for at least 1 mo. Clinical signs varied from nasal discharge, sneezing, and mild intermittent coughing (mild), to spasmodic coughing, lethargy, and partial anorexia (moderate), to dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, weakness, complete anorexia, and occasionally death (severe). Nearly every mountain gorilla group habituated for tourism or research in Rwanda experienced at least one outbreak, and they may be increasing in frequency. In the first 15 yr of the review period 1990-2005, there were nine outbreaks involving 16 gorilla groups; in the last 5 yr of the review period, 2006-2010, there were nine outbreaks involving 11 groups. Although most gorillas recovered without treatment, 41 veterinary procedures were required to medically manage 35 severely ill individuals. Given the rise of mountain gorilla ecotourism in Rwanda, the possibility that respiratory disease results from contact with infected humans is of great concern, and both the etiology and epidemiology of this problem are active areas of research. The observed clinical signs, response to antimicrobial therapy among the sickest individuals, and postmortem findings are most consistent with viral upper respiratory tract infections complicated in some cases by secondary bacterial infections. The current gorilla visitation rules have been designed to minimize the risk of disease transmission between humans and wild human-habituated great apes.

  1. Respiratory disease in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, 1990-2010: outbreaks, clinical course, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Lucy H; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Nyirakaragire, Elisabeth; Lowenstine, Linda J; Cranfield, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Between 1990 and 2010, 18 outbreaks of respiratory disease occurred in Rwanda's wild human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). An outbreak was defined as clinically observable respiratory illness involving at least one third of all the gorillas in a family group (> 30% morbidity) over the course of at least 7 days. Outbreaks lasted 2 wk to 4 mo and affected up to five different gorilla family groups, either concurrently or sequentially. An outbreak was considered over if no further clinical illness was observed in the same or another group for at least 1 mo. Clinical signs varied from nasal discharge, sneezing, and mild intermittent coughing (mild), to spasmodic coughing, lethargy, and partial anorexia (moderate), to dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, weakness, complete anorexia, and occasionally death (severe). Nearly every mountain gorilla group habituated for tourism or research in Rwanda experienced at least one outbreak, and they may be increasing in frequency. In the first 15 yr of the review period 1990-2005, there were nine outbreaks involving 16 gorilla groups; in the last 5 yr of the review period, 2006-2010, there were nine outbreaks involving 11 groups. Although most gorillas recovered without treatment, 41 veterinary procedures were required to medically manage 35 severely ill individuals. Given the rise of mountain gorilla ecotourism in Rwanda, the possibility that respiratory disease results from contact with infected humans is of great concern, and both the etiology and epidemiology of this problem are active areas of research. The observed clinical signs, response to antimicrobial therapy among the sickest individuals, and postmortem findings are most consistent with viral upper respiratory tract infections complicated in some cases by secondary bacterial infections. The current gorilla visitation rules have been designed to minimize the risk of disease transmission between humans and wild human-habituated great apes

  2. Multiple Circulating Infections Can Mimic the Early Stages of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Possible Human Exposure to Filoviruses in Sierra Leone Prior to the 2014 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Matthew L.; Schieffelin, John S.; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B.; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Grant, Donald S.; Garry, Robert F.; Saphire, Erica O.; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction–based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

  3. Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

  4. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    PubMed

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

  5. Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak at a Resort in Cozumel, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Lee M.; Garrison, Laurel; Kattan, Jessica; Brown, Ellen; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Lucas, Claressa; Fields, Barry; Fitzpatrick, Nicole; Sapian, Luis; Martin-Escobar, Teresa; Waterman, Stephen; Hicks, Lauri A.; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background. A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods. Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources. The temperature and total chlorine of the water at 38 sites in the resort were measured, and samples from those sites were tested for Legionella. Results. Nine travelers became ill with laboratory-confirmed LD within 2 weeks of staying at the resort between May 2008 and April 2010. The resort and its potable water system were the only common exposures. No possible LD cases were identified among resort workers. Legionellae were found to have extensively colonized the resort's potable water system. Legionellae matching a case isolate were found in the resort's potable water system. Conclusions. Medical providers should test for LD when treating community-acquired pneumonia that is severe or affecting patients who traveled in the 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. When an LD outbreak is detected, the source should be identified and then aggressively remediated. Because LD can occur in tropical and temperate areas, all countries should consider making LD a reportable disease if they have not already done so. PMID:27704023

  6. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  7. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    PubMed

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  8. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jaykus, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Human enteric viruses and protozoal parasites are important causes of emerging food and waterborne disease. Epidemiologic investigation and detection of the agents in clinical, food, and water specimens, which are traditionally used to establish the cause of disease outbreaks, are either cumbersome, expensive, and frequently unavailable or unattempted for the important food and waterborne enteric viruses and protozoa. However, the recent introduction of regulatory testing mandates, alternative testing strategies, and increased epidemiologic surveillance for food and waterborne disease should significantly improve the ability to detect and control these agents. We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents. PMID:9366607

  9. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, J F; Bayles, D O; Neill, J D; Falkenberg, S M; Bauermann, F V; Holler, L; Braun, L J; Young, D B; Kane, S E; Chase, C C L

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) results in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections result from in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. Clinical presentation, in persistently infected cattle (PI), is highly variable. The reasons for this variation is largely unknown. The BVDV circulating in PI exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses). An outbreak resulting in 34 PI cattle presented an opportunity to compare a large number of PI׳s. Methods were developed to compare the circulating viral populations within PI animals. It was found that PI animals generated in the same outbreak carry circulating viral populations that differ widely in size and diversity. Further, it was demonstrated that variation in PI viral populations could be used as a quantifiable phenotype. This observation makes it possible to test the correlation of this phenotype to other phenotypes such as growth rate, congenital defects, viral shed and cytokine expression.

  10. Detection of disease outbreaks by the use of oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Urquidy, M H; Wallstrom, G; Schleyer, T K L

    2009-01-01

    Oral manifestations of diseases caused by bioterrorist agents could be a potential data source for biosurveillance. This study had the objectives of determining the oral manifestations of diseases caused by bioterrorist agents, measuring the prevalence of these manifestations in emergency department reports, and constructing and evaluating a detection algorithm based on them. We developed a software application to detect oral manifestations in free text and identified positive reports over three years of data. The normal frequency in reports for oral manifestations related to anthrax (including buccal ulcers-sore throat) was 7.46%. The frequency for tularemia was 6.91%. For botulism and smallpox, the frequencies were 0.55% and 0.23%. We simulated outbreaks for these bioterrorism diseases and evaluated the performance of our system. The detection algorithm performed better for smallpox and botulism than for anthrax and tularemia. We found that oral manifestations can be a valuable tool for biosurveillance. PMID:19131324

  11. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Snow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include:Improved taxonomic classification of viruses. A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses. An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture. An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range. An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks. Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools. An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function. While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate

  12. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-03-26

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling.

  13. [World epidemiological situation: viral disease incidence (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of viral disease, although estimated with difficulty, seems very large in human pathology. Viruses appear to be involved in most of respiratory disease. Moreover, in tropical countries, measles and viral diarrhoeas (mainly rotaviruses) are fatal for many children. But smallpox eradication must be considered as the most important fact which occurred in the field during the last five years, and the consequences of this new situation are discussed. Finally, beyond the recent question of african viral haemorrhagic fevers, one must take in account the increasing prevalence of several arboviruses, specially dengue in southeast Asia, which is one of the first causes of paediatric mortality in urban environment.

  14. Deadly Outbreak of Iron Storage Disease (ISD) in Italian Birds of the Family Turdidae

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Silvia; SALAMIDA, Sonia; PECORELLI, Ivan; ROSSI, Elisabetta; MANUALI, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

  15. Deadly outbreak of iron storage disease (ISD) in Italian birds of the family Turdidae.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Silvia; Salamida, Sonia; Pecorelli, Ivan; Rossi, Elisabetta; Manuali, Elisabetta

    2014-09-01

    A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds.

  16. Overcoming barriers in evaluating outbreaks of diarrheal disease in resource poor settings: assessment of recurrent outbreaks in Chobe District, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in children <5 years of age. Lack of resources often prohibits the evaluation of outbreak characteristics and limits progress in managing this important disease syndrome, particularly in Africa. Relying only on existing medical staff and hospital resources, we assess the use of a questionnaire survey tool to identify baseline outbreak characteristics during recurrent diarrheal outbreaks in Chobe, Botswana. Methods Using historical surveillance data (2006–2009), the temporal pattern of recurrent diarrheal outbreaks was evaluated among patients <5 years of age presenting to health facilities in Chobe District. Using a questionnaire survey tool, medical staff from selected health facilities assessed patients (all ages) presenting with diarrheal disease during two diarrheal outbreaks (2011–2012). Cluster analysis and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to evaluate patient attributes by outbreak. Results We identified a bimodal, annual pattern of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age across years (Wilcox test, W = 456.5, p = 0.052). Historical outbreak periods appeared to coincide with major hydrological phenomena (rainfall/flood recession). Across health facilities, a significant percent of patients in the prospective study were in the ≥5 age class (44%, n = 515 and 35%, n = 333 in the dry and wet season outbreaks, respectively). Cluster analysis of questionnaire data identified two main branches associated with patient age (<5 and ≥5 years of age). Patients did not cluster by outbreak or village. CART examination identified sex and hospitalization as being most predictive of patients <5 years and household diarrhea in patients ≥5 years. Water shortages and water quality deficiencies were identified in both outbreaks. Conclusions Diarrhea is a persistent, seasonally occurring disease in Chobe

  17. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water — United States 2011-2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in water management and sanitation have reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and ...

  18. An Epidemiological Network Model for Disease Outbreak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ben Y; Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Background Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. Methods and Findings To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health–surveillance system

  19. A past Haff disease outbreak associated with eating freshwater pomfret in South China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Haff disease is unexplained rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of fishery products in the previous 24 h. It was first identified in Europe in 1924 but the condition is extremely rare in China. Here we describe a past outbreak of acute food borne muscle poisoning that occurred in Guangdong Province (South China) in 2009. Methods The first full outbreak of Haff disease reported in Jiangsu Province (East China) in 2010, indicated that the incidence of the disease may be increasing in China. We, therefore first retrospectively reviewed epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies, and laboratory analyses, including oral toxicity testing to ascertain risk and chemical analysis to identify toxin(s), from the 2009 Guangdong outbreak. Then we compared data from the 2009 outbreak with data from all other Haff disease outbreaks that were available. Results Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings indicated that the 2009 Guangdong outbreak disease was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies and laboratory analyses implied that the disease was caused by freshwater Pomfrets consumed prior to the onset of symptoms. We also identified common factors between the 2009 Guangdong outbreak and previous Haff disease outbreaks reported around the world, while as with other similar outbreaks, the exact etiological factor(s) of the disease remains unknown. Conclusions The 2009 Guangdong outbreak of ‘muscle poisoning’ was retrospectively identified as an outbreak of Haff disease. This comprised the highest number of cases reported in China thus far. Food borne diseases emerging in this unusual form and the irregular pattern of outbreaks present an ongoing public health risk, highlighting the need for improved surveillance and diagnostic methodology. PMID:23642345

  20. Epidemic simulation of a foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Gale, S B; Miller, G Y; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a primary transboundary livestock disease of international concern. Outbreaks of the disease have recently occurred in several countries that were previously FMD-free. For countries with limited direct experience of this disease, modelling is a useful tool for the study of a potential outbreak. The objectives of this study were to determine specific FMD risk parameters for Minnesota and the United States (USA) and to use these parameters to create a baseline FMD outbreak model for Minnesota. Of specific interest was to assess whether the type of herd in which the outbreak began (a dairy herd or a large-scale swine herd) influenced the basic model outcomes of outbreak size and duration, and to examine the effects of depopulation and movement controls. The mean values for disease duration, outbreak duration and number of farms and animals infected were larger in the scenario with a dairy index herd. The results of these two outbreak models demonstrated the entire spectrum of FMD outbreak types; that is, from limited, focal outbreaks to widespread, uncontrolled outbreaks. The findings from this study provide details of a baseline model that emergency preparedness planners can use to evaluate response strategies for a potential incursion of FMD into the USA. These findings are also of value for all countries as veterinary authorities develop or adjust their FMD emergency response plans.

  1. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  2. Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with person to person spread in hotels and restaurants.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R J; Wall, P G; Adak, G K; Evans, H S; Cowden, J M; Caul, E O

    1995-09-15

    Twenty-eight outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, reported as being transmitted mainly by the person to person route, were identified in association with retail catering premises, such as hotels, restaurants, and public houses, in England and Wales between 1992 and 1994. Five thousand and forty-eight people were at risk in these outbreaks and 1234 were affected. Most of the outbreaks (over 90%) occurred in hotels. Small round structured viruses were the most commonly detected pathogens. Diarrhoea and vomiting were common symptoms and most of the outbreaks occurred in the summer months. Control measures to contain infectious individuals and improved hygiene measures are necessary to contain such outbreaks.

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    PubMed

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen. PMID:26153409

  4. Systemic Analysis of Foodborne Disease Outbreak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kyung; Kwak, No-Seong; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-02-01

    This study systemically analyzed data on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and foodborne disease outbreaks to identify the priorities of foodborne infection risk management in Korea. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to three variables: origin of food source, phase of food supply chain, and 12 pathogens using 358 cases from 76 original papers and official reports published in 1998-2012. In addition, correspondence analysis of two variables--place and pathogen--was conducted based on epidemiological data of 2357 foodborne outbreaks in 2002-2011 provided by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The results of this study revealed three distinct areas of food monitoring: (1) livestock-derived raw food contaminated with Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes; (2) multi-ingredient and ready-to-eat food related to Staphylococcus aureus; and (3) water associated with norovirus. Our findings emphasize the need to track the sources and contamination pathways of foodborne pathogens for more effective risk management. PMID:26863429

  5. Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Anil Kumar, V. S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

    2004-05-01

    Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.

  6. Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis outbreak in U.S. Army trainees.

    PubMed Central

    Arness, M. K.; Feighner, B. H.; Canham, M. L.; Taylor, D. N.; Monroe, S. S.; Cieslak, T. J.; Hoedebecke, E. L.; Polyak, C. S.; Cuthie, J. C.; Fankhauser, R. L.; Humphrey, C. D.; Barker, T. L.; Jenkins, C. D.; Skillman, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis hospitalized 99 (12%) of 835 U. S. Army trainees at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, from August 27 to September 1, 1998. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests for Norwalk-like virus were positive for genogroup 2. Gastroenteritis was associated with one post dining facility and with soft drinks. PMID:10756159

  7. Assessment of viral interference using a chemical receptor blocker against avian influenza and establishment of protection levels in field outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Siurob, I; Retana, M A; Tellez, G; Arroyo-Navarro, L; Bañuelos-Hernandez, B; Castellanos-Huerta, I

    2014-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) currently poses a serious problem for poultry farming worldwide. Its prevalence in Mexico, despite vaccination, has highlighted the need for new approaches to control AI and reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. The different interactions between AI viruses (AIV) and cellular receptors have been described, along with the affinity of some viruses for certain types of species-specific receptors. This receptor-ligand specificity, combined with an understanding of viral interference processes and their relevance in different viral models, permits the assessment of new strategies for controlling AIV. The present study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using viral interference as a novel approach for AIV control, taking advantage of the high receptor-ligand specificity between AIV and animal cells. The results from field outbreak tests and cell culture analysis along with measurements of specific antibodies against AIV demonstrate that the mortality associated with AI infection can be reduced by using a receptor blocker against AIV. This receptor blocker approach also has the potential to be used on an industrial scale for the efficient control of AIV.

  8. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  9. Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, P<.01) between methods and across data sources was found where a statistically significant symptom was detected. Anecdotal evidence suggests that symptoms detected are indeed indicative of a disease that some users attributed to being at the festival. Conclusions Our work

  10. Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multistrain diseases.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Leah B; Billings, Lora; Schwartz, Ira B

    2007-07-01

    Multistrain diseases have multiple distinct coexisting serotypes (strains). For some diseases, such as dengue fever, the serotypes interact by antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), in which infection with a single serotype is asymptomatic, but contact with a second serotype leads to higher viral load and greater infectivity. We present and analyze a dynamic compartmental model for multiple serotypes exhibiting ADE. Using center manifold techniques, we show how the dynamics rapidly collapses to a lower dimensional system. Using the constructed reduced model, we can explain previously observed synchrony between certain classes of primary and secondary infectives (Schwartz et al. in Phys Rev E 72:066201, 2005). Additionally, we show numerically that the center manifold equations apply even to noisy systems. Both deterministic and stochastic versions of the model enable prediction of asymptomatic individuals that are difficult to track during an epidemic. We also show how this technique may be applicable to other multistrain disease models, such as those with cross-immunity.

  11. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  12. [An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease associated with a Japanese spa].

    PubMed

    Nakadate, T; Yamauchi, K; Inoue, H

    1999-08-01

    From June 24 to July 5, 1996, 3 patients were admitted to the same hospital with atypical pneumonia. One of the patients, a 52-year-old man, demonstrated progressive pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia, and finally required mechanical ventilation. All 3 patients had elevated antibody titers for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and had visited the same spa prior to the onset of their symptoms. On September 25, 1996 the district health department inspected the spa, and isolated Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from the facility's hot water tanks and outlets. Although it has been reported that many spas in Japan are contaminated with Legionellaceae, the outbreak we encountered suggests that Japanese spas, like whirlpool spas in Europe and North America, can be a source of Legionnaire's disease.

  13. Viral Metagenomics on Blood-Feeding Arthropods as a Tool for Human Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Annika; Nitsche, Andreas; Kohl, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time. Recent publications have presented the concept of a new virus surveillance system, coining the terms “flying biological syringes”, “xenosurveillance” and “vector-enabled metagenomics”. According to these novel and promising surveillance approaches, viral metagenomics on engorged mosquitoes might reflect the viral diversity of numerous mammals, birds and humans, combined in the mosquitoes’ blood meal during feeding on the host. In this review article, we summarize the literature on vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) techniques and its application in disease surveillance in humans. Furthermore, we highlight the combination of VEM and “invertebrate-derived DNA” (iDNA) analysis to identify the host DNA within the mosquito midgut. PMID:27775568

  14. Dengue virus therapeutic intervention strategies based on viral, vector and host factors involved in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Lara J; Zakhary, Andrew; Gahan, Michelle E; Nelson, Michelle A; Herring, Belinda L; Hapel, Andrew J; Keller, Paul A; Obeysekera, Maheshi; Chen, Weiqiang; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Taylor, Adam; Wolf, Stefan; Bettadapura, Jayaram; Broor, Shobha; Dar, Lalit; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2013-02-01

    Dengue virus (DV) is the most widespread arbovirus, being endemic in over 100 countries, and is estimated to cause 50 million infections annually. Viral factors, such as the genetic composition of the virus strain can play a role in determining the virus virulence and subsequent clinical disease severity. Virus vector competence plays an integral role in virus transmission and is a critical factor in determining the severity and impact of DV outbreaks. Host genetic variations in immune-related genes, including the human leukocyte antigen, have also been shown to correlate with clinical disease and thus may play a role in regulating disease severity. The host's immune system, however, appears to be the primary factor in DV pathogenesis with the delicate interplay of innate and acquired immunity playing a crucial role. Although current research of DV pathogenesis has been limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model, the development of DV therapeutics has been a primary focus of research groups around the world. In the past decade advances in both the development of vaccines and anti-virals have increased in dramatically. This review summarises the current understanding of viral, vector and host factors which contribute to dengue virus pathogenesis and how this knowledge is critically important in the development of pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:23103333

  15. Climate teleconnections and recent patterns of human and animal disease outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the p...

  16. Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host-pathogen system.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Reilly, James R

    2014-07-01

    While rising global temperatures are increasingly affecting both species and their biotic interactions, the debate about whether global warming will increase or decrease disease transmission between individuals remains far from resolved. This may stem from the lack of empirical data. Using a tractable and easily manipulated insect host-pathogen system, we conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to examine how increased temperatures affect disease transmission using the crop-defoliating pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and its species-specific baculovirus, which causes a fatal infection. To examine the effects of temperature on disease transmission in the field, we manipulated baculovirus density and temperature. As infection occurs when a host consumes leaf tissue on which the pathogen resides, baculovirus density was controlled by placing varying numbers of infected neonate larvae on experimental plants. Temperature was manipulated by using open-top chambers (OTCs). The laboratory experiments examined how increased temperatures affect fall armyworm feeding and development rates, which provide insight into how host feeding behaviour and physiology may affect transmission. Disease transmission and outbreak intensity, measured as the cumulative fraction infected during an epizootic, increased at higher temperatures. However, there was no appreciable change in the mean transmission rate of the disease, which is often the focus of empirical and theoretical research. Instead, the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the transmission rate shrunk. As the CV decreased, heterogeneity in disease risk across individuals declined, which resulted in an increase in outbreak intensity. In the laboratory, increased temperatures increased feeding rates and decreased developmental times. As the host consumes the virus along with the leaf tissue on which it resides, increased feeding rate is likely to increase the probability of an individual

  17. Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host-pathogen system.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Reilly, James R

    2014-07-01

    While rising global temperatures are increasingly affecting both species and their biotic interactions, the debate about whether global warming will increase or decrease disease transmission between individuals remains far from resolved. This may stem from the lack of empirical data. Using a tractable and easily manipulated insect host-pathogen system, we conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to examine how increased temperatures affect disease transmission using the crop-defoliating pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and its species-specific baculovirus, which causes a fatal infection. To examine the effects of temperature on disease transmission in the field, we manipulated baculovirus density and temperature. As infection occurs when a host consumes leaf tissue on which the pathogen resides, baculovirus density was controlled by placing varying numbers of infected neonate larvae on experimental plants. Temperature was manipulated by using open-top chambers (OTCs). The laboratory experiments examined how increased temperatures affect fall armyworm feeding and development rates, which provide insight into how host feeding behaviour and physiology may affect transmission. Disease transmission and outbreak intensity, measured as the cumulative fraction infected during an epizootic, increased at higher temperatures. However, there was no appreciable change in the mean transmission rate of the disease, which is often the focus of empirical and theoretical research. Instead, the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the transmission rate shrunk. As the CV decreased, heterogeneity in disease risk across individuals declined, which resulted in an increase in outbreak intensity. In the laboratory, increased temperatures increased feeding rates and decreased developmental times. As the host consumes the virus along with the leaf tissue on which it resides, increased feeding rate is likely to increase the probability of an individual

  18. 2013 dengue outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia caused by different viral strains.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-Kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed.

  19. 2013 Dengue Outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia Caused by Different Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  20. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  1. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area. PMID:27295893

  2. Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  3. Estimating costs associated with a community outbreak of meningococcal disease in a colombian Caribbean city.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Angel; Constenla, Dagna; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak.

  4. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research.

  5. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  6. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  7. An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

  8. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

  9. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases.

  10. Current and future applications of dried blood spots in viral disease management.

    PubMed

    Snijdewind, Ingrid J M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; Fraaij, Pieter L A; van der Ende, Marchina E; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Gruters, Rob A

    2012-03-01

    Almost five decades after their first application in diagnostics, dried blood spot (DBS) cards remain to be of key interest in many research areas and clinical applications. The advantages of sample stability during transport and storage, can now be combined with the high sensitivity of novel diagnostic techniques for the measurement and analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules which may overcome the limitations of the small samples sizes in DBS cards. Here we present a survey of the literature on the use of DBS cards for diagnosis, monitoring and epidemiological studies of virus infections other than HIV, including CMV, HBV, HCV, HAV, HEV, HTLV, EBV, HSV, measles-, rubella- and dengue-virus. The minimal invasiveness of sampling and the relative ease of handling and storing DBS cards is expected to offer additional opportunities to measure and analyze biomarkers of viral disease in resource poor settings or when limited amount of blood can be obtained. Large retrospective studies of virus infections in newborns using stored DBS cards have already been undertaken for screening of congenital infections. In addition, DBS cards have been used prospectively for prevalence studies, outbreak surveillance, mass screening for viral infections, follow-up of chronic infection and its treatment in resource-limited areas. We do not expect that current wet sampling techniques of plasma or serum will be replaced by DBS sampling but it allows extension of sampling in persons and settings that are currently difficult to access or that lack suitable storage facilities. In conclusion, DBS card sampling and storage will aid adequate outbreak management of existing and emerging viral diseases. PMID:22244848

  11. Analysis of bacterial foodborne disease outbreaks in China between 1994 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijie; Duan, Huili; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jun-Wen

    2007-10-01

    To gain an understanding of the outbreaks of bacterial foodborne diseases and the subsequent health impact, we reviewed 2447 papers from journals published in China that reported 1082 bacterial foodborne disease cases occurring between 1994 and 2005. Among the 1082 outbreaks of bacterial foodborne disease for which the etiology was determined, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused the most outbreaks, followed by Salmonella, and Clostridium botulinum led to the most deaths. Most of the outbreaks occurred between May and October, except for Clostridium botulinum, which mainly occurred in January and February. In littoral provinces, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused the most events, whereas in inland provinces, the largest percentage of events was caused by Salmonella. This review provides a background and analysis of Chinese foodborne disease caused by bacteria. We hope that this review can be compared to reviews from other regions of the world, in an attempt to prevent future outbreaks from occurring.

  12. Planning for smallpox outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

    2003-10-01

    Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

  13. Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

  14. History and prospects for viral disease eradication.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2002-10-01

    Edward Jenner first articulated the concept of eradication when he first inoculated the vaccinia. Before considering a disease for eradication some factors should be considered, such as the biological characteristics of the infectious agent: does the infectious agent infects only humans? Does it have a non-human reservoir and induce long-life immunity after infection? Is there a tool or intervention that effectively interrupts the chain of transmission from one individual to another? The first disease to be eradicated was smallpox. This extraordinary initiative set the example for any future disease eradication program. The eradication of polio from the Americas was launched in May 1985 and the Region of the Americas was certified polio-free in September 1994. At this same year, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched an initiative to eradicate measles from the Americas. Only 1,500 cases have been reported during the year 2000, and transmission was interrupted in most countries of the Region. Tremendous progress has been achieved in disease eradication efforts, which resulted in the global eradication of smallpox, the eradication of poliomyelitis from the Americas and its nearly global eradication, and the nearly complete eradication of measles from the Americas. The biotechnology revolution is providing us with many new vaccines and we have to continue the search for those diseases that could eventually be eradicated. Eradication of a disease brings the greatest health benefit, which is the absence of the health threat. It is also the quintessential example of health equity, as all mankind reaps the benefits, bringing eternal cost savings. As Louis Pasteur pointed out, "it is within the power of man to eradicate infection from the earth". PMID:12410345

  15. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  16. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  17. Viral epidemiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, G; Lerikou, M; Tsiodras, S; Chranioti, Aik; Perros, E; Anagnostopoulou, U; Armaganidis, A; Karakitsos, P

    2012-02-01

    The role of viruses in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) needs further elucidation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of viral pathogens in AECOPD. Patients presenting to the Emergency Room with AECOPD needing hospitalization were recruited. Oropharyngeal and sputum samples were collected in order to perform microarrays-based viral testing for the detection of respiratory viruses. A total of 200 (100%) patients were analyzed and from them in 107 (53.5%) a virus was detected. The commonest identified viruses were the human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (subtypes A and B) (40.5%), influenza virus (subtypes A, B, C) (11%), rhinovirus (8%) and human Parainfluenza Virus (subtypes A and B) (7.5%). A bacterial pathogen was isolated in 27 (14%) patients and a dual infection due to a bacterial and a viral pathogen was recognised in 14/107 patients. Patients with AECOPD and a viral infection had a lengthier hospital stay (9.2 ± 4.6 vs 7.6 ± 4.3, p < 0.01) while the severity of the disease was no related with significant differences among the groups of the study population. In conclusion, the isolation of a virus was strongly associated with AECOPD in the examined population. The stage of COPD appeared to have no relation with the frequency of the isolated viruses while dual infection with a viral and a bacterial pathogen was not rare.

  18. [The foot and mouth disease outbreak 6 years later: consequences for veterinarians].

    PubMed

    Noordman, J W J; Endenburg, N

    2008-12-15

    The consequences of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001 in The Netherlands can still be noticed in the daily work of the veterinarians involved. In particular, the number off arm animals has decreased, regulations have changed, and cattle farmers have become more confrontational. While the psychosocial consequences to veterinarians of the outbreak have decreased compared with immediately after the outbreak, this decrease is not statistically significant. Moreover, 40% of the veterinarians involved still show signs of a traumatic stress reaction. Should another outbreak occur, it is important that local veterinarians are contacted, in order to improve communication with cattle farmers. PMID:19170335

  19. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  20. Recreational Water–Associated Disease Outbreaks - United States 2009–2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational water–associated disease outbreaks result from exposure to infectious pathogens or chemical agents in treated recreational–water (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated recreational¬–water (e.g., lakes and oceans) venues. Outbreaks occurring during 2009–2010 ...

  1. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  2. A high-morbidity outbreak of Johne’s disease in game-ranched elk

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Taya; Pruvot, Mathieu; De Buck, Jeroen; Orsel, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Following an outbreak of Johne’s disease on an elk farm in northern Alberta, Canada, fecal culture, fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were performed on individual animals. The magnitude of the outbreak is described and the challenges associated with poor test agreement, as well as herd management options, are discussed. PMID:25969580

  3. A Method for Detecting and Characterizing Outbreaks of Infectious Disease from Clinical Reports

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gregory F.; Villamarin, Ricardo; Tsui, Fu-Chiang (Rich); Millett, Nicholas; Espino, Jeremy U.; Wagner, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis of individuals who seek healthcare is used to guide the search for epidemiological models of population disease that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. We applied this framework to develop a system that detects influenza outbreaks from emergency department (ED) reports. The system diagnoses influenza in individuals probabilistically from evidence in ED reports that are extracted using natural language processing. These diagnoses guide the search for epidemiological models of influenza that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. Those epidemiological models with a high posterior probability determine the most likely outbreaks of specific diseases; the models are also used to characterize properties of an outbreak, such as its expected peak day and estimated size. We evaluated the method using both simulated data and data from a real influenza outbreak. The results provide support that the approach can detect and characterize outbreaks early and well enough to be valuable. We describe several extensions to the approach that appear promising. PMID:25181466

  4. A method for detecting and characterizing outbreaks of infectious disease from clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory F; Villamarin, Ricardo; Rich Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Millett, Nicholas; Espino, Jeremy U; Wagner, Michael M

    2015-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis of individuals who seek healthcare is used to guide the search for epidemiological models of population disease that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. We applied this framework to develop a system that detects influenza outbreaks from emergency department (ED) reports. The system diagnoses influenza in individuals probabilistically from evidence in ED reports that are extracted using natural language processing. These diagnoses guide the search for epidemiological models of influenza that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. Those epidemiological models with a high posterior probability determine the most likely outbreaks of specific diseases; the models are also used to characterize properties of an outbreak, such as its expected peak day and estimated size. We evaluated the method using both simulated data and data from a real influenza outbreak. The results provide support that the approach can detect and characterize outbreaks early and well enough to be valuable. We describe several extensions to the approach that appear promising. PMID:25181466

  5. Response to Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoya; Fukushima, Kazuko; Abe, Keishi; Ujiie, Mugen; Umeki, Kazunori; Ootsuka, Kenkou; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Nabae, Koji; Nakatani, Yukiko; Nakajima, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is categorized in the Category 1 Infectious Disease under the Act on Infectious Disease Control. Since the Act came into effect in 1999, no confirmed case of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) has been reported, though some clinical samples have been tested for VHF in the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has monitored the situation of the EVD outbreak in West Africa since the first report from Guinea in March 2014 and reinforced quarantine and public health preparedness in August. The whole-of-government response was activated at the end of October, establishing the Ministerial meeting on the Response to the EVD presided by the Prime Minister. The responses have raised the level of preparedness for such a rare import disease like VHF; however elicited many lessons. Even if the current VHF outbreak is over, the risk of the global infectious diseases outbreak will be unchanged. The maintenance and improvement of preparedness and response for infectious diseases emergency such as the Category 1 Infectious Disease outbreak by the improvement of manuals and continuous exercises are crucial for a future domestic response. In addition, human resource development is essential for contributing to global response efforts. PMID:26923964

  6. Predicting outbreaks of a climate-driven coral disease in the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, J. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.; Harvell, C. D.; Burgman, M. A.; Beeden, R.; Sweatman, H.; Heron, S. F.; Lamb, J. B.; Willis, B. L.

    2011-06-01

    Links between anomalously high sea temperatures and outbreaks of coral diseases known as White Syndromes (WS) represent a threat to Indo-Pacific reefs that is expected to escalate in a changing climate. Further advances in understanding disease aetiologies, determining the relative importance of potential risk factors for outbreaks and in trialing management actions are hampered by not knowing where or when outbreaks will occur. Here, we develop a tool to target research and monitoring of WS outbreaks in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The tool is based on an empirical regression model and takes the form of user-friendly interactive ~1.5-km resolution maps. The maps denote locations where long-term monitoring suggests that coral cover exceeds 26% and summer temperature stress (measured by a temperature metric termed the mean positive summer anomaly) is equal to or exceeds that experienced at sites in 2002 where the only severe WS outbreaks documented on the GBR to date were observed. No WS outbreaks were subsequently documented at 45 routinely surveyed sites from 2003 to 2008, and model hindcasts for this period indicate that outbreak likelihood was never high. In 2009, the model indicated that outbreak likelihood was high at north-central GBR sites. The results of the regression model and targeted surveys in 2009 revealed that the threshold host density for an outbreak decreases as thermal stress increases, suggesting that bleaching could be a more important precursor to WS outbreaks than previously anticipated, given that bleaching was severe at outbreak sites in 2002 but not at any of the surveyed sites in 2009. The iterative approach used here has led to an improved understanding of disease causation, will facilitate management responses and can be applied to other coral diseases and/or other regions.

  7. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle.

  8. Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task. The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated. PMID:6603917

  9. Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task.The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated.

  10. Bluetongue in small ruminants: An opinionated review, with a brief appraisal of the 2014 outbreak of the disease in Greece and the south-east Europe.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Billinis, C; Papadopoulos, E; Vasileiou, N G C; Athanasiou, L V; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, especially of sheep, caused by Bluetongue virus, which belongs to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae and is classified into 26 antigenically distinct serotypes. Once thought to be restricted in Africa and parts of the Middle East, bluetongue has now become a concern in sheep-rearing countries around the world. In the past 10 years, severe outbreaks have occurred in Europe with important economic consequences; of these, the 2006-20008 outbreak in Europe was caused by a serotype 8 strain and the 2014 outbreak in Greece and the other countries of south-east Europe was caused by a serotype 4 strain, suggested to be a reassortant strain with genome segments from lineages of serotype 1, 2 and 4. Immunisation campaigns can be implemented for successful control and limiting of the disease. Nevertheless, in both of the above outbreaks, late application of vaccinations led to a wide spread of the disease, which subsequently resulted in significant losses in livestock in the affected regions. In view of that, standardisation of control measures in the future will be beneficial for efficiently limiting outbreaks of the disease.

  11. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  12. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  13. Estimating the Burden of Disease Associated with Outbreaks Reported to the U.S. Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System: Identifying Limitations and Improvements (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report demonstrates how data from the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) can be used to estimate disease burden and presents results using 30 years of data. This systematic analysis does not attempt to provide an estimate of the actual incidence and b...

  14. Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Donald G; Doyle Stulting, R

    2014-11-01

    Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages.

  15. Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2013-02-01

    Aquaculture production is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, production has been associated with the emergence of several novel diseases, including viral diseases, that have caused serious problems for producers. Using examples largely from salmon farming in Scotland I review briefly the factors that allow transmission to occur in aquaculture. These include transmission through the water, which is relatively local to the infected farm, and anthropogenic transports (such as transport of fish between sites) that may occur over very long distances. A Disease Management Area (DMA) approach, as developed in Scotland to fight infectious salmon anaemia, can be effective at reducing pathogen transmission and hence disease emergence.

  16. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  17. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry.

    PubMed

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  18. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Beer, Karlyn D; Gargano, Julia W; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent R; Garrison, Laurel E; Kutty, Preeta K; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2015-08-14

    Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). For 2011-2012, 32 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 431 cases of illness, 102 hospitalizations, and 14 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 66% of outbreaks and 26% of illnesses, and viruses and non-Legionella bacteria together accounted for 16% of outbreaks and 53% of illnesses. The two most commonly identified deficiencies† leading to drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in building plumbing§ systems (66%) and untreated groundwater (13%). Continued vigilance by public health, regulatory, and industry professionals to identify and correct deficiencies associated with building plumbing systems and groundwater systems could prevent most reported outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water systems.

  19. Surveillance of border disease in wild ungulates and an outbreak in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Andorra.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Riba, Landry; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-10-01

    The Principality of Andorra is surrounded by areas in which Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations were severely affected by infection with border disease virus (BDV) which caused disease outbreaks between 2001 and 2009. Nevertheless, the Andorran chamois populations were not affected during this period. In light of the severe impact of BDV on several of the neighboring Pyrenean chamois populations, we monitored local Andorran populations in an effort to detect pestivirus antibodies and BDV in wild ungulates. In addition, an episode of mortality between 2009 and 2010 in chamois was investigated. We analyzed samples (spleen or serum) from 175 Pyrenean chamois, 284 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), 13 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus), and five wild boars (Sus scrofa castilianus). With the exception of three dead chamois found between 2009 and 2010, all samples came from healthy animals hunted during the hunting season. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test sera for antibodies against pestivirus. Positive sera were tested with a comparative virus neutralization test (VNT) using three BDV strains and a bovine viral diarrhea virus strain. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on all sera and spleen homogenates. Antibodies against pestivirus were detected by ELISA in four of the 69 chamois (5%; 95% CI= 1.29-13.11). The VNT confirmed three of these chamois were infected with a BDV. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in three chamois-one apparently healthy animal hunted in 2009 and two dead animals. Viral sequences showed that the three chamois were infected with a BDV-4, the same genotype that was involved in previous episodes of mortality in the Pyrenees. Although Pyrenean chamois from Andorra had had little contact with the pestiviruses until 2009, in this year BDV was associated with a severe disease outbreak.

  20. Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31–August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction–positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

  1. The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krystynak, Ronald H.E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large outbreak, were simulated over a five year period (1986-90). The results indicate that even a small outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease would have serious economic consequences for the livestock sector with farm cash receipts declining by $2 billion. The largest impact would be on the pork sector followed by the beef sector. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422845

  2. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Peninsular Malaysia from 2001 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ramanoon, Siti Zubaidah; Robertson, Ian Duncan; Edwards, John; Hassan, Latiffah; Isa, Kamaruddin Md

    2013-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Peninsular Malaysia between 2001 and May 2007. In total, 270 outbreaks of FMD were recorded. Serotype O virus (89.95 %) and serotype A (7.7 %) had caused the outbreaks. Significant differences on the occurrence of FMD were found between the years (t = 5.73, P = 0.000, df = 11), months (t = 4.7, P = 0.000, df = 11), monsoon season (t = 2.63, P = 0.025, df = 10) and states (t = 4.84, P = 0.001, df = 10). A peak of outbreaks observed in 2003 could be due to increased animal movement and the other peak in 2006 could be due to a compromised FMD control activities due to activities on the eradication of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Cattle (86 % of outbreaks) suffered the most. However, no difference in disease occurrence between species was observed. The populations of cattle (r = 0.672, P = 0.023) and sheep (r = 0.678, P = 0.022) were significantly correlated with occurrence of FMD. Movement of animals (66 % of outbreaks) was the main source for outbreaks. A combination of control measures were implemented during outbreaks. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that FMD is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, and information gained could be used to improve the existing control strategy. PMID:22826115

  3. War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Samer

    2013-01-01

    Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for 'war disease' outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases. PMID:23587258

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  5. Respiratory-borne Disease Outbreaks in Populations: Contact Networks and the Spread of Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren A.; Newman, Mark E. J.; Skowronski, Danuta M.

    2005-03-01

    A large class of infectious diseases spread through direct person-to-person contact. Traditional ``compartmental'' modeling in epidemiology assumes that in population groups every individual has an equal chance of spreading the disease to every other. The patterns of these contacts, however, tend to be highly heterogeneous. Explicit models of the patterns of contact among individuals in a community, contact network models, underlie a powerful approach to predicting and controlling the spread of such infectious disease and provide detailed and valuable insight into the fate and control of an outbreak. We use contact network epidemiology to predict the impact of various control policies for both a mildly contagious disease such as SARS and a more highly contagious disease such as smallpox. We demonstrate how integrating these tools into public health decision-making should facilitate more rational strategies for managing newly emerging diseases, bioterrorism and pandemic influenza in situations where empirical data are not yet available to guide decision making.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Viral Origin of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yujiao; Li, Lihua; Ma, Dehong; Luo, Jia; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaodan; Pan, Yue; Chen, Junying; Xi, Juemin; Yang, Jiajia; Qiu, Lijuan; Bai, Chunhai; Jiang, Liming; Shan, Xiyun; Sun, Qiangming

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1067 serum samples were collected from febrile patients in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, 2015. Of these, 852 cases were confirmed to be dengue NS1-positive. 76 structural protein genes were sequenced through RT-PCR based on the viral RNAs extracted from serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all strains were classified as cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2. After comparing with the DENV-2SS, 173 base substitutions were found in 76 sequences, resulting in 43 nonsynonymous mutations, of which 22 mutations existed among all samples. According to secondary structure prediction, 8 new possible nucelotide/protein binding sites were found and another 4 sites were lost among the 775 amino acids of DENV structural proteins as compared with DENV-2SS. Meanwhile, 6 distinct amino acid changes were found in the helix and strand regions, and the distribution of the exposed and buried regions was slightly altered. The results indicated that the epidemic dengue strains of Xishuangbanna in 2015 are most similar to the Indian strain in 2001 and the Sri Lankan strain in 2004. Moreover, it also show a very strong similarity to the epidemic strains of Fujian province in 1999 and 2010, which show that there is an internal recycling epidemic trend of DENV in China. PMID:27681163

  7. Viral epidemiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, G; Lerikou, M; Tsiodras, S; Chranioti, Aik; Perros, E; Anagnostopoulou, U; Armaganidis, A; Karakitsos, P

    2012-02-01

    The role of viruses in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) needs further elucidation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of viral pathogens in AECOPD. Patients presenting to the Emergency Room with AECOPD needing hospitalization were recruited. Oropharyngeal and sputum samples were collected in order to perform microarrays-based viral testing for the detection of respiratory viruses. A total of 200 (100%) patients were analyzed and from them in 107 (53.5%) a virus was detected. The commonest identified viruses were the human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (subtypes A and B) (40.5%), influenza virus (subtypes A, B, C) (11%), rhinovirus (8%) and human Parainfluenza Virus (subtypes A and B) (7.5%). A bacterial pathogen was isolated in 27 (14%) patients and a dual infection due to a bacterial and a viral pathogen was recognised in 14/107 patients. Patients with AECOPD and a viral infection had a lengthier hospital stay (9.2 ± 4.6 vs 7.6 ± 4.3, p < 0.01) while the severity of the disease was no related with significant differences among the groups of the study population. In conclusion, the isolation of a virus was strongly associated with AECOPD in the examined population. The stage of COPD appeared to have no relation with the frequency of the isolated viruses while dual infection with a viral and a bacterial pathogen was not rare. PMID:21983132

  8. Acute viral E hepatitis with chronic liver disease (autoimmune hepatitis).

    PubMed

    Desai, H G; Naik, A S

    2005-03-01

    A 36 years old male presented with anorexia, jaundice and ascites. He was suffering from acute viral E hepatitis. In view of ascites, he was investigated for associated asymptomatic chronic liver disease (CLD). The CLD was diagnosed as cirrhosis with autoimmune hepatitis and was treated with steroid with good response. He is maintaining good health with low dose steroid, on follow up for 1 year.

  9. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water and other nonrecreational water - United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Despite advances in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, 33 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, comprising 1,040 cases of illness, 85 hospitalizations, and nine deaths. Legionella accounted for 58% of outbreaks and 7% of illnesses, and Campylobacter accounted for 12% of outbreaks and 78% of illnesses. The most commonly identified outbreak deficiencies in drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in plumbing systems (57.6%), untreated ground water (24.2%), and distribution system deficiencies (12.1%), suggesting that efforts to identify and correct these deficiencies could prevent many outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water. In addition to the drinking water outbreaks, 12 outbreaks associated with other nonrecreational water were reported, comprising 234 cases of illness, 51 hospitalizations, and six deaths. Legionella accounted for 58% of these outbreaks, 42% of illnesses, 96% of hospitalizations, and all deaths. Public health, regulatory, and industry professionals can use this information to target prevention efforts against pathogens, infrastructure problems, and water sources associated with waterborne disease outbreaks.

  10. Outbreak of acute bovine viral diarrhea in Brazilian beef cattle: clinicopathological findings and molecular characterization of a wild-type BVDV strain subtype 1b.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, M; Headley, S A; Lisbôa, J A N; Amude, A M; Alfieri, A A

    2008-12-01

    When first described in 1946, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was characterized as an acute transmissible disease associated with severe leucopenia, high fever, depression, diarrhea, gastrointestinal erosions, and hemorrhages. Recently the severe acute form has been related only to some hypervirulent BVDV-2 strains. This article reports the detection of BVDV-1b associated with an acute and fatal outbreak of BVD in a Brazilian beef cattle herd. Depression, anorexia, watery diarrhea, sialorrhea, and weakness were observed in six steers. One of these animals was evaluated for laboratorial, clinical, and pathological alterations. Laboratory findings were non-specific; clinically, the animal was weak, with dehydration and erosive oral lesions. Pathological alterations were predominant at the tongue, esophagus, and rumen. A RT-PCR assay using primers to partially amplify the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the BVDV genome was performed and identified BVDV in all clinical samples analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of BVDV derived from lymph node revealed that this strain was clustered within the BVDV subtype 1b. This differentiating was only possible to be performed by molecular characterization since both clinical presentation and pathologic findings were similar to BVDV-2 infection.

  11. Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

  12. Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control.

  13. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013–2016

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Ervin, Elizabeth D.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2016-01-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013–2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community’s insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Continued efforts during the outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research. PMID:27070842

  14. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Jessica R; Ervin, Elizabeth D; Towner, Jonathan S; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2016-06-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013-2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community's insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Continued efforts during the outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research. PMID:27070842

  15. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013-2016

    DOE PAGES

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Ervin, Elizabeth D.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2016-06-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013-2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community's insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Finally, continued efforts during themore » outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research.« less

  16. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  17. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

    2002-08-01

    The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612

  18. Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge Ramon; Rosell, Rosa; Vidal, Enric; Hurtado, Ana; Juste, Ramon; Pumarola, Marti; Lavin, Santiago

    2007-02-25

    An outbreak of a previously unreported disease affecting southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the central Pyrenees (NE Spain) was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There was a marked temporal distribution, most animals being found between February and June. After the outbreak, the population was found to have decreased by about 42%, most probably due to the disease. We examined 20 affected chamois. Clinical manifestations included depression, weakness and movement difficulties in all cases. Three chamois presented abnormal behaviour, with absence of flight reaction, and 16 showed different degrees of alopecia with skin hyperpigmentation. At necropsy cachexia was observed in all animals, four chamois had abscesses in different parts of the body, four had pneumonia, one had an extensive subcutaneous infection on the head and neck and one had severe orchitis. Microscopic lesions were found in the brain, mainly edema, gliosis, espongiosis, cariorrexis and neuronal multifocal necrosis. A perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was present in three of them. Skin lesions included marked follicular atrophy, mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular hyperkeratosis, and hypermelanosis. In 13 chamois there were haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, and in three individuals kidney "cloissone" was observed. Intraeritrocitic parasites were detected either by direct observation or PCR in 8 of 17 chamois. A pestivirus was isolated and detected by RT-PCR from 12 of 13 affected chamois and antigenic characterized as border disease virus by monoclonal antibodies. This is the first time a border disease virus has been associated with an outbreak of a high-mortality disease in a wild species.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of viral diseases in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell hematopoietic transplantation (allo-HSCT). Although most viral infections present with asymptomatic or subclinical manifestations, viruses may result in fatal complications in severe immunocompromised recipients. Reactivation of latent viruses, such as herpesviruses, is frequent during the immunosuppression that occurs with allo-HSCT. Viruses acquired from community, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses, are also important pathogens of post-transplant viral diseases. Currently, molecular diagnostic methods have replaced or supplemented traditional methods, such as viral culture and antigen detection, in diagnosis of viral infections. The utilization of polymerase chain reaction facilitates the early diagnosis. In view of lacking efficacious agents for treatment of viral diseases, prevention of viral infections is extremely valuable. Application of prophylactic strategies including preemptive therapy reduces viral infections and diseases. Adoptive cellular therapy for restoring virus-specific immunity is a promising method in the treatment of viral diseases. PMID:24341630

  20. Vaccines and Vaccination for Veterinary Viral Diseases: A General Overview.

    PubMed

    Brun, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A high number of infectious diseases affecting livestock and companion animals are caused by pathogens of viral etiology. Ensuring the maximum standards of quality and welfare in animal production requires developing effective tools to halt and prevent the spread of those infectious diseases affecting animal husbandry. To date, one of the best strategies is to implement vaccination policies whenever possible. However many of the currently manufactured vaccines relies in classical vaccine technologies (killed or attenuated vaccines) which, under some circumstances, may not be optimal in terms of safety or adequate for widespread application in disease-free countries at risk of disease introduction. One step ahead is needed to improve and adapt vaccine manufacturing to the use of new generation vaccine technologies already tested in experimental settings. Here we present in the context of animal viral diseases of veterinary interest, an overview of some current vaccine technologies that can be approached for virus pathogens with a brief insight in the type of immunity elicited.

  1. DNA vaccines against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Øystein; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Immunization by an antigen-encoding DNA was approved for commercial sale in Canada against a Novirhabdovirus infection in fish. DNA vaccines have been particularly successful against the Novirhabdoviruses while there are reports on the efficacy against viral pathogens like infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, infectious salmon anemia virus, and lymphocystis disease virus and these are inferior to what has been attained for the novirhabdoviruses. Most recently, DNA vaccination of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus was reported. Research efforts are now focused on the development of more effective vectors for DNA vaccines, improvement of vaccine efficacy against various viral diseases of fish for which there is currently no vaccines available and provision of co-expression of viral antigen and immunomodulatory compounds. Scientists are also in the process of developing new delivery methods. While a DNA vaccine has been approved for commercial use in farmed salmon in Canada, it is foreseen that it is still a long way to go before a DNA vaccine is approved for use in farmed fish in Europe.

  2. Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  3. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  4. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008.

    PubMed

    Osterback, Riikka; Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-10-16

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined.

  5. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

  6. Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia’s ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterised by a lack of transmission to non-target host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence. PMID:25455418

  7. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  8. Gastrointestinal Disease Outbreak Detection Using Multiple Data Streams from Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Abrams, Allyson M.; Gilliss, Debra; Reed, Mary; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.; Kulldorff, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Passive reporting and laboratory testing delays may limit gastrointestinal (GI) disease outbreak detection. Healthcare systems routinely collect clinical data in electronic medical records (EMRs) that could be used for surveillance. This study's primary objective was to identify data streams from EMRs that may perform well for GI outbreak detection. Methods: Zip code-specific daily episode counts in 2009 were generated for 22 syndromic and laboratory-based data streams from Kaiser Permanente Northern California EMRs, covering 3.3 million members. Data streams included outpatient and inpatient diagnosis codes, antidiarrheal medication dispensings, stool culture orders, and positive microbiology tests for six GI pathogens. Prospective daily surveillance was mimicked using the space-time permutation scan statistic in single and multi-stream analyses, and space-time clusters were identified. Serotype relatedness was assessed for isolates in two Salmonella clusters. Results: Potential outbreaks included a cluster of 18 stool cultures ordered over 5 days in one zip code and a Salmonella cluster in three zip codes over 9 days, in which at least five of six cases had the same rare serotype. In all, 28 potential outbreaks were identified using single stream analyses, with signals in outpatient diagnosis codes most common. Multi-stream analyses identified additional potential outbreaks and in one example, improved the timeliness of detection. Conclusions: GI disease-related data streams can be used to identify potential outbreaks when generated from EMRs with extensive regional coverage. This process can supplement traditional GI outbreak reports to health departments, which frequently consist of outbreaks in well-defined settings (e.g., day care centers and restaurants) with no laboratory-confirmed pathogen. Data streams most promising for surveillance included microbiology test results, stool culture orders, and outpatient diagnoses. In particular

  9. Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila; Ali, Qurban

    2015-01-01

    Among the main intimidation to the sheep and goat population, PPR outbreaks are causing huge losses especially in endemic areas. During recent times, six outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at semi-organized goat farms/herds in various regions of Punjab province and Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Pakistan. The disease started after introduction of new animals at these farms with no history of previous PPR vaccination. The clinical signs appeared affecting respiratory and enteric systems and spread quickly. Disease caused mortality of 10-20% and morbidity of 20-40% within a time period of four weeks. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30.38% (86/283) and 15.55% (44/283), respectively. Three treatment regimes were executed to demonstrate the role of vaccination during outbreak at these farms. First was to use only the broad spectrum antibiotics (Penicillin & Streptomycin and/ or Trimethoprim and Sulfadiazine) at two farms (Texilla and Attock). Second treatment regime was to use the same broad spectrum antibiotic along with extensive fluid therapy (Farms at ICT-1 and ICT-2). The third regime was to use of broad spectrum antibiotic plus fluid therapy along with vaccinating the herd against PPR during first week of outbreak (ICT-3 and ICT-4). The third scheme of treatment gave the better results as there was no mortality in third week post-outbreak. Therefore, it is suggested to give proper importance to PPR vaccination along with conventional symptomatic treatment when dealing the PPR outbreaks in endemic disease conditions. PMID:26290722

  10. Replacement of a dominant viral pathogen by a fungal pathogen does not alter the collapse of a regional forest insect outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Ann E; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-03-01

    Natural enemies and environmental factors likely both influence the population cycles of many forest-defoliating insect species. Previous work suggests precipitation influences the spatiotemporal patterns of gypsy moth outbreaks in North America, and it has been hypothesized that precipitation could act indirectly through effects on pathogens. We investigated the potential role of climatic and environmental factors in driving pathogen epizootics and parasitism at 57 sites over an area of ≈72,300 km(2) in four US mid-Atlantic states during the final year (2009) of a gypsy moth outbreak. Prior work has largely reported that the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) was the principal mortality agent responsible for regional collapses of gypsy moth outbreaks. However, in the gypsy moth outbreak-prone US mid-Atlantic region, the fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has replaced the virus as the dominant source of mortality in dense host populations. The severity of the gypsy moth population crash, measured as the decline in egg mass densities from 2009 to 2010, tended to increase with the prevalence of E. maimaiga and larval parasitoids, but not LdNPV. A significantly negative spatial association was detected between rates of fungal mortality and parasitism, potentially indicating displacement of parasitoids by E. maimaiga. Fungal, viral, and parasitoid mortality agents differed in their associations with local abiotic and biotic conditions, but precipitation significantly influenced both fungal and viral prevalence. This study provides the first spatially robust evidence of the dominance of E. maimaiga during the collapse of a gypsy moth outbreak and highlights the important role played by microclimatic conditions. PMID:25510217

  11. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, L.; Jamilu, A.; Andamin, A. D.; Akpavie, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  12. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, H B; Sa'idu, L; Jamilu, A; Andamin, A D; Akpavie, S O

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  13. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, L.; Jamilu, A.; Andamin, A. D.; Akpavie, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  14. Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  15. Stochastical modeling for Viral Disease: Statistical Mechanics and Network Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Deem, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Theoretical methods of statistical mechanics are developed and applied to study the immunological response against viral disease, such as dengue. We use this theory to show how the immune response to four different dengue serotypes may be sculpted. It is the ability of avian influenza, to change and to mix, that has given rise to the fear of a new human flu pandemic. Here we propose to utilize a scale free network based stochastic model to investigate the mitigation strategies and analyze the risk.

  16. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  17. Epidemiological profile of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria, July-September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Emmanuel Onunche; Adedire, Elizabeth; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Adewuyi, Peter; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Nguku, Patrick; Nanjuya, Miriam; Adebayo, Bisola; Fatiregun, Akinola; Enya, Bassey; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sabitu, Kabiru; Shuaib, Faisal; Okoh, Alex; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Onyekwere, Nnanna; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Olayinka, Adebola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In July 2014, Nigeria experienced an outbreak of Ebola virus disease following the introduction of the disease by an ill Liberian Traveler. The Government of Nigeria with the support of Technical and Development Partners responded quickly and effectively to contain the outbreak. The epidemiological profile of the outbreak that majorly affected two States in the country in terms of person, place and time characteristics of the cases identified is hereby described. Methods Using field investigation technique, all confirmed and probable cases were identified, line-listed and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2007 by persons, time and place. Results A total of 20 confirmed and probable cases; 16 in Lagos (including the index case from Liberia) and 4 in Port Harcourt were identified. The mean age was 39.5 ± 12.4 years with over 40% within the age group 30-39 years. The most frequent exposure type was direct physical contact in 70% of all cases and 73% among health care workers. The total case-fatality was 40%; higher among healthcare workers (46%) compared with non-healthcare workers (22%). The epidemic curve initially shows a typical common source outbreak, followed by a propagated pattern. Conclusion Investigation revealed the size and spread of the outbreak and provided information on the characteristics of persons, time and place. Enhanced surveillance measures, including contact tracing and follow- up proved very useful in early case detection and containment of the outbreak. PMID:26587177

  18. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  19. Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

  20. Effectiveness of a Mobile Short-Message-Service–Based Disease Outbreak Alert System in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njeru, Ian; Zurovac, Dejan; Tipo, Shikanga O; Kareko, David; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a text-messaging system used for notification of disease outbreaks in Kenya. Health facilities that used the system had more timely notifications than those that did not (19.2% vs. 2.6%), indicating that technology can enhance disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. PMID:26981628

  1. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J.; Prescott, Joseph B.; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E.; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Zoon, Kathryn C.; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T.; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  2. The application of geographic information systems and spatial data during Legionnaires disease outbreak responses.

    PubMed

    Bull, M; Hall, I M; Leach, S; Robesyn, E

    2012-12-06

    A literature review was conducted to highlight the application and potential benefit of using geographic information systems (GIS) during Legionnaires' disease outbreak investigations. Relatively few published sources were identified, however, certain types of data were found to be important in facilitating the use of GIS, namely: patient data, locations of potential sources (e.g. cooling towers), demographic data relating to the local population and meteorological data. These data were then analysed to gain a better understanding of the spatial relationships between cases and their environment, the cases' proximity to potential outbreak sources, and the modelled dispersion of contaminated aerosols. The use of GIS in an outbreak is not a replacement for traditional outbreak investigation techniques, but it can be a valuable supplement to a response.

  3. Trial design for evaluating novel treatments during an outbreak of an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, John; Olliaro, Piero; Lang, Trudie; Horby, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Tragically, the outbreak of Ebola that started in West Africa in 2014 has been far more extensive and damaging than any previous outbreaks. The duration of the outbreak has, for the first time, allowed the clinical evaluation of Ebola treatments. This article discusses the designs used for two such clinical trials which have recruited patients in Liberia and Sierra Leone. General principles are outlined for trial designs intended to be deployed quickly, adapt flexibly and provide results soon enough to influence the course of the current epidemic rather than just providing evidence for use should Ebola break out again. Lessons are drawn for the conduct of clinical research in future outbreaks of infectious diseases, where the sequence of events may or may not be similar to the West African Ebola epidemic. PMID:26768556

  4. Published case studies of waterborne disease outbreaks--evidence of a recurrent threat.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J

    2007-03-01

    Residents of affluent nations are remarkably lucky to have high-quality, safe drinking water supplies that most residents of modem cities enjoy, particularly when considered in contrast to the toll of death and misery that unsafe drinking water causes for most of the world's population. Some may presume that drinking-water disease outbreaks are a thing of the past, but complacency can easily arise. A review of drinking water outbreaks in developed countries over the past 3 decades reveals some of the reasons why drinking water outbreaks keep occurring when society clearly has the means to prevent them. Prevention of future outbreaks does not demand perfection, only a commitment to learn from past mistakes and to act on what has been learned. PMID:17469655

  5. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  6. Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) −0.20 days, 95% CI −0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

  7. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

  8. Altered Oral Viral Ecology in Association with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. PMID:24846382

  9. [Reflection on 2 current viral diseases: yellow fever and dengue].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1997-01-01

    Yellow fever and dengue are two current viral diseases induced by flaviviruses and usually transmitted by the same mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. From 1987 to 1991, 18,753 cases of yellow fever, mainly from Africa, have been notified to WHO, leading to 4,522 deaths. On the other hand, WHO estimates that 2.5 billions individuals living in tropical areas are at risk to contract dengue fevers. In fact, 500,000 patients are hospitalized each year for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome and 90% of them are children. Nevertheless, the control of these two viral diseases would be reached easily in destroying mechanically the mosquito larval resting places. Although superficially similar, the two entities are in fact quite different. Relatively few is known about the pathogenesis of yellow fever whereas, for dengue fevers, it is difficult to integrate so many results accumulated to explain the occurrence of haemorrhagic phenomena according to the two main theories so far proposed which are not exclusive. The immunological one (S.B. Halstead) tries to explain the pathological events by the effect of anti-dengue enhancing antibodies acquired during a previous exposure to one of the dengue viruses, whereas that of increased virus virulence (L. Rosen) refers to fast passages between individuals during explosive epidemics.

  10. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  11. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  12. Variation in time and space of non-outbreak Legionnaires' disease in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bhopal, R S; Fallon, R J

    1991-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to measure and explain geographic variations in the incidence of Legionnaires' disease in Scotland, particularly to help understand the source of non-outbreak infection. Between 1978 and 1986 the overall mean annual incidence rate was 7.9 per million (range 3.1-20.2), and for non-outbreak, non-travel cases it was 5.6. There were geographical variations by health board, by city and within cities, e.g. the mean annual incidence rate per million for non-travel, non-outbreak disease was 1.2 in Tayside Health Board, 3.7 in Lanarkshire, 5.6 in Lothian and 14.4 in Greater Glasgow. In Greater Glasgow Health Board non-travel cases lived in and around the city centre and in some postcode sectors there, the mean annual incidence rate exceeded 100. Travel-related cases lived in peripheral areas. These variations could not be explained by differences in access to and use of diagnostic services, surveillance, or host susceptibility (as reflected by socioeconomic status and frequency of other respiratory disease). The explanation probably lay in environmental factors, though differences in agent virulence were not excluded. The two main conclusions are, that non-outbreak cases were not truly sporadic, and that the space-time variations in incidence support the hypothesis that cooling towers were an important source of infection for non-travel, non-outbreak cases. If so such infection is potentially preventable.

  13. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  14. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches.

    PubMed

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana's signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission.

  15. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    PubMed Central

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  16. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  17. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Witt, Clara J; Richards, Allen L; Masuoka, Penny M; Foley, Desmond H; Buczak, Anna L; Musila, Lillian A; Richardson, Jason H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Pavlin, Julie A; Fukuda, Mark M; Gaydos, Joel; Russell, Kevin L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Myint, Khin S; Pendergast, Brian; Lewis, Sheri; Pinzon, Jorge E; Collins, Kathrine; Smith, Matthew; Pak, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth; Myers, Todd; Mansour, Moustafa; Earhart, Ken; Kim, Heung Chul; Jiang, Ju; Schnabel, Dave; Clark, Jeffrey W; Sang, Rosemary C; Kioko, Elizabeth; Abuom, David C; Grieco, John P; Richards, Erin E; Tobias, Steven; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Florin, Dave; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Philip, Trudy L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program's ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia.

  18. Using community triage centres or non-traditional care facilities during a flu pandemic or other infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bone, Eric; Grono, Shawn; Johnson, David H; Johnson, Marcia

    2008-04-01

    One assumption of pandemic planning is that, during an influenza outbreak, acute care facilities may be quickly overrun with patients and as such must prepare in advance. In order to operationalise one component of a pandemic plan, Capital Health in Edmonton, Alberta, piloted a mobile triage centre facility (portable isolation containment systems) and tested pandemic influenza triage and assessment guidelines in the winter of 2006-07. The mobile model provided emergency department surge capacity for communicable disease emergencies with scalable deployment capabilities. The deployable module has several advantages over a fixed structure like a community facility. The triage facility is a location for short-term treatments, such as intravenous therapy, prescriptions, medication distribution, and self-care education, which are needed during a pandemic influenza outbreak. Decanting infectious patients away from the emergency department protects a highly-vulnerable hospitalised group from viral transmission. Based on the pilot, it is found that community triage centres are a viable support option for emergency departments in an urban setting during pandemic influenza.

  19. Nosocomial outbreak of Legionnaires' disease: molecular epidemiology and disease control measures.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J M; Latham, R H; Meier, F A; Green, J A; Boshard, R; Mooney, B R; Edelstein, P H

    1987-02-01

    Molecular laboratory techniques were used to study the epidemiology of an outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. All patient isolates were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and showed identical plasmid profiles and reactions with serogroup-specific monoclonal antibodies. L pneumophila was also cultured from four of five cooling tower water samples; however, the isolate from only one tower was serogroup 1 of the same subtype as patient isolates. Since the cases were temporally clustered and epidemiologically associated with exposure to cooling tower aerosols, the single cooling tower implicated by molecular analysis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Chlorination of cooling tower ponds has eradicated the epidemic strain. Since potable water also harbored the infecting organism and was the probable source for cooling tower contamination, decontamination of the hospital water system was also undertaken. Superchlorination of hot water holding tanks to 17 ppm on a weekly basis has effectively eradicated L pneumophila from the potable water system and appears to be a reasonable, simple, and relatively inexpensive alternative to previously described methods of control.

  20. Preventing diseases and outbreaks at child care centers using an education, evaluation, and inspection method.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon

    2014-03-01

    From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%.

  1. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    PubMed Central

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  2. Managing the koi herpesvirus disease outbreak in Indonesia and the lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, M G; Sunarto, A; Subasinghe, R P

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the suspected koi herpesvirus (KHV) outbreak in Indonesia was investigated by an International Emergency Disease Control Task Force organized by NACA immediately following a request for assistance by the Government of Indonesia. The Task Force gained immediate support from ACIAR, AAHRI, FAO, CENTEX-Thailand, INTERVET, Stirling University, and the University of California. The Task Force findings revealed the involvement of an infectious agent, an analogy with KHV outbreaks, its introduction through fish importation and its spread into other areas through fish movement. A number of actions taken by the Government of Indonesia included temporary restrictions, through a Ministry Circular, on the movement of koi and common carps, intensive information dissemination, emergency notification to the OIE, and early warning to neighbouring countries. FAO immediately responded by providing an emergency technical assistance project to improve Indonesia's national capacity to respond to the carp disease epizootic. Recognizing the significance of and necessity for: (a) enhancing regional and international cooperation;(b) improving awareness of emerging disease epizootics and improving diagnostic capabilities at both national and regional levels;(c) proactive reporting of serious disease outbreaks as a mechanism for early warning;(d) detailed documentation of outbreak scenarios;(e) emergency preparedness;(f) empowering farmers to manage disease and other risks; and (g) strong national commitment from concerned authorities are some of the important lessons learned. Despite the intense efforts, the spread of KHV did not stop and continued to affect other countries such as Japan, China, the Taiwan Province of the Republic of China, and most recently Thailand. All relevant stakeholders cannot afford to be complacent and we need innovative responses to current and future disease challenges. The lessons learned in managing the Indonesian KHV outbreak as well as lessons from

  3. EWORS: using a syndromic-based surveillance tool for disease outbreak detection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Siswoyo, Hadi; Permana, Meda; Larasati, Ria P; Farid, Jeffryman; Suryadi, Asep; Sedyaningsih, Endang R

    2008-01-01

    Background Electronic syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection may be a simple, effective tool to rapidly bring reliable and actionable outbreak data to the attention of public health authorities in the developing world. Methods Twenty-nine signs and symptoms from patients with conditions compatible with infectious diseases are collected from selected Provincial hospitals and analyzed daily. Data is e-mailed on a daily basis to a central data management and analysis center. Automated data analysis may be viewed at the hospital or the Early Warning Outbreak Response System (EWORS) hub at the central level (National Institute of Health Research and Development/NIHRD). Conclusion The Indonesian Ministry of Health (MoH) has adopted EWORS since 2006 and will use it as a complementary surveillance tool in wider catchment areas throughout the country. Socialization to more users is still being conducted under collaboration of three Directorate Generals (DGs) of the MoH; DG of NIHRD, DG of Medical Services and DG of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, EWORS is being adapted to facilitate detecting a potential outbreak of pandemic influenza in the region, and automated procedures for outbreak detection have been added. PMID:19025680

  4. Evolutionary Events Associated with an Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Becher, Dörte; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Frosch, Matthias; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Hong, Eva; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag; Vogel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Meningococci spread via respiratory droplets, whereas the closely related gonococci are transmitted sexually. Several outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease have been reported in Europe and the United States among men who have sex with men (MSM). We recently identified an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease among MSM in Germany and France. In this study, genomic and proteomic techniques were used to analyze the outbreak isolates. In addition, genetically identical urethritis isolates were recovered from France and Germany and included in the analysis. Genome sequencing revealed that the isolates from the outbreak among MSM and from urethritis cases belonged to a clade within clonal complex 11. Proteome analysis showed they expressed nitrite reductase, enabling anaerobic growth as previously described for gonococci. Invasive isolates from MSM, but not urethritis isolates, further expressed functional human factor H binding protein associated with enhanced survival in a newly developed transgenic mouse model expressing human factor H, a complement regulatory protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that urethritis and outbreak isolates followed a joint adaptation route including adaption to the urogenital tract. PMID:27167067

  5. Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by human adenovirus type 7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Nawaz, Muhammad; Han, Lei; Zhang, Jianfang; Du, Quanli; Zhang, Lixia; Feng, Qunling; Wang, Jingjun; Xu, Jiru

    2013-08-01

    Outbreaks of ARD associated with HAdV have been reported in military populations in many countries. Here, we report an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi Province, China, from February to March of 2012. Epidemic data and samples from the patients were collected, and viral nucleotides from samples and viral isolations were detected and sequenced. IgG and IgA antibodies against HAdV, and the neutralization antibodies against the viral strain isolated in this outbreak, were detected. Epidemiological study showed that all personnel affected were males with an average age of 19.1 years. Two peaks appeared on the epicurve and there was an 8-day interval between peaks. Laboratory results of viral nucleotide detection carried out with clinical specimens were positive for HAdV (83.33%, 15/18). Further study through serum antibody assay, virus isolation and phylogenetic analysis showed that HAdV-7 was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. IgA antibody began to appear on the 4th day after the onset and showed 100% positivity on the 8th day. The virus strain in the present outbreak was highly similar to the virus isolated in Hanzhong Shaanxi in 2009. We conclude that HAdV-7 was the pathogen corresponding to the outbreak, and this is the first report of an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in military persons in China. Vaccine development, as well as enhanced epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized.

  6. Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Correa, Adrienne M S; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Rosales, Stephanie M; Thurber, Andrew R; Butler, Christopher R; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of coral viruses have employed either microscopy or metagenomics, but few have attempted to comprehensively link the presence of a virus-like particle (VLP) to a genomic sequence. We conducted transmission electron microscopy imaging and virome analysis in tandem to characterize the most conspicuous viral types found within the dominant Pacific reef-building coral genus Acropora. Collections for this study inadvertently captured what we interpret as a natural outbreak of viral infection driven by aerial exposure of the reef flat coincident with heavy rainfall and concomitant mass bleaching. All experimental corals in this study had high titers of viral particles. Three of the dominant VLPs identified were observed in all tissue layers and budding out from the epidermis, including viruses that were ∼70, ∼120, and ∼150 nm in diameter; these VLPs all contained electron dense cores. These morphological traits are reminiscent of retroviruses, herpesviruses, and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), respectively. Some 300-500 nm megavirus-like VLPs also were observed within and associated with dinoflagellate algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) cells. Abundant sequence similarities to a gammaretrovirus, herpesviruses, and members of the NCLDVs, based on a virome generated from five Acropora aspera colonies, corroborated these morphology-based identifications. Additionally sequence similarities to two diagnostic genes, a MutS and (based on re-annotation of sequences from another study) a DNA polymerase B gene, most closely resembled Pyramimonas orientalis virus, demonstrating the association of a cosmopolitan megavirus with Symbiodinium. We also identified several other virus-like particles in host tissues, along with sequences phylogenetically similar to circoviruses, phages, and filamentous viruses. This study suggests that viral outbreaks may be a common but previously undocumented component of natural bleaching events, particularly

  7. Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Rosales, Stephanie M.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Butler, Christopher R.; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of coral viruses have employed either microscopy or metagenomics, but few have attempted to comprehensively link the presence of a virus-like particle (VLP) to a genomic sequence. We conducted transmission electron microscopy imaging and virome analysis in tandem to characterize the most conspicuous viral types found within the dominant Pacific reef-building coral genus Acropora. Collections for this study inadvertently captured what we interpret as a natural outbreak of viral infection driven by aerial exposure of the reef flat coincident with heavy rainfall and concomitant mass bleaching. All experimental corals in this study had high titers of viral particles. Three of the dominant VLPs identified were observed in all tissue layers and budding out from the epidermis, including viruses that were ∼70, ∼120, and ∼150 nm in diameter; these VLPs all contained electron dense cores. These morphological traits are reminiscent of retroviruses, herpesviruses, and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), respectively. Some 300–500 nm megavirus-like VLPs also were observed within and associated with dinoflagellate algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) cells. Abundant sequence similarities to a gammaretrovirus, herpesviruses, and members of the NCLDVs, based on a virome generated from five Acropora aspera colonies, corroborated these morphology-based identifications. Additionally sequence similarities to two diagnostic genes, a MutS and (based on re-annotation of sequences from another study) a DNA polymerase B gene, most closely resembled Pyramimonas orientalis virus, demonstrating the association of a cosmopolitan megavirus with Symbiodinium. We also identified several other virus-like particles in host tissues, along with sequences phylogenetically similar to circoviruses, phages, and filamentous viruses. This study suggests that viral outbreaks may be a common but previously undocumented component of natural bleaching events, particularly

  8. Using Earth Observation to Forecast Human and Animal Vector-Borne Disease Outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earth observing technologies, including data from with earth-orbiting satellites, coupled with new investigations and a better understanding of the impact of environmental factors on transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases permitted us to forecast Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in animal...

  9. YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

  10. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

  11. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

  12. Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oon-Tek; Thoon, Koh Cheng; Chua, Hui Ying; Tan, Natalie Woon Hui; Chong, Chia Yin; Tee, Nancy Wen Sim; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Cui, Lin; Venkatachalam, Indumathi; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Chew, Jonathan; Fong, Raymond Kok Choon; Oh, Helen May Lin; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Tan, Boon Huan; Ng, Sock Hoon; Ting, Pei Jun; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Khong, Wei Xin

    2015-07-01

    During November 2012-July 2013, a marked increase of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infections associated with severe disease was documented among pediatric patients in Singapore. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic links with severe Ad7 outbreaks in China, Taiwan, and other parts of Asia.

  13. Succesive outbreaks of Marek's Disease in brown commercial layer chickens on the same farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, gross and histopathology in 15 to 17 week-old in February of 2012 and in 10 to 13-week-old Brown laying-type chickens in December of 2012 on the same farm. The outbreak involved all the 16 houses on the farm with each house containing 20,000 chi...

  14. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  15. Managing the Endogenous Risk of Disease Outbreaks with Non-Constant Background Risk

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Kevin; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D.; Shogren, Jason F.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern that risks of disease outbreak and pandemics are increasing over time. We consider optimal investments in prevention before an outbreak using an endogenous risk approach within an optimal control setting. Using the threat of pandemic influenza as an illustrative example, we demonstrate that prevention expenditures are relatively small in comparison to the potential losses facing the USA, and these expenditures need to be flexible and responsive to changes in background risk. Failure to adjust these expenditures to changes in background risk poses a significant threat to social welfare into the future. PMID:27642202

  16. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, J. A.; Garner, M. G.; Catton, M. G.; Thomas, S.; Westbury, H. A.; Cannon, R. M.; Collins, B. J.; Tribe, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHD), a potential biological control for wild rabbits in Australia and New Zealand, escaped from quarantined field trials on Wardang Island and spread to the mainland of Australia in October 1995. This study looked for any evidence of infection or illness in people occupationally exposed to the virus. Two hundred and sixty-nine people were interviewed and 259 blood samples were collected. Exposures to VHD-infected rabbits ranged from nil to very high. No VHD antibodies were detected in any of the 259 sera when tested by VHD competitive enzyme immunoassay, which had been validated with 1013 VHDV-specific antibody negative sera. A questionnaire designed to elicit symptoms of disease in a range of organ systems found no significant differences between illness in those exposed and those not exposed to VHD, nor could an association be found between exposure and subsequent episodes of illness. The findings are consistent with the view that exposure to VHD is not associated with infection or disease in humans. PMID:9825794

  17. Application of control measures against viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.

    PubMed

    Rodák, L; Smíd, B; Valícek, L

    1991-06-01

    The first outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) of rabbits were reported from eastern Slovakia in 1987. In 1988, the infection spread throughout the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Electron microscopy was used by the Veterinary Research Institute in Brno to diagnose the disease during the early stage of infection. At present, the regional laboratories of the veterinary investigation services use the haemagglutination and the direct immunofluorescence tests as the principal methods to demonstrate the causal agent. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques have been developed to demonstrate VHD virus, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to detect antibodies. Diagnostic kits, allowing a wide use of these methods, are now available commercially. Two types of inactivate vaccines were developed and produced in 1988 and 1989. VHD is controlled by vaccination of exposed rabbit colonies. This is accompanied by other preventive and protective measures, directed by district veterinary officers following instructions from federal authorities.

  18. Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting

  19. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    DOE PAGES

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; et al

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review

  20. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to

  1. Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Based on Disease Surveillance and Meteorological Data.

    PubMed

    Ramadona, Aditya Lia; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Hii, Yien Ling; Holmner, Åsa; Kusnanto, Hari; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to create early warnings of dengue outbreaks to inform stakeholders and control the disease. This analysis composes of a comparative set of prediction models including only meteorological variables; only lag variables of disease surveillance; as well as combinations of meteorological and lag disease surveillance variables. Generalized linear regression models were used to fit relationships between the predictor variables and the dengue surveillance data as outcome variable on the basis of data from 2001 to 2010. Data from 2011 to 2013 were used for external validation purposed of prediction accuracy of the model. Model fit were evaluated based on prediction performance in terms of detecting epidemics, and for number of predicted cases according to RMSE and SRMSE, as well as AIC. An optimal combination of meteorology and autoregressive lag terms of dengue counts in the past were identified best in predicting dengue incidence and the occurrence of dengue epidemics. Past data on disease surveillance, as predictor alone, visually gave reasonably accurate results for outbreak periods, but not for non-outbreaks periods. A combination of surveillance and meteorological data including lag patterns up to a few years in the past showed most predictive of dengue incidence and occurrence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The external validation showed poorer results than the internal validation, but still showed skill in detecting outbreaks up to two months ahead. Prior studies support the fact that past meteorology and surveillance data can be predictive of dengue. However, to a less extent has prior research shown how the longer-term past disease incidence data, up to years, can play a role in predicting outbreaks in the coming years, possibly indicating cross-immunity status of the population. PMID:27031524

  2. SAT2 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in a mixed farm in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Byom, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A dairy farm keeping Holstein cattle and buffaloes in the Menoufia Governorate was investigated during and after the last Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in Egypt (starting February 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. All animals were vaccinated against FMD with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing O1 and A/Egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of the outbreak. Laboratory examination of the samples collected from diseased and dead animals' revealed detection of a newly emerged serotype of FMD (SAT2). Although, all buffaloes (8/8) in the herd were infected (100%), none of them died, while lactating Holstein cattle showed varying morbidity rates along the period of the outbreak with peak rates in March followed by April, May and June. Crud mortality and case fatality rates among cattle peaked during April 2012 to reach 9.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Calves were the most affected animals with the highest morbidities and mortalities. The high prevalence of the disease among all animal categories in the investigated farm is attributed to the lack of previous immunity through vaccination against the new serotype of the virus. In addition, the hygienic and biosecurity measures in the farm were unsatisfactory with respect to prevention of introduction and spread of the disease between the farm units. The prevalent weather conditions during the outbreak might have played a role in spread of the FMDv, especially ambient temperature, humidity and wind movement.

  3. Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Based on Disease Surveillance and Meteorological Data.

    PubMed

    Ramadona, Aditya Lia; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Hii, Yien Ling; Holmner, Åsa; Kusnanto, Hari; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to create early warnings of dengue outbreaks to inform stakeholders and control the disease. This analysis composes of a comparative set of prediction models including only meteorological variables; only lag variables of disease surveillance; as well as combinations of meteorological and lag disease surveillance variables. Generalized linear regression models were used to fit relationships between the predictor variables and the dengue surveillance data as outcome variable on the basis of data from 2001 to 2010. Data from 2011 to 2013 were used for external validation purposed of prediction accuracy of the model. Model fit were evaluated based on prediction performance in terms of detecting epidemics, and for number of predicted cases according to RMSE and SRMSE, as well as AIC. An optimal combination of meteorology and autoregressive lag terms of dengue counts in the past were identified best in predicting dengue incidence and the occurrence of dengue epidemics. Past data on disease surveillance, as predictor alone, visually gave reasonably accurate results for outbreak periods, but not for non-outbreaks periods. A combination of surveillance and meteorological data including lag patterns up to a few years in the past showed most predictive of dengue incidence and occurrence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The external validation showed poorer results than the internal validation, but still showed skill in detecting outbreaks up to two months ahead. Prior studies support the fact that past meteorology and surveillance data can be predictive of dengue. However, to a less extent has prior research shown how the longer-term past disease incidence data, up to years, can play a role in predicting outbreaks in the coming years, possibly indicating cross-immunity status of the population.

  4. A system for automated outbreak detection of communicable diseases in Germany.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Maëlle; Schumacher, Dirk; Burmann, Hendrik; Frank, Christina; Claus, Hermann; Höhle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel automated outbreak detection system in Germany that monitors the routinely collected surveillance data for communicable diseases. Detecting unusually high case counts as early as possible is crucial as an accumulation may indicate an ongoing outbreak. The detection in our system is based on state-of-the-art statistical procedures conducting the necessary data mining task. In addition, we have developed effective methods to improve the presentation of the results of such algorithms to epidemiologists and other system users. The objective was to effectively integrate automatic outbreak detection into the epidemiological workflow of a public health institution. Since 2013, the system has been in routine use at the German Robert Koch Institute. PMID:27063588

  5. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-01-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens. PMID:25198247

  6. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers

  7. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  8. Outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in the central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Joseph V; Ansdell, David

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the island population of Satowan (population, 650 persons), a small, remote coral island in the central Pacific, suffers from an acquired, chronic, disfiguring skin condition known locally as "spam." This skin disease has affected the island population since shortly after World War II. An investigation in 2007 revealed that this skin disease is caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial infection closely related to Mycobacterium marinum. This article reviews the fascinating history of this skin disease on Satowan, its distinctive clinical presentation, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of clinically similar skin lesions in Pacific Islanders.

  9. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks. PMID:26642172

  10. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks.

  11. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Carriage Evaluation at a College - Rhode Island, 2015.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Heidi M; McNamara, Lucy A; Whaley, Melissa; Wang, Xin; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V; Kelleher, Catherine M; MacNeil, Jessica; Martin, Stacey W; Raines, Nathan; Sears, Steven; Vanner, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Bandy, Utpala; Sicard, Kenneth; Patel, Manisha

    2015-06-12

    On February 2, 2015, the Rhode Island Department of Health was notified of a case of meningococcal disease in a male undergraduate student at Providence College. Three days later, a second case was reported in a male undergraduate with no contact with the first student, indicating an attack rate of 44 cases per 100,000 students, nearly 500 times higher than the national incidence of 0.15 cases per 100,000 among persons aged 17-22 years (Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, unpublished data, 2013). Both cases were caused by a rare outbreak strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (ST-9069); neither case was fatal. In response to the outbreak, potential contacts received antibiotic chemoprophylaxis, and a mass vaccination campaign with a recently licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine was implemented. In collaboration with CDC, the first phase of a meningococcal carriage evaluation was undertaken. PMID:26068563

  12. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Burmakina, Galina; Malogolovkina, Nina; Lunitsin, Andrey; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Since the first introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in 1986, disease outbreaks have been continuously reported in different regions of Russia. Despite extensive vaccination, sporadic RHD cases are still reported. Here, we examine eleven RHDV strains originating from disease outbreaks occurring between 2003 and 2012 and one widely used vaccine strain. Notable phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among RHDV strains was observed. The RHDV strains Tambov-2010, Perm-2010, Manihino-09 showed different hemagglutinating activity (HA) at 4 °C and room temperature. While all RHDV field strains were identified as hemagglutinating virulent viruses of the RHDVa variant, the vaccine strain was assigned as a "classical" RHDV. These data indicate that since 2003, RHDVa has become the predominant variant circulating in Russia. PMID:27094306

  13. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strains Isolated from Coldwater Disease Outbreaks at Three Production Hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Neiger, Regg; Thomas, Milton; Das, Seema; Barnes, Michael; Fletcher, Brian; Snekvik, Kevin; Thompson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of three Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains causing a bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) outbreak, isolated from infected rainbow trout from hatcheries in Montana and South Dakota. The availability of these virulent outbreak-causing strain genome sequences will help further understand the pathogenesis of BCWD. PMID:26966210

  15. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  16. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians.

  17. Outbreaks in drinking-water systems, 1991-1998.

    PubMed

    Craun, Gunther F; Nwachuku, Nena; Calderon, Rebecca L; Craun, Michael F

    2002-01-01

    During 1991-1998, 126 outbreaks, 429,021 cases of illness, 653 hospitalizations, and 58 deaths were reported in public and individual water systems in 41 states and three U.S. territories. A bacterial, viral, or protozoan etiology was identified in 41 percent of the outbreaks, and a chemical contaminant was identified in 18 percent. No etiological agent was determined in the remaining outbreaks. Important causes of outbreaks included contamination of untreated groundwater, inadequate disinfection of groundwater, and distribution system deficiencies, especially cross-connections and corrosive water. The responsible pathogen or chemical was identified in water samples collected during 31 percent of the reported outbreaks. Coliform bacteria were detected in water samples collected during the investigation of infectious-disease outbreaks in 83 percent of noncommunity and 46 percent of community water systems, but very few of these systems had exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum limit for total coliforms in the 12 months before the outbreak.

  18. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

    2013-01-01

    During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:23990974

  19. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

    2013-01-01

    During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality.

  20. Climate Teleconnections, Weather Extremes, and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluctuations in climate lead to extremes in temperature, rainfall, flooding, and droughts. These climate extremes create ideal ecological conditions that promote mosquito-borne disease transmission that impact global human and animal health. One well known driver of such global scale climate fluctua...

  1. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  2. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea L; Huber, Victor C; Chaussee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  3. The role of computer networking in investigating unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of biological and toxin weapons use.

    PubMed

    Woodall, J

    1998-01-01

    Computer networking can aid in the epidemiological investigation of unusual disease outbreaks and possible uses of biological weapons. Exchange of computerized data over the Internet has many advantages in facilitating the investigation of the source of a disease outbreak. It is especially useful in the investigation of suspected or alleged releases of biological weapons. Computer networking through the Internet a fosters a truly global disease outbreak early warning system in which both government and non-government sources are contributing. Such information exchange is of great potential benefit to the Biological Weapons Convention and the attempts to develop a verification protocol. PMID:9800103

  4. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  5. Lymphatic filariasis: disease outbreaks in military deployments from World War II.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Melrose, Wayne

    2005-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is the second most common parasitic disease worldwide, after malaria. It should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for military personnel returning from disease-endemic areas. Numerous outbreaks of LF have been reported in military deployments from World War II. In contrast to the presentation of LF in indigenous populations, which often involves such uncommon complications as elephantiasis and hydrocele, the clinical presentation of LF in military personnel can vary widely and is often vague and nondescript. Common symptoms are pain and swelling of the genitalia, closely followed by lymphangitis of the arms and legs. All three species produce similar disease.

  6. A severe case of Legionnaire's disease connected to the BBC outbreak in 1988.

    PubMed

    Richards, N C; McKinley, K P

    1989-01-01

    On 1 May 1988 a senior Naval Officer, serving at HMS Warrior, was admitted to RAF Halton where a diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease was made. He suffered severe pneumonia and neurological symptoms, and although he eventually responded to treatment, he still suffers sequelae. On 19 April, he was in the vicinity of the BBC at the time of the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. His clinical findings are reported in this article along with a brief history and discussion of the diagnosis and prevention of Legionnaire's disease.

  7. Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of animal diseases transmissible to humans via food.

    PubMed

    Savelli, C J; Abela-Ridder, B; Miyagishima, K

    2013-08-01

    Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses requires coordination and intersectoral collaboration, making the process inherently complex. Guidance documents have been published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on the topics of foodborne outbreak investigation, establishing food safety emergency response plans, applying risk analysis principles during food safety emergencies, and developing national food recall systems. These guides should be used as resources by national authorities to develop national plans which should each reference the other in order to maintain consistency at the country level. FAO and WHO, together with the World Organisation for Animal Health (O1E), are the international organisations responsible at the global level for the health of people and animals and for food safety and security. As such, these organisations need to continue to work together to develop an intersectoral mechanism to conduct robust and timely joint risk assessments in the face of foodborne outbreaks and other food safety emergencies. Three international instruments have the potential to aid countries in their preparedness to face outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses and organise subsequent response efforts: the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), the newly enhanced Global Early Warning System for Major Animal Diseases, including Zoonoses (GLEWS+), and the FAO Emergency Prevention System for Food Safety (EMPRES Food Safety). PMID:24547650

  8. Lessons from the Ebola Outbreak: Action Items for Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bailey, Charles L; Baranova, Ancha V; Crooks, Andrew T; Croitoru, Arie; Delamater, Paul L; Gupta, Jhumka; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Narayanan, Aarthi; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Rowan, Katherine E; Schwebach, J Reid; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Sklarew, Dann M; Stefanidis, Anthony; Agouris, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa wanes, it is time for the international scientific community to reflect on how to improve the detection of and coordinated response to future epidemics. Our interdisciplinary team identified key lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that can be clustered into three areas: environmental conditions related to early warning systems, host characteristics related to public health, and agent issues that can be addressed through the laboratory sciences. In particular, we need to increase zoonotic surveillance activities, implement more effective ecological health interventions, expand prediction modeling, support medical and public health systems in order to improve local and international responses to epidemics, improve risk communication, better understand the role of social media in outbreak awareness and response, produce better diagnostic tools, create better therapeutic medications, and design better vaccines. This list highlights research priorities and policy actions the global community can take now to be better prepared for future emerging infectious disease outbreaks that threaten global public health and security. PMID:26915507

  9. Predictability and epidemic pathways in global outbreaks of infectious diseases: the SARS case study

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbreaks. The introduction of extensive transportation data sets is therefore an important step in order to develop epidemic models endowed with realism. Methods We develop a general stochastic meta-population model that incorporates actual travel and census data among 3 100 urban areas in 220 countries. The model allows probabilistic predictions on the likelihood of country outbreaks and their magnitude. The level of predictability offered by the model can be quantitatively analyzed and related to the appearance of robust epidemic pathways that represent the most probable routes for the spread of the disease. Results In order to assess the predictive power of the model, the case study of the global spread of SARS is considered. The disease parameter values and initial conditions used in the model are evaluated from empirical data for Hong Kong. The outbreak likelihood for specific countries is evaluated along with the emerging epidemic pathways. Simulation results are in agreement with the empirical data of the SARS worldwide epidemic. Conclusion The presented computational approach shows that the integration of long-range mobility and demographic data provides epidemic models with a predictive power that can be consistently tested and theoretically motivated. This computational strategy can be therefore considered as a general tool in the analysis and forecast of the global spreading of emerging diseases and in the definition of containment policies aimed at reducing the effects of potentially catastrophic outbreaks. PMID:18031574

  10. Intrafamilial Transmission of Vaccinia virus during a Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak in Brazil: A New Insight in Viral Transmission Chain

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135

  11. Intrafamilial transmission of Vaccinia virus during a bovine Vaccinia outbreak in Brazil: a new insight in viral transmission chain.

    PubMed

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-06-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain.

  12. Mass screening for infectious disease containment and pandemic outbreaks: misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leando, Peter

    2015-05-01

    IR imaging in mass screening for the containment of pandemic disease is based on detecting a febril (fever) state in individuals. The ability to use IR affectively for this is dependent on a good understanding of the physiology and physics related to the pathology that we are trying to screen for and is not restricted to temperature measurements alone. The radiometric thermal data processed during real-time imaging must include calibrated reference sources, thermal pattern recognition and comparative analysis between individual people being screened. A screening test should have high `sensitivity' rather than `specificity' and to be effective the false negative rate must be very low. To achieve this the false positive rate will be higher by necessity and so a `secondary' level of screening can be implemented to bring the false positive rate to within a manageable level by the higher `specificity' secondary level of screening.

  13. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial. PMID:19326670

  14. Strain Variation and Disease Severity in Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: In Search of a Viral Marker.

    PubMed

    Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2015-09-01

    The wide spectrum of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and known differences in the biology and in vitro growth of CMV strains continue to drive studies in search for specific viral genetic determinants that may predict severity of congenital CMV disease. Several CMV genes have been studied in detail in congenitally infected children, but the complexity of the viral genome and differences in the definition of symptomatic disease versus asymptomatic CMV infection continue to raise questions related to what constitutes a pathogenic CMV strain.

  15. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  16. Clinical study of an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Alcoy, Southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; López, P; Orozco, D; Merino, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of Legionnaires' disease, sudden outbreaks of which demand a quick and flexible clinical approach, particularly with regard to diagnosis and therapy. A prospective and comparative study based on a clinical protocol was performed during an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Alcoy, Spain. The outbreak was environmental in origin, linked to cooling towers. Data about epidemiological and clinical features, blood chemistry values, radiological and microbiological findings, and characteristics related to the clinical course of Legionnaires' disease were obtained for 357 patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia (177 with Legionella pneumonia). Patients with Legionnaires' disease were younger (mean age, 65.3+/-16.5 years) and more likely to be smokers compared with patients with other types of pneumonia (28.8% vs. 11.1%; P<0.01). Moreover, they had not been admitted to any hospital because of pneumonia in the previous year. Patients with Legionnaires' disease had higher fever, more severe headache, and less expectoration as well as lower sodium blood levels (mean, 132.6+/-4.8 mmol/l vs. 135.7 mmol/l; P<0.01). Radiological studies also showed that fewer patients with Legionnaires' disease had pleural effusion (9% vs. 19.4% of those with non- Legionella pneumonia). The presence of headache, high fever, hyponatremia, scanty or null expectoration, and current cigarette smoking provides physicians with important clues for a high suspicion of Legionella pneumonia before the results of confirmatory laboratory tests are available.

  17. Preparedness for ebolavirus disease outbreak in Japan: Necessity of Biosafety level-4 facility.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Although a globe box-type highly contained laboratory with the internationally-recognized biosafety level-4 standards has been constructed in the Murayama Annex, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan (NIID) in 1981, the laboratory has never been operated as BSL-4 laboratory since its construction. Furthermore, there are no other BSL-4 laboratories in operation in Japan. The evidence indicates that infectious BSL-4 pathogens such as Ebola and Marburg viruses cannot be manipulated in Japan, making it impossible to study the BSL-4 pathogens using the infectious viruses. A large-scale outbreak of ebolavirus disease (EVD) has occurred in the western Africa such as Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Furthermore, the highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases outbreaks such as SARS, Nipah encephalitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have emerged in the world. However, BSL-4 laboratories are not present in Japan, making it difficult to study these pathogens and infectious diseases. Because these emerging virus infections are caused by the zoonotic pathogens, the eradiation and the elimination of these infectious diseases are impossible. We need to develop the diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive measures based on the studies of the highly pathogenic pathogens more in detail using the infectious microbes. Therefore, BSL-4 in operation in Japan is required to minimize the risk of and combat these emerging highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases.

  18. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions.

  19. Mass Gatherings and Respiratory Disease Outbreaks in the United States – Should We Be Worried? Results from a Systematic Literature Review and Analysis of the National Outbreak Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Phelps, Tiffani; Shi, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Background Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014. A standard form was used to abstract information from relevant articles identified from six medical, behavioral and social science literature databases. We also analyzed data from the National Outbreaks Reporting System (NORS), maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention since 2009, to estimate the frequency of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks reported to the system. Results We identified 21 published articles describing 72 mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks. Of these 72, 40 (56%) were associated with agriculture fairs and Influenza A H3N2v following probable swine exposure, and 25 (35%) with youth summer camps and pandemic Influenza A H1N1. Outbreaks of measles (n = 1) and mumps (n = 2) were linked to the international importation of disease. Between 2009 and 2013, 1,114 outbreaks were reported to NORS, including 96 respiratory disease outbreaks due to Legionella. None of these legionellosis outbreaks was linked to a mass gathering according to available data. Conclusion Mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks may be uncommon in the United States, but have been reported from fairs (zoonotic transmission) as well as at camps where participants have close social contact in communal housing. International importation can also be a contributing factor. NORS collects information on certain respiratory diseases and could

  20. A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at a flower show, the Netherlands, 1999.

    PubMed

    Den Boer, Jeroen W; Yzerman, Ed P F; Schellekens, Joop; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Van Steenbergen, Jim E; Bosman, Arnold; Van den Hof, Susan; Van Vliet, Hans A; Peeters, Marcel F; Van Ketel, Ruud J; Speelman, Peter; Kool, Jacob L; Conyn-Van Spaendonck, Marina A E

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill (133 confirmed and 55 probable cases), for an attack rate of 0.23% for visitors and 0.61% for exhibitors. Two whirlpool spas in halls 3 and 4 of the exhibition and a sprinkler in hall 8 were culture positive for Legionella pneumophila. One of three genotypes found in both whirlpool spas was identical to the isolates from 28 of 29 culture-positive patients. Persons who paused at the whirlpool spa in hall 3 were at increased risk for becoming ill. This study illustrates that whirlpool spas may be an important health hazard if disinfection fails.

  1. A Large Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease at a Flower Show, the Netherlands, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Yzerman, Ed P.F.; Schellekens, Joop; Lettinga, Kamilla D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Bosman, Arnold; Van den Hof, Susan; Van Vliet, Hans A.; Peeters, Marcel F.; Van Ketel, Ruud J.; Speelman, Peter; Kool, Jacob L.; Van Spaendonck, Marina A.E. Conyn

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill (133 confirmed and 55 probable cases), for an attack rate of 0.23% for visitors and 0.61% for exhibitors. Two whirlpool spas in halls 3 and 4 of the exhibition and a sprinkler in hall 8 were culture positive for Legionella pneumophila. One of three genotypes found in both whirlpool spas was identical to the isolates from 28 of 29 culture-positive patients. Persons who paused at the whirlpool spa in hall 3 were at increased risk for becoming ill. This study illustrates that whirlpool spas may be an important health hazard if disinfection fails. PMID:11749746

  2. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD.

  3. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD. PMID:27150839

  4. Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    PubMed Central

    Wheelis, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, and stockpiling of biological weapons agents or delivery devices for anything other than peaceful purposes. A protocol currently in the final stages of negotiation adds verification measures to the convention. One of these measures will be international investigation of disease outbreaks that suggest a violation of the convention, i.e., outbreaks that may be caused by use of biological weapons or release of harmful agents from a facility conducting prohibited work. Adding verification measures to the current Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention will affect the international public health and epidemiology communities; therefore, active involvement of these communities in planning the implementation details of the protocol will be important. PMID:11076717

  5. An unusually long-lasting outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease, 2005-2008, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, M; Fontana, S; Crippa, S; Caporali, M G; Seyler, T; Veschetti, E; Villa, G; Rota, M C; Ricci, M L

    2015-08-01

    An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations. PMID:25427871

  6. Relating plaque morphology to respiratory syncytial virus subgroup, viral load, and disease severity in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-In; Murphy, Ryan; Majumdar, Sirshendu; Harrison, Lisa G.; Aitken, Jody; DeVincenzo, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral culture plaque morphology in human cell lines are markers for growth capability and cytopathic effect, and have been used to assess viral fitness and select pre-attenuation candidates for live viral vaccines. We classified RSV plaque morphology and analyzed the relationship between plaque morphology as compared to subgroup, viral load and clinical severity of infection in infants and children. Methods We obtained respiratory secretions from 149 RSV-infected children. Plaque morphology and viral load was assessed within the first culture passage in HEp-2 cells. Viral load was measured by PCR, as was RSV subgroup. Disease severity was determined by hospitalization, length of stay, intensive care requirement, and respiratory failure. Results Plaque morphology varied between individual subjects; however, similar results were observed among viruses collected from upper and lower respiratory tracts of the same subject. Significant differences in plaque morphology were observed between RSV subgroups. No correlations were found among plaque morphology and viral load. Plaque morphology did not correlate with disease severity. Conclusions Plaque morphology measures parameters that are viral-specific and independent of the human host. Morphologies vary between patients and are related to RSV subgroup. In HEp-2 cells, RSV plaque morphology appears unrelated to disease severity in RSV-infected children. PMID:26107392

  7. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Madin, Ben

    2011-12-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All publicly available outbreak reports (5237) were extracted from the ASEAN Region Animal Health Information System (ARAHIS) for the period from 2000 to mid 2010. These reports included date, outbreak location (at the province and district level) and serotype (if known) plus information on the outbreak size and affected species. Not all records had complete information on the population at-risk or the number of animals affected. This data was transferred into a spatially enabled database (along with data from other sources) and analysed using R and SaTScan. Outbreak serotype was unknown in 2264 (43%) of reports and some countries had very few laboratory confirmed cases (range <1-86%). Outbreak reports were standardised by number of villages in each province. Outbreak intensity varied however there did not appear to be a consistent pattern, nor was there any seasonal trend in outbreaks. Spatial and spatio-temporal cluster detection methods were applied. These identified significant clusters of disease reports. FMD is endemic across the region but is not uniformly present. ARAHIS reports can be regarded as indicators of disease reporting: there may be reports in which laboratory confirmation has not occurred, and in some cases clinical signs are inconsistent with FMD. This raises questions about the specificity of the data. Advances in decentralised testing techniques offer hope for improved verification of FMD as the cause of disease outbreaks. Advances in molecular typing may provide a substantial leap forward in understanding the circulation of FMD in South East Asia.

  8. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago

    2008-02-01

    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  9. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, W T; Mourits, M C M; Woldehanna, T; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks every year. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming systems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the clinical and direct economic impacts of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on household level in smallholder livestock farming systems. Impacts were assessed based on data obtained from case outbreaks in cattle in crop-livestock mixed and pastoral smallholder farming systems that occurred in 2012 and 2013. Data were collected by using questionnaires administered to 512 smallholder farmers in six districts within two administrate zones that represent the two smallholder farming systems. Foot and mouth disease morbidity rates of 85.2% and 94.9% at herd level; and 74.3% and 60.8% at animal level in the affected herds were determined for crop-livestock mixed system and pastoral system, respectively. The overall and calf specific mortality rates were 2.4% and 9.7% for the crop-livestock mixed system, and 0.7% and 2.6% for the pastoral system, respectively. Herd level morbidity rate was statistically significantly higher in the pastoral system than in the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The economic losses of foot and mouth disease outbreak due to milk loss, draft power loss and mortality were on average USD 76 per affected herd and USD 9.8 per head of cattle in the affected herds in crop-livestock mixed system; and USD 174 per affected herd and USD 5.3 per head of cattle in the affected herds in the pastoral system. The herd level economic losses were statistically significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The major loss due to the disease occurred as a result of milk losses and draft power losses whereas mortality losses were relatively low. Although the presented estimates on the economic losses accounted only for the visible direct impacts

  10. Cell-based Assays to Identify Inhibitors of Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Green, Neil; Ott, Robert D.; Isaacs, Richard J.; Fang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Antagonizing the production of infectious virus inside cells requires drugs that can cross the cell membrane without harming host cells. Objective It is therefore advantageous to establish intracellular potency of anti-viral drug candidates early in the drug-discovery pipeline. Methods To this end, cell-based assays are being developed and employed in high-throughput drug screening, ranging from assays that monitor replication of intact viruses to those that monitor activity of specific viral proteins. While numerous cell-based assays have been developed and investigated, rapid counter screens are also needed to define the specific viral targets of identified inhibitors and to eliminate nonspecific screening hits. Results/Conclusions Here, we describe the types of cell-based assays being used in antiviral drug screens and evaluate the equally important counter screens that are being employed to reach the full potential of cell-based high-throughput screening. PMID:19750206

  11. Risk management of viral infectious diseases in wastewater reclamation and reuse: Review.

    PubMed

    Sano, Daisuke; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Toru; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate usage of reclaimed wastewater has caused outbreaks of viral infectious diseases worldwide. International and domestic guidelines for wastewater reuse stipulate that virus infection risks are to be regulated by the multiple-barrier system, in which a wastewater treatment process composed of sequential treatment units is designed based on the pre-determined virus removal efficiency of each unit. The objectives of this review were to calculate representative values of virus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment units based on published datasets, and to identify research topics that should be further addressed for improving implementation of the multiple-barrier system. The removal efficiencies of human noroviruses, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes were obtained by a systematic review protocol and a meta-analysis approach. The log10 reduction (LR) of norovirus GII and enterovirus in MBR were 3.35 (95% confidence interval: 2.39, 4.30) and 2.71 (1.52, 3.89), respectively. The LR values of rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII in CAS processes were 0.87 (0.20, 1.53), 1.48 (0.96, 2.00) and 1.35 (0.52, 2.18), respectively. The systematic review process eliminated a substantial number of articles about virus removal in wastewater treatment because of the lack of information required for the meta-analysis. It is recommended that future publications should explicitly describe their treatment of left-censored datasets. Indicators, surrogates and methodologies appropriate for validating virus removal performance during daily operation of wastewater reclamation systems also need to be identified. PMID:26985655

  12. Risk management of viral infectious diseases in wastewater reclamation and reuse: Review.

    PubMed

    Sano, Daisuke; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Toru; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate usage of reclaimed wastewater has caused outbreaks of viral infectious diseases worldwide. International and domestic guidelines for wastewater reuse stipulate that virus infection risks are to be regulated by the multiple-barrier system, in which a wastewater treatment process composed of sequential treatment units is designed based on the pre-determined virus removal efficiency of each unit. The objectives of this review were to calculate representative values of virus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment units based on published datasets, and to identify research topics that should be further addressed for improving implementation of the multiple-barrier system. The removal efficiencies of human noroviruses, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes were obtained by a systematic review protocol and a meta-analysis approach. The log10 reduction (LR) of norovirus GII and enterovirus in MBR were 3.35 (95% confidence interval: 2.39, 4.30) and 2.71 (1.52, 3.89), respectively. The LR values of rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII in CAS processes were 0.87 (0.20, 1.53), 1.48 (0.96, 2.00) and 1.35 (0.52, 2.18), respectively. The systematic review process eliminated a substantial number of articles about virus removal in wastewater treatment because of the lack of information required for the meta-analysis. It is recommended that future publications should explicitly describe their treatment of left-censored datasets. Indicators, surrogates and methodologies appropriate for validating virus removal performance during daily operation of wastewater reclamation systems also need to be identified.

  13. Health care-associated infection outbreak investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1946-2005.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lennox K; Jarvis, William R

    2011-12-01

    Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science. During 1946-2005, CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers conducted 531 outbreak investigations in facilities across the United States and abroad. Initially, the majority of outbreaks involved gastrointestinal tract infections; however, in later years, bloodstream, respiratory tract, and surgical wound infections predominated. Among pathogens implicated in CDC outbreak investigations, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, or yeasts predominated, but unusual organisms (e.g., the atypical mycobacteria) were often included. Outbreak types varied and often were linked to transfer of colonized patients or health care personnel between facilities (multihospital outbreaks), national distribution of contaminated products, use of invasive medical devices, or variances in practices and procedures in health care environments (e.g., intensive care units, water reservoirs, or hemodialysis units). Through partnerships with health care facilities and local and state health departments, outbreaks were terminated and lives saved. Data from investigations invariably contributed to CDC-generated guidelines for prevention and control of health care-associated infections. PMID:22135394

  14. Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

  15. Disturbance driven colony fragmentation as a driver of a coral disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism.

  16. The relationship between infecting dose and severity of disease in reported outbreaks of Salmonella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, J. R.; Bradley, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between size of the infecting dose and severity of the resulting disease has been investigated for salmonella infections by reanalysis of data within epidemics for 32 outbreaks, and comparing data between outbreaks for 68 typhoid epidemics and 49 food-poisoning outbreaks due to salmonellas. Attack rate, incubation period, amount of infected food consumed and type of vehicle are used as proxy measures of infecting dose, while case fatality rates for typhoid and case hospitalization rates for food poisoning salmonellas were used to assess severity. Limitations of the data are discussed. Both unweighted and logit analysis models are used. There is no evidence for a dose-severity relationship for Salmonella typhi, but evidence of a correlation between dose and severity is available from within-epidemic or between-epidemic analysis, or both, for Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. thompson. The presence of such a relationship affects the way in which control interventions should be assessed. PMID:1468522

  17. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  18. Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Samaranayake, L P

    2016-04-01

    Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial and transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) and sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses and human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, and the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - and the appearance of some other dangerous and sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, and reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care. PMID:26179810

  19. Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

  20. Serotype 5 Pneumococci Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Outbreaks in Barcelona, Spain (1997 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Rolo, Dora; Fenoll, Asunción; Fontanals, Dionísia; Larrosa, Nieves; Giménez, Montserrat; Grau, Immaculada; Pallarés, Román; Liñares, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the clinical and molecular epidemiology of invasive serotype 5 (Ser5) pneumococcal isolates in four teaching hospitals in the Barcelona, Spain, area (from 1997 to 2011). Among 5,093 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected, 134 (2.6%) Ser5 isolates were detected. Although the overall incidence of Ser5-related invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was low (0.25 cases/100,000 inhabitants), three incidence peaks were detected: 0.63/100,000 in 1999, 1.15/100,000 in 2005, and 0.37/100,000 in 2009. The rates of Ser5 IPD were higher among young adults (18 to 64 years old) and older adults (>64 years old) in the first two peaks, whereas they were higher among children in 2009. The majority (88.8%) of the patients presented with pneumonia. Comorbid conditions were present in young adults (47.6%) and older adults (78.7%), the most common comorbid conditions being chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.6% and 38.3%, respectively) and cardiovascular diseases (11.1% and 38.3%, respectively). The mortality rates were higher among older adults (8.5%). All Ser5 pneumococci tested were fully susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rates were 48.5% for co-trimoxazole, 6.7% for chloramphenicol, and 6% for tetracycline. Two major related sequence types (STs), ST1223 (n = 65) and ST289 (n = 61), were detected. The Colombia5-ST289 clone was responsible for all the cases in the Ser5 outbreak in 1999, whereas the ST1223 clone accounted for 73.8% and 61.5% of the isolates in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Ser5 pneumococci are a frequent cause of IPD outbreaks in the community and involve children and adults with or without comorbidities. The implementation of the new pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) might prevent such outbreaks. PMID:23966486

  1. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  2. Global Health Security: The Lessons from the West African Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic and MERS Outbreak in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea have given huge impacts in different aspects. Health security is no more a new coinage. Global health security became more realistic in its practical application. In the perspective of global health, it will be helpful to peruse lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and MERS outbreak in Korea. PMID:27429901

  3. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  4. Outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) in Germany and the danger for Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schmahl, Günter

    2008-12-01

    In August 2006, the blue tongue virus (BTV-type South Africa serotype 8) was detected for the first time in cattle blood probes in the Netherlands, immediately followed by cases in Belgium and in cattle on German farms, which were situated close to Aachen at the border to those countries. Within less than 2 months the disease spread eastwards crossing the Rhine, southwards to Luxemburg and to Northern France. At the end of the year 2006, nearly 1,000 farms were affected in Germany. Catches on two German cattle farms proved that the ceratopogonid species Culicoides obsoletus was obviously the vector, since many females-fed and unfed ones-were found to be infected with this virus. This sudden outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) is surely not a primary result of global warming, but rather an effect of globalization-i.e. the intensive worldwide import and export of animals; but a hot summer, as in 2006, and a warm winter like that of the years 2006/2007 supported the new spread starting again in masses in August 2007 leading to 596 PCR-confirmed cases until then with more than 200,000 animals infected. Thus, new agents coming from elsewhere have only a chance to spread if appropriate vectors are available and the conditions remain favourable during a reasonably long period. Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites.

  5. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  6. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    PubMed

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  7. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

  8. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    PubMed

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

  9. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    DOEpatents

    Bankiewicz, Krys; Cunningham, Janet

    2012-11-13

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant AAV virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) are provided for the treatment of CNS disorders, particularly those disorders which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. The methods entail providing rAAV virions that comprise a transgene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and administering the virions to the brain of a mammal using a non-manual pump.

  10. [Endotoxin Is a Companent in Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Diseases].

    PubMed

    Anikhovskaya, I; Kubatiev, A; Khasanova, G; Yakovlev, M

    2015-01-01

    The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications. PMID:26237956

  11. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  12. [Foodborne disease outbreak in El Huecú community, province of Neuquén].

    PubMed

    López, C; Feltri, A; Leotta, G; González, G; Manfredi, E; Gottardi, G; Elder, M; de las Carreras, S; Patri, C; Guajardo, F; San Martín, A; Rivas, M

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2006, an epidemic outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness related to food consumption occurred in a small town in the province of Neuquén, Argentina. During a popular feast, approximately 800 local residents attended lunch held in the facilities of the Municipal Gymnasium. About three hours later, nearly 150 attendees sought medical assistance at the local hospital due to acute gastroenteritis. A case-control epidemiological investigation was conducted using representative non-probability sampling. The epidemiological investigation showed a common-source foodborne disease outbreak with a case-control ratio of 1:1.8. The main symptoms were abdominal cramps (88%), vomiting (73.5%) and diarrhea (60%). The cake was identified as the source of infection (OR 9.79; IC 95%, 2.66-36.00; p = 0.0001), and unsatisfactory hygienic conditions in food production, conservation and handling steps were identified. Coagulase positive, enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, subspecies aureus was detected in a piece of cake, with a count of 2.4 x 10(6) CFU/g, and in samples from the hands and nostrils of three people involved in food preparation and service. The strains isolated from both the cake and one of the food handlers carried the sea gene, and presented the same Smal-PFGE pattern. The foodborne disease outbreak was considered to be due to contamination in the preparation process of the cake consumed at the feast, which was related to inadequate hygienic conditions, lack of refrigeration and cold chain disruption.

  13. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?

    PubMed

    Savarino, Andrea; Boelaert, Johan R; Cassone, Antonio; Majori, Giancarlo; Cauda, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best-studied effects are those against HIV replication, which are being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, chloroquine has immunomodulatory effects, suppressing the production/release of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, which mediate the inflammatory complications of several viral diseases. We review the available information on the effects of chloroquine on viral infections, raising the question of whether this old drug may experience a revival in the clinical management of viral diseases such as AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, which afflict mankind in the era of globalisation.

  14. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1

  15. Lipopolysaccharide subtypes of Haemophilus influenzae type b from an outbreak of invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J; Pichichero, M E

    1984-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were obtained during an outbreak of invasive H. influenzae type b disease and were classified by the electrophoretic profile of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS was extracted by a rapid micromethod and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The isolates could be divided into 1 of 14 subtypes based on the profile of two to four bands. No subtype was predominant. However, all isolates obtained from duplicate sites of the same individual were of the same subtype. Isolates obtained from two patients (6 weeks apart) who attended the same day-care center differed in LPS subtype but were identical in their major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from healthy children, their immediate families, and employees of the day-care center. Of 13 H. influenzae isolates examined from these contacts, only 1 was type b, which was obtained from a day-care worker and had the same LPS subtype and major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile as one of the disease isolates. The remaining nasopharyngeal isolates were untypable, and most, but not all, were different in LPS pattern. Thus, LPS subtyping of H. influenzae type b may be useful in examining the predominance or transmission of a strain during an outbreak and may distinguish some strains not differentiated by outer membrane protein pattern. Images PMID:6333433

  16. The Role of the Polio Program Infrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Rui G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Komkech, William; Ekundare-Famiyesin, Olubowale O.; Onyibe, Rosemary; Abidoye, Sunday; Nsubuga, Peter; Maleghemi, Sylvester; Hannah-Murele, Bolatito; Tegegne, Sisay G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The current West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. On 20 July 2014, a sick individual flew into Lagos, Nigeria, from Monrovia, Liberia, setting off an outbreak in Lagos and later in Port Harcourt city. The government of Nigeria, supported by the World Health Organization and other partners, mounted a response to the outbreak relying on the polio program experiences and infrastructure. On 20 October 2014, the country was declared free of EVD. Methods. We examined the organization and operations of the response to the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria and how experiences and support from the country's polio program infrastructure accelerated the outbreak response. Results. The deputy incident manager of the National Polio Emergency Operations Centre was appointed the incident manager of the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EEOC), the body that coordinated and directed the response to the EVD outbreak in the country. A total of 892 contacts were followed up, and blood specimens were collected from 61 persons with suspected EVD and tested in designated laboratories. Of these, 19 (31%) were positive for Ebola, and 11 (58%) of the case patients were healthcare workers. The overall case-fatality rate was 40%. EVD sensitization and training were conducted during the outbreak and for 2 months after the outbreak ended. The World Health Organization deployed its surveillance and logistics personnel from non–Ebola-infected states to support response activities in Lagos and Rivers states. Conclusions. The support from the polio program infrastructure, particularly the coordination mechanism adopted (the EEOC), the availability of skilled personnel in the polio program, and lessons learned from managing the polio eradication program greatly contributed to the speedy containment of the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria. PMID:26908718

  17. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Xing; Teng, Terk-Shin; Reading, Patrick C; Blanchard, Helen; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Ng, Lisa F P; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-02-01

    The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis. PMID:25695775

  18. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L; Rider, Lisa G; Chiorini, John A; Miller, Frederick W

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups-probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls-using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID.

  19. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases? Unveiling associations of three diseases and viral loci.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K; Lindegaard, Hanne M; Rossing, Peter; Petersen, Thor; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Bettina; Lorenzen, Tove; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Jensen, Sara B; Bahrami, Shervin; Lajer, Maria; Schmidt, Kathrine L M; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Junker, Peter; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases encompass a plethora of conditions in which the immune system attacks its own tissue, identifying them as foreign. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the development of immune response to self, including differences in genotypes, hormonal milieu, and environmental factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus was associated with each of the three diseases. Although there was a significant overlap, most loci only occurred in one of the studied disease. Remarkably, within each disease, there was a statistical interaction (synergy) between two loci. Additional synergy between retroviral loci and human lymphocyte antigens is reported for multiple sclerosis. We speculate the possibility that recombinants or mixed viral particles are formed and that the resulting viruses stimulate the innate immune system, thereby initiating the autoimmune response. PMID:26091722

  20. Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  2. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters.

  3. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  4. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April–September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  5. How do resources influence control measures during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia?

    PubMed

    Roche, S E; Garner, M G; Wicks, R M; East, I J; de Witte, K

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) could seriously impact Australia's livestock sector and economy. As an FMD-free country, an outbreak would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include the culling of infected and at risk animals ('stamping out'), movement restrictions and zoo-sanitary measures. Additional control measures may also include pre-emptive culling or vaccination. However, it is unclear what disease strategy would be most effective under Australian conditions and different resource levels. Using a stochastic simulation model that describes FMD transmission between farms in a livestock dense region of Australia, our results suggest that using current estimates of human resource capacity for surveillance, infected premises operations and vaccination, outbreaks were effectively controlled under a stamping out strategy. However, under more constrained resource allocations, ring vaccination was more likely to achieve eradication faster than stamping out or pre-emptive culling strategies. PMID:24412502

  6. The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Durrheim, D. N.; Harris, B. N.; Speare, R.; Billinghurst, K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiencies in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga's 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. This review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action. PMID:11217663

  7. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  8. An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Isere, Elvis E; Fatiregun, Akinola A; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O

    2015-01-01

    While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians' involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria. PMID:26229222

  9. [The journey of Legionella pneumophila from amoebae to macrophage. Reflections on the largest outbreak of legionnaire's disease].

    PubMed

    Segovia Hernández, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Legionella, the causative agent of legionnaire's disease (LD), can survive and grow in amoebic cells. Free-living amoebae may play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages, and represent an important reservoir of Legionella. These amoebae may act as a Trojan horse bringing hidden bacteria within the human environments. The community outbreak of LD that occurred in Murcia in July 2001, the largest such outbreak ever reported, afforded an unusual opportunity to improve the knowledge of this disease.

  10. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  11. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  12. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  13. Field-deployable real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viral ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W C; Stallknecht, D E; Mecham, J O

    2004-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequence information from molecular evolution studies of bluetongue virus (BTV) and related epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) strains has resulted in a large database of genomic information. Published sequence data and sequence data from our laboratory were used to design real-time field-deployable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of BTV or EHDV viral RNA. The assays used standard RNA extraction and TaqMan chemistries and the entire process was completed in disease outbreaks.

  14. Obligations to report outbreaks of foodborne disease under the International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Kirk, Martyn; Musto, Jennie; Gregory, Joy; Fullerton, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    Every year, Australia identifies 2-3 outbreaks associated with imported foods. To examine national authorities' obligations under the International Health Regulations (2005), we reviewed outbreaks in 2001-2007 that implicated internationally distributed foods. Under these regulations, 6 (43%) [corrected] of 14 outbreaks would have required notification to the World Health Organization.

  15. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Goodwin, Andrew E; Merry, Gwenn E; Liles, Mark R; Williams, Malachi A; Ware, Cynthia; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2013-07-01

    A new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in significant losses in farm-raised catfish. Outbreaks attributable to this new strain began in Alabama in the summer of 2009 and have spread to Arkansas and Mississippi in subsequent years. These outbreaks mostly afflicted market-sized fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods of time. The present research was designed to develop an expeditious diagnostic procedure to detect the new strains of A. hydrophila due to the rapid onset and biosecurity concerns associated with this new disease. A discriminatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed using gene sequences unique to the virulent strains identified in a related comparative genomic study. Using this assay, suspect colonies on a culture plate can be positively identified as the new strain within 2 hr. The assay is repeatable and reproducible with a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity of approximately 7 copies of target DNA in a 15-µl reaction. In addition, the assay is able to detect and quantify the virulent strain from catfish tissues (0.025 g), pond water (40 ml), and sediments (0.25 g) with a sensitivity limit of approximately 100 bacteria in a sample. This assay provides rapid discrimination between the new virulent strain and more common A. hydrophila and is useful for epidemiological studies involving the detection and quantification of the virulent strain in environmental samples and fish tissues.

  16. Funding the Costs of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Non-Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moser, Charlotte A; Reiss, Dorit; Schwartz, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    While vaccination rates in the United States are high - generally over 90 percent - rates of exemptions have been going up, and preventable diseases coming back. Aside from their human cost and the financial cost of treatment imposed on those who become ill, outbreaks impose financial costs on an already burdened public health system, diverting resources from other areas. This article examines the financial costs of non-vaccination, showing how high they can be and what they include. It makes a case for requiring those who do not vaccinate to cover the costs of outbreak caused by their choice. Such recouping is justified because the choice not to vaccinate can easily be seen as negligent. But even if it is not, that choice involves imposing costs on others, and there are good reasons to require the actors to internalize those costs. The article proposes alternative statutory and regulatory schemes to cover the costs imposed on the public purse, focusing on no-fault mechanisms. We consider both ex ante mechanisms like a tax or a fee that will go into a no-fault fund to cover the costs and ex post mechanisms like a statutory authorization for recoupment of those costs by health officials. PMID:26479572

  17. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013–2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. PMID:26175026

  18. Human Survivors of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Ebola or Marburg Virus Exhibit Cross-Reactive and Long-Lived Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Mohan; Jensen, Stig M; Keasey, Sarah L; Kamata, Teddy; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Lobel, Leslie; Dye, John M; Ulrich, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    A detailed understanding of serological immune responses to Ebola and Marburg virus infections will facilitate the development of effective diagnostic methods, therapeutics, and vaccines. We examined antibodies from Ebola or Marburg survivors 1 to 14 years after recovery from disease, by using a microarray that displayed recombinant nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 40 (VP40), envelope glycoprotein (GP), and inactivated whole virions from six species of filoviruses. All three outbreak cohorts exhibited significant antibody responses to antigens from the original infecting species and a pattern of additional filoviruses that varied by outbreak. NP was the most cross-reactive antigen, while GP was the most specific. Antibodies from survivors of infections by Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) species were least cross-reactive, while those from survivors of infections by Sudan virus (SUDV) species exhibited the highest cross-reactivity. Based on results revealed by the protein microarray, persistent levels of antibodies to GP, NP, and VP40 were maintained for up to 14 years after infection, and survival of infection caused by one species imparted cross-reactive antibody responses to other filoviruses. PMID:27335383

  19. Pathogenesis of Viral Infection in Exacerbations of Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Andrew I; Farne, Hugo A; Singanayagam, Aran; Jackson, David J; Mallia, Patrick; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2015-11-01

    Chronic airway diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and their prevalence is predicted to increase in the future. Respiratory viruses are the most common cause of acute pulmonary infection, and there is clear evidence of their role in acute exacerbations of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have reported impaired host responses to virus infection in these diseases, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of these abnormal immune responses has the potential to lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets for virus-induced exacerbations. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge regarding the role of viruses and immune modulation in acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseases and to discuss exciting areas for future research and novel treatments.

  20. Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D

    2006-12-01

    With increased globalisation comes the likelihood that infectious disease appearing in one country will spread rapidly to another, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) being a recent example. However, although SARS infected some 10,000 individuals, killing around 1000, it did not lead to the devastating health impact that many feared, but a rather disproportionate economic impact. The disproportionate scale and nature of this impact has caused concern that outbreaks of more serious disease could cause catastrophic impacts on the global economy. Understanding factors that led to the impact of SARS might help to deal with the possible impact and management of such other infectious disease outbreaks. In this respect, the role of risk--its perception, communication and management--is critical. This paper looks at the role that risk, and especially the perception of risk, its communication and management, played in driving the economic impact of SARS. It considers the public and public health response to SARS, the role of the media and official organisations, and proposes policy and research priorities for establishing a system to better deal with the next global infectious disease outbreak. It is concluded that the potential for the rapid spread of infectious disease is not necessarily a greater threat than it has always been, but the effect that an outbreak can have on the economy is, which requires further research and policy development. PMID:16978751

  1. Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D

    2006-12-01

    With increased globalisation comes the likelihood that infectious disease appearing in one country will spread rapidly to another, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) being a recent example. However, although SARS infected some 10,000 individuals, killing around 1000, it did not lead to the devastating health impact that many feared, but a rather disproportionate economic impact. The disproportionate scale and nature of this impact has caused concern that outbreaks of more serious disease could cause catastrophic impacts on the global economy. Understanding factors that led to the impact of SARS might help to deal with the possible impact and management of such other infectious disease outbreaks. In this respect, the role of risk--its perception, communication and management--is critical. This paper looks at the role that risk, and especially the perception of risk, its communication and management, played in driving the economic impact of SARS. It considers the public and public health response to SARS, the role of the media and official organisations, and proposes policy and research priorities for establishing a system to better deal with the next global infectious disease outbreak. It is concluded that the potential for the rapid spread of infectious disease is not necessarily a greater threat than it has always been, but the effect that an outbreak can have on the economy is, which requires further research and policy development.

  2. Non-viral therapeutic approaches to ocular diseases: An overview and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Rahel; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2015-12-10

    Currently there are no viable treatment options for patients with debilitating inherited retinal degeneration. The vast variability in disease-inducing mutations and resulting phenotypes has hampered the development of therapeutic interventions. Gene therapy is a logical approach, and recent work has focused on ways to optimize vector design and packaging to promote optimized expression and phenotypic rescue after intraocular delivery. In this review, we discuss ongoing ocular clinical trials, which currently use viral gene delivery, but focus primarily on new advancements in optimizing the efficacy of non-viral gene delivery for ocular diseases. Non-viral delivery systems are highly customizable, allowing functionalization to improve cellular and nuclear uptake, bypassing cellular degradative machinery, and improving gene expression in the nucleus. Non-viral vectors often yield transgene expression levels lower than viral counterparts, however their favorable safety/immune profiles and large DNA capacity (critical for the delivery of large ocular disease genes) make their further development a research priority. Recent work on particle coating and vector engineering presents exciting ways to overcome limitations of transient/low gene expression levels, but also highlights the fact that further refinements are needed before use in the clinic.

  3. Analysis of outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in Ireland: 1998 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Bonner, C; Foley, B; Wall, P; Fitzgerald, M

    2001-05-01

    Surveillance of general outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis was introduced in 1998 by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI), in co-operation with the eight health boards. A total of 67 general outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland were reported to the FSAI in 1998 and 1999. Over 1900 people were ill as a result of these outbreaks. Four percent required hospitalisation and there were two deaths. The duration of the outbreaks varied between one day and 38 days. Salmonellae (44%) and small round structured viruses (SRSV) (12%) were the most commonly reported pathogens. In 25% of the outbreaks the aetiology was unknown. The commonest settings were restaurants, hotels and take-aways, which accounted for 45% (30/67) of all outbreaks. Sixteen percent of all outbreaks occurred in hospitals and residential institutions. Over half of the outbreaks were reported to be foodborne, 63% of which were due to various serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Eggs were implicated as the vehicle of infection in 13% of all outbreaks. An infected food handler was identified in almost one third of outbreaks, although it could not be established if this had contributed directly to the outbreak. PMID:11474854

  4. Molecular characterisation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus associated with a Tunisian outbreak among cattle in 2006.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Sameh; Sailleau, Corinne; Babay, Besma; Viarouge, Cyril; Sghaier, Soufien; Zientara, Stephan; Hammami, Salah; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    In 2006, epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks were recorded in the Maghreb (Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria) among cattle, resulting in severe repercussions on herds (oedema of the head, necrotic lesions of the oral mucosa, hyperthermia of the teats, accompanied by anorexia and respiratory distress) and economic losses. The present study gives new information on the molecular characterisation of the EHD virus (EHDV) that had circulated in Tunisia. Genome segments 2, 3, 6, 7 and 10 of EHDV, corresponding to the VP2, VP3, VP5, VP7 and NS3/NS3A proteins, respectively, were amplified from the blood of one animal by RT-PCR and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these five segments with sequences available in the GenBank demonstrated that an EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV-6) had been present in Tunisia in 2006. The possible origin of this strain is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

  6. The roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and dissemination of strains causing fungal infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Xu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Sexual reproduction commonly refers to the reproductive process in which genomes from two sources are combined into a single cell through mating and then the zygote genomes are partitioned to progeny cells through meiosis. Reproduction in the absence of mating and meiosis is referred to as asexual or clonal reproduction. One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it generates genetic variation among progeny which may allow for faster adaptation of the population to novel and/or stressful environments. However, adaptation to stressful or new environments can still occur through mutation, in the absence of sex. In this review, we analyzed the relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and spread of strains causing fungal infectious diseases outbreaks. The necessity of sex and the ability of asexual fungi to initiate outbreaks are discussed. We propose a framework that relates the modes of reproduction to the origin and propagation of fungal disease outbreaks. Our analyses suggest that both sexual and asexual reproduction can play critical roles in the origin of outbreak strains and that the rapid spread of outbreak strains is often accomplished through asexual expansion.

  7. The roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and dissemination of strains causing fungal infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Xu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Sexual reproduction commonly refers to the reproductive process in which genomes from two sources are combined into a single cell through mating and then the zygote genomes are partitioned to progeny cells through meiosis. Reproduction in the absence of mating and meiosis is referred to as asexual or clonal reproduction. One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it generates genetic variation among progeny which may allow for faster adaptation of the population to novel and/or stressful environments. However, adaptation to stressful or new environments can still occur through mutation, in the absence of sex. In this review, we analyzed the relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and spread of strains causing fungal infectious diseases outbreaks. The necessity of sex and the ability of asexual fungi to initiate outbreaks are discussed. We propose a framework that relates the modes of reproduction to the origin and propagation of fungal disease outbreaks. Our analyses suggest that both sexual and asexual reproduction can play critical roles in the origin of outbreak strains and that the rapid spread of outbreak strains is often accomplished through asexual expansion. PMID:26394109

  8. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  9. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific.

  10. The Role of Adverse Event Reporting in the FDA Response to a Multistate Outbreak of Liver Disease Associated with a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    DeBeck, Heidi J.; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mogen, Kathryn M.; Wolpert, Beverly J.; Sabo, Jonathan L.; Salter, Monique; Seelman, Sharon L.; Lance, Susan E.; Monahan, Caitlin; Steigman, David S.; Gensheimer, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Liver disease is a potential complication from using dietary supplements. This study investigated an outbreak of non-viral liver disease associated with the use of OxyELITE ProTM, a dietary supplement used for weight loss and/or muscle building. Methods Illness details were ascertained from MedWatch reports submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describing consumers who ingested OxyELITE Pro alone or in combination with other dietary supplements. FDA's Forensic Chemistry Center analyzed samples of OxyELITE Pro. Results From February 2012 to February 2014, FDA received 114 reports of adverse events of all kinds involving consumers who ingested OxyELITE Pro. The onset of illness for the first report was December 2010 and for the last report was January 2014. Thirty-three states, two foreign nations, and Puerto Rico submitted reports. Fifty-five of the reports (48%) described liver disease in the absence of viral infection, gallbladder disease, autoimmune disease, or other known causes of liver damage. A total of 33 (60%) of these patients were hospitalized, and three underwent liver transplantation. In early 2013, OxyELITE Pro products entered the market with a formulation distinct from products sold previously. The new formulation replaced 1,3-dimethylamylamine with aegeline. However, the manufacturer failed to submit to FDA a required “new dietary ingredient” notice for the use of aegeline in OxyELITE Pro products. Laboratory analysis identified no drugs, poisons, pharmaceuticals, toxic metals, usnic acid, N-Nitroso-fenfluramine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, aristocholic acid, or phenethylamines in the products. Conclusions Vigilant surveillance is required for adverse events linked to the use of dietary supplements. PMID:26327730

  11. Small Non-coding RNAs Associated with Viral Infectious Diseases of Veterinary Importance: Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Samir, Mohamed; Pessler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) molecules that can regulate mRNAs by inducing their degradation or by blocking translation. Considering that miRNAs are ubiquitous, stable, and conserved across animal species, it seems feasible to exploit them for clinical applications. Unlike in human viral diseases, where some miRNA-based molecules have progressed to clinical application, in veterinary medicine, this concept is just starting to come into view. Clinically, miRNAs could represent powerful diagnostic tools to pinpoint animal viral diseases and/or prognostic tools to follow up disease progression or remission. Additionally, the possible consequences of miRNA dysregulation make them potential therapeutic targets and open the possibilities to use them as tools to generate viral disease-resistant livestock. This review presents an update of preclinical studies on using sncRNAs to combat viral diseases that affect pet and farm animals. Moreover, we discuss the possibilities and challenges of bringing these bench-based discoveries to the veterinary clinic. PMID:27092305

  12. Using simplified models to communicate the importance of prevention, detection and preparedness before a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    McNab, B; Dubé, C; Alves, D

    2011-08-01

    Frontline farm workers and veterinary-policy-makers are arguably in the best positions to influence prevention, detection, and preparedness-for-control of farm animal diseases. It is important that such individuals make biologically sound decisions concerning the daily management and regulation of the health of animals. Such decisions should be based on a good understanding of key principles of disease spread and control. This paper summarises these principles, as described in previous publications, into simple models. These models may be used to communicate concepts to readers who may not have time to study more complex models. These models illustrate the relationship between the development of new disease cases (from existing cases, i.e., the reproductive ratio R) and (i) the duration of the period during which existing cases are available as infectious, (ii) contact rates, (iii) transmission rates and (iv) susceptibility. Understanding these concepts through models has great utility, facilitating better decisions for disease prevention, detection and preparedness-for-control, before an outbreak becomes unmanageable. These basic concepts apply to all animal species, including humans.

  13. Using Satellite Images of Environmental Changes to Predict Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Rita R.; Rose, Joan B.; Morse, Stephen S.; Rogers, David J.; Yates, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today’s ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

  14. An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease among visitors to a fair in Belgium in 1999.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, K; Dirven, K; Van Bouwel, K; Mortelmans, L; Van Rossom, P; De Beukelaar, T; Vael, C; Fajo, M; Ronveaux, O; Peeters, M F; Van der Zee, A; Bergmans, A; Ieven, M; Goossens, H

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease at Kapellen in Belgium among visitors of the annual fair. The investigation started on 13th November 1999 after a respiratory physician notified the health authorities of the province of Antwerp of presumptive cases of legionellosis. The annual commercial fair at Kapellen, a small town in northern Belgium, was held 10 days previously and attracted 50,000 visitors. Stand employees (professionals or volunteers), technical staff of the hall and visitors at the fair were affected cases. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to trace the source of the epidemic. To complete the inventory study and to evaluate other risk factors, a cohort study of exhibitors and staff was conducted. Ninety-three people met the case definition, 41 of whom were considered as confirmed, 14 as presumptive cases and 38 as possible/clinical cases. Five people died. Further testing at the reference laboratory confirmed all strains to be Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The sensitivity for culture was low (29.2%), and sensitivity for seroconversion was high (90.9%). For urinary antigen test, a sensitivity with Biotest EIA of 65.6% was found, and the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 85.7%. In all cases, the individual had visited the fair. Those individuals working in the central areas of the tent, near the aerosol-producing devices, were at higher risk of disease. Legionella was detected by PCR on swabs of the surfaces of the whirlpool. Although not fully proven, an aerosol-producing device was the most probable source of the outbreak.

  15. Impact of global warming on viral diseases: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Zell, Roland; Krumbholz, Andi; Wutzler, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Global warming is believed to induce a gradual climate change. Hence, it was predicted that tropical insects might expand their habitats thereby transmitting pathogens to humans. Although this concept is a conclusive presumption, clear evidence is still lacking--at least for viral diseases. Epidemiological data indicate that seasonality of many diseases is further influenced by strong single weather events, interannual climate phenomena, and anthropogenic factors. So far, emergence of new diseases was unlinked to global warming. Re-emergence and dispersion of diseases was correlated with translocation of pathogen-infected vectors or hosts. Coupled ocean/atmosphere circulations and 'global change' that also includes shifting of demographic, social, and economical conditions are important drivers of viral disease variability whereas global warming at best contributes.

  16. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

  17. Detecting Presymptomatic Infection Is Necessary to Forecast Major Epidemics in the Earliest Stages of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robin N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Cunniffe, Nik J.

    2016-01-01

    We assess how presymptomatic infection affects predictability of infectious disease epidemics. We focus on whether or not a major outbreak (i.e. an epidemic that will go on to infect a large number of individuals) can be predicted reliably soon after initial cases of disease have appeared within a population. For emerging epidemics, significant time and effort is spent recording symptomatic cases. Scientific attention has often focused on improving statistical methodologies to estimate disease transmission parameters from these data. Here we show that, even if symptomatic cases are recorded perfectly, and disease spread parameters are estimated exactly, it is impossible to estimate the probability of a major outbreak without ambiguity. Our results therefore provide an upper bound on the accuracy of forecasts of major outbreaks that are constructed using data on symptomatic cases alone. Accurate prediction of whether or not an epidemic will occur requires records of symptomatic individuals to be supplemented with data concerning the true infection status of apparently uninfected individuals. To forecast likely future behavior in the earliest stages of an emerging outbreak, it is therefore vital to develop and deploy accurate diagnostic tests that can determine whether asymptomatic individuals are actually uninfected, or instead are infected but just do not yet show detectable symptoms. PMID:27046030

  18. [Japanese encephalitis: a fast-changing viral disease].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2010-08-01

    The following aspects are dealt with in this article: 1) current geographical distribution of Japanese encephalitis; 2) clinical patterns of Japanese encephalitis; 3) vertebrate hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus; 4) vectors of JE virus; 5) epidemiological locations (endemic area, endemoepidemic area, epidemic area); 6) unknown epidemiological aspects; 7) JE virus serotypes; 8) evolution of the disease and recent epidemiological changes; 9) phylogenetic origin of the JE virus; 10) ecological changes in the past, factors in the emergence of the disease; and 11) the future: Can we predict how the situation will evolve?

  19. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Methods Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with ‘outbreak’ as the unit of analysis. Results From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001). There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). Conclusions More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection

  20. Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States of America: causes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Craun, G F

    1992-01-01

    National statistics on waterborne outbreaks in the United States of America show that 1,702 waterborne outbreaks with 542,018 cases of illness and 1,089 deaths have been reported. Almost all deaths prior to 1940 were due to typhoid fever; 9 deaths from other causes have occurred since 1971. During the past decade, 291 waterborne outbreaks were reported in community (43%) and noncommunity (33%) systems, and from the ingestion of contaminated water from recreational (14%) and individual (10%) water sources. Although several large waterborne outbreaks occurred during the past decade, most were in small communities. The number of illnesses per outbreak in noncommunity systems during the past decade is much larger than that reported during any previous period, and the magnitude of these outbreaks indicates the potential effect on the travelling, transient population. During 1981-1990, contaminated, untreated groundwater or inadequately disinfected groundwater was responsible for 43% of all reported waterborne outbreaks, and contaminated, untreated surface water or inadequately treated surface water was responsible for 24% of all reported outbreaks. The use of untreated groundwater has declined in importance as a cause of outbreaks, and more outbreaks are now caused by inadequate or interrupted disinfection of groundwater. The increased occurrence of outbreaks in disinfected groundwater systems may be due to (i) increased use of disinfection with little effort to reduce or eliminate sources of contamination, and (ii) not providing effective, continuous disinfection. In surface-water systems, outbreaks occur primarily because of inadequate or interrupted disinfection in systems that do not provide filtration, but a large increase in outbreaks has recently occurred in filtered systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian Zhi; Zhang, Li Feng; Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

    2009-07-22

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in

  2. Molecular Analysis of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus in China: A Fatal Aquatic Viral Disease that Might Spread in East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in

  3. A case-control study to identify environmental risk factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaona; Sun, Ying; Lin, Changying; Jia, Lei; Wu, Qingrui; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2014-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted in Beijing to identify the relative importance of major environmental risk factors for outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A case was defined as a kindergarten class with at least 1 HFMD outbreak. As a control, a kindergarten class that did not experience an HFMD outbreak was used. To identify potential transmission factors, the control group was divided into 2 subgroups: a sporadic group and an HFMD-negative group. We collected data for 8 environmental factors and basic information of each class. The correlations between the suspected environmental factors and HFMD outbreaks were analyzed. Thirty outbreak classes, 19 sporadic classes, and 30 HFMD-negative classes were enrolled. Class grade, indoor solar radiation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation revealed significant differences among the 3 groups. After controlling for other factors, UV radiation (adjusted β = -0.42) and class grade (adjusted β = -0.46) as protective factors and temperature (adjusted β = 0.31) as a risk factor were significantly associated with the attack rate by multiple linear regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of an HFMD outbreak in the lower grade was 6-fold greater than that in the higher grade (P = 0.0380, odds ratio = 0.157, 95% confidence interval = 0.027-0.903). We identified UV radiation and class grade as protective factors that were associated with the epidemic intensity in Beijing. However, more data is needed to evaluate the relationship between these factors and HFMD outbreaks.

  4. [A major outbreak of Legionnaire's disease due to a public bathhouse: clinical examination].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yagyu, Hisanaga; Tsuchida, Fumihiro; Sudou, Akihiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Kioi, Kiwamu; Kishi, Koji; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Kiguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2003-05-01

    The largest epidemic outbreak of legionnaires' disease occurred in Japan, where there were 45 cases, including three deaths. There was a high degree of homology at the genetic level between Legionella pneumophila sero-group 1 isolated from two patients and water samples collected from a public bath, and this highlighted the public bath visited by the patients as the source of the infection. We report our clinical observations of 34 cases with a pneumonia type (20 definite and 14 probable) of the 42 cases for whom a diagnosis was made and follow-up care was subsequently provided at our hospital or hospital-affiliated facilities, out of the initial total of 45 cases. Twenty-one cases had underlying diseases, but the disease was mild in all patients. Three cases showed different neuropsychiatric symptoms such as reduced capacity for memorization, somnolence or delirium. Diarrhea was found in three cases, and relative bradycardia in ten. Clinical laboratory test results indicated that a severe inflammatory reaction, renal or hepatic dysfunction, an electrolyte abnormality and abnormal urinalysis were common in the 34 cases. Chest radiography showed a shadow suggestive of infection of the pulmonary parenchyma with multilobar involvement in most cases and pleural effusion in nine cases.

  5. Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2013-09-01

    Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

  6. Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

  7. Future impact of molecular biology and biotechnology on bacterial and viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Pang, T

    1993-06-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology has already made a significant impact on various aspects related to the basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in infectious diseases, as well as practical applications related to diagnostics and prevention. The present paper discusses recent technological innovations and increased analytical capabilities which promise to have an even more significant impact on the control of viral and bacterial diseases. PMID:8350782

  8. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  9. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  12. The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bond, Katherine C; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these "self-organizing" networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance

  13. Investigation of an outbreak of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in pet birds in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Bruning-Fann, C; Kaneene, J; Heamon, J

    1992-12-01

    An outbreak of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in exotic pet birds in the United States from April through July 1991 was investigated. More than 2,000 pet birds in 5 states (Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Texas, and Maryland) were tested. Infected birds were found in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas. This disease was eradicated without spread to domestic poultry. Epidemiologic investigations revealed the source of infection to be double yellow-headed Amazon parrots suspected to be illegally imported into Texas.

  14. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers’ conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in

  15. The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: A modeling study☆

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine E.; Read, Andrew F.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens. PMID:24267877

  16. The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Katherine E; Read, Andrew F; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens.

  17. Short communication: Strengthening sub-national communicable disease surveillance in a remote Pacific Island country by adapting a successful African outbreak surveillance model.

    PubMed

    Nelesone, Tekaai; Durrheim, David N; Speare, Richard; Kiedrzynski, Tom; Melrose, Wayne D

    2006-01-01

    Successful communicable disease surveillance depends on effective bidirectional information flow between clinicians at the periphery and communicable disease control units at regional, national and global levels. Resource-poor countries often struggle to establish and maintain the crucial link with the periphery. A simple syndrome-based outbreak surveillance system initially developed and evaluated in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa was adapted for the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu. Eight syndromes were identified for surveillance: acute flaccid paralysis (poliomyelitis), profuse watery diarrhoea (cholera), diarrhoea outbreak, dysentery outbreak, febrile disease with abdominal symptoms and headache (typhoid), febrile disease with generalized non-blistering rash (measles), febrile disease with intense headache and/or neck stiffness with or without haemorrhagic rash (meningococcal meningitis), and outbreaks of other febrile diseases of unknown origin. A user-oriented manual, the Tuvalu Outbreak Manual (http://www.wepi.org/books/tom/), was developed to support introduction of the surveillance system. Nurses working in seven outer island clinics and the hospital outpatient department on the main island rapidly report suspected outbreaks and submit weekly zero-reports to the central communicable disease control unit. An evaluation of the system after 12 months indicated that the Outbreak Manual was regarded as very useful by clinic nurses, and there was early evidence of improved surveillance and response to the disease syndromes under surveillance. PMID:16398751

  18. Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  19. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies.

  20. Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  1. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  2. Phylogenetic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated during outbreaks in northwestern Iran in 2010.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Elham; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Mardani, Karim; Talebi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The northwest of Iran shares long borders with three neighboring countries; therefore, it is considered one of the main entry portals of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into the country. Ten virulent NDVs were recovered from 19 poultry farms of various prefectures in northwestern Iran during Newcastle disease outbreaks in 2010. The isolates were genotypically analyzed using an F-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The amplified F gene (nucleotides 189-1666) sequences of the NDV isolates were compared phylogenetically with those of previously published strains in GenBank. All of the NDV isolates belonged to genotype VIIb and were closely related to some isolates from Iran, Russia, and Sweden. Therefore, it can be postulated that these isolates evolved from previously reported strains. The velogenic viruses carried the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R/F(117) at the F0 cleavage site and a unique substitution of (190)L→F which had never been reported in any NDV genotype VIIb isolate. They shared high sequence similarity with each other but were distinct from current NDV vaccines and NDV strains reported from other countries. This information is fundamental for improving the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  3. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

  4. Standard finishing categories for high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, J T; Kuhn, J H; Palacios, G

    2016-04-01

    Viral genome sequencing has become the cornerstone of almost all aspects of virology. In particular, high-throughput, next-generation viral genome sequencing has become an integral part of molecular epidemiological investigations into outbreaks of viral disease, such as the recent outbreaks of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, Ebola virus disease and Zika virus infection. Multiple institutes have acquired the expertise and necessary infrastructure to perform such investigations, as evidenced by the accumulation of thousands of novel viral sequences over progressively shorter time periods. The authors recently proposed a nomenclature comprised of five high-throughput sequencing standard categories to describe the quality of determined viral genome sequences. These five categories (standard draft, high quality, coding complete, complete and finished) cover all levels of viral genome finishing and can be applied to sequences determined by any technology platform or assembly technique.

  5. Standard finishing categories for high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, J T; Kuhn, J H; Palacios, G

    2016-04-01

    Viral genome sequencing has become the cornerstone of almost all aspects of virology. In particular, high-throughput, next-generation viral genome sequencing has become an integral part of molecular epidemiological investigations into outbreaks of viral disease, such as the recent outbreaks of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, Ebola virus disease and Zika virus infection. Multiple institutes have acquired the expertise and necessary infrastructure to perform such investigations, as evidenced by the accumulation of thousands of novel viral sequences over progressively shorter time periods. The authors recently proposed a nomenclature comprised of five high-throughput sequencing standard categories to describe the quality of determined viral genome sequences. These five categories (standard draft, high quality, coding complete, complete and finished) cover all levels of viral genome finishing and can be applied to sequences determined by any technology platform or assembly technique. PMID:27217167

  6. Neuropharmacological sequelae of persistent CNS viral infections: lessons from Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Solbrig, Marylou V; Koob, George F

    2003-03-01

    Borna Disease Virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus that is worldwide in distribution, causing movement and behavior disorders in a wide range of animal species. BDV has also been reported to be associated with neuropsychiatric diseases of humans by serologic study and by recovery of nucleic acid or virus from blood or brain. Natural infections of horses and sheep produce encephalitis with erratic excited behaviors, hyperkinetic movement or gait abnormalities; naturally infected cats have ataxic "staggering disease." Experimentally infected primates develop hyperactivity, aggression, disinhibition, then apathy; prosimians (lower primates) have hyperactivity, circadian disruption, abnormal social and dominance behaviors, and postural disorders. However, the neuropharmacological determinants of BD phenotypes in laboratory and natural hosts are incompletely understood. Here we review how experimentally infected rodents have provided models for examining behavioral, pharmacologic, and biochemical responses to viral challenge, and how rodents experimentally infected as neonates or as adolescents are providing models for examining age-specific neuropharmacological adaptations to viral injury. PMID:12667891

  7. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  8. Clinical manifestations of pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian marine salmon farming - variations due to salmonid alphavirus subtype.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M D; Jensen, B Bang; Brun, E

    2015-04-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture has traditionally been caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 3. Following the isolation of a novel SAV subtype in 2010, marine SAV2, two separate endemic areas have developed. It has been debated whether disease outbreaks due to marine SAV2 result in milder clinical manifestations compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. The aim of this study was to descriptively investigate site-level differences in the clinical manifestations of marine SAV2 and SAV3 at Norwegian seawater sites diagnosed with PD in 2012. The findings suggest that Norwegian PD outbreaks caused by marine SAV2 result in lower mortality and milder clinical signs compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. For sites without reported PD-related mortality, there was no difference in the mortality levels between sites infected by marine SAV2 and SAV3. The results also indicate that there are no differences in grading quality at slaughter between the SAV subtypes.

  9. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  10. How predictable were the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in Europe in 2001 and is vaccination the answer?

    PubMed

    Leforban, Y

    2002-12-01

    The author raises three important questions on the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Europe in 2001: were these linked to stopping preventive vaccination, could these outbreaks have been forecast and were they avoidable, and is vaccination an efficient tool to control outbreaks? The replies to these questions are based on recent history of FMD in Europe. The author demonstrates that the 2001 outbreaks were not linked to ceasing vaccination in Europe in 1991. He also attempts to understand the reasons which encouraged the United Kingdom not to use vaccination to halt the progression of the disease, despite the clear demonstration that vaccination is a useful tool in arresting the spread of an epidemic. In conclusion, the author suggests that substantial changes to European policy for FMD control used for the past ten years are not necessary, but that recourse to emergency vaccination should be considered as an important control option in the future. This option should be optimised by ensuring that differential serological tests are performed in parallel with emergency vaccination, thereby enabling the identification and subsequent elimination of infected herds.

  11. Summary of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks reported in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1970 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Dyason, E

    2010-12-01

    Information with regard to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and adjacent areas of South Africa between 1970 and 2009 was collected from reports and files of various government departments and collated into one report. The collected data were summarised in a table and assessed for patterns. Fifty-one FMD outbreaks occurred during this period in the target area, of which 16 were SAT 1, 31 were SAT 2,4 were SAT 3 and 3 were not serotyped. No pattern could be discerned although SAT 1 outbreaks occurred more frequently in the summer months while more SAT 2 outbreaks occurred in winter.

  12. Viral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Haeman; Boltz, David A.; Webster, Robert G.; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects 1-2% of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of environmental agents. One such agent may be viruses. It has been shown that numerous viruses can enter the nervous system, i.e. they are neurotropic, and induce a number of encephalopathies. One of the secondary consequences of these encephalopathies can be parkinsonism, that is both transient as well as permanent. One of the most highlighted and controversial cases of viral parkinsonism is that which followed the 1918 influenza outbreak and the subsequent induction of von Economo's encephalopathy. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae of infection by influenza virus as well as that of other viruses known to induce parkinsonism including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses. PMID:18760350

  13. [Conclusions from the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the government district of Hannover in 1987/1988].

    PubMed

    Strohmaier, K

    1990-05-01

    Knösel und Tiroke (1989) reported recently experiences derived from the control of FMD outbreaks in 1987/88 in Lower Saxony (FRG). On the basis of the described facts and in connection with the observations of the other outbreaks during the last 20 years in the FRG several conclusions were drawn: (1) The compulsory annual vaccination was not able to prevent these outbreaks. (2) Hence follows that very probable introductions of FMD from foreign countries cannot be prevented, especially since such infections were due to infected swill fed to pigs, and those strains were normally not related to the vaccine strains used. (3) Considering all circumstances of the recent outbreaks, it seems unrealistic to believe the primary infection was not due to the escape of virus from the neighboring vaccine plant. (4) The annual vaccination campaigns since 1970 against FMD were useless because most of the primary outbreaks of FMD since then can be traced to the production or the application of vaccines. (5) The legislative control measures are not sufficient to prevent secondary outbreaks. It was recommended to extend the quarantine areas as well as the radius of ring vaccination and to prolong the period of quarantine. (6) The regulation of tremendous losses of trade is obscure because camouflage of the origin of infections blocks the application of the principle of ultimate responsibility. Facit: Eradication of the disease and strict prevention of its introduction into Europe should be the principal strategy of FMD control for the future instead of imperfect protecting one species of the susceptible animal population.

  14. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  15. Epidemiological and genetic analysis concerning the coxsackievirus A6 related endemic outbreak of hand-foot-mouth disease in Taizhou, China, during 2013.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jie; Ma, Zhilong

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1,098 strains of human enteroviruses (HEV), falling into 14 serotypes were detected upon analysis of 1,509 hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) samples collected in Taizhou during the period from July 2010 to December 2013. And a CV-A6 related HFMD outbreak was identified in Taizhou during 2013. Phylogenic analyses of complete VP1 sequences indicate that this outbreak of HFMD in Taizhou is closely related to the global outbreaks of CV-A6 related HFMD since 2008, but the analyses also indicate that the outbreak in Taizhou is rather an endemic outbreak in which a phylogenic sub-group of CV-A6 was identified whose members commonly acquired a mutation R→K at site 254 of VP1 protein. It is interesting that the emergence of the sub-group was inferred to contribute to the endemic outbreak in Taizhou in 2013.

  16. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). PMID:26697715

  17. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  18. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  19. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  20. Predicting the level of herd infection for outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in vaccinated herds.

    PubMed

    Hutber, A M; Kitching, R P; Conway, D A

    1999-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus infection of sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and other, non-domesticated species of artiodactyls, and causes both clinical and subclinical infection according to the natural or acquired immunity of the host. Within vaccinated dairy herds FMD may appear as an acute, mild or subclinical infection, dependent upon the immune status of the herd, the level of challenge and the efficacy of the vaccine used. In the large dairy herds of Saudi Arabia, sub-clinical FMD was on a number of occasions, found to have spread amongst the cattle before signs of disease were seen. Such undetected transmission resulted in a large incidence on the first day of diagnosis and curtailed the impact of post-outbreak vaccination (PoV). First day incidence (FDI) for these herds was found to correlate with the final cumulative incidence of clinical disease. Since FDI is available at the start of an outbreak it can be used as a predictive tool for the eventual outcome of an FMD outbreak. During the past 11 years 47 % of dairy herds examined in Saudi Arabia have experienced FMD initially as sub-clinical disease. For the remaining 53 %, waning vaccinal protection did not suppress clinical disease in the initially infected animals, and these showed severe rather than mild signs. Hence, in such herds there was a very low initial level of subclinical infection, so PoV was more effective, and the timing of PoV was found to give a good correlation with cumulative herd incidence: an early PoV resulted in low prevalence of clinically infected animals whilst late PoV permitted high prevalence. PoV timing can thereby be used in tandem with FDI as a predictive tool for future outbreaks, estimating the final cumulative incidence (or prevalence) of clinical FMD cases.

  1. [Factors predicting mortality during an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in the north of France].

    PubMed

    Prevotat, A; Bure, M; Bergoin, C; Tavernier, J-Y; Van Grunderbeeck, N; Yazdanpanah, Y; Lamblin, C

    2008-03-01

    Between November 2003 and January 2004 in the North of France a large outbreak of legionnaire's disease affected 85 patients. The clinical, biological and radiological characteristics of the patients were investigated to determine factors associated with mortality. Two populations were defined and compared: patients who died within 28 days and those who survived. Eighty-five patients were included in this study. The median age was 75 years. The median fever was 39.3 +/- 0.1 degrees. Fifteen patients (17.6%) had at least 3 underlying co-morbidities. Cough, dyspnoea, confusion and diarrhoea were found in respectively 46, 68, 47, and 15% of the patients. The median of urea was 0.7 +/- 0.05 g/L, creatinine 16 +/- 1.5 mg/L, CRP 332 +/- 15 mg/L. On the chest X-ray, lung infiltrates were present in 64% and multilobar in 40%. The overall mortality rate was 21%. In univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, dyspnoea, urea>0.90 g/l and CRP>350 mg/l were predictive factors of mortality. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, urea>0.90 g/l, and bilateral infiltrates on chest X ray were retained as independent risk factors for death.

  2. Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Muriel, P; Russell, D; Osborne, P; Bromley, A; Rowland, M; Creigh-Tyte, S; Brown, C

    2002-12-01

    The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001. PMID:12523706

  3. Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Muriel, P; Russell, D; Osborne, P; Bromley, A; Rowland, M; Creigh-Tyte, S; Brown, C

    2002-12-01

    The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001.

  4. Intervention strategies for carcass disposal: pareto analysis of exposures for exotic disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Delgado, João; Longhurst, Phil; Hickman, Gordon A W; Gauntlett, Daniel M; Howson, Simon F; Irving, Phil; Hart, Alwyn; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-06-15

    An enhanced methodology for the policy-level prioritization of intervention options during carcass disposal is presented. Pareto charts provide a semiquantitative analysis of opportunities for multiple exposures to human health, animal health, and the wider environment during carcass disposal; they identify critical control points for risk management and assist in waste technology assessment. Eighty percent of the total availability of more than 1300 potential exposures to human, animal, or environmental receptors is represented by 16 processes, these being dominated by on-farm collection and carcass processing, reinforcing the criticality of effective controls during early stages of animal culling and waste processing. Exposures during mass burials are dominated by ground- and surface-water exposures with noise and odor nuisance prevalent for mass pyres, consistent with U.K. experience. Pareto charts are discussed in the context of other visualization formats for policy officials and promoted as a communication tool for informing the site-specific risk assessments required during the operational phases of exotic disease outbreaks.

  5. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology.

    PubMed

    Tom-Aba, Daniel; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Olayinka, Adebola Tolulope; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Adewuyi, Peter; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Oladele, Saliu; Adeseye, Aderonke; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Shuaib, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions.

  6. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology.

    PubMed

    Tom-Aba, Daniel; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Olayinka, Adebola Tolulope; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Adewuyi, Peter; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Oladele, Saliu; Adeseye, Aderonke; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Shuaib, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions. PMID:26115402

  7. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Rumunu, John; Ramadan, Otim Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. Methods The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were compared and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developing severe disease or death. Findings In total, 4115 cholera patients were treated at the 41 facilities: 1946 (47.3%) had severe disease and 62 (1.5%) deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received two doses of oral cholera vaccine were 4.5-fold less likely to develop severe disease than unvaccinated patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11–0.44). Moreover, those with severe cholera were significantly more likely to die than those without (aOR: 4.76; 95% CI: 2.33–9.77). Conclusion Pre-emptive vaccination with two doses of oral cholera vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing severe cholera disease during an outbreak in South Sudan. Moreover, severe disease was the strongest predictor of death. Two doses of oral cholera vaccine should be used in emergencies to reduce the disease burden. PMID:27708472

  8. Transparency and Documentation in Simulations of Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Towards Evidence-Based Public Health Decisions and Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Morin, Magnus; Jenvald, Johan; Nyce, James M.; Gursky, Elin A.; Eriksson, Henrik

    Computer simulations have emerged as important tools in the preparation for outbreaks of infectious disease. To support the collaborative planning and responding to the outbreaks, reports from simulations need to be transparent (accessible) with regard to the underlying parametric settings. This paper presents a design for generation of simulation reports where the background settings used in the simulation models are automatically visualized. We extended the ontology-management system Protégé to tag different settings into categories, and included these in report generation in parallel to the simulation outcomes. The report generator takes advantage of an XSLT specification and collects the documentation of the particular simulation settings into abridged XMLs including also summarized results. We conclude that even though inclusion of critical background settings in reports may not increase the accuracy of infectious disease simulations, it can prevent misunderstandings and less than optimal public health decisions.

  9. Description of recent foot and mouth disease outbreaks in nonendemic areas: exploring the relationship between early detection and epidemic size.

    PubMed

    McLaws, Melissa; Ribble, Carl

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the detection of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in nonendemic areas, and to consider how events early in an epidemic influence the epidemic's course. We identified 24 epidemics that occurred between 1992 and 2003 in areas officially considered free of FMD. We obtained information about these epidemics from many sources, including the scientific literature, the grey (non peer-reviewed) literature, and individuals involved with the outbreaks. While most of the epidemics consisted of fewer than 150 infected premises, there were 4 extremely large epidemics, each consisting of more than 2000 infected premises. There was no direct relationship between the time to detection and either the total number of infected premises or the number of animals killed for disease control purposes. We believe that the movement of infected animals through markets was the most critical factor that contributed to the unusual magnitude of the very large epidemics.

  10. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  11. First finding of Southeast Asia topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeou-Liang; Chang, Chia-Yi; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Fan

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia.

  12. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. PMID:25183845

  13. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O’Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  14. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O'Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  15. Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

  16. Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.

    PubMed

    Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

    2007-11-01

    The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds.

  17. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  18. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  19. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Runyon, Christina M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

  20. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  1. Emerging coral diseases in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Runyon, Christina M.; Smith, Ashley; Stanton, Frank G.; Ushijima, Blake; Work, Thierry M.

    2016-01-01

    In March 2010 and January 2012, we documented 2 widespread and severe coral disease outbreaks on reefs throughout Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i (USA). The disease, acute Montipora white syndrome (aMWS), manifested as acute and progressive tissue loss on the common reef coral M. capitata. Rapid visual surveys in 2010 revealed 338 aMWS-affected M. capitata colonies with a disease abundance of (mean ± SE) 0.02 ± 0.01 affected colonies per m of reef surveyed. In 2012, disease abundance was significantly higher (1232 aMWS-affected colonies) with 0.06 ± 0.02 affected colonies m-1. Prior surveys found few acute tissue loss lesions in M. capitata in Kāne‘ohe Bay; thus, the high number of infected colonies found during these outbreaks would classify this as an emerging disease. Disease abundance was highest in the semi-enclosed region of south Kāne‘ohe Bay, which has a history of nutrient and sediment impacts from terrestrial runoff and stream discharge. In 2010, tagged colonies showed an average tissue loss of 24% after 1 mo, and 92% of the colonies continued to lose tissue in the subsequent month but at a slower rate (chronic tissue loss). The host-specific nature of this disease (affecting only M. capitata) and the apparent spread of lesions between M. capitatacolonies in the field suggest a potential transmissible agent. The synchronous appearance of affected colonies on multiple reefs across Kāne‘ohe Bay suggests a common underlying factor. Both outbreaks occurred during the colder, rainy winter months, and thus it is likely that some parameter(s) associated with winter environmental conditions are linked to the emergence of disease outbreaks on these reefs.

  2. Emerging coral diseases in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean; Cox, Evelyn F; Runyon, Christina; Smith, Ashley; Stanton, Frank G; Ushijima, Blake; Work, Thierry M

    2016-05-26

    In March 2010 and January 2012, we documented 2 widespread and severe coral disease outbreaks on reefs throughout Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i (USA). The disease, acute Montipora white syndrome (aMWS), manifested as acute and progressive tissue loss on the common reef coral M. capitata. Rapid visual surveys in 2010 revealed 338 aMWS-affected M. capitata colonies with a disease abundance of (mean ± SE) 0.02 ± 0.01 affected colonies per m of reef surveyed. In 2012, disease abundance was significantly higher (1232 aMWS-affected colonies) with 0.06 ± 0.02 affected colonies m(-1). Prior surveys found few acute tissue loss lesions in M. capitata in Ka¯ne'ohe Bay; thus, the high number of infected colonies found during these outbreaks would classify this as an emerging disease. Disease abundance was highest in the semi-enclosed region of south Kāne'ohe Bay, which has a history of nutrient and sediment impacts from terrestrial runoff and stream discharge. In 2010, tagged colonies showed an average tissue loss of 24% after 1 mo, and 92% of the colonies continued to lose tissue in the subsequent month but at a slower rate (chronic tissue loss). The host-specific nature of this disease (affecting only M. capitata) and the apparent spread of lesions between M. capitata colonies in the field suggest a potential transmissible agent. The synchronous appearance of affected colonies on multiple reefs across Kāne'ohe Bay suggests a common underlying factor. Both outbreaks occurred during the colder, rainy winter months, and thus it is likely that some parameter(s) associated with winter environmental conditions are linked to the emergence of disease outbreaks on these reefs. PMID:27225202

  3. [The concept of emerging viral diseases: what risk for Reunion Island?].

    PubMed

    Peton, M; Vilain, P; Reilhes, O; Cardinale, E; Gaüzère, B A; Filleul, L

    2013-08-01

    In Reunion Island, the risk of emerging infectious diseases lies mainly in several viral zoonoses: West Nile fever, Sindbis virus, Nipah virus, Wesselsbron virus, Rift Valley fever and Japanese encephalitis. There morbidity and consequences are more or less important but they all have a non-negligible epidemic potential, so they have to be monitored. Indeed, the struggle against these emerging infectious diseases requires an early detection of the cases, thus a surveillance system capable of detecting them as early as possible, thanks to a real international network of information, warning and prevention. PMID:23765703

  4. Epidemiology and transmission characteristics of human adenovirus type 7 caused acute respiratory disease outbreak in military trainees in East China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Qi, Xiaoping; Chen, Dawei; Xu, Xujian; Wang, Guozheng; Dai, Yuzhu; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Qingyong; Fan, Ping; Ni, Liuda; Liu, Miao; Zhu, Feiyan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Changjun; Li, Yuexi; Sun, Changgui; Wang, Zhongyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV7) is globally attracting great concern as its high morbidity and severity in respiratory diseases, especially in Asia. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV7 infection outbreak in East China. Methods: The clinical samples were collected from the patients of an ARD outbreak in East Chinafor the detection of causative pathogens by multiplex PCR. The molecular type of human adenovirus isolates were identified by sequencing and homologous comparison based on their hexon genes. The spatiotemporal dynamics of global HAdV7 was investigated using the phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. Total 67 referenced HAdV7 hexon sequences (>800 bp) from GenBank were selected for constructing the maximum likelihood tree by MEGA 5.1.0, grouped according to the tree topology for the further migration analysis by PAUP* 4.0 and MigraPhyla 1.0 b to understand the transmission patterns of HAdV7 in global epidemics. Results: The results showed HAdV7 as the causative pathogen in this outbreak, and the outbreak strains had the hexon sequences highly identical with the isolates in Shaanxi (2012). The origin of HAdV7 was inferred as California, meanwhile a total of 21 migration routes were acquired. HAdV7 in this outbreak was statistically proven dispersed from Shaanxi province (2012). Conclusions: The analyses of epidemiology and transmission pattern of HAdV7 would not only enrich the molecular biological basic database but also provide theoretical basis for HAdV7 prevention and control strategy. PMID:27347341

  5. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well

  6. Aptamer-based therapeutics: new approaches to combat human viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J

    2013-11-25

    Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success.

  7. Disease burden in Brazil: an investigation into alcohol and non-viral cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Juliana Ribeiro; Flor, Luisa Sório; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade; Costa, Maria de Fátima dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol use/dependence are an important risk factor for cirrhosis of the liver. The article aims to describe and conduct a comparative analysis of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD) of alcohol use disorders and non-viral cirrhosis in Brazil in 2008. DALY was calculated as the sum of YLL and YLD. For YLL estimates, the mean number of deaths from 2007- 2009 in the country was considered. After revision of epidemiological data, prevalence of each disease was modelled with the DisMod tool, which generated incidence data for YLD estimates. Alcohol and non-viral cirrhosis were responsible for 3% and 1% of total DALYs, respectively. In both diseases, men contributed to a greater proportion of DALYs. Among the first ten causes of DALYs, alcohol use disorders occupied the second, third and sixth positions at the ages of 15-29, 30-44 and 45- 59, respectively. Non-viral cirrhosis was the eighth cause of DALY in the 30-44 age group in men; the fifth, in the 45-59 group and the eighth, in the 60-69 group. Age distribution suggests that interventions directed against alcohol use/dependence would have effects on the burden of alcoholic cirrhosis in the country. PMID:25715143

  8. Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

  9. [The application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology in viral infection diseases].

    PubMed

    Lijuan, Yin; Siqi, Hu; Fei, Guo

    2015-05-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. The specific targeted genome is recognized and cut by gRNA-directed CRISPR/Cas9 complex, specifically by the endonuclease Cas9. The targeted gene locus could be repaired either by homology-directed repair or nonhomologous end joining, thus achieving a desired editing outcome. Viruses infect cells through specific receptors, and then the viral genome is transcribed, replicated and translated to complete its life cycle. As a result, some DNA virus and retrovirus genomes are integrated into the cellular genome. Gene therapy is a new trend to treat viral infected diseases. Given its designable sequence-specific editing of the targeted genome, CRISPR/Cas9 has tremendous potential in treating persistent and latent viral infections. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and progresses of CRISPR/Cas9, and also highlight its therapeutic application in infectious diseases.

  10. An outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in a frequently penalized food service operation: a case for mandatory training of food handlers in safety and hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kassa, H

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, in Toledo, Ohio, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among people who had attended a Christmas dinner banquet and had eaten food prepared by a local caterer. Overall, 93 of the 137 attendees (67.9 percent) reported illness. Eight sought medical care, and one was hospitalized. Case-control studies revealed that the illness was associated with eating tossed salad (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-6.26). Eleven of 12 stool specimens that were taken from ill people tested positive for a Norwalk-like virus (NLV) but were negative for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella. The primary source of the outbreak was not determined, but an infected food handler may have played a role in the transmission of the virus. The catering facility had been cited frequently for food safety and hygiene violations. None of the personnel or food handlers at this facility had been appropriately trained in safe food-handling practices, nor had the personnel at another local caterer that had prepared food items suspected of causing a multistate outbreak of NLVs. In Toledo, food service operations with trained personnel/food handlers received better inspection reports than food service operations without trained personnel and were less likely to contribute to foodborne outbreaks. Training of personnel and food handlers may be important for preventing outbreaks.

  11. Event-based surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases in Europe: urgent inquiries (outbreak alerts) during 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; de Jong, B; Hoebe, C J; Coulombier, D

    2015-01-01

    During 2008 to 2013, 215 outbreak alerts, also known as 'urgent inquiries' (UI), for food- and waterborne diseases were launched in Europe, the majority of them (135; 63%) being related to salmonellosis. For 110 (51%) UI, a potential food vehicle of infection was identified, with vegetables being the most reported category (34;31%). A total of 28% (n = 60) of the outbreaks reported had an international dimension, involving at least two countries (mean: 4; standard deviation: 2; range:2–14). Participating countries posted 2,343 messages(initial posts and replies, excluding updates), with a median of 11 messages per urgent inquiry (range:1–28). Of 60 multicountry UI, 50 involved between two and four countries. The UI allowed early detection of multicountry outbreaks, facilitated the identification of the suspected vehicles and consequently contributed to the timely implementation of control measures. The introduction of an epidemic intelligence information system platform in 2010 has strengthened the role of the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses network in facilitating timely exchange of information between public health authorities of the participating countries. PMID:26132769

  12. Event-based surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases in Europe: urgent inquiries (outbreak alerts) during 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; de Jong, B; Hoebe, C J; Coulombier, D

    2015-06-25

    During 2008 to 2013, 215 outbreak alerts, also known as 'urgent inquiries' (UI), for food- and waterborne diseases were launched in Europe, the majority of them (135; 63%) being related to salmonellosis. For 110 (51%) UI, a potential food vehicle of infection was identified, with vegetables being the most reported category (34;31%). A total of 28% (n = 60) of the outbreaks reported had an international dimension, involving at least two countries (mean: 4; standard deviation: 2; range:2–14). Participating countries posted 2,343 messages(initial posts and replies, excluding updates), with a median of 11 messages per urgent inquiry (range:1–28). Of 60 multicountry UI, 50 involved between two and four countries. The UI allowed early detection of multicountry outbreaks, facilitated the identification of the suspected vehicles and consequently contributed to the timely implementation of control measures. The introduction of an epidemic intelligence information system platform in 2010 has strengthened the role of the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses network in facilitating timely exchange of information between public health authorities of the participating countries.

  13. Epidemiological investigation of a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Christchurch, New Zealand: the value of spatial methods for practical public health.

    PubMed

    White, P S; Graham, F F; Harte, D J G; Baker, M G; Ambrose, C D; Humphrey, A R G

    2013-04-01

    Between April and August 2005 Christchurch, New Zealand experienced an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. There were 19 laboratory-confirmed case including three deaths. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lpsg1) was identified as the causative agent for all cases. A case-control study indicated a geographical association between the cases but no specific common exposures. Rapid spatial epidemiological investigation confirmed the association and identified seven spatially significant case clusters. The clusters were all sourced in the same area and exhibited a clear anisotropic process (noticeable direction) revealing a plume effect consistent with aerosol dispersion from a prevailing southwesterly wind. Four out of five cases tested had indistinguishable allele profiles that also matched environmental isolates from a water cooling tower within the centre of the clusters. This tower was considered the most probable source for these clusters. The conclusion would suggest a maximum dispersal distance in this outbreak of 11·6 km. This work illustrated the value of geostatistical techniques for infectious disease epidemiology and for providing timely information during outbreak investigations. PMID:22697112

  14. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  15. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from disease outbreaks in shellfish hatcheries. First description of Vibrio neptunius as an oyster pathogen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Montes, Jaime; Barja, Juan L

    2005-11-28

    Shellfish hatcheries are often affected by disease outbreaks. Three such episodes were investigated in different Galician hatcheries in order to establish the relationship between present microbiota and mortalities. Isolates were obtained from various parts of the hatcheries. Experimental tests for pathogenicity were carried out in microscale experiments using selected strains on Ostrea edulis larvae. The pathogenicity of 1 strain from each outbreak was demonstrated and shown to cause high mortalities (ranging from 98.5 to 100%) in 72 to 96 h after inoculation of larval cultures. All 3 strains belong to the genus Vibrio. One of the strains was identified as Vibrio neptunius and is the first description of this species as a molluscan pathogen. The other 2 strains showed low similarity with the Vibrio species analysed and may constitute new species within this genus.

  16. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1). PMID:27606798

  17. Homelessness and the response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cheryl S; Ho, Minnie M; Kiss, Alex; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Hwang, Stephen W

    2008-05-01

    During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto, the potential introduction of SARS into the homeless population was a serious concern. Although no homeless individual in Toronto contracted SARS, the outbreak highlighted the need to develop an outbreak preparedness plan that accounts for unique issues related to homeless people. We conducted key informant interviews with homeless service providers and public health officials (n = 17) and identified challenges specific to the homeless population in the areas of communication, infection control, isolation and quarantine, and resource allocation. Planning for future outbreaks should take into account the need to (1) develop systems that enable rapid two-way communication between public health officials and homeless service providers, (2) ensure that homeless service providers have access to infection control supplies and staff training, (3) prepare for possible homeless shelter closures due to staff shortages or high attack rates among clients, and (4) plan for where and how clinically ill homeless individuals will be isolated and treated. The Toronto SARS experience provided insights that are relevant to response planning for future outbreaks in cities with substantial numbers of homeless individuals. PMID:18347991

  18. Foot and mouth disease in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: I. A review of recent outbreaks and lessons from control programmes.

    PubMed

    Khounsy, S; Conlan, J V; Gleeson, L J; Westbury, H A; Colling, A; Paton, D J; Knowles, N J; Ferris, N P; Blacksell, S D

    2008-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) causes sporadic disease outbreaks in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). As the Lao PDR is a major thoroughfare for transboundary animal movements, regular FMD outbreaks occur, causing economic hardship for farmers and their families. In this review of the recent history of FMD in the Lao PDR between 1997 and 2006, the authors examine the virological and epidemiological aspects of the disease and appropriate control measures, including the distribution of outbreaks, causative serotypes and the molecular epidemiology of the viruses, as well as large-scale vaccination programmes. The dominant serotype, type O, was reported every year from 1998 to 2005. The majority of outbreaks occurred in Vientiane Capital (n = 42; 28%) and the highest number of outbreaks were reported in cattle (n = 94; 61%); followed by buffalo (n = 41; 27%) and pigs (n = 18; 12%). All type A outbreaks occurred in cattle. Type Asia 1 outbreaks were reported in the central provinces around Vientiane Capital between 1996 and 1998.

  19. [Investigation of a measles outbreak in Pará State, Brazil, in the age of elimination of the disease].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Hiane Santos de; Nascimento, Gilmara Lima; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Santos, Deise Aparecida dos

    2015-10-01

    In July 27th, 2010, witnessed the late notification of a positive test result for measles IgM antibodies in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, sparking an epidemiological investigation and control and preventive measures. Two more confirmed cases were identified, both of whom were siblings of the index case, with clinical signs and symptoms and incubation period consistent with measles. We conducted a retrospective search in hospitals and laboratories for suspected cases that lived in or had visited Pará State from May 1st to August 4th, 2010, and had presented fever and exanthema accompanied by cough and/or sneezing and/or conjunctivitis. All identified cases were investigated by telephone contact and/or home visits. We reviewed 183,854 consultation forms and identified 56 (0.03%) suspected cases. We applied 2,535 doses of triple viral vaccine distributed between blockades vaccination intensifications. A household measles outbreak occurred in Belém with the detection and isolation of a viral genotype imported from Europe. Timely and sensitive epidemiological surveillance is recommended for the detection of suspected cases of measles and maintenance of high immunization coverage.

  20. [Investigation of a measles outbreak in Pará State, Brazil, in the age of elimination of the disease].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Hiane Santos de; Nascimento, Gilmara Lima; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Santos, Deise Aparecida dos

    2015-10-01

    In July 27th, 2010, witnessed the late notification of a positive test result for measles IgM antibodies in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, sparking an epidemiological investigation and control and preventive measures. Two more confirmed cases were identified, both of whom were siblings of the index case, with clinical signs and symptoms and incubation period consistent with measles. We conducted a retrospective search in hospitals and laboratories for suspected cases that lived in or had visited Pará State from May 1st to August 4th, 2010, and had presented fever and exanthema accompanied by cough and/or sneezing and/or conjunctivitis. All identified cases were investigated by telephone contact and/or home visits. We reviewed 183,854 consultation forms and identified 56 (0.03%) suspected cases. We applied 2,535 doses of triple viral vaccine distributed between blockades vaccination intensifications. A household measles outbreak occurred in Belém with the detection and isolation of a viral genotype imported from Europe. Timely and sensitive epidemiological surveillance is recommended for the detection of suspected cases of measles and maintenance of high immunization coverage. PMID:26735390

  1. Community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease: an investigation confirming the potential for cooling towers to transmit Legionella species.

    PubMed

    Keller, D W; Hajjeh, R; DeMaria, A; Fields, B S; Pruckler, J M; Benson, R S; Kludt PE Lett, S M; Mermel, L A; Giorgio, C; Breiman, R F

    1996-02-01

    In August and September 1993, we investigated an outbreak of legionnaires' disease in Fall River, Massachusetts, that involved 11 persons; the attack rate was highest in Flint, a community of Fall River. All cases were infected with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1). A case-control study revealed that cases were more likely than matched controls to have visited sites in neighborhood A of Flint. Environmental sampling in Flint found that four of nine aerosol-producing devices sampled contained legionellae; only two, conjoined cooling towers on building A, contained Lp-1. Three independent methods of subtyping--monoclonal antibody subtyping, arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis--revealed that Lp-1 isolates from three cases with culture-positive legionnaires' disease matched those from the cooling towers on building A. Water samples from the homes of cases with culture-positive legionnaires' disease contained no legionellae. The results of this epidemiologic and laboratory investigation indicate that the cooling towers on building A were the source of the outbreak of legionnaires' disease and confirm the importance of cooling towers in the transmission of legionnaires' disease.

  2. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California and other recent outbreaks in North America.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Janice C; Senne, Dennis A; Woolcock, Peter R; Kinde, Hailu; King, Daniel J; Wise, Mark G; Panigrahy, Brundaban; Seal, Bruce S

    2004-05-01

    Isolates from the 2002-2003 virulent Newcastle disease virus (v-NDV) outbreak in southern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Texas in the United States were compared to each other along with recent v-NDV isolates from Mexico and Central America and reference avian paramyxovirus type 1 strains. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on a 1,195-base genomic segment composing the 3' region of the matrix (M) protein gene and a 5' portion of the fusion (F) protein gene including the M-F intergenic region. This encompasses coding sequences for the nuclear localization signal of the M protein and the F protein cleavage activation site. A dibasic amino acid motif was present at the predicted F protein cleavage activation site in all v-NDVs, including the California 2002-2003, Arizona, Nevada, Texas, Mexico, and Central America isolates. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the California 2002-2003, Arizona, Nevada, and Texas viruses were most closely related to isolates from Mexico and Central America. An isolate from Texas obtained during 2003 appeared to represent a separate introduction of v-NDV into the United States, as this virus was even more closely related to the Mexico 2000 isolates than the California, Arizona, and Nevada viruses. The close phylogenetic relationship between the recent 2002-2003 U.S. v-NDV isolates and those viruses from countries geographically close to the United States warrants continued surveillance of commercial and noncommercial poultry for early detection of highly virulent NDV.

  4. Both cis and trans Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3D Polymerase Are Essential for Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Herod, Morgan R.; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Ward, Joseph C.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Rowlands, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense RNA viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. Many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral RNA replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate RNA molecule), while others are required in cis (i.e., expressed from the template RNA molecule). In vitro studies have suggested that multiple copies of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3D are involved in the viral replication complex. However, it is not clear whether all these molecules are catalytically active or what other function(s) they provide. In this study, we aimed to distinguish between catalytically active 3D molecules and those that build a replication complex. We report a novel nonenzymatic cis-acting function of 3D that is essential for viral-genome replication. Using an FMDV replicon in complementation experiments, our data demonstrate that this cis-acting role of 3D is distinct from the catalytic activity, which is predominantly trans acting. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that both cis- and trans-acting 3D molecules localize to the same cellular compartment. However, our genetic and structural data suggest that 3D interacts in cis with RNA stem-loops that are essential for viral RNA replication. This study identifies a previously undescribed aspect of picornavirus replication complex structure-function and an important methodology for probing such interactions further. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important animal pathogen responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world with outbreaks within livestock resulting in major economic losses. Propagation of the viral genome

  5. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  6. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  7. Reducing outbreaks: using international governmental risk pools to fund research and development of infectious disease medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Erfe, J Mark

    2014-12-01

    The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future.

  8. Reducing Outbreaks: Using International Governmental Risk Pools to Fund Research and Development of Infectious Disease Medicines and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Erfe, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future. PMID:25506281

  9. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  11. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Panama: Fatal Endemic Disease and Genetic Diversity of Etiologic Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961–2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America. PMID:19564908

  12. Blue moon neurovirology: the merits of studying rare CNS diseases of viral origin.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Rall, Glenn F

    2010-09-01

    While measles virus (MV) continues to have a significant impact on human health, causing 150,000-200,000 deaths worldwide each year, the number of fatalities that can be attributed to MV-triggered central nervous system (CNS) diseases are on the order of a few hundred individuals annually (World Health Organization 2009). Despite this modest impact, substantial effort has been expended to understand the basis of measles-triggered neuropathogenesis. What can be gained by studying such a rare condition? Simply stated, the wealth of studies in this field have revealed core principles that are relevant to multiple neurotropic pathogens, and that inform the broader field of viral pathogenesis. In recent years, the emergence of powerful in vitro systems, novel animal models, and reverse genetics has enabled insights into the basis of MV persistence, the complexity of MV interactions with neurons and the immune system, and the role of immune and CNS development in virus-triggered disease. In this review, we highlight some key advances, link relevant measles-based studies to the broader disciplines of neurovirology and viral pathogenesis, and propose future areas of study for the field of measles-mediated neurological disease.