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Sample records for viruses share common

  1. Do human polyoma viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share common co-receptors?

    PubMed

    Borissov, Kalin; Tsekov, Iliya; Gavazova, Rayna; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Argirova, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Host and/or viral factors involved in human polyomavirus (HPoV) infection in persons living with HIV remain unknown. A hypothesis is outlined suggesting the importance of the co-receptors CCR5, CCR2, and CXCR4 not only for HIV, but also for HPoV. Functionally capable receptors coded by wild-type (wt) genotypes could facilitate internalization of HPoV in the cell resulting in brain and/or kidney infection/s in HIV infected individuals. Forty-nine Bulgarians with HIV, all treated by HAART, without neurological and/or kidney disorders, were tested for JCV and BKV and genotyped for CCR5 (CCR5del32), CCR2 (CCR2-64I), and CXCR4 (SDF1-3'A). In 27/49 (55.1%) individuals a co-infection with HPoV was identified-BKV in 12/49 (24.5%), JCV-in another 12/49 (24.5%), and both viruses-in 3/49 (6.1%). A high frequency of wt CCR5 was found in patients with HPoV (91.7% for BKV and JCV and in 100% with both viruses). V/V of CCR2 was presented in 75% for BKV and JCV and in 66.7% for BKV plus JCV. SDF1-3'G/G predominated in JCV infected patients (75%), while G/A and A/A genotypes were more frequent in patients with BKV (41.7%). Also, 21/22 (95.4%) persons without HPoV infection were heterozygous for SDF1 and CCR2. The number of individuals bearing wt of all co-receptors in the group of persons not infected with HPoV was lower (P = 0.03) than that with polymorphism/s in one or two genes (SDF1 and CCR2) in the same group. The results suggest a probable role of co-receptors used by HIV to facilitate infection with HPoV.

  2. NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion

  3. Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, P U; Rein, G

    2001-01-01

    Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modifications which manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique among mammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitive to environmental stress. Major environmental factors have been recognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysical properties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substances do affect skin, which is also sensitive to endogenous hormone levels. Factors as diverse as ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pollution, wounds, infections, traumatisms, anoxya, cigarette smoke, and hormonal status have a role in increasing the rate of accumulation of molecular modifications and have thus been termed 'factors of ageing'. All these factors share as a common feature, the capability to directly or indirectly induce one of the steps of the micro-inflammatory cycle, which includes the expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells. This triggers a process leading to the accumulation of damages in the skin resulting in skin ageing since ICAM-1 expression provokes recruitment and diapedesis of circulating immune cells, which digest the extracellular matrix (ECM) by secreting collagenases, myeloperoxidases and reactive oxygen species. The activation of these lytic processes provokes random damage to resident cells, which in turn secrete prostaglandines and leukotrienes. These signaling molecules induce the degranulation of resident mast cells which release the autacoid histamine and the cytokine TNF-alpha thus activating endothelial cells lining adjacent capillaries which release P-selectin and synthesize ICAM-1. This closes a self-maintained micro-inflammatory cycle, which results in the accumulation of ECM damage, i.e. skin aging. In this paper we review the evidence that two factors able to induce macroscopical and molecular modifications in the skin, protein glycation and stretch, activate the micro-inflammatory cycle. We further present

  4. Sharing Common Ground: Texas and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinda, Sheri; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    When browsing through professional catalogs or attending national conferences, one cannot help but notice the growing emphasis on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). So, what does this mean for Texas teachers? As part of a special four-part series in our Texas Journal of Literacy Education, a special task force from the TALE Board will share…

  5. Chaotic Dynamics and Application of LCR Oscillators Sharing Common Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevarekha, A.; Paul Asir, M.; Philominathan, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of sharing common nonlinearity among nonautonomous and autonomous oscillators. By choosing a suitable common nonlinear element with the driving point characteristics capable of bringing out chaotic motion in a combined system, we obtain identical chaotic states. The dynamics of the coupled system is explored through numerical and experimental studies. Employing the concept of common nonlinearity, a simple chaotic communication system is modeled and its performance is verified through Multisim simulation.

  6. Expected size of shared haplotypes surrounding a common disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Meerman, G.J. te; Meulen, M.A. van der; Sandkuijl, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    If two persons in a founder population share a rare disease, they may share genes involved in that disease Identical By Descent. We have calculated the probability of the size of the region IBD on either side of a shared common gene. Probabilities are plotted for various values of the meiotic count: the number of independent meioses connecting the persons. Even if this number is quite large, the shared area will, given the present density of markers, contain several markers. To be 95% certain that the area surrounding a gene can be delimited to less than 1 cM, approximately 500 meioses need to be observed. The many generations that are required before a gene is separated from its surrounding polymorphisms indicate that association between disease and marker alleles can be explained as IBD around a common gene. In founder populations apparantly unrelated affected persons will likely share disease genes introduced or mutated between 10 and 40 generations ago. Analyzing the overlap of haplotypes gives excellent opportunities to observe implicitly the many meioses required for genetic fine mapping.

  7. Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162969.html Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes But ... least some cases of type 1 diabetes. The viruses are known as enteroviruses. These viruses cause a ...

  8. Multiple mutations of lung squamous cell carcinoma shared common mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Gu, Biao; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancers which is the cause of 80% of all lung cancer deaths. The genes that highly mutated in patients with LUSC and their roles played in the tumorigenesis remains unknown. Data of patients with Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes were identified between control and cancer samples. Patients and controls can be separated by mRNA expression level showing that the between-group variance and totally 1265 genes were differentially expressed between controls and patients. Top genes whose mutations highly occurred in patients with LUSC were identified, most of these genes were shown to be related with tumorigenesis in previous studies. All of the genes mostly mutated were independently correlated with expression levels of all genes. These mutations did not show the trend of co-occurrence. However, the influenced gene of these mutations had overlaps. After studying the intersection of these genes, a group of shared genes were identified. The shared pathways enriched which played critical role in LUSC were identified based on these shared genes. Different mutations had contribution to the progression of LUSC. Though these genes involved different specific mechanisms, most of them may share a common mechanism which is critical for LUSC. The results may suggest a neglected mechanism and also indicate a potential target for therapies. PMID:27835590

  9. Common Viruses a Deadly Threat At Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163048.html Common Viruses a Deadly Threat at Nursing Homes RSV and human metapneumovirus need to be ... News) -- Common viruses pose a serious threat in nursing homes, often sabotaging standard infection control measures, a ...

  10. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  11. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  12. Explaining Common Variance Shared by Early Numeracy and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…

  13. Revitalization of the Shared Commons: Education for Sustainability and Marginalized Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more…

  14. Using shared needles for subcutaneous inoculation can transmit bluetongue virus mechanically between ruminant hosts

    PubMed Central

    Darpel, Karin E.; Barber, James; Hope, Andrew; Wilson, Anthony J.; Gubbins, Simon; Henstock, Mark; Frost, Lorraine; Batten, Carrie; Veronesi, Eva; Moffat, Katy; Carpenter, Simon; Oura, Chris; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV infection of ruminants results in a high viraemia, suggesting that repeated sharing of needles between animals could result in its iatrogenic transmission. Studies defining the risk of iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne pathogens by less invasive routes, such as subcutaneous or intradermal inoculations are rare, even though the sharing of needles is common practice for these inoculation routes in the veterinary sector. Here we demonstrate that BTV can be transmitted by needle sharing during subcutaneous inoculation, despite the absence of visible blood contamination of the needles. The incubation period, measured from sharing of needles, to detection of BTV in the recipient sheep or cattle, was substantially longer than has previously been reported after experimental infection of ruminants by either direct inoculation of virus, or through blood feeding by infected Culicoides. Although such mechanical transmission is most likely rare under field condition, these results are likely to influence future advice given in relation to sharing needles during veterinary vaccination campaigns and will also be of interest for the public health sector considering the risk of pathogen transmission during subcutaneous inoculations with re-used needles. PMID:26853457

  15. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    PubMed

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor.

  16. Destruction of Human Cancers by an Altered Common Cold Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on what appears to be a promising approach to the treatment and spread of cancer. Utilizes a mutant of the common cold virus that appears to kill many kinds of cancer cells but not normal cells. (DDR)

  17. Common ground: stem cell approaches find shared pathways underlying ALS.

    PubMed

    Matus, Soledad; Medinas, Danilo B; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-06-05

    The development of curative therapies for genetically complex diseases such as ALS has been delayed by the lack of relevant disease models. Recent advances using induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived motoneurons from patients harboring distinct ALS mutations have recapitulated essential disease features and have identified some common pathways driving disease pathogenesis.

  18. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

    2007-08-22

    Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.

  19. Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Mika J.; Puhakka, Tuomo; Ruuskanen, Olli; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka; Kimpimäki, Marko; Blomqvist, Soile; Hyypiä, Timo; Arstila, Pertti

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was established for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B virus was detected in 12, and single infections with parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus were found in 14 patients. Evidence for bacterial infection was found in seven patients. Four patients had a rise in antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, one had a rise in antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae, one had a rise in antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and one had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The results show that although approximately 50% of episodes of the common cold were caused by rhinoviruses, the etiology can vary depending on the epidemiological situation with regard to circulating viruses. Bacterial infections were rare, supporting the concept that the common cold is almost exclusively a viral disease. PMID:9466772

  20. Extensive host sharing of central European Tula virus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Essbauer, Sandra; Petraityte, Rasa; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tackmann, Kirsten; Conraths, Franz J; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Arikawa, Jiro; Thomas, Astrid; Pfeffer, Martin; Scharninghausen, Jerrold J; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Wenk, Matthias; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2010-01-01

    To examine the host association of Tula virus (TULV), a hantavirus present in large parts of Europe, we investigated a total of 791 rodents representing 469 Microtus arvalis and 322 Microtus agrestis animals from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany, including geographical regions with sympatric occurrence of both vole species, for the presence of TULV infections. Based on serological investigation, reverse transcriptase PCR, and subsequent sequence analysis of partial small (S) and medium (M) segments, we herein show that TULV is carried not only by its commonly known host M. arvalis but also frequently by M. agrestis in different regions of Germany for a prolonged time period. At one trapping site, TULV was exclusively detected in M. agrestis, suggesting an isolated transmission cycle in this rodent reservoir separate from spillover infections of TULV-carrying M. arvalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the S and M segment sequences demonstrated geographical clustering of the TULV sequences irrespective of the host, M. arvalis or M. agrestis. The novel TULV lineages from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany described here are clearly separated from each other and from other German, European, or Asian lineages, suggesting their stable geographical localization and fast sequence evolution. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TULV represents a promiscuous hantavirus with a large panel of susceptible hosts. In addition, this may suggest an alternative evolution mode, other than a strict coevolution, for this virus in its Microtus hosts, which should be proven in further large-scale investigations on sympatric Microtus hosts.

  1. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections.

  2. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  3. Collaborating with Staff: Sharing a Common Philosophy, Working To Achieve Common Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    A well-understood camp philosophy motivates the entire staff to work toward a common purpose, which is more meaningful than money. Camp administrators can ensure that staff members implement the camp philosophy by interviewing prospective staff members with the mission in mind, teaching staff the camp's vision, praising staff with specifics,…

  4. Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Forterre, Patrick; Bamford, Dennis H

    2010-03-19

    Tailed double-stranded DNA viruses (order Caudovirales) represent the dominant morphotype among viruses infecting bacteria. Analysis and comparison of complete genome sequences of tailed bacterial viruses provided insights into their origin and evolution. Structural and genomic studies have unexpectedly revealed that tailed bacterial viruses are evolutionarily related to eukaryotic herpesviruses. Organisms from the third domain of life, Archaea, are also infected by viruses that, in their overall morphology, resemble tailed viruses of bacteria. However, high-resolution structural information is currently unavailable for any of these viruses, and only a few complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to four different taxonomic orders of the Archaea. This more than doubled the number of genome sequences available for comparative studies. Our analyses indicate that highly mosaic tailed archaeal virus genomes evolve by homologous and illegitimate recombination with genomes of other viruses, by diversification, and by acquisition of cellular genes. Comparative genomics of these viruses and related proviruses revealed a set of conserved genes encoding putative proteins similar to virion assembly and maturation, as well as genome packaging proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses. Furthermore, fold prediction and structural modeling experiments suggest that the major capsid proteins of tailed archaeal viruses adopt the same topology as the corresponding proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and eukaryotic herpesviruses. Data presented in this study strongly support the hypothesis that tailed viruses infecting archaea share a common ancestry with tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses.

  5. Conventional and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells That Share Identical TCRs Are Derived from Common Clones.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kyle J; Emerson, Ryan O; Pingel, Jeanette; Buller, R Mark; DiPaolo, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Results from studies comparing the diversity and specificity of the TCR repertoires expressed by conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4+ T cell have varied depending on the experimental system employed. We developed a new model in which T cells express a single fixed TCRα chain, randomly rearranged endogenous TCRβ chains, and a Foxp3-GFP reporter. We purified CD4+Foxp3- and CD4+Foxp3+ cells, then performed biased controlled multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing of endogenous TCRβ chains. We identified >7,000 different TCRβ sequences in the periphery of 5 individual mice. On average, ~12% of TCR sequences were expressed by both conventional and regulatory populations within individual mice. The CD4+ T cells that expressed shared TCR sequences were present at higher frequencies compared to T cells expressing non-shared TCRs. Furthermore, nearly all (>90%) of the TCR sequences that were shared within mice were identical at the DNA sequence level, indicating that conventional and regulatory T cells that express shared TCRs are derived from common clones. Analysis of TCR repertoire overlap in the thymus reveals that a large proportion of Tconv and Treg sharing observed in the periphery is due to clonal expansion in the thymus. Together these data show that there are a limited number of TCR sequences shared between Tconv and Tregs. Also, Tconv and Tregs sharing identical TCRs are found at relatively high frequencies and are derived from common progenitors, of which a large portion are generated in the thymus.

  6. Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.

    2010-06-01

    Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

  7. Multiple environmental stress tests show no common phenotypes shared among contemporary epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Besser, Thomas E; Hancock, Dale D; Call, Douglas R

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic traits of coexisting epidemic and nonepidemic strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport were compared. Different stress conditions were relatively more or less favorable for the epidemic strains. Transcriptional analysis identified specific upregulated genes during defined stress conditions, but there were no common traits shared by epidemic serovars.

  8. Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in Some Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163761.html Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in ... THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A common virus may make some women more susceptible to both ...

  9. Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses

    PubMed Central

    Javier, RT

    2012-01-01

    Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. PMID:19029943

  10. Charge sharing in common-grid pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Anderson, Stephen E.; Kaye, Willy; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yuefeng; Kaye, Sonal Joshi; He, Zhong

    2011-10-01

    The charge sharing effect in pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors with a common anode steering grid has been studied. The impact on energy resolution of weighting potential cross-talk and ballistic deficit due to cathode signal shaping has been investigated. A detailed system modeling package considering charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC triggering procedures has been developed to study the characteristics of common-grid CZT detectors coupled to the VAS_UM/TAT4 ASIC. Besides an actual common-grid CZT detector coupled to VAS_UM/TAT4 ASIC, a prototype digital read-out system has been developed to better understand the nature of the charge sharing effect.

  11. Therapeutic approaches against common structural features of toxic oligomers shared by multiple amyloidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Muñoz, Marcos J; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Kayed, Rakez

    2014-04-15

    Impaired proteostasis is one of the main features of all amyloid diseases, which are associated with the formation of insoluble aggregates from amyloidogenic proteins. The aggregation process can be caused by overproduction or poor clearance of these proteins. However, numerous reports suggest that amyloid oligomers are the most toxic species, rather than insoluble fibrillar material, in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Prion diseases, among others. Although the exact protein that aggregates varies between amyloid disorders, they all share common structural features that can be used as therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches against shared features of toxic oligomeric structures and future directions.

  12. Common susceptibility variants are shared between schizophrenia and psoriasis in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xianyong; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Wang, Kai; Yue, Weihua; Norgren, Nina; Wang, Ling; Yao, Weiyi; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Bo; Cui, Yong; Shen, Changbing; Cheng, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fan, Xing; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Lifang; Lee, Jimmy; Lam, Max; Tai, E. Shyong; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Qiong; Sun, Liangdan; Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Sen; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Liu, Jianjun; Schork, Nicholas J.; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for psoriasis than a typical person. This suggests that there might be a shared genetic etiology between the 2 conditions. We aimed to characterize the potential shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and psoriasis using genome-wide marker genotype data. Methods We obtained genetic data on individuals with psoriasis, schizophrenia and control individuals. We applied a marker-based coheritability estimation procedure, polygenic score analysis, a gene set enrichment test and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model to estimate the potential shared genetic etiology between the 2 diseases. We validated the results in independent schizophrenia and psoriasis cohorts from Singapore. Results We included 1139 individuals with psoriasis, 744 with schizophrenia and 1678 controls in our analysis, and we validated the results in independent cohorts, including 441 individuals with psoriasis (and 2420 controls) and 1630 with schizophrenia (and 1860 controls). We estimated that a large fraction of schizophrenia and psoriasis risk could be attributed to common variants (h2SNP = 29% ± 5.0%, p = 2.00 × 10−8), with a coheritability estimate between the traits of 21%. We identified 5 variants within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene region, which were most likely to be associated with both diseases and collectively conferred a significant risk effect (odds ratio of highest risk quartile = 6.03, p < 2.00 × 10−16). We discovered that variants contributing most to the shared heritable component between psoriasis and schizophrenia were enriched in antigen processing and cell endoplasmic reticulum. Limitations Our sample size was relatively small. The findings of 5 HLA gene variants were complicated by the complex structure in the HLA region. Conclusion We found evidence for a shared genetic etiology between schizophrenia and psoriasis. The

  13. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  14. Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

    This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

  15. Virome Analysis of Transfusion Recipients Reveals a Novel Human Virus That Shares Genomic Features with Hepaciviruses and Pegiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Simmonds, Peter; Bhuva, Nishit; Singh Chauhan, Lokendra; Lee, Bohyun; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Jin, Zhezhen; Morse, Stephen S.; Shaz, Beth; Burbelo, Peter D.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate the transmission of novel infectious agents by blood transfusion, we studied changes in the virome composition of blood transfusion recipients pre- and posttransfusion. Using this approach, we detected and genetically characterized a novel human virus, human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1), that shares features with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV; formerly called GB virus C or hepatitis G virus). HCV and HPgV belong to the genera Hepacivirus and Pegivirus of the family Flaviviridae. HHpgV-1 was found in serum samples from two blood transfusion recipients and two hemophilia patients who had received plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates. In the former, the virus was detected only in the posttransfusion samples, indicating blood-borne transmission. Both hemophiliacs were persistently viremic over periods of at least 201 and 1,981 days. The 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of HHpgV-1 contained a type IV internal ribosome entry site (IRES), structurally similar to although highly divergent in sequence from that of HCV and other hepaciviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis of nonstructural genes (NS3 and NS5B) showed that HHpgV-1 forms a branch within the pegivirus clade distinct from HPgV and homologs infecting other mammalian species. In common with some pegivirus variants infecting rodents and bats, the HHpgV-1 genome encodes a short, highly basic protein upstream of E1, potentially possessing a core-like function in packaging RNA during assembly. Identification of this new human virus, HHpgV-1, expands our knowledge of the range of genome configurations of these viruses and may lead to a reevaluation of the original criteria by which the genera Hepacivirus and Pegivirus are defined. PMID:26396247

  16. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  17. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Hervé; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The pathways leading specifically to the toxic Aβ42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of Aβ42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases Aβ42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC50 of 30 μM. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of γ-secretase components and could, therefore, modify γ-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other “AD accelerator” compounds. In summary, treatment with three Aβ42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets.—Bettayeb, K., Oumata, N., Zhang, Y., Luo, W., Bustos, V., Galons, H., Greengard, P., Meijer, L., Flajolet, M. Small-molecule inducers of Aβ-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action. PMID:22972917

  18. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

  19. Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

  20. One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation.

  1. The Pharmaceutical Commons: Sharing and Exclusion in Global Health Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Lezaun, Javier; Montgomery, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived "market failure," the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of "virtual" business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property's traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical "commons" proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures.

  2. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y.

  3. Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. PMID:22204416

  4. Complex Dynamics of an Impulsive Control System in which Predator Species Share a Common Prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yongzhen; Liu, Shaoying; Li, Changguo

    2009-06-01

    In an ecosystem, multiple predator species often share a common prey and the interactions between the predators are neutral. In view of this fact, we propose a three-species prey-predator system with the functional responses and impulsive controls to model the process of pest management. It is proved that the system has a locally stable pest-eradication periodic solution under the assumption that the impulsive period is less than some critical value. In particular, two single control strategies (biological control alone or chemical control alone) are proposed. Finally, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that are targeted to a specific pest’s life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Numerical results show that our system has complex dynamics including period-doubling bifurcation, quasi-periodic oscillation, chaos, intermittency and crises.

  5. Instrument monitoring, data sharing, and archiving using Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA).

    PubMed

    Bramley, Randall; Chiu, Kenneth; Devadithya, Tharaka; Gupta, Nisha; Hart, Charles; Huffman, John C; Huffman, Kianosh; Ma, Yu; McMullen, Donald F

    2006-01-01

    The Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA) aims at Grid-enabling a wide range of scientific instruments and sensors to enable easy access to and sharing and storage of data produced by these instruments and sensors. This paper describes the implementation of CIMA applied to the field of single-crystal X-ray crystallography. To allow the researchers to easily view the current and past data streams from the instruments or sensors in a laboratory, a crystallography portal and associated portlets were developed for this application. The CIMA-based crystallography system provides an opportunity for anyone with Web access to observe and use crystallographic and other data from laboratories that previously had only limited access.

  6. Instrument Monitoring, Data Sharing, and Archiving Using Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bramley, Randall; Chiu, Kenneth; Devadithya, Tharaka; Gupta, Nisha; Hart, Charles; Huffman, John C.; Huffman, Kianosh; Ma, Yu; McMullen, Donald F.

    2008-10-03

    The Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA) aims at Grid-enabling a wide range of scientific instruments and sensors to enable easy access to and sharing and storage of data produced by these instruments and sensors. This paper describes the implementation of CIMA applied to the field of single-crystal X-ray crystallography. To allow the researchers to easily view the current and past data streams from the instruments or sensors in a laboratory, a crystallography portal and associated portlets were developed for this application. The CIMA-based crystallography system provides an opportunity for anyone with Web access to observe and use crystallographic and other data from laboratories that previously had only limited access.

  7. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  8. Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A M; Brussaard, Corina P D; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-25

    Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T-predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya.

  9. Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K. Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A. M.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T–predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya. PMID:23754393

  10. Distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of African monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.

    PubMed Central

    van der Kuyl, A C; Dekker, J T; Goudsmit, J

    1995-01-01

    PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats. PMID:7494300

  11. Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits share a common mode of fossilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Yuanlong, Zhao

    2008-10-01

    Although Cambrian Burgess Shale-type (BST) biotas arefundamental to understanding the radiation of metazoans, thenature of their extraordinary preservation remains controversial.There remains disagreement about the importance of the roleof early mineral replication of soft tissues versus the conservationof primary organic remains. Most prior work focused on soft-bodiedfossils from the two most important BST biotas, those of theBurgess Shale (Canada) and Maotianshan Shale (Chengjiang, China).Fossils from these two deposits do not provide ideal candidatesfor specimen-level taphonomic study because they have been altered:the Burgess Shale by greenschist facies metamorphism and theMaotianshan Shale by intensive subsurface weathering. Elementalmapping of soft-bodied fossils from 11 other BST deposits worldwidedemonstrates that BST preservation represents a single majortaphonomic pathway that may share a common cause wherever itoccurs. The conservation of organic tissues, and not early authigenicmineralization, is the primary mechanism responsible for thepreservation of BST assemblages. Early authigenic mineral replacementpreserves certain anatomical features of some specimens, butthe preservation of non-biomineralized BST fossils requiressuppression of the processes that normally lead to the degradationof organic remains in marine environments.

  12. Lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) share a common uptake transporter in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G C

    2014-02-01

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a very high rate of lead (Pb) internalization and is known to be highly sensitive to dissolved Pb. However, the transport pathway that this metal uses to cross cellular membranes in microalgae is still unknown. To identify the Pb(2+) transport pathway in C. reinhartdii, we performed several competition experiments with environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb(2+) (~10 nM) and a variety of divalent cations. Among the essential trace metals tested, cobalt, manganese, nickel and zinc had no effect on Pb internalization. A greater than tenfold increase in the concentrations of the major ions calcium and magnesium led to a slight decrease (~34 %) in short-term Pb internalization by the algae. Copper (Cu) was even more effective: at a Cu concentration 50 times higher than that of Pb, Pb internalization by the algae decreased by 87 %. Pre-exposure of the algae to Cu showed that the effect was not due to a physiological effect of Cu on the algae, but rather to competition for the same transporter. A reciprocal effect of Pb on Cu internalization was also observed. These results suggest that Cu and Pb share a common transport pathway in C. reinhardtii at environmentally relevant metal concentrations.

  13. Triosephosphate Isomerase and Filamin C Share Common Epitopes as Novel Allergens of Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Meng; Maleki, Soheila J; Zhang, Ming-Li; Liu, Qing-Mei; Cao, Min-Jie; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and has been identified as an allergen in saltwater products. In this study, TIM with a molecular mass of 28 kDa was purified from the freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. A 90-kDa protein that showed IgG/IgE cross-reactivity with TIM was purified and identified as filamin C (FLN c), which is an actin-binding protein. TIM showed similar thermal and pH stability with better digestion resistance compared with FLN c. The result of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiment demonstrated the infinity of anti-TIM polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both TIM and FLN c. Five linear and 3 conformational epitopes of TIM, as well as 9 linear and 10 conformational epitopes of FLN c, were mapped by phage display. Epitopes of TIM and FLN c demonstrated the sharing of certain residues; the occurrence of common epitopes in the two allergens accounts for their cross-reactivity.

  14. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a ‘higher center’ known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism. PMID:28045911

  15. Relating numeric cognition and language processing: do numbers and words share a common representational platform?

    PubMed

    Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Numerical processing and language processing are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a common basis. If number processing activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that processing numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word processing. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.

  16. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  17. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  18. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-07-06

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions.

  19. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  20. Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, Trevor; Dokladny, Karol; Bedrick, Edward; Schneider, Suzanne; Moseley, Pope

    2011-01-01

    Thermotolerance and heat acclimation are key adaptation processes that have been hitherto viewed as separate phenomena. Here, we provide evidence that these processes may share a common basis, as both may potentially be governed by the heat shock response. We evaluated the effects of a heat shock response-inhibitor (quercetin; 2,000 mg/day) on established markers of thermotolerance [gastrointestinal barrier permeability, plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, and leukocyte heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) content]. Heat acclimation reduced body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain during exercise/heat stress) in male subjects (n = 8) completing a 7-day heat acclimation protocol. These same subjects completed an identical protocol under placebo supplementation (placebo). Gastrointestinal barrier permeability and TNF-α were increased on the 1st day of exercise/heat stress in quercetin; no differences in these variables were reported in placebo. Exercise HSP70 responses were increased, and plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were decreased on the 7th day of heat acclimation in placebo; with concomitant reductions in exercise body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain. In contrast, gastrointestinal barrier permeability remained elevated, HSP70 was not increased, and IL-6, IL-10, and exercise body temperatures were not reduced on the 7th day of heat acclimation in quercetin. While exercise heart rate and physiological strain were reduced in quercetin, this occurred later in exercise than with placebo. Consistent with the concept that thermotolerance and heat acclimation are related through the heat shock response, repeated exercise/heat stress increases cytoprotective HSP70 and reduces circulating cytokines, contributing to reductions in cellular and systemic markers of heat strain. Exercising under a heat shock response-inhibitor prevents both cellular and systemic heat adaptations. PMID:21613575

  1. Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique “true value” and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  2. Shutoff of Host Gene Expression in Influenza A Virus and Herpesviruses: Similar Mechanisms and Common Themes.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Hembly G; Schmaling, Summer K; Gaglia, Marta M

    2016-04-16

    The ability to shut off host gene expression is a shared feature of many viral infections, and it is thought to promote viral replication by freeing host cell machinery and blocking immune responses. Despite the molecular differences between viruses, an emerging theme in the study of host shutoff is that divergent viruses use similar mechanisms to enact host shutoff. Moreover, even viruses that encode few proteins often have multiple mechanisms to affect host gene expression, and we are only starting to understand how these mechanisms are integrated. In this review we discuss the multiplicity of host shutoff mechanisms used by the orthomyxovirus influenza A virus and members of the alpha- and gamma-herpesvirus subfamilies. We highlight the surprising similarities in their mechanisms of host shutoff and discuss how the different mechanisms they use may play a coordinated role in gene regulation.

  3. Shutoff of Host Gene Expression in Influenza A Virus and Herpesviruses: Similar Mechanisms and Common Themes

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Hembly G.; Schmaling, Summer K.; Gaglia, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to shut off host gene expression is a shared feature of many viral infections, and it is thought to promote viral replication by freeing host cell machinery and blocking immune responses. Despite the molecular differences between viruses, an emerging theme in the study of host shutoff is that divergent viruses use similar mechanisms to enact host shutoff. Moreover, even viruses that encode few proteins often have multiple mechanisms to affect host gene expression, and we are only starting to understand how these mechanisms are integrated. In this review we discuss the multiplicity of host shutoff mechanisms used by the orthomyxovirus influenza A virus and members of the alpha- and gamma-herpesvirus subfamilies. We highlight the surprising similarities in their mechanisms of host shutoff and discuss how the different mechanisms they use may play a coordinated role in gene regulation. PMID:27092522

  4. Inactivation of avian influenza virus using common detergents and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, M E; Ladman, B S; Alphin, R L; Benson, E R

    2008-03-01

    Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.

  5. Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lusu

    With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be

  6. Functional characterization of protein domains common to animal viruses and mouse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many viruses contain genes that originate from their hosts. Some of these acquired genes give viruses the ability to interfere with host immune responses by various mechanisms. Genes of host origin that appear commonly in viruses code for proteins that span a wide range of functions, from kinases and phosphotases, to cytokines and their receptors, to ubiquitin ligases and proteases. While many important cases of such lateral gene transfer in viruses have been documented, there has yet to be a genome-wide survey of viral-encoded genes acquired from animal hosts. Results Here we carry out such a survey in order to gain insight into the host immune system. We made the results available in the form of a web-based tool that allows viral-centered or host-centered queries to be performed (http://imm.ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp/musvirus/). We examine the relationship between acquired genes and immune function, and compare host-virus homology with gene expression data in stimulated dendritic cells and T-cells. We found that genes whose expression changes significantly during the innate antiviral immune response had more homologs in animal virus than genes whose expression did not change or genes involved in the adaptive immune response. Conclusions Statistics gathered from the MusVirus database support earlier reports of gene transfer from host to virus and indicate that viruses are more likely to acquire genes involved in innate antiviral immune responses than those involved in acquired immune responses. PMID:22369715

  7. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) delivery has been used to non-invasively manipulate mammalian cooperative behavior. Such manipulations can potentially provide insight into both shared and species-specific mechanisms underlying cooperation. Vampire bats are remarkable for their high rates of allogrooming and the presence of regurgitated food sharing among adults. We administered intranasal OT to highly familiar captive vampire bats of varying relatedness to test for an effect on allogrooming and food sharing. We found that intranasal OT did not have a detectable effect on food-sharing occurrence, but it did increase the size of regurgitated food donations when controlling for dyad and amount of allogrooming. Intranasal OT in females increased the amount of allogrooming per partner and across all partners per trial, but not the number of partners. We also found that the peak effect of OT treatments occurred 30-50min after administration, which is consistent with the reported latency for intranasal OT to affect relevant brain areas in rats and mice. Our results suggest that intranasal OT is a potential tool for influencing dyadic cooperative investments, but measuring prior social relationships may be necessary to interpret the results of hormonal manipulations of cooperative behavior and it may be difficult to alter partner choice in vampire bats using intranasal OT alone.

  8. IRGM Is a Common Target of RNA Viruses that Subvert the Autophagy Network

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Isabel Pombo; Azocar, Olga; Baguet, Joël; Le Breton, Marc; Mangeot, Philippe E.; Navratil, Vincent; Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Flacher, Monique; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Faure, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved degradative pathway used as a host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. However, several viruses can evade or subvert autophagy to insure their own replication. Nevertheless, the molecular details of viral interaction with autophagy remain largely unknown. We have determined the ability of 83 proteins of several families of RNA viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae), to interact with 44 human autophagy-associated proteins using yeast two-hybrid and bioinformatic analysis. We found that the autophagy network is highly targeted by RNA viruses. Although central to autophagy, targeted proteins have also a high number of connections with proteins of other cellular functions. Interestingly, immunity-associated GTPase family M (IRGM), the most targeted protein, was found to interact with the autophagy-associated proteins ATG5, ATG10, MAP1CL3C and SH3GLB1. Strikingly, reduction of IRGM expression using small interfering RNA impairs both Measles virus (MeV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-induced autophagy and viral particle production. Moreover we found that the expression of IRGM-interacting MeV-C, HCV-NS3 or HIV-NEF proteins per se is sufficient to induce autophagy, through an IRGM dependent pathway. Our work reveals an unexpected role of IRGM in virus-induced autophagy and suggests that several different families of RNA viruses may use common strategies to manipulate autophagy to improve viral infectivity. PMID:22174682

  9. IRGM is a common target of RNA viruses that subvert the autophagy network.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Isabel Pombo; Richetta, Clémence; Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurène; Borel, Sophie; Pradezynski, Fabrine; Diaz, Olivier; Deloire, Alexandre; Azocar, Olga; Baguet, Joël; Le Breton, Marc; Mangeot, Philippe E; Navratil, Vincent; Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Flacher, Monique; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Faure, Mathias

    2011-12-01

    Autophagy is a conserved degradative pathway used as a host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. However, several viruses can evade or subvert autophagy to insure their own replication. Nevertheless, the molecular details of viral interaction with autophagy remain largely unknown. We have determined the ability of 83 proteins of several families of RNA viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae), to interact with 44 human autophagy-associated proteins using yeast two-hybrid and bioinformatic analysis. We found that the autophagy network is highly targeted by RNA viruses. Although central to autophagy, targeted proteins have also a high number of connections with proteins of other cellular functions. Interestingly, immunity-associated GTPase family M (IRGM), the most targeted protein, was found to interact with the autophagy-associated proteins ATG5, ATG10, MAP1CL3C and SH3GLB1. Strikingly, reduction of IRGM expression using small interfering RNA impairs both Measles virus (MeV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-induced autophagy and viral particle production. Moreover we found that the expression of IRGM-interacting MeV-C, HCV-NS3 or HIV-NEF proteins per se is sufficient to induce autophagy, through an IRGM dependent pathway. Our work reveals an unexpected role of IRGM in virus-induced autophagy and suggests that several different families of RNA viruses may use common strategies to manipulate autophagy to improve viral infectivity.

  10. Different chemical cues originating from a shared predator induce common defense responses in two prey species.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Doi, Hideyuki; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yamaoka, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, inducible defenses that involve behavioral or morphological changes in response to chemical cue detection are key phenomena in prey-predator interactions. Many species with different phylogenetic and ecological traits (e.g., general activity patterns and microhabitats) use chemical cues to avoid predators. We hypothesized that prey species with a shared predator, but having different ecological traits, would be adapted to detect different chemical cues from the predator. However, the proximate mechanisms by which prey use chemical cues to avoid predation remain little known. Here, we tested our hypothesis by using fractionated chemical components from predatory dragonfly nymphs (Lesser Emperor, Anax parthenope julius) to trigger anti-predator behavioral responses in two anuran tadpoles, the wrinkled frog Glandirana (Rana) rugosa and the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica. Glandirana rugosa detected chemical cues that had either high or low hydrophobic properties, but H. japonica responded only to chemical cues with hydrophilic properties. During the normal behaviors of these tadpole species, G. rugosa remains immobile in benthic habitats, whereas H. japonica exhibits active swimming at the surface or in the middle of the water column. As we had hypothesized, these tadpole species, which have different general activity levels and microhabitats, detected different chemical cues that were exuded by their shared predator and responded by changing their activities to avoid predation. The specific chemical cues detected by each tadpole species are likely to have characteristics that optimize effective predator detection and encounter avoidance of the shared dragonfly predator.

  11. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi share many common species along an elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted bioassay experiments to investigate the soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in old-growth forests along an elevation gradient and compared the elevation pattern with the composition of EM fungi on existing roots in the field. In total, 150 soil cores were collected from three forests on Mt. Ishizuchi, western Japan, and subjected to bioassays using Pinus densiflora and Betula maximowicziana. Using molecular analyses, we recorded 23 EM fungal species in the assayed propagule banks. Eight species (34.8 %) were shared across the three sites, which ranged from a warm-temperate evergreen mixed forest to a subalpine conifer forest. The elevation pattern of the assayed propagule banks differed dramatically from that of EM fungi on existing roots along the same gradient, where only a small proportion of EM fungal species (3.5 %) were shared across sites. The EM fungal species found in the assayed propagule banks included many pioneer fungal species and composition differed significantly from that on existing roots. Furthermore, only 4 of 23 species were shared between the two host species, indicating a strong effect of bioassay host identity in determining the propagule banks of EM fungi. These results imply that the assayed propagule bank is less affected by climate compared to EM fungal communities on existing roots. The dominance of disturbance-dependent fungal species in the assayed propagule banks may result in higher ecosystem resilience to disturbance even in old-growth temperate forests.

  12. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  13. Glass sponges and bilaterian animals share derived mitochondrial genomic features: a common ancestry or parallel evolution?

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Lang, B Franz; Pomponi, Shirley A; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2007-07-01

    Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic animals that have a unique syncytial organization and possess a characteristic siliceous skeleton. Although hexactinellids are traditionally grouped with calcareous and demosponges in the phylum Porifera, the monophyly of sponges and the phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida remain contentious. We determined and analyzed the nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the hexactinellid sponges Iphiteon panicea and Sympagella nux. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed several mitochondrial genomic features shared between glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg --> Ser change in the genetic code, a characteristic secondary structure of one of the serine tRNAs, highly derived tRNA and rRNA genes, and the presence of a single large noncoding region. At the same time, glass sponge mtDNA contains atp9, a gene previously found only in the mtDNA of demosponges (among animals), and encodes a tRNA(Pro);(UGG) with an atypical A11-U24 pair that is also found in demosponges and placozoans. Most of our sequence-based phylogenetic analyses place Hexactinellida as the sister group to the Bilateria; however, these results are suspect given accelerated rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution in these groups. Thus, it remains an open question whether shared mitochondrial genomic features in glass sponges and bilaterian animals reflect their close phylogenetic affinity or provide a remarkable example of parallel evolution.

  14. Structure and Mechanism of Receptoe Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R.

    2010-06-14

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  15. Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R.

    2010-07-19

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  16. MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and share features with multifocal motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Howe, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction MRI of peripheral nerve and muscle in patients with ALS may be performed to investigate alternative diagnoses including multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). MRI findings of peripheral nerve and muscle are not well described in these conditions, making interpretation of results difficult. Methods We examined systematically the peripheral nerve and muscle MRI findings in patients with ALS (n=60) and MMN (n=8). Results In patients with ALS and MMN, abnormal MRIs were common (85% and 75%, respectively) but did not correlate with disease severity. Peripheral nerve MRI abnormalities were similar in frequency (ALS: 58% vs. MMN: 63%) with most changes being of mild-to-moderate severity. Muscle MRI changes were more common in ALS (57% vs. 33%), and no muscle atrophy was seen in patients with MMN. Discussion MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle in ALS and MMN are common and share some features. PMID:25736373

  17. Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared across species?

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans.

  18. THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

  19. Primitive Solar System materials and Earth share a common initial 142Nd abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M.

    2016-09-01

    The early evolution of planetesimals and planets can be constrained using variations in the abundance of neodymium-142 (142Nd), which arise from the initial distribution of 142Nd within the protoplanetary disk and the radioactive decay of the short-lived samarium-146 isotope (146Sm). The apparent offset in 142Nd abundance found previously between chondritic meteorites and Earth has been interpreted either as a possible consequence of nucleosynthetic variations within the protoplanetary disk or as a function of the differentiation of Earth very early in its history. Here we report high-precision Sm and Nd stable and radiogenic isotopic compositions of four calcium-aluminium-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites, and of three whole-rock samples of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites. The CAIs, which are the first solids formed by condensation from the nebular gas, provide the best constraints for the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. Using the mineral isochron method for individual CAIs, we find that CAIs without isotopic anomalies in Nd compared to the terrestrial composition share a 146Sm/144Sm-142Nd/144Nd isotopic evolution with Earth. The average 142Nd/144Nd composition for pristine enstatite chondrites that we calculate coincides with that of the accessible silicate layers of Earth. This relationship between CAIs, enstatite chondrites and Earth can only be a result of Earth having inherited the same initial abundance of 142Nd and chondritic proportions of Sm and Nd. Consequently, 142Nd isotopic heterogeneities found in other CAIs and among chondrite groups may arise from extrasolar grains that were present in the disk and incorporated in different proportions into these planetary objects. Our finding supports a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the bulk silicate Earth and, as a consequence, chondritic abundances for other refractory elements. It also removes the need for a hidden reservoir or for collisional erosion

  20. Visceral hypersensitive rats share common dysbiosis features with irritable bowel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Xia; Long, Xin; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Cong, Ying-Zi; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gut microbial dysbiosis in two visceral hypersensitive models in comparison with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to explore the extent to which these models capture the dysbiosis of IBS patients. METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity was developed using the maternal separation (MS) rat model and post-inflammatory rat model. The visceral sensitivity of the model groups and control group was evaluated using the abdominal withdraw reflex score and electromyography in response to graded colorectal distention. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene from fecal samples was pyrosequenced and analyzed. The correlation between dysbiosis in the microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity was calculated. Positive findings were compared to sequencing data from a published human IBS cohort. RESULTS: Dysbiosis triggered by neonatal maternal separation was lasting but not static. Both MS and post-inflammatory rat fecal microbiota deviated from that of the control rats to an extent that was larger than the co-housing effect. Two short chain fatty acid producing genera, Fusobacterium and Clostridium XI, were shared by the human IBS cohort and by the maternal separation rats and post-inflammatory rats, respectively, to different extents. Fusobacterium was significantly increased in the MS group, and its abundance positively correlated with the degree of visceral hypersensitivity. Porphyromonadaceae was a protective biomarker for both the rat control group and healthy human controls. CONCLUSION: The dysbiosis MS rat model and the post-inflammatory rat model captured some of the dysbiosis features of IBS patients. Fusobacterium, Clostridium XI and Porphyromonadaceae were identified as targets for future mechanistic research. PMID:27298564

  1. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: do they share a common soil? The Asian Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepa, Rajendra; Nazir, Adamsha; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2012-01-01

    In India, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are growing health problems. CVD accounts for much of the increased morbidity and premature mortality associated with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, CVD also occurs 2–3 decades earlier among diabetic subjects and runs a more aggressive course and has a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of the link between diabetes and CVD is complex and multifactorial and understanding the mechanisms of the disease can help identify and treat CVD in patients with diabetes and vice versa. The current article reviews the common antecedents between type 2 diabetes and CVD including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and suggests that future research on diabetes and CVD should focus on searching for risk factors for CVD that may be more specific to diabetes, such as hypoglycaemia or medication related comorbidities. Also, the authors recommend research on common genetic variants which might have stronger effects and hence have a potential role in diabetes and CVD risk prediction. Finally, primary prevention trials trying to prevent both diabetes and CVD are the urgent need of the hour! PMID:27326035

  2. Ip deletions in human pheochromocytomas share a common pericentromeric breakpoint and do not involve imprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Moley, J.F.; Marshall, H.N.

    1994-09-01

    We previously reported that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 1p is found in all pheochromocytomas from patients with the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 syndromes and in 40% of sporadic pheochromocytomas. We used 24 polymorphic DNA markers to map the deleted region in 27 tumors and found that in all tumors with 1p LOH, the deletion involves the entire short arm. LOH of 1q has not been found. The common breakpoint in these tumors is between D1S514 and D1S442 which defines a 2 centiMorgan interval which includes the centromere. To determine whether genomic imprinting plays a role in 1p deletion in these tumors, parental DNA was obtained for eight individuals with pheochromocytomas and the parental DNA was obtained for eight individuals with pheochromocytomas and the parental origin of allelic loss determined. In four cases the paternal allele was lost and in four cases, the maternal allele was lost. In addition, allelic loss was examined in multifocal or bilateral tumors from five individuals. 1p LOH was demonstrated in all tumors examined, but in two patients, tumors from different sites demonstrated opposite patterns of allelic loss, indicating that either maternal or paternal alleles may be lost in different tumors from the same individual. These data show that deletion of 1p is a significant event in the development of human pheochromocytomas, and involves a common breakpoint in the pericentromeric area. Allelic deletion is not influenced by the parent of origin.

  3. Legal Agreements and the Governance of Research Commons: Lessons from Materials Sharing in Mouse Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

  4. Surface transport properties of reticulopodia: do intracellular and extracellular motility share a common mechanism?

    PubMed

    Bowser, S S; Israel, H A; McGee-Russell, S M; Rieder, C L

    1984-12-01

    The reticulopodial networks of the foraminiferan protozoans Allogromia sp., strain NF, and A. laticollaris display rapid (up to 11 microns/second) and bidirectional saltatory transport of membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres). Electron microscopy shows that microspheres adhere directly to the reticulopodial surface glycocalyx. A videomicroscopic analysis of this phenomenon reveals that microsphere movement is typically independent of pseudopod extension/withdrawal and that particles of different sizes and surface properties display similar motile characteristics. The motile properties of surface-associated microspheres appear identical to those of saltating intracellular organelles. Indeed, in some instances the surface-attached microspheres appear transiently linked in motion to these underlying organelles. Our observations suggest that, in reticulopodia, surface transport of microspheres and intracellular transport of organelles are driven by a common mechanism.

  5. Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin

    SciTech Connect

    Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2009-04-22

    Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15--20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches.

  7. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adipokinetic Hormone Signaling Systems Share a Common Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Beets, Isabel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Meelkop, Ellen; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), lophotrochozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and suggests that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH–GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:22649364

  8. Plant immune and growth receptors share common signalling components but localise to distinct plasma membrane nanodomains

    PubMed Central

    Bücherl, Christoph A; Jarsch, Iris K; Schudoma, Christian; Segonzac, Cécile; Mbengue, Malick; Robatzek, Silke; MacLean, Daniel; Ott, Thomas; Zipfel, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Cell surface receptors govern a multitude of signalling pathways in multicellular organisms. In plants, prominent examples are the receptor kinases FLS2 and BRI1, which activate immunity and steroid-mediated growth, respectively. Intriguingly, despite inducing distinct signalling outputs, both receptors employ common downstream signalling components, which exist in plasma membrane (PM)-localised protein complexes. An important question is thus how these receptor complexes maintain signalling specificity. Live-cell imaging revealed that FLS2 and BRI1 form PM nanoclusters. Using single-particle tracking we could discriminate both cluster populations and we observed spatiotemporal separation between immune and growth signalling platforms. This finding was confirmed by visualising FLS2 and BRI1 within distinct PM nanodomains marked by specific remorin proteins and differential co-localisation with the cytoskeleton. Our results thus suggest that signalling specificity between these pathways may be explained by the spatial separation of FLS2 and BRI1 with their associated signalling components within dedicated PM nanodomains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25114.001 PMID:28262094

  9. MDS/AML del(11)(q14) Share Common Morphological Features Despite Different Chromosomal Breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Dambruoso, Irene; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Boni, Marina; Zappatore, Rita; Giardini, Ilaria; Cavigliano, Maria Paola; Rocca, Barbara; Calvello, Celeste; Bastia, Raffaella; Caresana, Marilena; Pasi, Francesca; Nano, Rosanna; Bernasconi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In myelodysplatic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) deletion of the 11q14 region is a rare chromosomal defect (incidence: 0.6-1.0%), included within the intermediate risk criteria by the International Prognostic Scoring System. No fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study has yet been performed to identify a common breakpoint region (CBR). In our study through FISH with bacterial artificial chromosomes and commercial probes, we analyzed seven patients with MDS/AML harboring 11q14 deletion on conventional cytogenetic analysis. FISH revealed deletions in five patients and amplifications in two. Three patients with deletion carried a CBR, two had a deletion involving a more centromeric breakpoint. These five patients exhibited multilineage dysplasia, blast cells with large round nuclei, loose chromatin, small and abundant nucleoli, and vacuolated cytoplasm with very thin Auer bodies. In conclusion, the morphological features which occur independently of the extent of the deletion are of multilineage dysplasia in MDS and leukemic blasts strongly reactive to peroxidase in AML; despite the variable size of the deleted area, some patients harbor a CBR.

  10. Detection of Common Respiratory Viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Patient-Occupied Rooms in Pediatric Wards

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards. This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Air samplers were placed at a short (60–80 cm) and long (320 cm) distance from the head of the beds of 58 pediatric patients, who were subsequently confirmed to be infected with enterovirus (n = 17), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 13), influenza A virus (n = 13), adenovirus (n = 9), or M pneumoniae (n = 6). Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients’ rooms. All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens. All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients’ rooms. The detection rates of influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae for the long distance air sampling were 15%, 67%, and 17%, respectively. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects. The respiratory pathogens RSV, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae were detected in the air and/or on the objects in the pediatric ward rooms. Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients. PMID:27057827

  11. Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria meningitidis share lipooligosaccharide epitopes but lack common capsular and class 1, 2, and 3 protein epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Mandrell, R E; Griffiss, J M

    1989-02-01

    Neisseria lactamica, a common human pharyngeal commensal, contributes to acquired immunity to Neisseria meningitidis. To define the surface antigens shared between these two species, we used monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to study 35 N. lactamica strains isolated in various parts of the world for cross-reactivity with meningococcal capsules, outer membrane proteins, and lipooligosaccharides (LOS). No N. lactamica strain reacted significantly with MAbs specific for capsular group A, B, C, Y, or W, and we were unable to extract capsular polysaccharide from them. Only 2 of 33 strains reacted weakly with MAbs against class 2 serotype proteins P2b and P2c. None reacted with MAbs specific for meningococcal class 1 protein P1.2 or P1.16 or class 2/3 serotype protein P2a or P15. Most N. lactamica strains (30 of 35) bound one or more of seven LOS-specific MAbs. Two LOS epitopes, defined by MAbs O6B4 and 3F11, that are commonly found on pathogenic Neisseria species were found on 25 of 35 N. lactamica. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that the LOS of N. lactamica are composed of multiple components that are physically and antigenically similar to the LOS of pathogenic Neisseria species. Among four other commensal neisserial species, only Neisseria cinerea shared LOS epitopes defined by MAbs O6B4 and 3F11. Previous studies have shown that pharyngeal colonization with N. lactamica induces bactericidal antibodies against the meningococcus. We postulate that shared N. lactamica and meningococcal LOS epitopes may play an important role in the development of natural immunity to the meningococcus.

  12. Dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP(+), oxidant and specific neurotoxicants shares the common molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chun, H S; Gibson, G E; DeGiorgio, L A; Zhang, H; Kidd, V J; Son, J H

    2001-02-01

    Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat, dieldrin, manganese and salsolinol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these neurotoxic agents might induce cell death in our nigral dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 (Son et al. 1999) through a common molecular mechanism. Our initial experiments revealed that treatment with both MPP(+) and the other PD-related neurotoxicants induced apoptotic cell death in SN4741 cells, following initial increases of H(2)O(2)-related ROS activity and subsequent activation of JNK1/2 MAP kinases. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during dopaminergic cell death cascades, MPP(+), the neurotoxicants and an oxidant, H(2)O(2) equally induce the ROS-dependent events. Remarkably, the oxidant treatment alone induced similar sequential molecular events: ROS increase, activation of JNK MAP kinases, activation of the PITSLRE kinase, p110, by both Caspase-1 and Caspase-3-like activities and apoptotic cell death. Pharmacological intervention using the combination of the antioxidant Trolox and a pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-(Asp)-fmk (BAF) exerted significant neuroprotection against ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death. Finally, the high throughput cDNA microarray screening using the current model identified downstream response genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, a constituent of Lewy bodies, that can be the useful biomarkers to monitor the pathological conditions of dopaminergic neurons under neurotoxic insult.

  13. Identification of an antigenic domain in the N-terminal region of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein that is not common to swine and human HEVs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Lihong; Widén, Frederik; Hsu, Walter H; Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En-Min

    2014-12-01

    The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of Wellfleet Bay virus exposure in the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballard, Jennifer R.; Mickley, Randall M.; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Dwyer, Chris; Soos, Catherine; Harms, N. Jane; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J Christian; Milton, G. Randy; Parsons, Glen; Allen, Brad; Giroux, Jean-Francois; Lair, Stéphane; Mead, Daniel G.; Fischer, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2014, recurrent mortality events were reported in the Dresser's subspecies of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA near Wellfleet Harbor. The early die-offs were attributed to parasitism and emaciation, but beginning in 2006 a suite of distinct lesions was observed concomitant with the isolation of a previously unknown RNA virus. This novel pathogen was identified as an orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus and was named Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV). To assess evidence of exposure to this virus in Common Eiders, we conducted a longitudinal study of the prevalence of WFBV antibodies at multiple locations from 2004–14; we collected 2,258 serum samples from six locations and analyzed each using a microneutralization assay. Results corroborate the emergence of WFBV in 2006 based on the first detection of antibodies in that year. Significantly higher prevalence was detected in Common Eiders sampled in Massachusetts compared to those in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Québec. For birds breeding and wintering in Massachusetss, viral exposure varied by age, sex, and season of sampling, and prevalence by season and sex were highly interrelated with greater numbers of antibody-positive males in the autumn and females in the spring. No evidence of viral exposure was detected in the Northern subspecies (Somateria mollissima borealis). Among the locations sampled, Massachusetts appears to be the epicenter of Common Eider exposure to WFBV. Further research is warranted to understand the factors controlling the epidemiology of WFBV in Massachussetts, including those that may be limiting geographic expansion of this virus.

  15. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  16. Virus-Host Coevolution: Common Patterns of Nucleotide Motif Usage in Flaviviridae and Their Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Francisco P.; Mota, Bruno E. F.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Macedo, Andréa M.; Tauch, Andreas; Machado, Carlos R.; Franco, Glória R.

    2009-01-01

    Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. The two host groups possess very distinctive dinucleotide and codon usage patterns. A pronounced CpG under-representation was found in the vertebrate group, possibly induced by the methylation-deamination process, as well as a prominent TpA decrease. The invertebrate group displayed only a TpA frequency reduction bias. Flaviviridae viruses mimicked host nucleotide motif usage in a host-specific manner. Vertebrate-infecting viruses possessed under-representation of CpG and TpA, and insect-only viruses displayed only a TpA under-representation bias. Single-host Flaviviridae members which persistently infect mammals or insect hosts (Hepacivirus and insect-only Flavivirus, respectively) were found to posses a codon usage profile more similar to that of their hosts than to related Flaviviridae. We demonstrated that vertebrates and mosquitoes genomes are under very distinct lineage-specific constraints, and Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect these lineages appear to be

  17. EPIPOX: Immunoinformatic Characterization of the Shared T-Cell Epitome between Variola Virus and Related Pathogenic Orthopoxviruses.

    PubMed

    Molero-Abraham, Magdalena; Glutting, John-Paul; Flower, Darren R; Lafuente, Esther M; Reche, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Concerns that variola viruses might be used as bioweapons have renewed the interest in developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction. We recognized 8,106, and 8,483 unique class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes that are shared by all mentioned orthopoxviruses. Subsequently, we developed an immunological resource, EPIPOX, upon the predicted T-cell epitome. EPIPOX is freely available online and it has been designed to facilitate reverse vaccinology. Thus, EPIPOX includes key epitope-focused protein annotations: time point expression, presence of leader and transmembrane signals, and known location on outer membrane structures of the infective viruses. These features can be used to select specific T-cell epitopes suitable for experimental validation restricted by single MHC alleles, as combinations thereof, or by MHC supertypes.

  18. EPIPOX: Immunoinformatic Characterization of the Shared T-Cell Epitome between Variola Virus and Related Pathogenic Orthopoxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Molero-Abraham, Magdalena; Glutting, John-Paul; Flower, Darren R.; Lafuente, Esther M.; Reche, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns that variola viruses might be used as bioweapons have renewed the interest in developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction. We recognized 8,106, and 8,483 unique class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes that are shared by all mentioned orthopoxviruses. Subsequently, we developed an immunological resource, EPIPOX, upon the predicted T-cell epitome. EPIPOX is freely available online and it has been designed to facilitate reverse vaccinology. Thus, EPIPOX includes key epitope-focused protein annotations: time point expression, presence of leader and transmembrane signals, and known location on outer membrane structures of the infective viruses. These features can be used to select specific T-cell epitopes suitable for experimental validation restricted by single MHC alleles, as combinations thereof, or by MHC supertypes. PMID:26605344

  19. Genotype characterization of commonly used Newcastle disease virus vaccine strains of India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0-7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6-8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation.

  20. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50 , were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals' lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema.

  1. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  2. Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    PubMed

    2007-06-07

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a

  3. Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P<5×10-7: 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn’s disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10-5 and 5×10-7) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics

  4. Five HLA-DP Molecules Frequently Expressed in the Worldwide Human Population Share a Common HLA Supertypic Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, John; Steen, Amiyah; Moore, Carrie; Ngo, Sandy; Chung, Jolan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Compared with DR and DQ, knowledge of the binding repertoires and specificities of HLA-DP alleles is somewhat limited. However, a growing body of literature has indicated the importance of DP-restricted responses in the context of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease. In the current study, we developed high-throughput binding assays for the five most common HLA-DPB1 alleles in the general worldwide population. Using these assays on a comprehensive panel of single-substitution analogs and large peptide libraries, we derived novel detailed binding motifs for DPB1*0101 and DPB1*0501. We also derived more detailed quantitative motifs for DPB1*0201, DPB1*0401, and DPB1*0402, which were previously characterized on the basis of sets of eluted ligands and/or limited sets of substituted peptides. Unexpectedly, all five DP molecules, originally selected only on the basis of their frequency in human populations, were found to share largely overlapping peptide motifs. Testing panels of known DP epitopes and a panel of peptides spanning a set of Phleum pratense Ags revealed that these molecules also share largely overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. This demonstrates that a previously hypothesized DP supertype extends far beyond what was originally envisioned and includes at least three additional very common DP specificities. Taken together, these DP supertype molecules are found in >90% of the human population. Thus, these findings have important implications for epitope-identification studies and monitoring of human class II-restricted immune responses. PMID:20139279

  5. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  6. Leaf volatile compounds of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing willow leaf mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) as their common parent.

    PubMed

    Gancel, Anne-Laure; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Tomi, Felix; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, Francois; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-09-24

    Volatile compounds were extracted by a pentane/ether (1:1) mixture from the leaves of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing mandarin as their common parent and having lime, Eurêka lemon, lac lemon, sweet orange, grapefruit, kumquat, or poncirus as the other parent. Extracts were examined by GC-MS and compared with those of their respective parents. All hybrids were like their mandarin parent, and unlike their nonmandarin parents, in being unable to synthesize monoterpene aldehydes and alcohols. The hybrids did retain the ability, although strongly reduced, of their nonmandarin parents to synthesize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aldehydes. These results suggest that complex forms of dominance in the mandarin genome determine the biosynthesis pathways of volatile compounds in tetraploid hybrids. A down-regulation of the biosynthesis of methyl N-methylanthranilate, a mandarin-specific compound, originates from the genomes of the nonmandarin parents. Statistical analyses showed that all of the hybrids were similar to their common mandarin parent in the relative composition of their volatile compounds.

  7. Shared Genetic Factors Involved in Celiac Disease, Type 2 Diabetes and Anorexia Nervosa Suggest Common Molecular Pathways for Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mostowy, Joanna; Montén, Caroline; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic regions involved in immune-regulatory mechanisms to be associated with celiac disease. Previous GWAS also revealed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa associated with celiac disease, suggesting involvement of common metabolic pathways for development of these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to extend these previous analyses to study the gene expression in the gut from children with active celiac disease. Material and Methods Thirty six target genes involved in type 2 diabetes and four genes associated with anorexia nervosa were investigated for gene expression in small intestinal biopsies from 144 children with celiac disease at median (range) age of 7.4 years (1.6–17.8) and from 154 disease controls at a median (range) age 11.4.years (1.4–18.3). Results A total of eleven of genes were differently expressed in celiac patients compared with disease controls of which CD36, CD38, FOXP1, SELL, PPARA, PPARG, AGT previously associated with type 2 diabetes and AKAP6, NTNG1 with anorexia nervosa remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Shared genetic factors involved in celiac disease, type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa suggest common underlying molecular pathways for these diseases. PMID:27483138

  8. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit. PMID:26629334

  9. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and 'persistence' in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically 'nonculturable' on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as 'persisters'. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one's bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  10. Virion Structure of Black Queen Cell Virus, a Common Honeybee Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Přidal, Antonín; Pálková, Lenka; Kiem, Hoa Khanh Tran; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae, which is part of the order Picornavirales. Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by 60 copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3; however, there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome. We show that the VP4 subunits are present in the crystallized virions that are infectious. This aspect of the BQCV virion is similar to that of the previously characterized triatoma virus and supports the recent establishment of the separate genus Triatovirus within the family Dicistroviridae. The C terminus of VP1 and CD loops of capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 of BQCV form 34-Å-tall finger-like protrusions at the virion surface. The protrusions are larger than those of related dicistroviruses. IMPORTANCE The western honeybee is the most important pollinator of all, and it is required to sustain the agricultural production and biodiversity of wild flowering plants. However, honeybee populations worldwide are suffering from virus infections that cause colony losses. One of the most common, and least known, honeybee pathogens is black queen cell virus (BQCV), which at high titers causes queen larvae and pupae to turn black and die. Here we present the three-dimensional virion structure of BQCV, determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of BQCV reveals large protrusions on the virion surface. Capsid protein VP1 of BQCV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket. Therefore, the BQCV virion structure provides evidence that capsid-binding antiviral compounds that can prevent the

  11. Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James F.; Morgan, Robin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genes—MYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERT—have previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome. PMID:26670384

  12. [The loss of a common shared world. Ethical problems in palliative care for people with advanced dementia].

    PubMed

    Hertogh, C M P M; The, B A M

    2008-12-01

    Person-centred (nursing home) care for people with dementia is a specific form of ('non cancer') palliative care. In order to elucidate how caregivers in nursing homes give shape to the nurse-patient relationship in people with advanced dementia and how they deal with the ethical questions that pose themselves in this realm of care ethnographial field research was conducted by two researchers in two Dutch nursing homes. It was found that in both facilities--despite differences in organization and quality of care--many forms of what Kitwood has termed 'malignant social psychology' were prevalent. A more detailed analysis of our research data revealed a relation--not only with staffshortages and a lack of professionalism--but also and primarily with the 'intrinsic complexity' of care giving in this field of palliative care. This complexity has its origin in the key problem of dementia, namely the loss of a common shared world of meaning. We discovered three features of this core problem: the dilemma(s) of truth speaking and truthfulness, the struggle to hold on to reciprocity in care giving and the paradoxes of normality nurses face in their treatment of people with dementia. In order to help caregivers cope with these problems we recommend to invest seriously in diverse forms of supportive care for nurses.

  13. Wild-type and mutant SOD1 share an aberrant conformation and a common pathogenic pathway in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Daryl A.; Morfini, Gerardo; Karabacak, N. Murat; Song, Yuyu; Gros-Louis, Francois; Pasinelli, Piera; Goolsby, Holly; Fontaine, Benjamin A.; Lemay, Nathan; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Frosch, Matthew P.; Agar, Jeffery N.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Brady, Scott T.; Brown, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Many mutations confer upon copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) one or more toxic function(s) that impair motor neuron viability and cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Using a conformation-specific antibody that detects misfolded SOD1 (C4F6), we demonstrate that oxidized WT-SOD1 and mutant-SOD1 share a conformational epitope that is not present in normal WT-SOD1. In a subset of human sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord displayed striking C4F6 immunoreactivity, denoting the presence of aberrant WT-SOD1 species. Recombinant, oxidized WT-SOD1 and WT-SOD1 immunopurified from SALS tissues inhibited kinesin-based fast axonal transport in a manner similar to FALS-linked mutant SOD1. Studies here suggest that WT-SOD1 can be pathogenic in SALS and identifies an SOD1-dependent pathogenic mechanism common to FALS and SALS. PMID:20953194

  14. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  15. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Ebejer, Jane L.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Duffy, David L.; Hickie, Ian B.; Thompson, Paul M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Head motion (HM) is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN) scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females) including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females) including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN). This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4), and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and Inattention or

  16. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Ebejer, Jane L; Gillespie, Nathan A; Duffy, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Head motion (HM) is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN) scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females) including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females) including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN). This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4), and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and Inattention or

  17. Genetically divergent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat (Felis catus) and the African lion (Panthera leo) share usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as entry receptors.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; McMonagle, Elizabeth L; Logan, Nicola; Serra, Rodrigo C; Kat, Pieter; Vandewoude, Sue; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2008-11-01

    The env open reading frames of African lion (Panthera leo) lentivirus (feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV(Ple)]) subtypes B and E from geographically distinct regions of Africa suggest two distinct ancestries, with FIV(Ple)-E sharing a common ancestor with the domestic cat (Felis catus) lentivirus (FIV(Fca)). Here we demonstrate that FIV(Ple)-E and FIV(Fca) share the use of CD134 (OX40) and CXCR4 as a primary receptor and coreceptor, respectively, and that both lion CD134 and CXCR4 are functional receptors for FIV(Ple)-E. The shared usage of CD134 and CXCR4 by FIV(Fca) and FIV(Ple)-E may have implications for in vivo cell tropism and the pathogenicity of the E subtype among free-ranging lion populations.

  18. Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams’ parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children’s kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents’ understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents’ support needs

  19. Did Viruses Evolve As a Distinct Supergroup from Common Ancestors of Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Harish, Ajith; Abroi, Aare; Gough, Julian; Kurland, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of viruses according to marker gene phylogenies, as well as their relationships to the ancestors of host cells remains unclear. In a recent article Nasir and Caetano-Anollés reported that their genome-scale phylogenetic analyses based on genomic composition of protein structural-domains identify an ancient origin of the “viral supergroup” (Nasir et al. 2015. A phylogenomic data-driven exploration of viral origins and evolution. Sci Adv. 1(8):e1500527.). It suggests that viruses and host cells evolved independently from a universal common ancestor. Examination of their data and phylogenetic methods indicates that systematic errors likely affected the results. Reanalysis of the data with additional tests shows that small-genome attraction artifacts distort their phylogenomic analyses, particularly the location of the root of the phylogenetic tree of life that is central to their conclusions. These new results indicate that their suggestion of a distinct ancestry of the viral supergroup is not well supported by the evidence. PMID:27497315

  20. Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Welsh, Rory M; Gentemann, Chelle; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Armbrust, E Virginia; Eisen, Jonathan A; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate (PO(4)) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO(4) using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO(4) transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO(4) uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO(4) -availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton.

  1. Divergent hepatitis E virus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus), Hungary.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has raised considerable public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the animal to animal transmissions and the natural chain of hepevirus infections in wildlife are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a novel HEV in birds of prey was serendipitously identified in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected in total of 2 (18%) of the 11 and 1 (14%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons, respectively. High faecal viral load (2.03×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of strain kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN (KU670940) HEV is 7033-nt long including a 35-nt 5'end and a 63-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4920nt/639 aa), ORF2 (1989nt/662 aa) and ORF3 (360nt/119aa) proteins of kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (58.1%, 66.8% and 28.5%) to the corresponding proteins of ferret, rat and human genotype 4 Orthohepeviruses, respectively. Interestingly, the ORF3 protein is potentially initiated with leucine (L) using an alternate, non-AUG (UUG) start codon. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Orthohepevirus species related to mammalian HEVs in birds of prey. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses.

  2. Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Pancino, G; Merat, R; Leste-Lasserre, T; Moraillon, A; Schneider-Mergener, J; Alizon, M; Sonigo, P; Heveker, N

    1999-05-01

    Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.

  3. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.

  4. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  5. Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2008-10-23

    Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

  6. Structure of flexible filamentous plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C; Havens, Wendy M; Ghabrial, Said A; Wall, Joseph S; Stubbs, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

  7. Neuroinflammation resulting from covert brain invasion by common viruses - a potential role in local and global neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Majde, Jeannine A

    2010-08-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15 h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10 h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza

  8. Comparison of the Oilseed rape mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus movement proteins (MP) reveals common and dissimilar MP functions for tobamovirus spread.

    PubMed

    Niehl, Annette; Pasquier, Adrien; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a longstanding model for studying virus movement and macromolecular transport through plasmodesmata (PD). Its movement protein (MP) interacts with cortical microtubule (MT)-associated ER sites (C-MERs) to facilitate the formation and transport of ER-associated viral replication complexes (VRCs) along the ER-actin network towards PD. To investigate whether this movement mechanism might be conserved between tobamoviruses, we compared the functions of Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) MP with those of MP(TMV). We show that MP(ORMV) supports TMV movement more efficiently than MP(TMV). Moreover, MP(ORMV) localizes to C-MERs like MP(TMV) but accumulates to lower levels and does not localize to larger inclusions/VRCs or along MTs, patterns regularly seen for MP(TMV). Our findings extend the role of C-MERs in viral cell-to-cell transport to a virus commonly used for functional genomics in Arabidopsis. Moreover, accumulation of tobamoviral MP in inclusions or along MTs is not required for virus movement.

  9. West Nile virus monitoring in migrating and resident water birds in Iran: are common coots the main reservoirs of the virus in wetlands?

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ziegler, Ute; Linke, Sonja; Niedrig, Matthias; Modirrousta, Hossein; Hoffmann, Bernd; Groschup, Martin H

    2011-10-01

    A molecular and serological study was carried out to determine the West Nile virus (WNV) status in different species of wild water birds. From 2003 to 2007, samples were collected from 519 birds representing 26 different species in Iran. Out of 519 serum samples tested for WNV antibodies, 78 (15%) were positive when tested using virus neutralization and immunofluorescence. Antibodies of WNV were detected in 71 out of 131 common coot (Fulica atra) samples. In comparison, only 7 out of 388 birds that were belonged to 25 other species of water birds revealed positive results. For most Anatidae species, no positive duck in serological tests was found. Further, no WNV viral RNA-positive samples were found in this study. Results of this investigation provide important information about the prevalence of WNV in wild water birds in Iran and indicate the potential role and importance of common coots in ecology of WNVs.

  10. Measuring enactment of innovations and the factors that affect implementation and sustainability: moving toward common language and shared conceptual understanding.

    PubMed

    Century, Jeanne; Cassata, Amy; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

    2012-10-01

    This article describes research that focuses on the concern that researchers are unable to fully realize the potential value of their collective efforts because they do not have shared conceptual or operational tools for communicating assumptions, ideas, research strategies, or findings with others outside, or even within their disciplines. This research, through the lens of measuring implementation of educational programs, has taken steps toward bringing researchers' varied pictures of understanding into a coherent landscape. This article describes a conceptual framework for describing aspects of implementation, a conceptual framework for describing the factors that affect implementation, and tools for measuring each. It describes the challenges addressed in the development of these approaches, and the application of these approaches to current studies in education and other fields in the social sciences. In doing so, it demonstrates that meaningful communication between researchers and accumulation of knowledge across fields is possible, and necessary.

  11. Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model

    SciTech Connect

    French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C. . E-mail: dstenger@unlnotes.unl.edu

    2005-12-20

    Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged {approx}5.0 x 10{sup -4}/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10{sup -4}/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage.

  12. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  13. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of three common viruses infecting orchids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raymond N; Dann, Alison L; Cross, Peter A; Wilson, Calum R

    2014-11-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of three orchid viruses: cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and orchid fleck virus (OFV). Primers were used to amplify nucleocapsid protein gene fragments of 845 bp (ORSV), 505 bp (CymMV) and 160 bp (OFV). A 60-bp amplicon of plant glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase mRNA was included as an internal control against false negatives. The assay was validated against 31 collected plants from six orchid genera and compared with results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RT-PCR assay proved more sensitive than TEM for detection of OFV.

  14. Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

    This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman,…

  15. Hepadnaviruses and retroviruses share genome homology and features of replication.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W S; Miller, R H; Marion, P L

    1987-01-01

    The hepadnavirus family includes hepatitis B virus (HBV), woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). These viruses share unique ultrastructural, molecular and biological features. HBV has great medical importance in many parts of the world. More important numerically than acute hepatitis B in high prevalence geographic regions is the liver disease associated with chronic infection. There appear to be more than 200 million chronically infected humans in the world, and these HBV infections appear to be the single most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer in man. All hepadnaviruses share the propensity for silent infection in early life leading to persistence of the virus, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is clearly associated with long-standing persistent infection in man, woodchucks and ground squirrels. Although the viral DNA has been found to be integrated in cellular DNA of many HCC in man, woodchucks and ground squirrels, the precise role of the virus in tumor formation has not been defined. Hepadna viruses have an interesting molecular structure and mechanisms of replication, and they appear to share certain important features with retroviruses as reviewed here. It is of interest to define similarities and differences between hepadnaviruses and retroviruses in order to understand their evolutionary relationship and to determine whether they share a common oncogenic mechanism, since infection with members of both virus families is associated with neoplastic disease.

  16. Shared VH1-46 gene usage by pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies indicates common humoral immune responses among patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Lo, Agnes S Y; Mao, Xuming; Nagler, Arielle R; Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Mukherjee, Eric M; Hammers, Christoph M; Choi, Eun-Jung; Sharma, Preety M; Uduman, Mohamed; Li, Hong; Rux, Ann H; Farber, Sara A; Rubin, Courtney B; Kleinstein, Steven H; Sachais, Bruce S; Posner, Marshall R; Cavacini, Lisa A; Payne, Aimee S

    2014-06-19

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal blistering disease caused by autoantibodies (autoAbs) against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Here, we clone anti-Dsg3 antibodies (Abs) from four PV patients and identify pathogenic VH1-46 autoAbs from all four patients. Unexpectedly, VH1-46 autoAbs had relatively few replacement mutations. We reverted antibody somatic mutations to their germline sequences to determine the requirement of mutations for autoreactivity. Three of five VH1-46 germline-reverted Abs maintain Dsg3 binding, compared with zero of five non-VH1-46 germline-reverted Abs. Site-directed mutagenesis of VH1-46 Abs demonstrates that acidic amino-acid residues introduced by somatic mutation or heavy chain VDJ recombination are necessary and sufficient for Dsg3 binding. Our data suggest that VH1-46 autoantibody gene usage is commonly found in PV because VH1-46 Abs require few to no mutations to acquire Dsg3 autoreactivity, which may favour their early selection. Common VH gene usage indicates common humoral immune responses, even among unrelated patients.

  17. Shared VH1-46 gene usage by pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies indicates common humoral immune responses among patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Lo, Agnes S.Y.; Mao, Xuming; Nagler, Arielle R.; Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Mukherjee, Eric M.; Hammers, Christoph M.; Choi, Eun-Jung; Sharma, Preety M.; Uduman, Mohamed; Li, Hong; Rux, Ann H.; Farber, Sara A.; Rubin, Courtney B.; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Sachais, Bruce S.; Posner, Marshall R.; Cavacini, Lisa A.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Here, we clone anti-Dsg3 antibodies from four PV patients and identify pathogenic VH1-46 autoantibodies from all four patients. Unexpectedly, VH1-46 autoantibodies had relatively few replacement mutations. We reverted antibody somatic mutations to their germline sequences to determine the requirement of mutations for autoreactivity. Three of five VH1-46 germline-reverted antibodies maintain Dsg3 binding, compared to zero of five non-VH1-46 germline-reverted antibodies. Site-directed mutagenesis of VH1-46 antibodies demonstrate that acidic amino acid residues introduced by somatic mutation or heavy chain VDJ recombination are necessary and sufficient for Dsg3 binding. Our data suggest that VH1-46 autoantibody gene usage is commonly found in PV because VH1-46 antibodies require few to no mutations to acquire Dsg3 autoreactivity, which may favor their early selection. Common VH gene usage indicates common humoral immune responses, even among unrelated patients. PMID:24942562

  18. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history.

  19. Shared allelic losses on chromosomes 1p and 19q suggest a common origin of oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, J.A.; Koopmann, J.; Kaskel, P.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in specific chromosomal regions, which are likely to harbor tumor suppressor genes, has been associated with human gliomas. In this study we have analyzed astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors for LOH on chromosomes 1 and 19. By microsatellite analysis LOH was found on chromosome arm 1p in 6/15 oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II and III, 12/25 oligoastrocytomas WHO grade II and III, 6/79 glioblastomas WHO grade IV, 5/44 astrocytomas WHO grade II and III and 0/23 pilocystic astrocytomas WHO grade I. The high incidence of LOH on chromosome arm 1p in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas indicates that a putative tumor suppressor gene in this region is involved in the formation of gliomas with oligodendroglial features. Furthermore, the frequent involvement of chromosome arm 1p in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, but not in astrocytomas, suggests that genetically oligoastrocytoma is more similar to oligodendroglioma than to astrocytoma. In order to support this hypothesis, oligodendroglial and astrocytic areas in three mixed oligoastrocytomas were examined differentially for LOH 1p and for LOH 19q, the second genetic region believed to be affected in these tumors. All three tumors had LOH of 1p and LOH of 19q in both areas of oligodendroglial and of astrocytic differentiation. These findings show that the astrocytic and oligodendroglial portions of oligoastrocytoma share molecular genetic features and probably are of monoclonal origin. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The evolution of fibrillar collagens: a sea-pen collagen shares common features with vertebrate type V collagen.

    PubMed

    Tillet, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

    1996-02-01

    The extracellular matrix of marine primitive invertebrates (sponges, polyps and jellyfishes) contains collagen fibrils with narrow diameters. From various data, it has been hypothesized that these primitive collagens could represent ancestral forms of the vertebrate minor collagens, i.e., types V or XI. Recently we have isolated a primitive collagen from the soft tissues of the sea-pen Veretillum cynomorium. This report examines whether the sea-pen collagen shares some features with vertebrate type V collagen. Rotary shadowed images of acid-soluble collagen molecules extracted from beta-APN treated animals, positive staining of segment-long-spacing crystallites precipitated from pepsinized collagen, Western blots of the pepsinized alpha1 and alpha2 chains with antibodies to vertebrate types I, III and V collagens, and in situ gold immunolabeling of ECM collagen fibrils were examined. Our results showed that the tissue form of the sea-pen collagen is a 340-nm threadlike molecule, which is close to the vertebrate type V collagen with its voluminous terminal globular domain, the distribution of most of its polar amino-acid residues, and its antigenic properties.

  1. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  2. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    PubMed

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  3. Diversity of viruses detected by deep sequencing in pigs from a common background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trial was successful in identifying a number of viruses in the feces of the pigs demonstrating the application of this technology to determine the background noise in the animals. The findings in this study are similar to the fecal virome in pigs from a typical commercial swine farm in the Unite...

  4. Network analysis reveals common host protein/s modulating pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sourish; Mukherjee, Sriparna; Sengupta, Nabonita; Roy, Arunava; Dey, Dhritiman; Chakraborty, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Arpan; Basu, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis through graph theory provides a quantitative approach to characterize specific proteins and their constituent assemblies that underlie host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, graph theory was used to analyze the interactome designed out of 50 differentially expressing proteins from proteomic analysis of Chandipura Virus (CHPV, Family: Rhabdoviridae) infected mouse brain tissue to identify the primary candidates for intervention. Using the measure of degree centrality, that quantifies the connectedness of a single protein within a milieu of several other interacting proteins, DJ-1 was selected for further molecular validation. To elucidate the generality of DJ-1’s role in propagating infection its role was also monitored in another RNA virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV, Family: Flaviviridae) infection. Concurrently, DJ-1 got over-expressed in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation following viral infection which in the early phase of infection migrated to mitochondria to remove dysfunctional mitochondria through the process of mitophagy. DJ-1 was also observed to modulate the viral replication and interferon responses along with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression in neurons. Collectively these evidences reveal a comprehensive role for DJ-1 in neurotropic virus infection in the brain. PMID:27581498

  5. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H.; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M.; Chua, Anita C.G.; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J.; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K.; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe−/−xTfr2mut mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation’ (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  6. Human intron-encoded AluACA RNAs and telomerase RNA share a common element promoting RNA accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ketele, Amandine; Kiss, Tamás; Jády, Beáta E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian cells express hundreds of intron-encoded box H/ACA RNAs which fold into a common hairpin-hinge-hairpin-tail structure, interact with 4 evolutionarily conserved proteins, dyskerin, Nop10, Nhp2 and Gar1, and function mainly in RNA pseudouridylation. The human telomerase H/ACA RNA (hTR) directs telomeric DNA synthesis and it carries a 5′-terminal domain encompassing the telomeric template sequence. The primary hTR transcript is synthesized from an independent gene by RNA polymerase II and undergoes 3′ end processing controlled by the 3′-terminal H/ACA domain. The apical stem-loop of the 3′ hairpin of hTR carries a unique biogenesis-promoting element, the BIO motif that promotes hTR processing and RNP assembly. AluACA RNAs represent a distinct class of human H/ACA RNAs; they are processed from intronic Alu repetitive sequences. As compared to canonical H/ACA RNAs, the AluACA RNAs carry unusually short or long 5′ hairpins and generally, they accumulate at low levels. Here, we demonstrate that the suboptimal 5′ hairpins are responsible for the weak expression of AluACA RNAs. We also show that AluACA RNAs frequently carry a processing/stabilization element that is structurally and functionally indistinguishable from the hTR BIO motif. Both hTR and AluACA biogenesis-promoting elements are located in the terminal stem-loop of the 3′-terminal H/ACA hairpin, they show perfect structural conservation and are functionally interchangeable in in vivo RNA processing reactions. Our results demonstrate that the BIO motif, instead of being confined to hTR, is a more general H/ACA RNP biogenesis-facilitating element that can also promote processing/assembly of intron-encoded AluACA RNPs. PMID:27726486

  7. Do antibodies to myelin basic protein isolated from multiple sclerosis cross-react with measles and other common virus antigens?

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C C; Townsend, E; Randell, V B; Williamson, H G

    1983-01-01

    Immunological activity to various antigens, including brain components, measles and other viruses, has been associated with IgG in multiple sclerosis (MS). One possible explanation for the presence of anti-viral antibodies and antibody to myelin basic protein (MBP) in MS patients is that there are antigenic determinants common to certain viruses and MBP. To assess this possibility, IgG from individual brains and sera from patients with MS, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and controls was isolated by protein A and MBP-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Antibody to MBP was measured with a solid phase radioimmunoassay and antibody to measles and other viruses by immunofluorescence and/or complement fixation. Anti-MBP activity was detected in brain extracts and sera of all MS patients tested. In contrast to the low levels of antibody to MBP in control brains, high levels of anti-MBP antibodies were found in most of the normal sera. There was no correlation between the presence and levels of serum anti-measles antibodies and the anti-MBP activity. None of the anti-MBP antibodies affinity purified from brain and serum of MS patients reacted with any of the viruses tested, including measles. IgG purified from SSPE patients or from a rabbit hyperimmunized with measles antigen had no reactivity to MBP, despite high levels of anti-measles antibody. It is concluded that there is not direct link between the presence of antibody to MBP and antibody to measles and other viruses in MS patients. PMID:6190599

  8. Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Protein Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, EnCheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, QingYuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, YongLi; Wang, WenShi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, DongLai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

  9. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.

  10. Complete Coding Sequence of Usutu Virus Strain Gracula religiosa/U1609393/Belgium/2016 Obtained from the Brain Tissue of an Infected Captive Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Vandenbussche, Frank; Steensels, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete and annotated coding sequence and partial noncoding sequence of an Usutu virus genome were sequenced from RNA extracted from a clinical brain tissue sample obtained from a common hill myna (Gracula religiosa), demonstrating close homology with Usutu viruses circulating in Europe. PMID:28336592

  11. Interferon Antagonism as a Common Virulence Factor of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    examine this for hantaviruses , lung epithelial cells (A549) were mock-infected or infected with the HPS-causing hantavirus , Andes virus (ANDV), for...findings contained in this report are those of the author (s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) Adolfo Garcia Sastre, Ph.D.; Connie S. Schmaljohn, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: connie.schmaljohn

  12. Substitution of Feline Leukemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Sequences into Murine Leukemia Virus Alters the Pattern of Insertional Activation and Identifies New Common Insertion Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chassidy; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Puetter, Adriane; Levy, Laura S.

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant retrovirus, MoFe2-MuLV (MoFe2), was constructed by replacing the U3 region of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) with homologous sequences from the FeLV-945 LTR. NIH/Swiss mice neonatally inoculated with MoFe2 developed T-cell lymphomas of immature thymocyte surface phenotype. MoFe2 integrated infrequently (0 to 9%) near common insertion sites (CISs) previously identified for either parent virus. Using three different strategies, CISs in MoFe2-induced tumors were identified at six loci, none of which had been previously reported as CISs in tumors induced by either parent virus in wild-type animals. Two of the newly identified CISs had not previously been implicated in lymphoma in any retrovirus model. One of these, designated 3-19, encodes the p101 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-gamma. The other, designated Rw1, is predicted to encode a protein that functions in the immune response to virus infection. Thus, substitution of FeLV-945 U3 sequences into the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) did not alter the target tissue for M-MuLV transformation but significantly altered the pattern of CIS utilization in the induction of T-cell lymphoma. These observations support a growing body of evidence that the distinctive sequence and/or structure of the retroviral LTR determines its pattern of insertional activation. The findings also demonstrate the oligoclonal nature of retrovirus-induced lymphomas by demonstrating proviral insertions at CISs in subdominant populations in the tumor mass. Finally, the findings demonstrate the utility of novel recombinant retroviruses such as MoFe2 to contribute new genes potentially relevant to the induction of lymphoid malignancy. PMID:15596801

  13. Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-06-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

  14. Crystal structures of the staphylococcal toxin SSL5 in complex with sialyl Lewis X reveal a conserved binding site that shares common features with viral and bacterial sialic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Baker, Heather M; Basu, Indira; Chung, Matthew C; Caradoc-Davies, Tom; Fraser, John D; Baker, Edward N

    2007-12-14

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

  15. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

  16. Flaviviridae viruses use a common molecular mechanism to escape nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Valdés, James J; Butterill, Philip T; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-03-18

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of Flaviviridae viruses are crucial for replication. The Flaviviridae polymerase is organized into structural motifs (A-G), with motifs F, A, C and E containing interrogating, priming and catalytic substrate-interacting sites. Modified nucleoside analogues act as antiviral drugs by targeting Flaviviridae polymerases and integrating into the synthesized product causing premature termination. A threonine mutation of a conserved serine residue in motif B of Flaviviridae polymerases renders resistance to 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogues. The mechanism how this single mutation causes Flaviviridae viruses to escape nucleoside analogues is not yet known. Given the pivotal position of the serine residue in motif B that supports motif F, we hypothesized the threonine mutation causes alterations in nucleoside exploration within the entry tunnel. Implementing a stochastic molecular software showed the all-atom 2'-C-methylated analogue reaction within the active sites of wild type and serine-threonine mutant polymerases from Hepacivirus and Flavivirus. Compared with the wild type, the serine-threonine mutant polymerases caused a significant decrease of analogue contacts with conserved interrogating residues in motif F and a displacement of metal ion cofactors. The simulations significantly showed that during the analogue exploration of the active site the hydrophobic methyl group in the serine-threonine mutant repels water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the 2'-C-methylated analogue, causing a concentration of water-mediated bonds at the substrate-interacting sites. Collectively, the data are an insight into a molecular escape mechanism by Flaviviridae viruses from 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

  17. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy.

  18. Targeting of a common receptor shared by CXCL8 and N-Ac-PGP as a therapeutic strategy to alleviate chronic neutrophilic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Robert J

    2011-09-30

    Persistent neutrophilia is implicated in the pathology of several chronic lung diseases and consequently targeting the signals that drive the recruitment of these cells offers a plausible therapeutic strategy. The tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) is a neutrophil chemoattractant derived from extracellular matrix collagen and implicated in diseases such as COPD and cystic fibrosis. It was anticipated that PGP exerts its chemoatactic activity by mimicking key sequences found within classical neutrophil chemokines, such as CXCL8, and binding their receptors, CXCR1/2. Recently, however, the role of CXCR1/2 as the receptors for PGP has been questioned. In this issue of European Journal of Pharmacology, three studies address this controversy and demonstrate CXCR1/2 to be a common receptor for CXCL8 and PGP. Accordingly, these studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting this shared receptor to simultaneously alleviate neutrophilic inflammation driven by multiple neutrophil chemoattractants.

  19. Aerosolized Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Fatal Encephalitis in African Green Monkeys and Common Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Caroline, Amy L.; Schmid, Richard J.; Oury, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

  20. A multiplex real-time PCR panel assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of 12 common swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiju; Liu, Xuming; Wang, Qin; Das, Amaresh; Ma, Guiping; Xu, Lu; Sun, Qing; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Jia, Wei; Liu, Yanhua; Anderson, Gary; Bai, Jianfa; Shi, Jishu

    2016-10-01

    Mixed infection with different pathogens is common in swine production systems especially under intensive production conditions. Quick and accurate detection and differentiation of different pathogens are necessary for epidemiological surveillance, disease management and import and export controls. In this study, we developed and validated a panel of multiplex real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays composed of four subpanels, each detects three common swine pathogens. The panel detects 12 viruses or viral serotypes, namely, VSV-IN, VSV-NJ, SVDV, CSFV, ASFV, FMDV, PCV2, PPV, PRV, PRRSV-NA, PRRSV-EU and SIV. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) and PCR amplification efficiencies of all singular and triplex real-time PCR reactions are within the acceptable range. Comparison between singular and triplex real-time PCR assays of each subpanel indicates that there is no significant interference on assay sensitivities caused by multiplexing. Specificity tests on 226 target clinical samples or 4 viral strains and 91 non-target clinical samples revealed that the real-time PCR panel is 100% specific, and there is no cross amplification observed. The limit of detection of each triplex real-time PCR is less than 10 copies per reaction for DNA, and less than 16 copies per reaction for RNA viruses. The newly developed multiplex real-time PCR panel also detected different combinations of co-infections as confirmed by other means of detections.

  1. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  2. Common Origins and Host-Dependent Diversity of Plant and Animal Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus – host interactions including in many cases capsid protein genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: i) evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; ii) horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; iii) parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

  3. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  4. Endogenous New World primate retrovirus: interspecies antigenic determinants shared with the major structural protein of type-D RNA viruses of Old World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hino, S; Tronick, S R; Heberling, R L; Kalter, S S; Hellman, A; Aaronson, S A

    1977-01-01

    A reverse transcriptase-containing virus has recently been isolated from a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Molecular hybridization studies demonstrate that the squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) is endogenous to this New World primate, yet lacks detectable nucleotide sequence homology with cellular DNAs of representative Old World primates or with the genomes of previously isolated Old World primate retroviruses. The 35,000-dalton major structural protein (p35) of SMRV was purified and shown to possess antigenic determinants distinct from those of known retroviruses. While SMRV was found to lack antigenic determinants broadly shared among mammalian type-C viruses, immunologic crossreactivity was demonstrated between SMRV p35 and the major structural protein (p26) of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, a prototype type-D retrovirus of Old World monkeys. These findings support the concept that SMRV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus are evolutionarily related, and raise the possibility that a progenitor of type-D retroviruses became genetically associated with primates at a very early time in their evolution. PMID:74833

  5. Pepino mosaic virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase POL Domain Is a Hypersensitive Response-Like Elicitor Shared by Necrotic and Mild Isolates.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Raquel N; Gómez-Aix, Cristina; Ruíz-Ramón, Fabiola; Gómez, Pedro; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that represents a serious threat to tomato production worldwide. PepMV-induced diseases manifest with a wide range of symptoms, including systemic necrosis. Our results showed that PepMV accumulation depends on the virus isolate, tomato cultivar, and environmental conditions, and associates with the development of necrosis. Substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 67 in the triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein, previously described as a necrosis determinant, led to increased virus accumulation and was necessary but not sufficient to induce systemic necrosis. Systemic necrosis both in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana shared hypersensitive response (HR) features, allowing the assessment of the role of different genomic regions on necrosis induction. Overexpression of both TGB3 and the polymerase domain (POL) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) resulted in necrosis, although only local expression of POL triggered HR-like symptoms. Our results also indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity of POL resides in its highly conserved "palm" domain, and that necrosis was jasmonic acid-dependent but not salicylic acid-dependent. Altogether, our data suggest that the RdRp-POL domain plays an important role in PepMV necrosis induction, with necrosis development depending on the virus accumulation level, which can be modulated by the nature of TGB3, host genotype and environmental conditions.

  6. Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Abarshi, M M; Mohammed, I U; Jeremiah, S C; Legg, J P; Kumar, P Lava; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

    2012-01-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were developed for the detection of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in single and mixed infections with cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in a tropical crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta). CMBs contain ssDNA as their genome (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) while CBSVs are made up of positive sense ssRNA (genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae), and they cause the economically important cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases, respectively, in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic methodologies have long been available for CMBs but they are limited for CBSVs especially in mixed infections. In this study, the two CBSVs, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) occurring singly or in mixed infection with CMBs, African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic virus were detected in a single RT-PCR using both previously described and newly designed virus-specific primers. These protocols were highly efficient for detecting CBSVs compared to the existing methods and have great potential to minimize sample handling and contamination. As well as improving the diagnosis of cassava viruses, the development of multiplex RT-PCR protocols have revealed the common occurrence of mixed infections by CBSV and CBSUV in cassava fields of Tanzania and Kenya, which was contrary to the common belief until recently that these two viruses have existed separately. These protocols have implications for diagnosis and epidemiological studies on cassava virus diseases in Eastern Africa.

  7. Optimization of a Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System with Soybean yellow common mosaic virus for Gene Function Studies in Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kil Hyun; Lim, Seungmo; Kang, Yang Jae; Yoon, Min Young; Nam, Moon; Jun, Tae Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Baek, Seong-Bum; Lee, Jeom-Ho; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the study of soybean gene function. Successful VIGS depends on the interaction between virus spread and plant growth, which can be influenced by environmental conditions. Recently, we developed a new VIGS system derived from the Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV). Here, we investigated several environmental and developmental factors to improve the efficiency of a SYCMV-based VIGS system to optimize the functional analysis of the soybean. Following SYCMV: Glycine max-phytoene desaturase (GmPDS) infiltration, we investigated the effect of photoperiod, inoculation time, concentration of Agrobacterium inoculm, and growth temperature on VIGS efficiency. In addition, the relative expression of GmPDS between non-silenced and silenced plants was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that gene silencing efficiency was highest at a photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark) at a growth temperature of approximately 27°C following syringe infiltration to unrolled unifoliolate leaves in cotyledon stage with a final SYCMV:GmPDS optimal density (OD)600 of 2.0. Using this optimized protocol, we achieved high efficiency of GmPDS-silencing in various soybean germplasms including cultivated and wild soybeans. We also confirmed that VIGS occurred in the entire plant, including the root, stem, leaves, and flowers, and could transmit GmPDS to other soybean germplasms via mechanical inoculation. This optimized protocol using a SYCMV-based VIGS system in the soybean should provide a fast and effective method to elucidate gene functions and for use in large-scale screening experiments.

  8. CRISPRs of Enterococcus faecalis and E. hirae isolates from pig feces have species-specific repeats but share some common spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Isha; Chaban, Bonnie; Ng, Beata; Hill, Janet E

    2013-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are currently a topic of interest in microbiology due to their role as a prokaryotic immune system. Investigations of CRISPR distribution and characterization to date have focused on pathogenic bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR in commensal bacteria, where they may have a significant role in the ecology of the microbiota of humans and other animals, and act as a recorder of interactions between bacteria and viruses. A combination of PCR and sequencing was used to determine prevalence and distribution of CRISPR arrays in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus hirae isolates from the feces of healthy pigs. Both type II CRISPR-Cas and Orphan CRISPR (without Cas genes) were detected in the 195 isolates examined. CRISPR-Cas was detected in 52 (46/88) and 42 % (45/107) E. faecalis and E. hirae isolates, respectively. The prevalence of Orphan CRISPR arrays was higher in E. faecalis isolates (95 %, 84/88) compared with E. hirae isolates (49 %, 53/107). Species-specific repeat sequences were identified in Orphan CRISPR arrays, and 42 unique spacer sequences were identified. Only two spacers matched previously characterized pig virome sequences, and many were apparently derived from chromosomal sequences of enterococci. Surprisingly, 17 (40 %) of the spacers were detected in both species. Shared spacer sequences are evidence of a lack of species specificity in the agents and mechanisms responsible for integration of spacers, and the abundance of spacer sequences corresponding to bacterial chromosomal sequences reflects interspecific interactions within the intestinal microbiota.

  9. A Click Chemistry‐Based Proteomic Approach Reveals that 1,2,4‐Trioxolane and Artemisinin Antimalarials Share a Common Protein Alkylation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; Barton, Victoria E.; Panchana, Matthew; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Ward, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the recent increase in endoperoxide antimalarials under development, it remains unclear if all these chemotypes share a common mechanism of action. This is important since it will influence cross‐resistance risks between the different classes. Here we investigate this proposition using novel clickable 1,2,4‐trioxolane activity based protein‐profiling probes (ABPPs). ABPPs with potent antimalarial activity were able to alkylate protein target(s) within the asexual erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). Importantly, comparison of the alkylation fingerprint with that generated from an artemisinin ABPP equivalent confirms a highly conserved alkylation profile, with both endoperoxide classes targeting proteins in the glycolytic, hemoglobin degradation, antioxidant defence, protein synthesis and protein stress pathways, essential biological processes for plasmodial survival. The alkylation signatures of the two chemotypes show significant overlap (ca. 90 %) both qualitatively and semi‐quantitatively, suggesting a common mechanism of action that raises concerns about potential cross‐resistance liabilities. PMID:27397940

  10. A Click Chemistry‐Based Proteomic Approach Reveals that 1,2,4‐Trioxolane and Artemisinin Antimalarials Share a Common Protein Alkylation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; Barton, Victoria E.; Panchana, Matthew; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Ward, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the recent increase in endoperoxide antimalarials under development, it remains unclear if all these chemotypes share a common mechanism of action. This is important since it will influence cross‐resistance risks between the different classes. Here we investigate this proposition using novel clickable 1,2,4‐trioxolane activity based protein‐profiling probes (ABPPs). ABPPs with potent antimalarial activity were able to alkylate protein target(s) within the asexual erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). Importantly, comparison of the alkylation fingerprint with that generated from an artemisinin ABPP equivalent confirms a highly conserved alkylation profile, with both endoperoxide classes targeting proteins in the glycolytic, hemoglobin degradation, antioxidant defence, protein synthesis and protein stress pathways, essential biological processes for plasmodial survival. The alkylation signatures of the two chemotypes show significant overlap (ca. 90 %) both qualitatively and semi‐quantitatively, suggesting a common mechanism of action that raises concerns about potential cross‐resistance liabilities. PMID:27089538

  11. Application of Multiplex PCR Coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Analysis for Simultaneous Detection of 21 Common Respiratory Viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Xiao, Yan; Du, Jiang; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei; Peng, Junping; Jin, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory infections continue to pose a significant threat to human health. It is important to accurately and rapidly detect respiratory viruses. To compensate for the limits of current respiratory virus detection methods, we developed a 24-plex analysis (common respiratory virus-mass spectrometry [CRV-MS]) that can simultaneously detect and identify 21 common respiratory viruses based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system. To evaluate the efficacy of the CRV-MS method, we used 102 samples that were confirmed positive for these common respiratory viruses. All tests using the CRV-MS method were effective, with no cross-reactivity observed with other common respiratory viruses. To confirm the usefulness of the CRV-MS method, we screened 336 nasal and throat swabs that were collected from adults or children with suspected viral acute respiratory tract infections using the CRV-MS method and consensus PCR/reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. Excluding four RNase P-negative samples, the CRV-MS and consensus PCR/RT-PCR methods detected respiratory viruses in 92.5% (307/332) and 89.5% (297/332) of the samples, respectively. The two methods yielded identical results for 306 (92.2%) samples, including negative results for 25 samples (7.5%) and positive results for 281 samples (84.6%). Differences between the two methods may reflect their different sensitivities. The CRV-MS method proved to be sensitive and robust, and it can be used in large-scale epidemiological studies of common respiratory virus infections.

  12. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  13. Satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares similarity with satellites associated with sobemoviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, J S; Lin, N S

    1995-01-01

    A putative nonstructural protein encoded by a satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares 46% identity with the capsid protein of satellite virus of panicum mosaic sobemovirus. The sequence similarity among satellite plant viruses which have no apparent relationship implies a common origin.

  14. Identification of the common regulators for hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus X antigen in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Hsia, Yu; Yang, Wan-Yu; Lin, Yu-I; Li, Chao-Chin; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chang, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Grace S; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Wang, Horng-Dar; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X antigen plays an important role in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The key regulators controlling the temporal downstream gene expression for HCC progression remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of systems biology approach and analyzed the microarray data of the HBx transgenic mouse as a screening process to identify the differentially expressed genes and applied the software Pathway Studio to identify potential pathways and regulators involved in HCC. Using subnetwork enrichment analysis, we identified five common regulator genes: EDN1, BMP7, BMP4, SPIB and SRC. Upregulation of the common regulators was validated in the other independent HBx transgenic mouse lines. Furthermore, we verified the correlation of their RNA expression levels by using the human HCC samples, and their protein levels by using the human liver disease tissue arrays. EDN1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 were upregulated in cirrhosis, BMP4, BMP7 and SRC were further upregulated in hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinoma samples. The trend of increasing expression of the common regulators correlates well with the progression of human liver cancer. Overexpression of the common regulators increases the cell viability, promotes migration and invasiveness and enhances the colony formation ability in Hep3B cells. Our approach allows us to identify the critical genes in hepatocarcinogenesis in an HBx-induced mouse model. The validation of the gene expressions in the liver cancer of human patients and their cellular function assays suggests that the identified common regulators may serve as useful molecular targets for the early-stage diagnosis or therapy for HCC.

  15. When fur and feather occur together: interclass transmission of avian influenza A virus from mammals to birds through common resources

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey Root, J.; Shriner, Susan A.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of wild mammals in avian influenza A virus (IAV) transmission cycles has received some attention in recent years and cases where birds have transmitted IAV to mammals have been documented. However, the contrasting cycle, wherein a mammal could transmit an avian IAV to birds, has been largely overlooked. We experimentally tested the abilities of two mammalian species to transmit avian IAV to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in simulated natural environments. Results suggested that striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) can successfully transmit avian IAV to mallards through indirect contact with shared resources, as transmission was noted in 1 of 4 of the mallards tested. Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) exhibited a similar pattern, as one of five cottontail rabbits successfully transmitted IAV to a mallard, likely through environmental contamination. For each mammalian species tested, the mallards that became infected were those paired with the individual mammals with the lowest shedding levels but were anecdotally observed to be the most active animals. Mammals associated with and around poultry rearing facilities should be taken into consideration in biosecurity plans. PMID:26400374

  16. Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases Caused by Common Respiratory Viruses among Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Su-Mi; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Ki; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the incidence, clinical courses, and risk factors for mortality of lower respiratory tract diseases (LRDs) caused by common respiratory viruses (CRVs) in stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1038 patients who received SCT between January 2007 and August 2011 at a single center in Korea. Results Seventy-one CRV-LRDs were identified in 67 (6.5%) patients. The human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) was the most common causative pathogen of CRV-LRDs at 100 days [cumulative incidence estimate, 23.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3–43.7] and 1 year (cumulative incidence estimate, 69.2%; 95% CI, 45.9–92.5) following SCT. The 30-day overall mortality rates due to influenza-LRDs, respiratory syncytial virus-LRDs, HPIV-LRDs, and human rhinovirus-LRDs were 35.7, 25.8, 31.6, and 42.8%, respectively. Co-pathogens in respiratory specimens were detected in 23 (33.8%) patients. The overall mortality at day 30 after CRV-LRD diagnosis was 32.8% (22/67). High-dose steroid usage (p=0.025), a severe state of immunodeficiency (p=0.033), and lymphopenia (p=0.006) were significantly associated with death within 30 days following CRV-LRD diagnosis in a univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-dose steroid usage [odds ratio (OR), 4.05; 95% CI, 1.12–14.61; p=0.033] and lymphopenia (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 1.80–24.03; p=0.004) were independent risk factors for mortality within 30 days of CRV-LRDs. Conclusion CRV-LRDs among SCT recipients showed substantially high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, the implement of an active diagnostic approaches for CRV infections is required for SCT recipients with respiratory symptoms, especially those receiving high-dose steroids or with lymphopenia. PMID:28120567

  17. Huntington’s disease blood and brain show a common gene expression pattern and share an immune signature with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hensman Moss, Davina J.; Flower, Michael D.; Lo, Kitty K.; Miller, James R. C.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; ’t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Stone, Timothy C.; Guinee, Amelia; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Jones, Lesley; Plagnol, Vincent; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M. C.; Holmans, Peter; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington’s disease (HD) brain, but analysis is inevitably limited by advanced disease and postmortem changes. However, mutant HTT is ubiquitously expressed and acts systemically, meaning blood, which is readily available and contains cells that are dysfunctional in HD, could act as a surrogate for brain tissue. We conducted an RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis using whole blood from two HD cohorts, and performed gene set enrichment analysis using public databases and weighted correlation network analysis modules from HD and control brain datasets. We identified dysregulated gene sets in blood that replicated in the independent cohorts, correlated with disease severity, corresponded to the most significantly dysregulated modules in the HD caudate, the most prominently affected brain region, and significantly overlapped with the transcriptional signature of HD myeloid cells. High-throughput sequencing technologies and use of gene sets likely surmounted the limitations of previously inconsistent HD blood expression studies. Our results suggest transcription is disrupted in peripheral cells in HD through mechanisms that parallel those in brain. Immune upregulation in HD overlapped with Alzheimer’s disease, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism involving macrophage phagocytosis and microglial synaptic pruning, and raises the potential for shared therapeutic approaches. PMID:28322270

  18. A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images PMID:2186172

  19. Using common spatial distributions of atoms to relate functionally divergent influenza virus N10 and N11 protein structures to functionally characterized neuraminidase structures, toxin cell entry domains, and non-influenza virus cell entry domains.

    PubMed

    Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell

  20. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, E Petter; Iason, Glenn R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host

  1. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, E. Petter; Iason, Glenn R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host

  2. A method to manage and share anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy information of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Minamareddy, Priti; Lee, Peisan; Ngo, Thuy Dieu; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2013-08-01

    Management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug and HIV patients data is an important component of Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) Department and hospitals/health care units when people often travel in other places of Vietnam; therefore, it would lead to a number of medical errors in treatment as well as patients do not adhere to ARV therapy. In this paper, we describe a system that manages and shares antiretroviral therapy information of 4438 HIV patients in three healthcare centers in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. The overall design considerations, architecture and the integration of centralized database and decentralized management for the system are also presented. The findings from this study can serve as a guide to consider in the implementation model of health care to manage and share information of patients not only in HIV infection, but also in the other chronic and non-communicable diseases.

  3. 2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

  4. A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

  5. Markers for Ongoing or Previous Hepatitis E Virus Infection Are as Common in Wild Ungulates as in Humans in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Anette; Lin, Jay; Magnius, Lars; Karlsson, Marie; Belák, Sándór; Widén, Frederik; Norder, Heléne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with zoonotic spread, infecting both domestic and wild animals. About 17% of the Swedish population is immune to HEV, but few cases are reported annually, indicating that most infections are subclinical. However, clinical hepatitis E may also be overlooked. For identified cases, the source of infection is mostly unknown. In order to identify whether HEV may be spread from wild game, the prevalence of markers for past and/or ongoing infection was investigated in sera and stool samples collected from 260 hunted Swedish wild ungulates. HEV markers were found in 43 (17%) of the animals. The most commonly infected animal was moose (Alces alces) with 19 out of 69 animals (28%) showing HEV markers, followed by wild boar (Sus scrofa) with 21 out of 139 animals (15%), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with 2 out of 30 animals, red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 1 out of 15 animals, and fallow deer (Dama dama) 0 out of 7 animals. Partial open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the viral genomes from the animals were sequenced and compared with those from 14 endemic human cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three humans were infected with HEV strains similar to those from wild boar. These results indicate that wild animals may be a source of transmission to humans and could be an unrecognized public health concern. PMID:27657108

  6. Identification of a novel common proviral integration site, flit-1, in feline leukemia virus induced thymic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Liao, Chun-Peng; Zhao, Yan Shi; Pan, Judong; Mathes, Lawrence E; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Roy-Burman, Pradip

    2009-03-30

    A new proviral integration site for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), termed flit-1, was identified from feline thymic lymphoma. Among 35 FeLV-related tumors examined, 5 of 25 thymic lymphomas demonstrated proviral insertion within flit-1 locus whereas none of four alimentary and five multicentric lymphomas and one T-lymphoid leukemia examined had rearrangement in this region. Extensive sequence analysis has shown that flit-1, which is noncoding, is conserved on human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 15. The human and murine homologs of flit-1 are positioned approximately 30-kb upstream to activin-A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1) gene. Expression of ACVRL1 mRNA was examined in two of five lymphomas with flit-1 rearrangement and detected in both of the two whereas normal thymuses and seven lymphoid tumors without flit-1 rearrangement had no detectable expression. Therefore, flit-1 appears to represent a novel FeLV proviral common integration domain that may influence lymphomagenesis as insertional mutagenesis.

  7. Lactococcal bacteriophage p2 receptor-binding protein structure suggests a common ancestor gene with bacterial and mammalian viruses.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Verrips, C Theo; de Haard, Hans J W; Moineau, Sylvain; Cambillau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a Gram-positive bacterium used extensively by the dairy industry for the manufacture of fermented milk products. The double-stranded DNA bacteriophage p2 infects specific L. lactis strains using a receptor-binding protein (RBP) located at the tip of its noncontractile tail. We have solved the crystal structure of phage p2 RBP, a homotrimeric protein composed of three domains: the shoulders, a beta-sandwich attached to the phage; the neck, an interlaced beta-prism; and the receptor-recognition head, a seven-stranded beta-barrel. We used the complex of RBP with a neutralizing llama VHH domain to identify the receptor-binding site. Structural similarity between the recognition-head domain of phage p2 and those of adenoviruses and reoviruses, which invade mammalian cells, suggests that these viruses, despite evolutionary distant targets, lack of sequence similarity and the different chemical nature of their genomes (DNA versus RNA), might have a common ancestral gene.

  8. Virus-independent and common transcriptome responses of leafhopper vectors feeding on maize infected with semi-persistently and persistent propagatively transmitted viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are the most important epidemiological factors of plant virus disease spread, with >75% of the viruses dependent on insects for host transmission. However, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the processes and efficiency of transmission. The black-fa...

  9. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  10. Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Tiffany M; Janaka, Sanath K; Stephens, Edward B; Johnson, Marc C

    2012-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env). We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in different cellular

  11. SHARE and Share Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

  12. Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Flusin, Olivier; Panella, Amanda; Tenebray, Bernard; Lanciotti, Robert; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is present or emerging in dengue virus–endemic areas. Infections caused by these viruses share some common signs/symptoms, but prognosis, patient care, and persistent symptoms differ. Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25418184

  13. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells.

    PubMed

    Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Wasik, Bethany R; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-01-20

    Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature.

  14. Comparison and differentiation of potyvirus isolates and identification of strain-, virus-, subgroup-specific and potyvirus group-common epitopes using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jordan, R; Hammond, J

    1991-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against an admixture of 12 potyvirus isolates was used to compare and differentiate diverse potyviruses. Both native and denatured virions of strains of bean yellow mosaic (BYMV), potato virus Y, tobacco etch, pea seed-borne mosaic, iris severe mosaic, iris mild mosaic and asparagus virus-1 potyviruses were used as immunogen and as antigen for screening of the hybridoma cell lines. Thirty cell lines secreting potyvirus-specific antibodies reactive in indirect antigen-coated plate (ACP-) ELISA were selected for detailed analysis. All 30 MAbs reacted with at least one strain of BYMV; 11 MAbs reacted with between one and eight of the nine BYMV strains and an additional three MAbs reacted only with isolates within the BYMV subgroup (BYMV, pea mosaic virus and clover yellow vein virus). The remaining 16 MAbs reacted with a BYMV isolate and with at least one of the other 43 potyvirus isolates tested. MAb PTY 1 reacted with all 55 potyvirus isolates tested (representing at least 33 different and distinct aphid-transmissible potyviruses). The potyvirus cross-reactive MAbs generally gave higher reactivity values in ACP-ELISA with dissociated virus than with polyclonal antibody-trapped intact virions in triple antibody sandwich ELISA (i.e. were cryptotope-specific). The BYMV strain- and virus-specific MAbs reacted strongly with both types of antigens (i.e. were metatope-specific). At least 25 distinct epitopes (12 cryptotopes and 13 metatopes) could be identified from the MAb-antigen reactivity patterns. The distribution of these epitopes between virus isolates can be used to detect and differentiate potyviruses in infected plant extracts and to examine virus architectures. Some of these epitopes are shared by potyvirus isolates not previously shown to be serologically related. The broad spectrum-reacting MAb PTY 1 recognizes a cryptotope conserved on all of the aphid-transmissible potyviruses examined and should be a

  15. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  17. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

  18. Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  19. Epstein-Barr virus from Burkitt Lymphoma biopsies from Africa and South America share novel LMP-1 promoter and gene variations.

    PubMed

    Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Biggar, Robert J; Nkrumah, Francis; Neequaye, Janet; Gutierrez, Marina; Epelman, Sidnei; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Bhatia, Kishor; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2015-11-23

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) sequence variation is thought to contribute to Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but lack of data from primary BL tumors hampers efforts to test this hypothesis. We directly sequenced EBV from 12 BL biopsies from Ghana, Brazil, and Argentina, aligned the obtained reads to the wild-type (WT) EBV reference sequence, and compared them with 100 published EBV genomes from normal and diseased people from around the world. The 12 BL EBVs were Type 1. Eleven clustered close to each other and to EBV from Raji BL cell line, but away from 12 EBVs reported from other BL-derived cell lines and away from EBV from NPC and healthy people from Asia. We discovered 23 shared novel nucleotide-base changes in the latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 promoter and gene (associated with 9 novel amino acid changes in the LMP-1 protein) of the 11 BL EBVs. Alignment of this region for the 112 EBV genomes revealed four distinct patterns, tentatively termed patterns A to D. The distribution of BL EBVs was 48%, 8%, 24% and 20% for patterns A to D, respectively; the NPC EBV's were Pattern B, and EBV-WT was pattern D. Further work is needed to investigate the association between EBV LMP-1 patterns with BL.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus from Burkitt Lymphoma biopsies from Africa and South America share novel LMP-1 promoter and gene variations

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Biggar, Robert J.; Nkrumah, Francis; Neequaye, Janet; Gutierrez, Marina; Epelman, Sidnei; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Bhatia, Kishor; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) sequence variation is thought to contribute to Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but lack of data from primary BL tumors hampers efforts to test this hypothesis. We directly sequenced EBV from 12 BL biopsies from Ghana, Brazil, and Argentina, aligned the obtained reads to the wild-type (WT) EBV reference sequence, and compared them with 100 published EBV genomes from normal and diseased people from around the world. The 12 BL EBVs were Type 1. Eleven clustered close to each other and to EBV from Raji BL cell line, but away from 12 EBVs reported from other BL-derived cell lines and away from EBV from NPC and healthy people from Asia. We discovered 23 shared novel nucleotide-base changes in the latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 promoter and gene (associated with 9 novel amino acid changes in the LMP-1 protein) of the 11 BL EBVs. Alignment of this region for the 112 EBV genomes revealed four distinct patterns, tentatively termed patterns A to D. The distribution of BL EBVs was 48%, 8%, 24% and 20% for patterns A to D, respectively; the NPC EBV’s were Pattern B, and EBV-WT was pattern D. Further work is needed to investigate the association between EBV LMP-1 patterns with BL. PMID:26593963

  1. Quantitative Resistance to Bean dwarf mosaic virus in Common Bean is Associated with the Bct gene for Resistance to Beet curly top virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dominant resistance gene, Bct, confers qualitative resistance to Beet curly top virus, a leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus in the genus Curtovirus. To determine whether this gene confers resistance to other geminiviruses, plants of a recombinant inbred population were sap-inoculated with BDMV, ...

  2. Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Nick; Hurles, Matthew E; Cardin, Niall; Pearson, Richard D; Plagnol, Vincent; Robson, Samuel; Vukcevic, Damjan; Barnes, Chris; Conrad, Donald F; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Holmes, Chris; Marchini, Jonathan L; Stirrups, Kathy; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Yau, Chris; Aerts, Jan; Ahmad, Tariq; Andrews, T Daniel; Arbury, Hazel; Attwood, Anthony; Auton, Adam; Ball, Stephen G; Balmforth, Anthony J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Barroso, Inês; Barton, Anne; Bennett, Amanda J; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Blaszczyk, Katarzyna; Bowes, John; Brand, Oliver J; Braund, Peter S; Bredin, Francesca; Breen, Gerome; Brown, Morris J; Bruce, Ian N; Bull, Jaswinder; Burren, Oliver S; Burton, John; Byrnes, Jake; Caesar, Sian; Clee, Chris M; Coffey, Alison J; Connell, John M C; Cooper, Jason D; Dominiczak, Anna F; Downes, Kate; Drummond, Hazel E; Dudakia, Darshna; Dunham, Andrew; Ebbs, Bernadette; Eccles, Diana; Edkins, Sarah; Edwards, Cathryn; Elliot, Anna; Emery, Paul; Evans, David M; Evans, Gareth; Eyre, Steve; Farmer, Anne; Ferrier, I Nicol; Feuk, Lars; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Flynn, Edward; Forbes, Alistair; Forty, Liz; Franklyn, Jayne A; Freathy, Rachel M; Gibbs, Polly; Gilbert, Paul; Gokumen, Omer; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Gray, Emma; Green, Elaine; Groves, Chris J; Grozeva, Detelina; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hall, Anita; Hammond, Naomi; Hardy, Matt; Harrison, Pile; Hassanali, Neelam; Hebaishi, Husam; Hines, Sarah; Hinks, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hocking, Lynne; Howard, Eleanor; Howard, Philip; Howson, Joanna M M; Hughes, Debbie; Hunt, Sarah; Isaacs, John D; Jain, Mahim; Jewell, Derek P; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D; Jones, Ian R; Jones, Lisa A; Kirov, George; Langford, Cordelia F; Lango-Allen, Hana; Lathrop, G Mark; Lee, James; Lee, Kate L; Lees, Charlie; Lewis, Kevin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Maisuria-Armer, Meeta; Maller, Julian; Mansfield, John; Martin, Paul; Massey, Dunecan C O; McArdle, Wendy L; McGuffin, Peter; McLay, Kirsten E; Mentzer, Alex; Mimmack, Michael L; Morgan, Ann E; Morris, Andrew P; Mowat, Craig; Myers, Simon; Newman, William; Nimmo, Elaine R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Onipinla, Abiodun; Onyiah, Ifejinelo; Ovington, Nigel R; Owen, Michael J; Palin, Kimmo; Parnell, Kirstie; Pernet, David; Perry, John R B; Phillips, Anne; Pinto, Dalila; Prescott, Natalie J; Prokopenko, Inga; Quail, Michael A; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rayner, Nigel W; Redon, Richard; Reid, David M; Renwick; Ring, Susan M; Robertson, Neil; Russell, Ellie; St Clair, David; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Schuilenburg, Helen; Scott, Carol E; Scott, Richard; Seal, Sheila; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Beverley M; Simmonds, Matthew J; Smyth, Debbie J; Somaskantharajah, Elilan; Spanova, Katarina; Steer, Sophia; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Helen E; Stone, Millicent A; Su, Zhan; Symmons, Deborah P M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Wendy; Travers, Mary E; Turnbull, Clare; Valsesia, Armand; Walker, Mark; Walker, Neil M; Wallace, Chris; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Watkins, Nicholas A; Webster, John; Weedon, Michael N; Wilson, Anthony G; Woodburn, Matthew; Wordsworth, B Paul; Young, Allan H; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Carter, Nigel P; Frayling, Timothy M; Lee, Charles; McVean, Gil; Munroe, Patricia B; Palotie, Aarno; Sawcer, Stephen J; Scherer, Stephen W; Strachan, David P; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Brown, Matthew A; Burton, Paul R; Caulfield, Mark J; Compston, Alastair; Farrall, Martin; Gough, Stephen C L; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hill, Adrian V S; Mathew, Christopher G; Pembrey, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Stratton, Michael R; Worthington, Jane; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; McCarthy, Mark I; Ouwehand, Willem; Parkes, Miles; Rahman, Nazneen; Todd, John A; Samani, Nilesh J; Donnelly, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.

  3. A conserved locus conditioning Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus resistance on 5DL in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is considered one of the most important diseases in winter wheat regions of the central and southeastern United States. Utilization of resistant cultivars is the only practical and environmentally friendly means of control. To identify QTL for SBWMV resistance, ...

  4. Assessment of common soybean-infecting viruses in Ohio, USA, through multisite sampling and high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the scope of virus disease problems of soybean in Ohio, USA, a survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 soybean growing seasons. A total of 259 samples were collected from 80 soybean fields distributed in 42 Ohio counties, accounting for more than 90% of major soybean-growing counties in ...

  5. Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update.

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreover, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages.

  6. Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreover, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages. PMID:27047465

  7. The interaction of hepatitis A virus (HAV) with soluble forms of its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) share the physiological requirements of infectivity in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Erica; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Kaplan, Gerardo G

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV), an atypical Picornaviridae that causes acute hepatitis in humans, usurps the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) to infect cells. HAVCR1 is a class 1 integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two extracellular domains: a virus-binding immunoglobulin-like (IgV) domain and a mucin-like domain that extends the IgV from the cell membrane. Soluble forms of HAVCR1 bind, alter, and neutralize cell culture-adapted HAV, which is attenuated for humans. However, the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether HAVCR1 also serves as a receptor for wild-type (wt) HAV. Here, we used HAV soluble receptor neutralization and alteration assays to study the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction and to determine whether HAVCR1 is also a receptor for wt HAV. Results Treatment of HAV with a soluble form of HAVCR1 that contained the IgV and two-thirds of the mucin domain fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (D1 muc-Fc), altered particles at 37°C but left a residual level of unaltered particles at 4°C. The kinetics of neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc was faster at 37°C than at 4°C. Alteration of HAV particles by D1 muc-Fc required Ca, which could not be replaced by Li, Na, Mg, Mn, or Zn. Neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc occurred at pH 5 to 8 but was more efficient at pH 6 to 7. D1 muc-Fc neutralized wt HAV as determined by a cell culture system that allows the growth of wt HAV. Conclusion The interaction of HAV with soluble forms of HAVCR1 shares the temperature, Ca, and pH requirements for infectivity in cell culture and therefore mimics the cell entry process of HAV. Since soluble forms of HAVCR1 also neutralized wt HAV, this receptor may play a significant role in pathogenesis of HAV. PMID:19860892

  8. Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) in northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Ana; Dalton, Kevin P; del Cerro, Ana; Márquez, Isabel; Parra, Francisco; Prieto, José M; Casais, R

    2010-11-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years.

  9. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  10. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies.

  11. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  12. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event.

  13. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

    1988-02-01

    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.

  14. Pasteurella multocida Heddleston Serovar 3 and 4 Strains Share a Common Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Locus but Display both Inter- and Intrastrain Lipopolysaccharide Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Marina; St. Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A.; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A.; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J.; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

  15. Pasteurella multocida Heddleston serovar 3 and 4 strains share a common lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus but display both inter- and intrastrain lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; St Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D; Boyce, John D

    2013-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines.

  16. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika Cases in Texas Zika Cases in Florida Birth ...

  17. [PLAGUE IN MANCHURIA (1910-1911) AND EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE IN WEST AFRICA (2014-2015): COMMON PREREQUISITES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPIDEMICS].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A K; Vishnyakov, V A; Andaev, E I; Chesnokova, M V; Kosilko, S A; Balakhonov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of a comparative analysis of the prerequisites for the emergence and spread of epidemics of particularly dangerous infections, by using plague in Manchuria (1910-1911) and Ebola virus disease in West Africa (2014-2015) as examples. Analysis of literature and archival data and online information could reveal a number of common factors and conditions, which substantially contributed to the epidemics. Organization of anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in cases of the threatening epidemic spread, of particularly dangerous diseases must be based on the minimization, of the influence of the specific factors and conditions, which facilitate disease transmission in a given area in a given time.

  18. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  19. Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Romano, Jesus; Carlos-Rivera, Francisco J; Salgado, Heladia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Valverde-Garduño, Veronica; Rodriguez, Mario H; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NFκB response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NFκB response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NFκB regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NFκB response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species. PMID:18613977

  20. Recent advances in molecular biology of parasitic viruses.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

    2014-01-01

    The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses.

  1. Identification of B-cell epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) that are common to human and swine HEVs or unique to avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E-M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

    2006-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens from the USA that had hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome. The complete genomic sequence of avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of human and swine HEVs. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, but the B-cell epitopes in the avian HEV ORF2 protein have not been identified. Nine synthetic peptides from the predicted four antigenic domains of the avian HEV ORF2 protein were synthesized and corresponding rabbit anti-peptide antisera were generated. Using recombinant ORF2 proteins, convalescent pig and chicken antisera, peptides and anti-peptide rabbit sera, at least one epitope at the C terminus of domain II (possibly between aa 477-492) that is unique to avian HEV, one epitope in domain I (aa 389-410) that is common to avian, human and swine HEVs, and one or more epitopes in domain IV (aa 583-600) that are shared between avian and human HEVs were identified. Despite the sequence difference in ORF2 proteins between avian and mammalian HEVs and similar ORF2 sequence between human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, rabbit antiserum against peptide 6 (aa 389-399) recognized only human HEV ORF2 protein, suggesting complexity of the ORF2 antigenicity. The identification of these B-cell epitopes in avian HEV ORF2 protein may be useful for vaccine design and may lead to future development of immunoassays for differential diagnosis of avian, swine and human HEV infections.

  2. Is Predominant Clonal Evolution a Common Evolutionary Adaptation to Parasitism in Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, and Viruses?

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, M; Ayala, F J

    2017-01-01

    We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge. We hypothesize that the PCE features are not mainly due to natural selection but also chiefly originate from in-built genetic properties of pathogens. We show that the PCE model obtains even in microbes that have been considered as 'highly recombining', such as Neisseria meningitidis, and that some clonality features are observed even in Plasmodium, which has been long described as panmictic. Lastly, we provide evidence that PCE features are also observed in viruses, taking into account their extremely fast genetic turnover. The PCE model provides a convenient population genetic framework for any kind of micropathogen. It makes it possible to describe convenient units of analysis (clones and near-clades) for all applied studies. Due to PCE features, these units of analysis are stable in space and time, and clearly delimited. The PCE model opens up the possibility of revisiting the problem of species definition in these organisms. We hypothesize that PCE constitutes a major evolutionary strategy for protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses to adapt to parasitism.

  3. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  4. Modeling of both shared and distinct interactions between MIF and its homologue D-DT with their common receptor CD74.

    PubMed

    Meza-Romero, Roberto; Benedek, Gil; Jordan, Kelley; Leng, Lin; Pantouris, Georgios; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2016-12-01

    D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) shares amino acid sequence similarity, structural architecture and biological activity with the cytokine MIF. Recent studies show that the two protein homologs also bind to the same cell surface receptor, CD74, to activate the ERK1/2 pathway that ultimately leads to pro-inflammatory and pro-survival gene expression. We recently showed that RTL1000 and DRa1-MOG-35-55, two biological drugs with potent anti-inflammatory properties that treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, bind to the cell surface receptor CD74 with high affinity and compete with MIF for binding to the same regions of CD74. Computational modeling of MIF and RTL1000 binding interactions with CD74 predicted the presence of three CD74 binding regions for each MIF homotrimer. Through a similar approach we have now expanded our work to study the D-DT (MIF-2) interaction with CD74 that is mainly defined by three elements scattered throughout the disordered regions of the interacting molecules. The model predicted: (a) a hydrophobic cradle between CD74 and D-DT consisting of N-terminal tyrosine residues of three CD74 monomers arranged in a planar alignment interacts with aromatic amino acid residues located in the disordered D-DT C-terminus; (b) a triad consisting of the E103 residue on one D-DT monomer in close contact with R179 and S181 on one chain of the CD74 trimer forms an intermolecular salt bridge; and (c) amino acid residues on the C-terminus random coil of CD74 chain C form a long interacting area of ∼500Å(2) with a disordered region of D-DT chain B. These three binding elements were also present in MIF/CD74 binding interactions, with involvement of identical or highly similar amino acid residues in each MIF homotrimer that partner with the exact same residues in CD74. Topologically, however, the location of the three CD74 binding regions of the D-DT homotrimer differs substantially from that of the three MIF binding regions. This key

  5. Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C.

    2010-09-30

    Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

  6. Inflammation and epstein-barr virus infection are common features of myasthenia gravis thymus: possible roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Maggi, Lorenzo; Colleoni, Lara; Caldara, Rosa; Motta, Teresio; Giardina, Carmelo; Antozzi, Carlo; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The thymus plays a major role in myasthenia gravis (MG). Our recent finding of a persistent Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection in some MG thymuses, combined with data showing that the thymus is in a proinflammatory state in most patients, supports a viral contribution to the pathogenesis of MG. Aim of this study was to gain further evidence for intrathymic chronic inflammation and EBV infection in MG patients. Transcriptional profiling by low density array and real-time PCR showed overexpression of genes involved in inflammatory and immune response in MG thymuses. Real-time PCR for EBV genome, latent (EBER1, EBNA1, LMP1) and lytic (BZLF1) transcripts, and immunohistochemistry for LMP1 and BZLF1 proteins confirmed an active intrathymic EBV infection, further supporting the hypothesis that EBV might contribute to onset or perpetuation of the autoimmune response in MG. Altogether, our results support a role of inflammation and EBV infection as pathogenic features of MG thymus.

  7. Development of a new vector using Soybean yellow common mosaic virus for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Nam, Moon; Kim, Kil Hyun; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Choung, Myoung-Gun; Kim, Sang-Mok; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-02-01

    A new vector using Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) was constructed for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans. The in vitro transcript with a 5' cap analog m7GpppG from an SYCMV full-length infectious vector driven by a T7 promoter infected soybeans (pSYCMVT7-full). The symptoms observed in the soybeans infected with either the sap from SYCMV-infected leaves or pSYCMVT7-full were indistinguishable, suggesting that the vector exhibits equivalent biological activity as the virus itself. To utilize the vector further, a DNA-based vector driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was constructed. The complete sequence of the SYCMV genome was inserted into a binary vector flanked by a CaMV 35S promoter at the 5' terminus of the SYCMV genome and a cis-cleaving ribozyme sequence followed by a nopaline synthase terminator at the 3' terminus of the SYCMV genome (pSYCMV-full). The SYCMV-derived vector was tested for use as a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for the functional analysis of soybean genes. VIGS constructs containing either a fragment of the Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene (pSYCMV-PDS1) or a fragment of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RbcS) gene (pSYCMV-RbcS2) were constructed. Plants infiltrated with each vector using the Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation method exhibited distinct symptoms, such as photo-bleaching in plants infiltrated with pSYCMV-PDS1 and yellow or pale green coloring in plants infiltrated with pSYCMV-RbcS2. In addition, down-regulation of the transcripts of the two target genes was confirmed via northern blot analysis. Particle bombardment and direct plasmid DNA rubbing were also confirmed as alternative inoculation methods. To determine if the SYCMV vector can be used for the expression of heterologous proteins in soybean plants, the vector encoding amino acids 135-160 of VP1 of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O1 Campos (O1C

  8. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  9. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  10. Common mechanisms of DNA translocation motors in bacteria and viruses using one-way revolution mechanism without rotation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peixuan; Zhao, Zhengyi; Haak, Jeannie; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Dong; Meng, Bing; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Biomotors were once described into two categories: linear motor and rotation motor. Recently, a third type of biomotor with revolution mechanism without rotation has been discovered. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth rotating on its axis in a complete cycle every 24h, while revolution resembles the Earth revolving around the Sun one circle per 365 days (see animations http://nanobio.uky.edu/movie.html). The action of revolution that enables a motor free of coiling and torque has solved many puzzles and debates that have occurred throughout the history of viral DNA packaging motor studies. It also settles the discrepancies concerning the structure, stoichiometry, and functioning of DNA translocation motors. This review uses bacteriophages Phi29, HK97, SPP1, P22, T4, and T7 as well as bacterial DNA translocase FtsK and SpoIIIE or the large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses such as mimivirus and vaccinia virus as examples to elucidate the puzzles. These motors use ATPase, some of which have been confirmed to be a hexamer, to revolve around the dsDNA sequentially. ATP binding induces conformational change and possibly an entropy alteration in ATPase to a high affinity toward dsDNA; but ATP hydrolysis triggers another entropic and conformational change in ATPase to a low affinity for DNA, by which dsDNA is pushed toward an adjacent ATPase subunit. The rotation and revolution mechanisms can be distinguished by the size of channel: the channels of rotation motors are equal to or smaller than 2 nm, that is the size of dsDNA, whereas channels of revolution motors are larger than 3 nm. Rotation motors use parallel threads to operate with a right-handed channel, while revolution motors use a left-handed channel to drive the right-handed DNA in an anti-chiral arrangement. Coordination of several vector factors in the same direction makes viral DNA-packaging motors unusually powerful and effective. Revolution mechanism that avoids DNA coiling in translocating the lengthy genomic

  11. Management of the accessory or replaced right hepatic artery (A/R RHA) during multiorgan retrieval when the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery shares a common origin with A/R RHA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Li, J; Qi, H

    2013-01-01

    The accessory or replaced right hepatic artery (A/R RHA), which arises from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), represents a challenge to the surgeon during combined procurement of liver and whole pancreas allografts. We have herein described an angiographic investigation of this aberrant artery among 553 patients who underwent angiography of both the celiac axis and SMA trunks to measure the diameters of the arteries to be anastomosed as well as to clarify the locational relationship between the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) and A/R RHA. Sixty-nine (12.5%) of 553 patients had an unambiguous site of the A/R RHA. In 6 patients the IPDA was not visible. We separated the remaining 63 patients into 2 groups: group A whose A/R RHA shared a common origin with IPDA, and group B whose A/R RHA had a noncommon origin with IPDA. Fifteen (23.8%) of these 63 patients had a common origin of IPDA and A/R RHA. The results showed that the diameters of A/R RHA and gastroduodenal artery (GDA) were matched in both groups whether or not the IPDA shared a common origin with A/R RHA. The similar vascular diameters between A/R RHA and GDA in these 2 groups simplified the anastomosis, but management of the A/R RHA with different locational relationships between the IPDA and A/R RHA remains a problem. We recommend a safe method to be applied to all donors with an A/R RHA regardless of the origin of the IPDA.

  12. Dual tropism for macrophages and lymphocytes is a common feature of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, A; Albert, J; Fenyö, E M; Asjö, B

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 isolates to infect and replicate in primary human macrophages. Monocytes from blood donors were allowed to differentiate into macrophages by culture in the presence of autologous lymphocytes and human serum for 5 days before infection. A panel of 70 HIV-1 and 12 HIV-2 isolates were recovered from seropositive individuals with different severities of HIV infection. A majority of isolates (55 HIV-1 and all HIV-2) were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but isolates from cerebrospinal fluid, monocytes, brain tissue, plasma, and purified CD4+ lymphocytes were also included. All isolates were able to infect monocyte-derived macrophages, even though the replicative capacity of the isolates varied. Interestingly, isolates with a rapid/high, syncytium-inducing phenotype did not differ from slow/low, non-syncytium-inducing isolates in their ability to replicate in monocyte-derived macrophages. Others have reported that rapid/high, syncytium-inducing isolates have a reduced ability to infect and replicate in monocytes. However, different methods to isolate and culture the monocytes/macrophages were used in these studies and our study. Thus, the ability of HIV isolates to replicate in monocytes/macrophages appears to be strongly influenced by the isolation and culture procedures. It remains to be determined which culture procedure is more relevant for the in vivo situation. PMID:7521920

  13. Quantitative assessment of common genetic variations in HLA-DP with hepatitis B virus infection, clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Cheng, Yi-ju; Cheng, Ming-liang; Yao, Yu-mei; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Xue-ke; Liu, Hua-juan; Hu, Ya-xin; Mu, Mao; Wang, Bi; Yang, Guo-zhen; Zhu, Li-li; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP polymorphisms (rs3077 and rs9277535) as a new chronic HBV infection susceptibility locus. Since then, the relationship between HLA-DP polymorphisms and various outcomes of HBV infection has been reported. However, the results have been inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between HLA-DP polymorphisms and various outcomes of HBV infection, a meta-analysis of 62,050 subjects from 29 case-control studies was performed. We found that rs3077 and rs9277535 in HLA-DP significantly decreased HBV infection risks and increased HBV clearance possibility in a dose-dependent manner. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, study design and sample size, significant associations were found for these polymorphisms in almost all comparisons. Meanwhile, haplotype analyses of the two polymorphisms revealed a significant association between the combination of these alleles and HBV infection outcomes. However, no significant results were observed in HCC development. Our results further confirm that genetic variants in the HLA-DP locus are strongly associated with reduced HBV infection and increased the likelihood of spontaneous viral clearance. PMID:26462556

  14. Two interferon-independent double-stranded RNA-induced host defense strategies suppress the common cold virus at warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Vanaja, Kiran; Levchenko, Andre; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2016-07-26

    Most strains of rhinovirus (RV), the common cold virus, replicate better at cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at lung temperature (37 °C). Recent studies found that although 37 °C temperature suppressed RV growth largely by engaging the type 1 IFN response in infected epithelial cells, a significant temperature dependence to viral replication remained in cells devoid of IFN induction or signaling. To gain insight into IFN-independent mechanisms limiting RV replication at 37 °C, we studied RV infection in human bronchial epithelial cells and H1-HeLa cells. During the single replication cycle, RV exhibited temperature-dependent replication in both cell types in the absence of IFN induction. At 37 °C, earlier signs of apoptosis in RV-infected cells were accompanied by reduced virus production. Furthermore, apoptosis of epithelial cells was enhanced at 37 °C in response to diverse stimuli. Dynamic mathematical modeling and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) overexpression revealed that temperature-dependent host cell death could partially account for the temperature-dependent growth observed during RV amplification, but also suggested additional mechanisms of virus control. In search of a redundant antiviral pathway, we identified a role for the RNA-degrading enzyme RNAseL. Simultaneous antagonism of apoptosis and RNAseL increased viral replication and dramatically reduced temperature dependence. These findings reveal two IFN-independent mechanisms active in innate defense against RV, and demonstrate that even in the absence of IFNs, temperature-dependent RV amplification is largely a result of host cell antiviral restriction mechanisms operating more effectively at 37 °C than at 33 °C.

  15. Giant viruses in the environment: their origins and evolution.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    The recent identification of giant viruses has raised important questions, not only regarding their origin and evolution, but also regarding the differentiation between viruses and living organisms. These viruses possess large genomes encoding genes potentially involved in various metabolic processes and even protein synthesis, indicating their putative autonomy. Giant viruses of the Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae families appear to share a common evolutionary ancestor with members of the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Many giant viruses are associated with protists in aquatic environments and might have evolved in protist cells. They may therefore play important roles in material cycling in natural ecosystems. With the advent of environmental metagenomic projects, there will be more chances to encounter novel giant viruses in the future.

  16. Functional equivalence of common and unique sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs 1, 2, and 3.

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, C M; Brederode, F T; Neeleman, L; Bol, J F

    1997-01-01

    The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs 1, 2, and 3 consist of a common 3'-terminal sequence of 145 nucleotides (nt) and upstream sequences of 18 to 34 nt that are unique for each RNA. The common sequence can be folded into five stem-loop structures, A to E, despite the occurrence of 22 nt differences between the three RNAs in this region. Exchange of the common sequences or full-length UTRs between the three genomic RNAs did not affect the replication of these RNAs in vivo, indicating that the UTRs are functionally equivalent. Mutations that disturbed base pairing in the stem of hairpin E reduced or abolished RNA replication, whereas compensating mutations restored RNA replication. In vitro, the 3' UTRs of the three RNAs were recognized with similar efficiencies by the AMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). A deletion analysis of template RNAs indicated that a 3'-terminal sequence of 127 nt in each of the three AMV RNAs was not sufficient for recognition by the RdRp. Previously, it has been shown that this 127-nt sequence is sufficient for coat protein binding. Apparently, sequences required for recognition of AMV RNAs by the RdRp are longer than sequences required for CP binding. PMID:9094656

  17. An evaluation of ultraviolet light (UV254) as a means to inactivate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on common farm surfaces and materials.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Deen, John

    2011-05-12

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of UV(254) on the concentration and viability of PRRSV on surfaces and materials commonly encountered on swine farms. A standard quantity (5 × 10(6)TCID(50), total dose) of a PRRSV modified live vaccine virus was inoculated onto 2 matched sets of surfaces/materials including wood, plastic, latex, rubber, styrofoam, metal, leather, cloth, concrete, cardboard, glass and paper. One set was exposed to UV(254) radiation (treatments) and the other to incandescent light (controls) for a 24h period. During this time, treatments and controls were swabbed at 10 min intervals from 0 to 60 min post-inoculation (PI) and again at 24h PI. The quantity of PRRSV RNA on each item at each sampling time was calculated by RT-PCR and the presence of viable PRRSV in each sample was determined by swine bioassay. A significant reduction (p<0.0001) in the quantity of PRRSV RNA was demonstrated at 24h PI independent of treatment. In addition, a significant reduction (p=0.012) in the number of UV(254)-treated surfaces which harbored viable virus was observed at 60 min (0/12 positive) when compared to control surfaces (5/12 positive). In addition, all UV(254) treated samples collected between 10 and 50 min PI were bioassay negative. These results suggest that UV(254) is an effective means to inactivate PRRSV on commonly encountered farm surfaces and materials and inactivation can be accomplished following 10 min of exposure.

  18. 'Berries' and Rock Share Common Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed 'Shoemaker's Patio' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters or .08 and 2.5 inches in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

  19. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan…

  20. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  1. Evolution of influenza A virus nucleoprotein genes: implications for the origins of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Gorman, O T; Bean, W J; Kawaoka, Y; Donatelli, I; Guo, Y J; Webster, R G

    1991-07-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of 52 published and 37 new nucleoprotein (NP) gene sequences addressed the evolution and origin of human and swine influenza A viruses. H1N1 human and classical swine viruses (i.e., those related to Swine/Iowa/15/30) share a single common ancestor, which was estimated to have occurred in 1912 to 1913. From this common ancestor, human and classical swine virus NP genes have evolved at similar rates that are higher than in avian virus NP genes (3.31 to 3.41 versus 1.90 nucleotide changes per year). At the protein level, human virus NPs have evolved twice as fast as classical swine virus NPs (0.66 versus 0.34 amino acid change per year). Despite evidence of frequent interspecies transmission of human and classical swine viruses, our analysis indicates that these viruses have evolved independently since well before the first isolates in the early 1930s. Although our analysis cannot reveal the original host, the ancestor virus was avianlike, showing only five amino acid differences from the root of the avian virus NP lineage. The common pattern of relationship and origin for the NP and other genes of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses suggests that the common ancestor was an avian virus and not a reassortant derived from previous human or swine influenza A viruses. The new avianlike H1N1 swine viruses in Europe may provide a model for the evolution of newly introduced avian viruses into the swine host reservoir. The NPs of these viruses are evolving more rapidly than those of human or classical swine viruses (4.50 nucleotide changes and 0.74 amino acid change per year), and when these rates are applied to pre-1930s human and classical swine virus NPs, the predicted date of a common ancestor is 1918 rather than 1912 to 1913. Thus, our NP phylogeny is consistent with historical records and the proposal that a short time before 1918, a new H1N1 avianlike virus entered human or swine hosts (O. T. Gorman, R. O. Donis, Y. Kawaoka, and R. G. Webster

  2. Development and validation of DNA markers linked to Sdvy-1, a common bean gene conferring resistance to the yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Okuyama, Masataka; Sasaki, Jun; Onodera, Kakumasa; Sato, Mikako; Souma, Chihiro; Ebe, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    The yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV-YS) causes yellowing and yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The most effective control is achieved through breeding for resistance. An indeterminate climbing cultivar with a white seed coat, 'Oofuku', is resistant to SbDV-YS in inoculation tests. We crossed 'Oofuku' with an elite cultivar, 'Taisho-Kintoki', which is SbDV-YS-susceptible, determinate dwarf with a red-purple seed coat, and performed amplified-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of F3 lines. From nucleotide sequences of the resistant-specific fragments and their flanking regions, we developed five DNA markers, of which DV86, DV386, and DV398 were closely linked to Sdvy-1, a resistance gene. Using the markers, we developed 'Toiku-B79' and 'Toiku-B80', the near-isogenic lines (NILs) incorporating Sdvy-1 in the background of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs had similar growth habit, maturity date and seed shape to those of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The quality of boiled beans was also similar, except that the NILs had more seed coat cracking than 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs showed no SbDV-YS infection in inoculation tests. We suggest that Sdvy-1 is a useful source of SbDV-YS resistance in common bean.

  3. Effects of Two Commonly Found Strains of Influenza A Virus on Developing Dopaminergic Neurons, in Relation to the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landreau, Fernando; Galeano, Pablo; Caltana, Laura R.; Masciotra, Luis; Chertcoff, Agustín; Pontoriero, A.; Baumeister, Elsa; Amoroso, Marcela; Brusco, Herminia A.; Tous, Mónica I.; Savy, Vilma L.; Lores Arnaiz, María del Rosario; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus (InfV) infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for neurodevelopment abnormalities in the offspring, including the risk of schizophrenia, and has been shown to result in an abnormal behavioral phenotype in mice. However, previous reports have concentrated on neuroadapted influenza strains, whereas increased schizophrenia risk is associated with common respiratory InfV. In addition, no specific mechanism has been proposed for the actions of maternal infection on the developing brain that could account for schizophrenia risk. We identified two common isolates from the community with antigenic configurations H3N2 and H1N1 and compared their effects on developing brain with a mouse modified-strain A/WSN/33 specifically on the developing of dopaminergic neurons. We found that H1N1 InfV have high affinity for dopaminergic neurons in vitro, leading to nuclear factor kappa B activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, prenatal infection of mothers with the same strains results in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the offspring, and in an abnormal behavioral phenotype. We propose that the well-known contribution of InfV to risk of schizophrenia during development may involve a similar specific mechanism and discuss evidence from the literature in relation to this hypothesis. PMID:23251423

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genomovirus Associated with Common Bean Plant Leaves in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Natalia Silva; Fontenele, Rafaela Salgado; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Costa, Antonio Felix; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares 80.7% genome-wide pairwise identity with a genomovirus recovered from Tongan fruit bat guano. PMID:27834705

  5. Circulating HMW adiponectin isoform is heritable and shares a common genetic background with insulin resistance in non diabetic White Caucasians from Italy: evidence from a family-based study

    PubMed Central

    Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; Paroni, Giulia; De Bonis, Concetta; Mangiacotti, Davide; Fini, Grazia; Doria, Alessandro; Di Paola, Rosa; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Objective Reduced circulating adiponectin levels contribute to the etiology of insulin-resistance. Adiponectin circulates in three different isoforms: high (HMW), medium (MMW), and low (LMW) molecular weight. The genetics of adiponectin isoforms is mostly unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether and to which extent circulating adiponectin isoforms are heritable and whether they share common genetic backgrounds with insulin resistance-related traits. Methods In a family based sample of 640 non diabetic White Caucasians from Italy, serum adiponectin isoforms concentrations were measured by ELISA. Three SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene previously reported to affect total adiponectin levels (rs17300539, rs1501299 and rs677395) were genotyped. The heritability of adiponectin isoform levels was assessed by variance component analysis. A linear mixed effects model was used to test association between SNPs and adiponectin isoforms. Bivariate analyses were conducted to study genetic correlations between adiponectin isoforms levels and other insulin resistance-related traits. Results All isoforms were highly heritable (h2=0.60−0.80, p=1×10−13–1×10−23). SNPs rs17300539, rs1501299 and rs6773957 explained a significant proportion of HMW variance (2–9%, p=1×10−3–1×10−5). In a multiple-SNP model, only rs17300539 and rs1501299 remained associated with HMW adiponectin (p=3×10−4 and 2.0×10−2). Significant genetic correlations (p=1×10−2–1×10−5) were observed between HMW adiponectin and fasting insulin, HOMAIR, HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome score. Only rs1501299 partly accounted for these genetic correlations. Conclusion Circulating levels of adiponectin isoforms are highly heritable. The genetic control of HMW adiponectin is shared in part with insulin resistance-related traits and involves, but is not limited to the ADIPOQ locus. PMID:19761474

  6. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein.

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP22 and a cellular protein which shares antigenic determinants with ICP22.

    PubMed Central

    Blaho, J A; Zong, C S; Mortimer, K A

    1997-01-01

    At least eight herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and five HSV-2 proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated in infected cells. The first viral tyrosine phosphoprotein identified was the HSV-1 regulatory protein ICP22. Also, two novel phosphotyrosine proteins were bound by anti-ICP22 antibodies. H(R22) is a cellular protein, while the F(R10) protein is observed only in HSV-1-infected cells. PMID:9371655

  8. Identification of a Common Epitope between Enterovirus 71 and Human MED25 Proteins Which May Explain Virus-Associated Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Shiyang; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease with especially severe neurologic complications, which mainly account for fatalities from this disease. To date, the pathogenesis of EV71 in the central neurons system has remained unclear. Cytokine-mediated immunopathogenesis and nervous tissue damage by virus proliferation are two widely speculated causes of the neurological disease. To further study the pathogenesis, we identified a common epitope (co-epitope) between EV71 VP1 and human mediator complex subunit 25 (MED25) highly expressed in brain stem. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) against the co-epitope was prepared, and its interaction with MED25 was examined by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot in vitro and by live small animal imaging in vivo. Additionally, 2H2 could bind to both VP1 and MED25 with the affinity constant (Kd) of 10−7 M as determined by the ForteBio Octet System. Intravenously injected 2H2 was distributed in brain stem of mice after seven days of EV71 infection. Interestingly, 2H2-like antibodies were detected in the serum of EV71-infected patients. These findings suggest that EV71 infection induces the production of antibodies that can bind to autoantigens expressed in nervous tissue and maybe further trigger autoimmune reactions resulting in neurological disease. PMID:25826188

  9. Characterization of pal-1, a common proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus-induced lymphomas of c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Scheijen, B; Jonkers, J; Acton, D; Berns, A

    1997-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. The recently identified common insertion site pal-1, in MoMLV-induced lymphomas, is located in a region in which several independent integration clusters are found: eis-1, gfi-1, and evi-5. Proviral insertions of MoMLV in the different integration clusters upregulate the transcriptional activity of the Gfi-1 gene, which is located within the pal-1 locus. The eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus serves as a target for MoMLV proviral insertions in pre-B-cell lymphomas of Emu-myc transgenic mice (20%) and in T-cell lymphomas of H-2K-myc (75%) and Emu-pim-1 (93%) transgenic mice. Many tumors overexpress both Gfi-1 as well as Myc and Pim gene family members, indicating that Gfi-1 collaborates with Myc and Pim in lymphomagenesis. Proviral integrations in the previously identified insertion site bmi-1 are, however, mutually exclusive with integrations in the eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus. This finding suggests that Bmi-1 and Gfi-1 belong to the same complementation group in lymphoid transformation. PMID:8985317

  10. Haggling over viruses: the downside risks of securitizing infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    This article analyses how the 'securitization' of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) contributed to the rise of a protracted international virus-sharing dispute between developing and developed countries. As fear about the threat of a possible human H5N1 pandemic spread across the world, many governments scrambled to stockpile anti-viral medications and vaccines, albeit in a context where there was insufficient global supply to meet such a rapid surge in demand. Realizing that they were the likely 'losers' in this international race, some developing countries began to openly question the benefits of maintaining existing forms of international health cooperation, especially the common practice of sharing national virus samples with the rest of the international community. Given that such virus samples were also crucial to the high-level pandemic preparedness efforts of the West, the Indonesian government in particular felt emboldened to use international access to its H5N1 virus samples as a diplomatic 'bargaining chip' for negotiating better access to vaccines and other benefits for developing countries. The securitized global response to H5N1 thus ended up unexpectedly entangling the long-standing international virus-sharing mechanism within a wider set of political disputes, as well as prompting governments to subject existing virus-sharing arrangements to much narrower calculations of national interest. In the years ahead, those risks to international health cooperation must be balanced with the policy attractions of the global health security agenda.

  11. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  12. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  13. A neutralizing monoclonal antibody previously mapped exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 recognizes an epitope in p17 sharing the core sequence IEEE.

    PubMed Central

    Buratti, E; Tisminetzky, S G; D'Agaro, P; Baralle, F E

    1997-01-01

    We report here that a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb 1575) mapped to the conserved putative intracellular region from amino acid residues 735 to 752 (735-752 region) of gp41 also recognizes a region in an extracellular portion of p17. Both epitopes have a core recognition sequence (IEEE) in a nonhomologous context. The IEEE motif found in HIV-1 p17 is located in a region known as HGP-30 (residues 86 to 115) which has been previously associated with virus neutralization, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and mother-to-child transmission. An analysis of available gp41 and p17 sequences demonstrates that in these regions both IEEE sequences are highly conserved in different HIV-1 clades. The presence of the IEEE epitope in p17 allows us to explain some unexpected neutralizing characteristics of MAb 1575. In addition, the gp41 735-752 region has been previously reported both in intra- and extracellular locations. Our results suggest that the extracellular location was the result of cross-reactivity with p17. PMID:9032383

  14. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  15. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  16. What Are Common Treatments for Problems of Puberty?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? ... are common treatments for problems of puberty? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Precocious Puberty There ...

  17. Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta).

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Dayaram, Anisha; Marinov, Milen; Ware, Jessica; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Breitbart, Mya; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Viruses with circular ssDNA genomes that encode a replication initiator protein (Rep) are among the smallest viruses known to infect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the past few years an overwhelming diversity of novel circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses has been unearthed from various hosts and environmental sources. Since there is limited information regarding CRESS-DNA viruses in invertebrates, this study explored the diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses circulating among insect populations by targeting dragonflies (Epiprocta), top insect predators that accumulate viruses from their insect prey over space and time. Using degenerate PCR and rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digestion, 17 CRESS-DNA viral genomes were recovered from eight different dragonfly species collected in tropical and temperate regions. Nine of the genomes are similar to cycloviruses and represent five species within this genus, suggesting that cycloviruses are commonly associated with insects. Three of the CRESS-DNA viruses share conserved genomic features with recently described viruses similar to the mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1, leading to the proposal of the genus Gemycircularvirus. The remaining viruses are divergent species representing four novel CRESS-DNA viral genera, including a gokushovirus-like prokaryotic virus (microphage) and three eukaryotic viruses with Reps similar to circoviruses. The novelty of CRESS-DNA viruses identified in dragonflies using simple molecular techniques indicates that there is an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses among insect populations.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  19. Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response.

  20. Transcriptome analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16) infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Prasad, Minakshi; Mishra, Bina; Manjunath, Siddappa; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Bhuvana Priya, G; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Kumar, Amit; Balodi, Shweta; Deora, Anupama; Saxena, Shikha; Gandham, Ravi Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV). Sheep are considered the most susceptible hosts, while cattle, buffalo and goats serve as reservoirs. The viral pathogenesis of BTV resulting in presence or absence of clinical disease among different hosts is not clearly understood. In the present study, transcriptome of sheep and goats peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with BTV-16 was explored. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified were found to be significantly enriched for immune system processes - NFκB signaling, MAPK signaling, Ras signaling, NOD signaling, RIG signaling, TNF signaling, TLR signaling, JAK-STAT signaling and VEGF signaling pathways. Greater numbers of DEGs were found to be involved in immune system processes in goats than in sheep. Interestingly, the DEHC (differentially expressed highly connected) gene network was found to be dense in goats than in sheep. Majority of the DEHC genes in the network were upregulated in goats but down-regulated in sheep. The network of differentially expressed immune genes with the other genes further confirmed these findings. Interferon stimulated genes - IFIT1 (ISG56), IFIT2 (ISG54) and IFIT3 (ISG60) responsible for antiviral state in the host were found to be upregulated in both the species. STAT2 was the TF commonly identified to co-regulate the DEGs, with its network showing genes that are downregulated in sheep but upregulated in goats. The genes dysregulated and the networks perturbed in the present study indicate host variability with a positive shift in immune response to BTV in goats than in sheep.

  1. NF-κB directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Urquiza, Jose M.; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A.; Ballestar, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. PMID:25200074

  2. “Megavirales”, a proposed new order for eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Philippe; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Yutin, Natalya; Asgari, Sassan; Bigot, Yves; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Federici, Brian A.; Van Etten, James L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) comprise a monophyletic group of viruses that infect animals and diverse unicellular eukaryotes. The NCLDV group includes the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae and the proposed family “Marseilleviridae”. The family Mimiviridae includes the largest known viruses, with genomes in excess of one megabase, whereas the genome size in the other NCLDV families varies from 100 to 400 kilobase pairs. Most of the NCLDVs replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells, within so-called virus factories. The NCLDVs share a common ancient origin, as demonstrated by evolutionary reconstructions that trace approximately 50 genes encoding key proteins involved in viral replication and virion formation to the last common ancestor of all these viruses. Taken together, these characteristics lead us to propose assigning an official taxonomic rank to the NCLDVs as the order “Megavirales”, in reference to the large size of the virions and genomes of these viruses. PMID:23812617

  3. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the

  4. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  5. Transmission of avian influenza A viruses among species in an artificial barnyard.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Jenna E; Bowen, Richard A

    2011-03-31

    Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks) or seroconversion (other species) over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus.

  6. Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, M B; Lewicki, H; Homann, D; Nguyen, C; Julien, S; Gairin, J E

    2001-07-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of a Single-Tube Multiple RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of 13 Common Virus Types/Subtypes Associated with Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Le; Yang, Shuo; Li, Guixia; Lu, Li; Ma, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are among the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially for infants and young children. In the past years, a few commercial multiplex RT-PCR assays have been used to detect respiratory viruses in spite of the high cost. In the present study, an improved single-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of 13 respiratory viruses was evaluated and compared with a previously reported two-tube assay as the reference method using clinical nasopharyngeal aspirates samples. Of 310 prospectively tested respiratory specimens selected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 226 (72.90%, 226/310) and 214 (69.03%, 214/310) positive for one or more viruses were identified by the single-tube and the two-tube assays, respectively, with combined test results showing good concordance (Kappa value = 0.874). Individually, the single-tube assay for adenovirus (Adv), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV4) showed the significantly superior sensitivities to those of the two-tube assay. No false positives were found. In conclusion, our results demonstrates the one-tube assay revealed significant improvements over the two-tube assay in terms of the better sensitivity, more accurate quality control, less nonspecific amplification, more cost-effective and shorter turn-around time and will be a valuable tool for routine surveillance of respiratory virus infection in China. PMID:27043208

  8. What Are Common Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... are common symptoms of pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Pheochromocytoma causes a ...

  9. What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected? ... are common symptoms of phenylketonuria (PKU)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Children with untreated ...

  10. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus–ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents. PMID:27265768

  11. The expression of the proteins of equine herpesvirus 1 which share homology with herpes simplex virus 1 glycoproteins H and L.

    PubMed

    Stokes, A; Alber, D G; Greensill, J; Amellal, B; Carvalho, R; Taylor, L A; Doel, T R; Killington, R A; Halliburton, I W; Meredith, D M

    1996-01-01

    Several expression systems were used in studies aimed at characterizing the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein H and L homologues of HSV-1 (EHV-1 gH and gL) and the products were compared to the authentic proteins synthesized in virus infected cells. Using an in vitro transcription/translation system two gH species were detected (an unprocessed 89 kDa and a processed 116 kDa product). Three low molecular weight proteins were found in the case of gL (21.8 kDa, 22.9 kDa and 26.9 kDa) and these showed a slight reduction in mobility on the addition of microsomal membranes to the reactions. A gL fusion protein was produced in pGEX-2T, expression being confirmed by Western blotting using a gL-specific antiserum raised against a peptide incorporating the 13 carboxyl terminal amino acids of the protein. A gH specific peptide antiserum precipitated both gH and two smaller proteins from EHV-1 infected cells thought to be two forms of gL. Insect cells infected with gH or gL baculovirus recombinants were used to vaccinate C3H (H-2k) mice. Some protection against EHV-1 infection was conferred to the gH inoculated mice. The results will enable further studies on the importance of the gH and gL interaction in the pathogenesis of EHV-1 to be evaluated and their potential in contributing to a subunit vaccine to be assessed.

  12. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  13. Genomic losses at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 in dysplastic hepatocytes are common events in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, ZHANG; CHEN, GUANG-YONG; LONG, JIANG; LI, HAI; HUANG, JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal loci with genomic imbalances are frequently identified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Greater than two-thirds of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCCs originate from liver cirrhosis following a duration of up to two decades. However, it is unclear whether these genomic imbalances occur and accumulate in dysplastic hepatocytes of the cirrhotic liver during the progression from regenerated nodules to preneoplastic lesions, including dysplastic nodules (DN). In the present study, high-grade DNs (HGDNs) of HBV-related liver cirrhosis were screened to identify loci with genomic imbalances, and the frequency of the identified loci in a group of HCCs was analyzed in order to determine whether there may be a genetic link between liver cirrhosis and HCC. Genomic DNA was extracted from six HGDNs of two cases of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis with a NimbleGen 720K microarray. Loci with the most frequently observed genomic imbalances in DNs were further analyzed in 83 cases of HCC by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR. The array CGH analysis revealed that the majority of genomic imbalances in the HGDNs were genomic losses of small segments, with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 identified most frequently. Of the 83 HCC cases, 30 (36.1%) cases were identified with LOH at 5q13.2, where known tumor-associated genes are located, including general transcription factor IIH subunit 2 (GTF2H2), baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 1 (BIRC1) and occludin (OCLN). LOH frequency at 8p23.1 in HCC was 61.29% (D8S1130) and 68.4% (D8S503) respectively, similar to the results obtained in previous studies. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided evidence that genomic losses at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 identified in dysplastic hepatocytes of the cirrhotic liver are common events in HCC. HCC-associated chromosomal abnormalities may occur and accumulate

  14. The prevalence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is common and increases with the age of growing pigs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao-Ting; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2012-07-01

    Infection with the Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is believed to be common yet limited information is available on the epidemiology of TTSuV. The objectives of this study were to develop novel and improve existing diagnostic methods for TTSuV infection and to investigate the prevalence of TTSuV species 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in the USA. Three hundred and four blood or fetal thoracic fluid samples were collected from pigs on 40 US farms in 12 States. Samples were collected from fetuses and in pre-suckle neonates (n=73), suckling pigs (1-20 days of age; n=27), nursery pigs (21-55 days of age; n=60), finisher pigs (8-25 weeks of age; n=90) and adults (>25 weeks of age; n=54). Samples were tested by a new quantitative differential real-time PCR for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 DNA and by ELISA for detection of anti-TTSuV2-antibodies. The prevalence of TTSuV1 DNA ranged from 8.2% (fetuses and neonates) to 81% (finisher pigs) and the prevalence of TTSuV2 DNA ranged from 3.7% (suckling pigs) to 67% (finisher pigs). Evidence of fetal TTSuV infection was minimal. Mixed infection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 was seen in 6.7% of the nursery pigs, 52.2% of the finisher pigs, and 22.2% of the mature pigs. The prevalence of TTSuV1 was higher than that of TTSuV2. Anti-TTSuV2 antibodies were not detected in the fetuses and neonates and the seroprevalence of TTSuV2 was between 3.8% and 100% in growing pigs. The results of this study indicate that vertical transmission may not be a main route of TTSuV transmission in pigs in the USA.

  15. Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

  16. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  17. Zika and Chikungunya virus co-infection in a traveller returning from Colombia, 2016: virus isolation and genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Nicole M.; Shah, Kairav; White, Sarah K.; Paisie, Taylor; Salemi, Marco; Morris Jr, J. Glenn; Lednicky, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can share the same mosquito vector, and co-infections by these viruses can occur in humans. While infections with these viruses share commonalities, CHIKV is unique in causing arthritis and arthralgias that may persist for a year or more. These infections are commonly diagnosed by RT–PCR-based methods during the acute phase of infection. Even with the high specificity and sensitivity characteristic of PCR, false negatives can occur, highlighting the need for additional diagnostic methods for confirmation. Case presentation: On her return to the USA, a traveller to Colombia, South America developed an illness consistent with Zika, Chikungunya and/or Dengue. RT-PCR of her samples was positive only for ZIKV. However, arthralgias persisted for months, raising concerns about co-infection with CHIKV or Mayaro viruses. Cell cultures inoculated with her original clinical samples demonstrated two types of cytopathic effects, and both ZIKV and CHIKV were identified in the supernatants. On phylogenetic analyses, both viruses were found to be related to strains found in Colombia. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to consider CHIKV co-infection in patients with prolonged rheumatological symptoms after diagnosis with ZIKV, and the usefulness of cell culture as an amplification step for low-viremia blood and other samples. PMID:28348794

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of Rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the Rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides containing seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27 kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode a 87 kDa (p87) protein t...

  19. Reclassification of giant viruses composing a fourth domain of life in the new order Megavirales.

    PubMed

    Colson, Philippe; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Interest in giant viruses has risen sharply since 2003, following the discovery of the Mimivirus and four other protist-infecting giant viruses that are linked to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). Despite considerable heterogeneity in hosts and genome sizes, the NCLDVs have been shown to be monophyletic based on analyses of their sequences and gene repertoires and recent studies have proposed that these viruses share a common ancient ancestor and compose a fourth domain of life. In addition, several characteristics of these giant viruses contradict or do not match the criteria used for the canonical definition of viruses, and the NCLDV denomination is not completely appropriate. We propose here to define a new viral order named Megavirales.

  20. Characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from migratory birds in Qinghai province of China in 2006.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fumin; Tang, Shuang; Zhao, Delong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Kou, Zheng; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Zhong; Yin, Zuohua; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Sandan; Zhang, Dehai; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian

    2007-06-01

    Avian influenza H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health because of their ability to infect humans directly. In the paper, three highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from three species of migratory birds in Qinghai Province of China in 2006. The analysis of the genome sequences indicated that the three isolates shared high homology with each other (94% to 99%). Three isolates shared a common ancestor and were closest to strains isolated from Qinghai and Siberia in 2005, but distinct from poultry viruses found in Southeast Asia. In experimental infection, all three viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens and mice. The results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses still exist in the migratory birds and could spread to other regions with wild bird migration.

  1. Genetic Similarity of Puumala Viruses Found in Finland and Western Siberia and of the Mitochondrial DNA of Their Rodent Hosts Suggests a Common Evolutionary Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    revealed that these hantaviruses were Puumala virus and were similar to hantavirus strains from Finland. To confirm these data, partial nucleotide...could give a rise to novel, more pathogenic hantaviruses . Acknowledgements This work was performed while the author (A.D.) held a National Research...Siberia in 1999–2000 and assayed for the presence of hantaviruses . Eighteen animals, all Clethrionomys species, were antigen positive by enzyme-linked

  2. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  3. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  4. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  5. SARS and Common Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Jill K.; Mark, Jennifer; Gavali, Shilpa S.; Yagi, Shigeo; Espinosa, Alex; Schnurr, David P.; Cossen, Cynthia K.; Isaacson, Erin R.; Glaser, Carol A.; Fischer, Marc; Reingold, Arthur L.; Vugia, Duc J.

    2004-01-01

    In California, molecular testing was useful in decreasing suspicion for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), by detecting common respiratory pathogens (influenza A/B, human metapneumovirus, picornavirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in 23 (45%) of 51 patients with suspected SARS and 9 (47%) of 19 patients with probable SARS. PMID:15207072

  6. H11/HspB8 and Its Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Homologue ICP10PK Share Functions That Regulate Cell Life/Death Decisions and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure; Laing, Jennifer M.; Lee, Ki Seok

    2012-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsp) also known as HspB are a large family of widely expressed proteins that contain a 90 residues domain known as α-crystallin. Here, we focus on the family member H11/HspB8 and its herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) homologue ICP10PK, and discuss the possible impact of this relationship on human disease. H11/HspB8 and ICP10PK are atypical protein kinases. They share multi-functional activity that encompasses signaling, unfolded protein response (UPR) and the regulation of life cycle potential. In melanocytes H11/HspB8 causes growth arrest. It is silenced in a high proportion of melanoma prostate cancer, Ewing's sarcoma and hematologic malignancies through aberrant DNA methylation. Its restored expression induces cell death and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models, identifying H11/HspB8 as a tumor suppressor. This function involves the activation of multiple and distinct death pathways, all of which initiate with H11/HspB8-mediated phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Both ICP10PK and H11/HspB8 were implicated in inflammatory processes that involve dendritic cells activation through Toll-like receptor-dependent pathways and may contribute to the onset of autoimmunity. The potential evolutionary relationship of H11/HspB8 to ICP10PK, its impact on human disorders and the development of therapeutic strategies are discussed. PMID:23056924

  7. About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

  8. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  9. Microscopic Characterization of the Brazilian Giant Samba Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schrad, Jason R.; Young, Eric J.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Cortines, Juliana R.; Parent, Kristin N.

    2017-01-01

    Prior to the discovery of the mimivirus in 2003, viruses were thought to be physically small and genetically simple. Mimivirus, with its ~750-nm particle size and its ~1.2-Mbp genome, shattered these notions and changed what it meant to be a virus. Since this discovery, the isolation and characterization of giant viruses has exploded. One of the more recently discovered giant viruses, Samba virus, is a Mimivirus that was isolated from the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. Initial characterization of Samba has revealed some structural information, although the preparation techniques used are prone to the generation of structural artifacts. To generate more native-like structural information for Samba, we analyzed the virus through cryo-electron microscopy, cryo-electron tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. These microscopy techniques demonstrated that Samba particles have a capsid diameter of ~527 nm and a fiber length of ~155 nm, making Samba the largest Mimivirus yet characterized. We also compared Samba to a fiberless mimivirus variant. Samba particles, unlike those of mimivirus, do not appear to be rigid, and quasi-icosahedral, although the two viruses share many common features, including a multi-layered capsid and an asymmetric nucleocapsid, which may be common amongst the Mimiviruses. PMID:28216551

  10. Microscopic Characterization of the Brazilian Giant Samba Virus.

    PubMed

    Schrad, Jason R; Young, Eric J; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Cortines, Juliana R; Parent, Kristin N

    2017-02-14

    Prior to the discovery of the mimivirus in 2003, viruses were thought to be physically small and genetically simple. Mimivirus, with its ~750-nm particle size and its ~1.2-Mbp genome, shattered these notions and changed what it meant to be a virus. Since this discovery, the isolation and characterization of giant viruses has exploded. One of the more recently discovered giant viruses, Samba virus, is a Mimivirus that was isolated from the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. Initial characterization of Samba has revealed some structural information, although the preparation techniques used are prone to the generation of structural artifacts. To generate more native-like structural information for Samba, we analyzed the virus through cryo-electron microscopy, cryo-electron tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. These microscopy techniques demonstrated that Samba particles have a capsid diameter of ~527 nm and a fiber length of ~155 nm, making Samba the largest Mimivirus yet characterized. We also compared Samba to a fiberless mimivirus variant. Samba particles, unlike those of mimivirus, do not appear to be rigid, and quasi-icosahedral, although the two viruses share many common features, including a multi-layered capsid and an asymmetric nucleocapsid, which may be common amongst the Mimiviruses.

  11. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  12. Oncolytic Virus Therapy of Glioblastoma Multiforme – Concepts and Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of oncolytic virus (OV) development have created a field that is driven by the potential promise of lasting impact on our cancer treatment repertoire. With the field constantly expanding – over 20 viruses have been recognized as potential OVs – new virus candidates continue to emerge even as established viruses reach clinical trials. They all share the defining commonalities of selective replication in tumors, subsequent tumor cell lysis, and dispersion within the tumor. Members from diverse virus classes with distinctly different biologies and host species have been identified. Of these viruses, 15 have been tested on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far, 20 clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using attenuated strains of 7 different oncolytic viruses against GBM. In this review, we present an overview of viruses that have been developed or considered for GBM treatment. We outline the principles of tumor targeting and selective viral replication, which include mechanisms of tumor-selective binding, and molecular elements usurping cellular biosynthetic machinery in transformed cells. Results from clinical trials have clearly established the proof of concept and have confirmed the general safety of OV application in the brain. The moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the promising preclinical lab results; next-generation OVs that are either “armed” with therapeutic genes or that are embedded in a multimodality treatment regimen should enhance the clinical results. PMID:22290260

  13. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  14. What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

  15. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  16. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  17. Sequence similarities of the capsid gene of Chilean and European isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus point towards a common origin.

    PubMed

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2011-07-01

    The Chilean salmonid industry was developed by importing breeding materials, a practice still in effect due to deficits in the national supply of roe. Importation of breeding materials is often associated with the transmission of pathogens. The objectives of this study were to compare the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Chile to those of European origin and to determine the diversity of the Chilean IPNV. The VP2 genes of IPNV from Chilean fish (whose eggs originated from Scotland, Iceland and Norway) were compared to isolates from fish in Norway and Ireland. The results show that the isolates are identical (97-99%) and cluster into one genogroup. Our findings support previous reports of association between the trade-in breeding materials and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the genotypic diversity of Chilean IPNV isolates. These findings have important implications for IPNV disease diagnosis and control in Chile.

  18. Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Lewis, G S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M

    2009-10-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and sequence variants in CCR5 regulatory regions have been implicated in delayed progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Both ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), also known as maedi-visna, and HIV are macrophage-tropic lentiviruses, have similar genomic structures, and cause lifelong persistent host infection, suggesting CCR5 may have a role in regulating OPPV provirus levels. Therefore, the ovine CCR5 genomic sequence was determined, and sequence variants were obtained from the open reading frame and surrounding regulatory sites. One CCR5 variant contained a 4-base deletion within a binding site for octamer transcription factors in the promoter region. A test for differential transcription from each allele in heterozygous animals showed a 3.9-fold transcription difference (P < 0.0001). OPPV proviral levels were also measured in 351 naturally exposed Rambouillet, Polypay and Columbia sheep. Deletion homozygotes showed reduced OPPV proviral levels among these animals (P < 0.01). The association of this CCR5 promoter deletion with OPPV levels will need to be validated in additional populations before the deletion can be recommended for widespread use in marker-assisted selection. However, because of the large impact on transcription and because CCR5 has roles in inflammation, recruitment of effector cells, and cell-mediated immunity, this deletion may play a role in the control of infections of many diverse pathogens of sheep.

  19. Uncoating of common cold virus is preceded by RNA switching as determined by X-ray and cryo-EM analyses of the subviral A-particle

    PubMed Central

    Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Vives-Adrián, Laia; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Garriga, Damià; Trus, Benes L.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Blaas, Dieter; Castón, José R.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, viruses undergo conformational changes that lead to delivery of their genome into host cytosol. In human rhinovirus A2, this conversion is triggered by exposure to acid pH in the endosome. The first subviral intermediate, the A-particle, is expanded and has lost the internal viral protein 4 (VP4), but retains its RNA genome. The nucleic acid is subsequently released, presumably through one of the large pores that open at the icosahedral twofold axes, and is transferred along a conduit in the endosomal membrane; the remaining empty capsids, termed B-particles, are shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Previous structural analyses revealed important differences between the native protein shell and the empty capsid. Nonetheless, little is known of A-particle architecture or conformation of the RNA core. Using 3D cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we found notable changes in RNA–protein contacts during conversion of native virus into the A-particle uncoating intermediate. In the native virion, we confirmed interaction of nucleotide(s) with Trp38 of VP2 and identified additional contacts with the VP1 N terminus. Study of A-particle structure showed that the VP2 contact is maintained, that VP1 interactions are lost after exit of the VP1 N-terminal extension, and that the RNA also interacts with residues of the VP3 N terminus at the fivefold axis. These associations lead to formation of a well-ordered RNA layer beneath the protein shell, suggesting that these interactions guide ordered RNA egress. PMID:24277846

  20. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  1. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  2. Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral ‘Platypus’ from Australian Terrestrial Orchids

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative

  3. Donkey orchid symptomless virus: a viral 'platypus' from Australian terrestrial orchids.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G K

    2013-01-01

    Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with 'potexvirus-like' replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative

  4. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  5. Mapping RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides of avian tumor virus RNAs: sarcoma-specific oligonucleotides are near the poly(A) end and oligonucleotides common to sarcoma and transformation-defective viruses are at the poly(A) end.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L H; Duesberg, P; Beemon, K; Vogt, P K

    1975-01-01

    The large RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides of the nondefective (nd) Rous sarcoma virus (RSV): Prague RSV of subgroup B (PR-B), PR-C and B77 of subgroup C; of their transformation-defective (td0 deletion mutants: td PR-B, td PR-C, and td B77; and of replication-defective (rd) RSV(-) were completely or partially mapped on the 30 to 40S viral RNAs. The location of a given oligonucleotide relative to the poly(A) terminus of the viral RNAs was directly deduced from the smallest size of the poly(A)-tagged RNA fragment from which it could be isolated. Identification of distinct oligonucleotides was based on their location in the electrophoretic/chromatographic fingerprint pattern and on analysis of their RNase A-resistant fragments. The following results were obtained. (i) The number of large oligonucleotides per poly(A)-tagged ffagment increased with increasing size of the fragment. This implies that the genetic map is linear and that a given RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides has, relative to the poly(A) end, the same location on all 30 to 40S RNA subunits of a given 60 to 70S viral RNA complex, (ii) Three sarcoma-specific oligonucleotides were identified in the RNAs of Pr-B, PR-C and B77 by comparison with the RNAs of the corresponding td viruses... Images PMID:170411

  6. Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

  7. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Shiliang; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Kunder, Sandra; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Morris, David W.; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2006-09-01

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

  8. Redox Proteomics of the Inflammatory Secretome Identifies a Common Set of Redoxins and Other Glutathionylated Proteins Released in Inflammation, Influenza Virus Infection and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Checconi, Paola; Salzano, Sonia; Bowler, Lucas; Mullen, Lisa; Mengozzi, Manuela; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Panella, Simona; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Protein cysteines can form transient disulfides with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the production of glutathionylated proteins, and this process is regarded as a mechanism by which the redox state of the cell can regulate protein function. Most studies on redox regulation of immunity have focused on intracellular proteins. In this study we have used redox proteomics to identify those proteins released in glutathionylated form by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after pre-loading the cells with biotinylated GSH. Of the several proteins identified in the redox secretome, we have selected a number for validation. Proteomic analysis indicated that LPS stimulated the release of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 1, PRDX2, vimentin (VIM), profilin1 (PFN1) and thioredoxin 1 (TXN1). For PRDX1 and TXN1, we were able to confirm that the released protein is glutathionylated. PRDX1, PRDX2 and TXN1 were also released by the human pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549, infected with influenza virus. The release of the proteins identified was inhibited by the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), which also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, and by thiol antioxidants (N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which did not affect TNF-α production. The proteins identified could be useful as biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with inflammation, and further studies will be required to investigate if the extracellular forms of these proteins has immunoregulatory functions. PMID:25985305

  9. The 'WS motif' common to v-mpl and members of the cytokine receptor superfamily is dispensable for myeloproliferative leukemia virus pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bénit, L; Charon, M; Cocault, L; Wendling, F; Gisselbrecht, S

    1993-03-01

    Several motifs are conserved in the extracellular domain of the cloned chains of the recently described cytokine receptor superfamily. One of them, usually close to the transmembrane region, is the 'WS motif'. Its function remains unknown, but it has been recently shown that the integrity of this motif is essential for interleukin 2 receptor beta-chain and erythropoietin receptor activity [Miyazaki, T., Maruyama, M., Yamada, G., Hatakeyama, M. & Taniguchi, T. (1991). EMBO J., 10, 3191-3197; Watowich, S.S., Yoshimura, A., Longmore, G.D., Hilton, D.J., Hoshimura, Y. & Lodish, H.R. (1992). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 2140-2144]. This WS motif is present in the v-mpl oncogene, which has been transduced in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPLV). v-mpl encodes a truncated transmembrane protein that belongs to this growth factor receptor family. We demonstrate that determinants of MPLV pathogenesis are encoded by the env-mpl fusion gene and that the complete deletion of the WS motif does not abolish MPLV oncogenic properties.

  10. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  11. Divergent Viruses Discovered in Arthropods and Vertebrates Revise the Evolutionary History of the Flaviviridae and Related Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Mang; Lin, Xian-Dan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tian, Jun-Hua; Li, Ci-Xiu; Chen, Liang-Jun; Eastwood, Gillian; Diao, Xiu-Nian; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Xiao; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Tesh, Robert B.; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses of the family Flaviviridae are important pathogens of humans and other animals and are currently classified into four genera. To better understand their diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic flexibility, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to search for the viruses related to the Flaviviridae in a range of potential invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Accordingly, we recovered the full genomes of five segmented jingmenviruses and 12 distant relatives of the known Flaviviridae (“flavi-like” viruses) from a range of arthropod species. Although these viruses are highly divergent, they share a similar genomic plan and common ancestry with the Flaviviridae in the NS3 and NS5 regions. Remarkably, although these viruses fill in major gaps in the phylogenetic diversity of the Flaviviridae, genomic comparisons reveal important changes in genome structure, genome size, and replication/gene regulation strategy during evolutionary history. In addition, the wide diversity of flavi-like viruses found in invertebrates, as well as their deep phylogenetic positions, suggests that they may represent the ancestral forms from which the vertebrate-infecting viruses evolved. For the vertebrate viruses, we expanded the previously mammal-only pegivirus-hepacivirus group to include a virus from the graceful catshark (Proscyllium habereri), which in turn implies that these viruses possess a larger host range than is currently known. In sum, our data show that the Flaviviridae infect a far wider range of hosts and exhibit greater diversity in genome structure than previously anticipated. IMPORTANCE The family Flaviviridae of RNA viruses contains several notorious human pathogens, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, and hepatitis C virus. To date, however, our understanding of the biodiversity and evolution of the Flaviviridae has largely been directed toward vertebrate hosts and their blood-feeding arthropod vectors. Therefore, we investigated an

  12. The Indiana Library Resource Sharing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Library, Indianapolis.

    Intended to encourage the appropriate and informed use of resource sharing mechanisms and services through the establishment of common policies and procedures throughout Indiana, this manual brings together in one document a description of current resource sharing activities in the state, codifies general practices, and provides guidelines based…

  13. Job Sharing: Is It for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Linda

    1994-01-01

    A teacher of deaf children describes her experience with job sharing at both the intermediate grade and preschool levels. The important role played by the full-time teacher's aide in providing continuity as well as the importance of communication are emphasized. Guidelines and answers to common questions regarding job sharing are offered. (DB)

  14. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  15. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  16. Incremental cost-effectiveness pharmacoeconomic assessment of hepatitis C virus therapy: an approach for less wealthy members of the common market

    PubMed Central

    Mance, Diana; Mance, Davor; Vitezić, Dinko

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop a new method of health-economic analysis based on a marginal approach. Methods We tested the research hypothesis that a detailed comparative a priori incremental cost-effectiveness analysis provides the necessary input for budget impact analysis about the proper order of introduction of new therapies, and thus maximizes the cost-effectiveness bounded by the total budget constraint. For the analysis we chose a combination therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) infection, which was approved by the European Medicine Agency in 2015. We used the incremental cost-effective approach to assess the increase in the percentage of patients achieving sustained virological response (SVR) and the expenditure per additional SVR modulated by the new therapy's market entrance dynamics. Patient subpopulations were differentiated by their response to previous treatment, presence of cirrhosis, and HCV GT1 subtype. Final parameters were estimated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results The new combination therapy had high efficacy, shorter duration, and was better tolerated than alternative interventions. The research hypothesis was confirmed: gradual introduction of the new therapy on the market, based on a priori incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, would result in average increase in successfully treated patients by 20%-40%, while additional costs would approximately be between 8%-40%, ie, €21,000-52 000 per additional patient achieving SVR. Conclusion We showed the new combination therapy to be cost-effective for certain patient subpopulations, especially for experienced cirrhotic HCV GT1 patients. Results of the analysis are in agreement with the latest recommendations for HCV patients’ treatment in Croatia. This economic evaluation could serve as a starting point for negotiations between pharmaceutical industry and insurance companies. PMID:28051283

  17. Oncolytic myxoma virus: the path to clinic.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie M; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2013-09-06

    Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials.

  18. Oncolytic Myxoma Virus: The path to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Winnie M.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

  19. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.

  20. Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noël, Laure M.-L. J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

  1. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal fuselloviridae viruses

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wiedenheft; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; D. Willits; A. K. Gleske; L. Zoeller; J. Snyder; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2004-02-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindleshaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of _15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.

  3. Comparative Genomics of Four Isosphaeraceae Planctomycetes: A Common Pool of Plasmids and Glycoside Hydrolase Genes Shared by Paludisphaera borealis PX4T, Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and Strain SH-PL62

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Anastasia A.; Naumoff, Daniil G.; Miroshnikov, Kirill K.; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2017-01-01

    The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4T that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62. The complete genome of P. borealis PX4T consists of a 7.5 Mb chromosome and two plasmids, 112 and 43 kb in size. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed 5802 potential protein-coding genes of which 2775 could be functionally assigned. The genes encoding metabolic pathways common for chemo-organotrophic bacteria, such as glycolysis, citrate cycle, pentose-phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were identified. Several genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan as well as N-methylated ornithine lipids were present in the genome of P. borealis PX4T. A total of 26 giant genes with a size >5 kb were detected. The genome encodes a wide repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 83 glycosyltransferases (GT) affiliated with 21 and 13 CAZy families, respectively. The most-represented families are GH5, GH13, GH57, GT2, GT4, and GT83. The experimentally determined carbohydrate utilization pattern agrees well with the genome-predicted capabilities. The CAZyme repertoire in P. borealis PX4T is highly similar to that in the uncharacterized planctomycete SH-PL62 and S. acidiphila DSM 18658T, but different to that in the thermophile I. pallida IS1BT. The latter strain has a strongly reduced CAZyme content. In P. borealis PX4T, many of its CAZyme genes are organized in clusters. Contrary to most other members of the order Planctomycetales, all four analyzed

  4. Structure of the archaeal head-tailed virus HSTV-1 completes the HK97 fold story

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hendrix, Roger W.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that viruses can be divided into a small number of structure-based viral lineages. One of these lineages is exemplified by bacterial virus Hong Kong 97 (HK97), which represents the head-tailed dsDNA bacteriophages. Seemingly similar viruses also infect archaea. Here we demonstrate using genomic analysis, electron cryomicroscopy, and image reconstruction that the major coat protein fold of newly isolated archaeal Haloarcula sinaiiensis tailed virus 1 has the canonical coat protein fold of HK97. Although it has been anticipated previously, this is physical evidence that bacterial and archaeal head-tailed viruses share a common architectural principle. The HK97-like fold has previously been recognized also in herpesviruses, and this study expands the HK97-like lineage to viruses from all three domains of life. This is only the second established lineage to include archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic viruses. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that the last common universal ancestor of cellular organisms was infected by a number of different viruses. PMID:23733949

  5. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  6. Calcitriol induced redox imbalance and DNA breakage in cells sharing a common metabolic feature of malignancies: Interaction with cellular copper (II) ions leads to the production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Asim; Rizvi, Ghazala; Naseem, Imrana

    2015-05-01

    Calcitriol is known to selectively kill malignant cells, however, not much is known about the mechanism by which it kills malignant cells and spares the "normal" cells. Since elevation of cellular copper is a metabolic condition common to all malignancies, we developed a mouse model to mimic this condition and treated the animals with calcitriol. It was observed that calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo causes severe fluctuations in cellular enzymatic and nonenzymatic scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid peroxidation, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, was found to increase, and a substantial cellular DNA breakage was observed. Calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo was observed to lead the cells to an apoptosis like cell death. We propose that the interaction of calcitriol and copper within malignant cells and the consequent redox scavenger fluctuations and ROS-mediated DNA breakage may be one of the several mechanisms by which calcitriol causes selective cell death of malignant cells, while sparing normal cells.

  7. Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Maija K; Roine, Elina; Sencilo, Ana; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting archaea show a variety of virion morphotypes, and they are currently classified into more than ten viral families or corresponding groups. A pleomorphic virus morphotype is very common among haloarchaeal viruses, and to date, several such viruses have been isolated. Here, we propose the classification of eight such viruses and formation of a new family, Pleolipoviridae (from the Greek pleo for more or many and lipos for lipid), containing three genera, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammapleolipovirus. The proposal is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae infect halophilic archaea and are nonlytic. They share structural and genomic features and differ from any other classified virus. The virion of pleolipoviruses is composed of a pleomorphic membrane vesicle enclosing the genome. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, internal membrane and spike proteins. Although the genomes of the pleolipoviruses are single- or double-stranded, linear or circular DNA molecules, they share the same genome organization and gene synteny and show significant similarity at the amino acid level. The canonical features common to all members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae show that they are closely related and thus form a new viral family.

  8. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  9. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  10. Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14 references)…

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  12. Foodborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; von Bonsdorff, Carl Henrik; Vinjé, Jan; de Medici, Dario; Monroe, Steve

    2002-06-01

    Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a single foodhandler or at a single source. Although there are numerous fecal-orally transmitted viruses, most reports of foodborne transmission describe infections with Norwalk-like caliciviruses (NLV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), suggesting that these viruses are associated with the greatest risk of foodborne transmission. NLV and HAV can be transmitted from person to person, or indirectly via food, water, or fomites contaminated with virus-containing feces or vomit. People can be infected without showing symptoms. The high frequency of secondary cases of NLV illness and - to a lesser extent - of hepatitis A following a foodborne outbreak results in amplification of the problem. The burden of illness is highest in the elderly, and therefore is likely to increase due to the aging population. For HAV, the burden of illness may increase following hygienic control measures, due to a decreasing population of naturally immune individuals and a concurrent increase in the population at risk. Recent advances in the research of NLV and HAV have led to the development of molecular methods which can be used for molecular tracing of virus strains. These methods can be and have been used for the detection of common source outbreaks. While traditionally certain foods have been implicated in virus outbreaks, it is clear that almost any food item can be involved, provided it has been handled by an infected person. There are no established methods for detection of viruses in foods other than shellfish. Little information is available on disinfection and preventive measures specifically for these viruses. Studies addressing this issue are hampered by the lack of

  13. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  14. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  15. Characterization of the Archaeal Thermophile Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus Validates an Evolutionary Link among Double-Stranded DNA Viruses from All Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    Maaty, Walid S. A.; Ortmann, Alice C.; Dlakić, Mensur; Schulstad, Katie; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Liepold, Lars; Weidenheft, Blake; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.; Bothner, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life. PMID:16840341

  16. Characterization of the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus validates an evolutionary link among double-stranded DNA viruses from all domains of life.

    PubMed

    Maaty, Walid S A; Ortmann, Alice C; Dlakić, Mensur; Schulstad, Katie; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Liepold, Lars; Weidenheft, Blake; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J; Bothner, Brian

    2006-08-01

    Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life.

  17. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  18. Designing for Global Data Sharing, Designing for Educational Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robin S.; Radcliffe, David; Fosmire, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an example of a global data sharing project with an educational transformation agenda. This agenda shaped both the design of the shared dataset and the experience of sharing the common dataset to support multiple perspective inquiry and enable integrative and critically reflexive research-to-practice dialogue. The shared…

  19. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found striking homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we could describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal. PMID:26854803

  20. The Non-Problem of the Other Minds: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Livia; Becchio, Cristina; Bara, Bruno G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we combine neurological and developmental evidences in order to differentiate between two levels of sharing: dyadic sharing, virtually present from birth and depending on the activation of shared representation, and triadic sharing, requiring that agents not only share a common representation, but also represent complementary…

  1. Trust, vulnerable populations, and genetic data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jalayne J.; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Gonzalez, Rosa; Campbell, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent policies and proposed regulations, including the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the Common Rule and the 2014 NIH Genetic Data Sharing Policy, seek to improve research subject protections. Protections for subjects whose genetic data is shared are critical to reduce risks such as loss of confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. In the article ‘It depends whose data are being shared: considerations for genomic data sharing policies’, Robinson et al. provide a response to our article, ‘The Growth and Gaps of Genetic Data Sharing Policies’. Robinson et al. highlight the importance of individual and group preferences. In this article, we extend the conversation on models for improving protections which will mitigate consequences for individuals and groups that are vulnerable to stigma and discrimination. PMID:27774227

  2. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  3. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  4. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  5. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  6. Isolation and characterization of an H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kemin; Ferreri, Lucas; Rimondi, Agustina; Olivera, Valeria; Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Rago, Virgina; Uhart, Marcela; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Pereda, Ariel; Perez, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts on animal influenza surveillance in Argentina, an H9N2 virus was isolated from a wild aquatic bird (Netta peposaca), A/rosy-billed pochard/Argentina/CIP051-559/2007 (H9N2) – herein referred to as 559/H9N2. Due to the important role that H9N2 viruses play in the ecology of influenza in nature, the 559/H9N2 isolate was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the 559/H9N2 virus maintained an independent evolutionary pathway and shared a sister-group relationship with North American viruses, suggesting a common ancestor. The rest of the genome segments clustered with viruses from South America. Experimental inoculation of the 559/H9N2 in chickens and quail revealed efficient replication and transmission only in quail. Our results add to the notion of the unique evolutionary trend of avian influenza viruses in South America. Our study increases our understanding of H9N2 viruses in nature and emphasizes the importance of expanding animal influenza surveillance efforts to better define the ecology of influenza viruses at a global scale. PMID:22709552

  7. Evolution of influenza A virus PB2 genes: implications for evolution of the ribonucleoprotein complex and origin of human influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Gorman, O T; Donis, R O; Kawaoka, Y; Webster, R G

    1990-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 20 influenza A virus PB2 genes showed that PB2 genes have evolved into the following four major lineages: (i) equine/Prague/56 (EQPR56); (ii and iii) two distinct avian PB2 lineages, one containing FPV/34 and H13 gull virus strains and the other containing North American avian and recent equine strains; and (iv) human virus strains joined with classic swine virus strains (i.e., H1N1 swine virus strains related to swine/Iowa/15/30). The human virus lineage showed the greatest divergence from its root relative to other lineages. The estimated nucleotide evolutionary rate for the human PB2 lineage was 1.82 x 10(-3) changes per nucleotide per year, which is within the range of published estimates for NP and NS genes of human influenza A viruses. At the amino acid level, PB2s of human viruses have accumulated 34 amino acid changes over the past 55 years. In contrast, the avian PB2 lineages showed much less evolution, e.g., recent avian PB2s showed as few as three amino acid changes relative to the avian root. The completion of evolutionary analyses of the PB1, PB2, PA and NP genes of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex permits comparison of evolutionary pathways. Different patterns of evolution among the RNP genes indicate that the genes of the complex are not coevolving as a unit. Evolution of the PB1 and PB2 genes is less correlated with host-specific factors, and their proteins appear to be evolving more slowly than NP and PA. This suggests that protein functional constraints are limiting the evolutionary divergence of PB1 and PB2 genes. The parallel host-specific evolutionary pathways of the NP and PA genes suggest that these proteins are coevolving in response to host-specific factors. PB2s of human influenza A viruses share a common ancestor with classic swine virus PB2s, and the pattern of evolution suggests that the ancestor was an avian virus PB2. This same pattern of evolution appears in the other genes of the RNP complex. Antigenic

  8. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  9. What should be the data sharing policy of cognitive science?

    PubMed

    Pitt, Mark A; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing chorus of voices in the scientific community calling for greater openness in the sharing of raw data that lead to a publication. In this commentary, we discuss the merits of sharing, common concerns that are raised, and practical issues that arise in developing a sharing policy. We suggest that the cognitive science community discuss the topic and establish a data-sharing policy.

  10. What Are Some Common Outcomes of Stroke and Some Common Treatments for These Outcomes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Publications What are some common outcomes of stroke & some common treatments for these outcomes? Skip sharing ... and temperature changes Depression Types of Treatment for Stroke Stroke treatment includes: Emergency treatment Preventing another stroke ...

  11. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  12. [The Alkhurma virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus): an emerging pathogen responsible for hemorrhage fever in the Middle East].

    PubMed

    Charrel, R N; de Lamballerie, X

    2003-01-01

    To date tick-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans have been isolated in Siberia (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), India (Kyasanur Forest disease virus), and Saudi Arabia (Akhurma virus). Because of their potential use as biological weapons for bioterrorism, these 3 viruses require level 4 biosafety handling facilities and have been listed as hypervirulent pathogens by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Alkhurma virus was isolated in 1995 from patients with hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. Current evidence suggests that transmission to humans can occur either transcutaneously either by contamination of a skin wound with the blood of an infected vertebrate or bites of an infected tick or orally by drinking unpasteurized contaminated milk. To date a total of 24 symptomatic human cases have been recorded with a mortality rate at 25% (6/24). Pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic cases are likely but epidemiologic data are currently unavailable. The complete coding sequence of the prototype strain of Alkhurma virus was determined and published in 2001 based on international research project involving investigators from France, Great Britain, and Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that closest known relative of Alkhurma virus is Kyasanur Forest disease virus and that both viruses share a common ancestor. Genetic analysis of several human strains sequentially isolated over a 5-year period showed a very low diversity. This finding has important potential implications for diagnosis and vaccination.

  13. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  14. Full genome characterization of the culicoides-borne marsupial orbiviruses: Wallal virus, Mudjinbarry virus and Warrego viruses.

    PubMed

    Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell 'T2' and core-surface 'T13' proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively.

  15. Genetic evidence for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar resulting from virus introductions from the East African mainland rather than enzootic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Serena A; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006-2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006-2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

  16. What Drives Academic Data Sharing?

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Benedikt; Friesike, Sascha; Hebing, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded as knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivise data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress. PMID:25714752

  17. Culture as shared cognitive representations.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

    1996-01-01

    Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease. PMID:11607678

  18. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  19. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  20. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  1. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  2. Genome of brown tide virus (AaV), the little giant of the Megaviridae, elucidates NCLDV genome expansion and host-virus coevolution.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; LeCleir, Gary R; Brown, Christopher M; Gobler, Christopher J; Bidle, Kay D; Wilson, William H; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2014-10-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens causes economically and ecologically destructive "brown tides" in the United States, China and South Africa. Here we report the 370,920bp genomic sequence of AaV, a virus capable of infecting and lysing A. anophagefferens. AaV is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) group, harboring 377 putative coding sequences and 8 tRNAs. Despite being an algal virus, AaV shows no phylogenetic affinity to the Phycodnaviridae family, to which most algae-infecting viruses belong. Core gene phylogenies, shared gene content and genome-wide similarities suggest AaV is the smallest member of the emerging clade "Megaviridae". The genomic architecture of AaV demonstrates that the ancestral virus had an even smaller genome, which expanded through gene duplication and assimilation of genes from diverse sources including the host itself - some of which probably modulate important host processes. AaV also harbors a number of genes exclusive to phycodnaviruses - reinforcing the hypothesis that Phycodna- and Mimiviridae share a common ancestor.

  3. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  4. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who ...

  5. Signs and symptoms in common colds.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, D. A.; Cohen, S.; Schlarb, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    The patterns of disease caused by five common viruses which infect the respiratory tract are described. The viruses were strains of rhinovirus types 2, 9, and 14, a strain of coronavirus type 229E and of respiratory syncytial virus. Volunteers were given nasal drops containing a low infectious dose of one of the viruses, quarantined from 2 days before to 5 days after inoculation, and examined daily by a clinician using a standard checklist of respiratory signs and symptoms. Only subjects who developed clinical illness accompanied by viral shedding and/or specific antibody production were analysed [n = 116]. The results confirm indication from earlier studies that the main difference between colds induced by different viruses is in duration of the incubation period. Patterns of symptom development were not substantially different with different viruses. Analyses of signs and symptoms in different categories, e.g. nasal symptoms v. coughing, justify treatment with different drugs either successively or simultaneously. PMID:8394240

  6. Signs and symptoms in common colds.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, D A; Cohen, S; Schlarb, J E

    1993-08-01

    The patterns of disease caused by five common viruses which infect the respiratory tract are described. The viruses were strains of rhinovirus types 2, 9, and 14, a strain of coronavirus type 229E and of respiratory syncytial virus. Volunteers were given nasal drops containing a low infectious dose of one of the viruses, quarantined from 2 days before to 5 days after inoculation, and examined daily by a clinician using a standard checklist of respiratory signs and symptoms. Only subjects who developed clinical illness accompanied by viral shedding and/or specific antibody production were analysed [n = 116]. The results confirm indication from earlier studies that the main difference between colds induced by different viruses is in duration of the incubation period. Patterns of symptom development were not substantially different with different viruses. Analyses of signs and symptoms in different categories, e.g. nasal symptoms v. coughing, justify treatment with different drugs either successively or simultaneously.

  7. Catch shares slow the race to fish.

    PubMed

    Birkenbach, Anna M; Kaczan, David J; Smith, Martin D

    2017-04-05

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual's right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  8. Chlorella viruses isolated in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

  9. Labia Majora Share

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui

    2017-01-01

    Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353

  10. Strains of Citrus tristeza virus do not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely-related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruse...

  11. Genomic Data Commons | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI’s Center for Cancer Genomics launches the Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data sharing platform for the cancer research community. The mission of the GDC is to enable data sharing across the entire cancer research community, to ultimately support precision medicine in oncology.

  12. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a new potexvirus: Malva mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Bolduc, Marilène; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Bernardy, Michael G; Leclerc, Denis

    2008-01-01

    A filamentous virus isolated from Malva neglecta Wallr. (common mallow) and propagated in Chenopodium quinoa was grown, cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined (GenBank accession # DQ660333). The genomic RNA is 6858 nt in length and contains five major open reading frames (ORFs). The genomic organization is similar to members and the viral encoded proteins shared homology with the group of the Potexvirus genus in the Flexiviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), scallion virus X (ScaVX) and, to a lesser extent, to Alstroemeria virus X (AlsVX) and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A novel putative pseudoknot structure is predicted in the 3'-UTR of a subgroup of potexviruses, including this newly described virus. The consensus GAAAA sequence is detected at the 5'-end of the genomic RNA and experimental data strongly suggest that this motif could be a distinctive hallmark of this genus. The name Malva mosaic virus is proposed.

  13. Serologic Cross-Reactions between Nucleocapsid Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yange; Pohl, Jan; Brooks, W. Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) share virologic and epidemiologic features and cause clinically similar respiratory illness predominantly in young children. In a previous study of acute febrile respiratory illness in Bangladesh, we tested paired serum specimens from 852 children presenting fever and cough for diagnostic increases in titers of antibody to hRSV and hMPV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Unexpectedly, of 93 serum pairs that showed a ≥4-fold increase in titers of antibody to hRSV, 24 (25.8%) showed a concurrent increase in titers of antibody to hMPV; of 91 pairs showing an increase to hMPV, 13 (14.3%) showed a concurrent increase to hRSV. We speculated that common antigens shared by these viruses explain this finding. Since the nucleocapsid (N) proteins of these viruses show the greatest sequence homology, we tested hyperimmune antisera prepared for each virus against baculovirus-expressed recombinant N (recN) proteins for potential cross-reactivity. The antisera were reciprocally reactive with both proteins. To localize common antigenic regions, we first expressed the carboxy domain of the hMPV N protein that was the most highly conserved region within the hRSV N protein. Although reciprocally reactive with antisera by Western blotting, this truncated protein did not react with hMPV IgG-positive human sera by EIA. Using 5 synthetic peptides that spanned the amino-terminal portion of the hMPV N protein, we identified a single peptide that was cross-reactive with human sera positive for either virus. Antiserum prepared for this peptide was reactive with recN proteins of both viruses, indicating that a common immunoreactive site exists in this region. PMID:25740767

  14. Profiling mRNAs of Two Cuscuta Species Reveals Possible Candidate Transcripts Shared by Parasitic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

  15. [The great virus comeback].

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  16. Shared care (comanagement).

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist.

  17. Collaborate, compete and share

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  18. A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

    2013-02-28

    A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family.

  19. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  20. Common Parent Reactions to the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Parent Reactions to the NICU Page Content Article Body The ... stress that you may not yet understand. In addition, other NICU parents may be watching you to ...

  1. The games plant viruses play.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Bernet, Guillermo P; Carrasco, José L

    2014-10-01

    Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature. The outcome of such virus-virus interactions ranges from cooperation and coexistence (synergism) to mutual exclusion (antagonism). A priori, the outcome of mixed infections is hard to predict. To date, the analyses of plant virus mixed infections were limited to reports of emerging symptoms and/or to qualitative, at best quantitative, descriptions of the accumulation of both viruses. Here, we show that evolutionary game theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to analyze mixed viral infections and to predict the long-term evolution of the mixed populations.

  2. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  3. Plants, viruses and the environment: Ecology and mutualism.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of Tobacco mosaic virus nearly 120 years ago, most studies on viruses have focused on their roles as pathogens. Virus ecology takes a different look at viruses, from the standpoint of how they affect their hosts׳ interactions with the environment. Using the framework of symbiotic relationships helps put the true nature of viruses into perspective. Plants clearly have a long history of relationships with viruses that have shaped their evolution. In wild plants viruses are common but usually asymptomatic. In experimental studies plant viruses are sometimes mutualists rather than pathogens. Virus ecology is closely tied to the ecology of their vectors, and the behavior of insects, critical for transmission of many plant viruses, is impacted by virus-plant interactions. Virulence is probable not beneficial for most host-virus interactions, hence commensal and mutualistic relationships are almost certainly common, in spite of the paucity of literature on beneficial viruses.

  4. Development and characterization of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated using H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-yan; Tang, Yi-gui; Qi, Zong-li; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xiang-rong; Huo, Xue-ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Qing; Zhao, Peng-hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Hai-fang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xin-jian

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the antigenic epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H1N1 influenza virus, a panel consisting of 84 clones of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated using the HA proteins from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine lysate and the seasonal influenza H1N1(A1) vaccines. Thirty-three (39%) of the 84 mAbs were found to be strain-specific, and 6 (7%) of the 84 mAbs were subtype-specific. Twenty (24%) of the 84 mAbs recognized the common HA epitopes shared by 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1), and A3 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Twenty-five of the 84 clones recognized the common HA epitopes shared by the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1) and A3 (H3N2) human influenza viruses, and H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We found that of the 16 (19%) clones of the 84 mAbs panel that were cross-reactive with human respiratory pathogens, 15 were made using the HA of the seasonal A1 (H1N1) virus and 1 was made using the HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue microarray (TMA) showed that 4 of the 84 mAb clones cross-reacted with human tissue (brain and pancreas). Our results indicated that the influenza virus HA antigenic epitopes not only induce type-, subtype-, and strain-specific monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus but also cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies against human tissues. Further investigations of these cross-reactive (heterophilic) epitopes may significantly improve our understanding of viral antigenic variation, epidemics, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and adverse effects of influenza vaccines.

  5. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  6. HLA-associated alterations in replication capacity of chimeric NL4-3 viruses carrying gag-protease from elite controllers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiyuki; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brumme, Chanson J; Pereyra, Florencia; Trocha, Alicja; Block, Brian L; Schneidewind, Arne; Allen, Todd M; Heckerman, David; Walker, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons who maintain plasma viral loads of <50 copies RNA/ml without treatment have been termed elite controllers (EC). Factors contributing to durable control of HIV in EC are unknown, but an HLA-dependent mechanism is suggested by overrepresentation of "protective" class I alleles, such as B*27, B*51, and B*57. Here we investigated the relative replication capacity of viruses (VRC) obtained from EC (n = 54) compared to those from chronic progressors (CP; n = 41) by constructing chimeric viruses using patient-derived gag-protease sequences amplified from plasma HIV RNA and inserted into an NL4-3 backbone. The chimeric viruses generated from EC displayed lower VRC than did viruses from CP (P < 0.0001). HLA-B*57 was associated with lower VRC (P = 0.0002) than were other alleles in both EC and CP groups. Chimeric viruses from B*57(+) EC (n = 18) demonstrated lower VRC than did viruses from B*57(+) CP (n = 8, P = 0.0245). Differences in VRC between EC and CP were also observed for viruses obtained from individuals expressing no described "protective" alleles (P = 0.0065). Intriguingly, two common HLA alleles, A*02 and B*07, were associated with higher VRC (P = 0.0140 and 0.0097, respectively), and there was no difference in VRC between EC and CP sharing these common HLA alleles. These findings indicate that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) selection pressure on gag-protease alters VRC, and HIV-specific CTLs inducing escape mutations with fitness costs in this region may be important for strict viremia control in EC of HIV.

  7. Characterization and distribution of tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus, a begomovirus from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nava, A; Londoño, A; Polston, J E

    2013-02-01

    A begomovirus causing mottling and leaf deformation in tomato from the State of Mérida was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome comprised of a DNA-A (2,572 nucleotides) and a DNA-B (2,543 nucleotides) with a genome organization typical of New World begomoviruses. Both components share a common region of 115 nucleotides with 98 % sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that while no virus sequences were closely related, the A component was distantly related to those of two other tomato-infecting viruses, tomato leaf deformation virus and Merremia mosaic virus; and the DNA-B, to those of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus. The DNA-A and DNA-B sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession no. AY508993 and AY508994, respectively) and later accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as the genome of a member of a unique virus species with the name Tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus (TYMLCV). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Fl. Lanai') plants inoculated with cloned TYMLCV DNA-A and DNA-B became systemically infected and showed chlorotic margins and leaf curling. The distribution of TYMLCV in tomato-producing states in Venezuela was determined by nucleic acid spot hybridization analysis of 334 tomato leaf samples collected from ten states using a TYMLCV-specific probe and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the PCR fragment. TYMLCV was detected in samples from the states of Aragua, Guárico, and Mérida, suggesting that TYMLCV is widely distributed in Venezuela.

  8. Chronic bee paralysis: a disease and a virus like no other?

    PubMed

    Ribière, Magali; Olivier, Violaine; Blanchard, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis which was called Paralysis is a rather unusual disease caused by a rather unusual virus. In this review, we explore current knowledge of the disease and its etiological agent. Paralysis is the only common viral disease of adult bees whose symptoms include both behavioural and physiological modifications: trembling and hair loss. The disease often affects the strong colonies of an apiary and thousands of dead individuals are then observed in front of the hives. Two sets of symptoms have traditionally been described in the existing literature, but nowadays we can define a general syndrome. The morphology of the Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) particles and the multipartite organisation of the RNA genome are exceptional, as most honey bee viruses are picorna-like viruses belonging to the Iflavirus and Cripavirus genera with symmetric particles and monopartite positive, single-strand RNA genomes. CBPV is currently classified as an RNA virus but is not included in any family or genus. Although it shares several characteristics with viruses in the Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae families, it differs from previously known viruses according to the various demarcation criteria defined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Thus, it should be considered as the type species of a new group of positive-strand RNA viruses. The recent sequencing of the complete CBPV genome has opened the way for phylogenetic studies and development of new molecular tools able to detect variable isolates and to quantify genomic loads. This article considers the results of such recent detection tests but also previous studies including: (i) the distribution of CBPV infection within the bees and the hive, (ii) the way the virus spreads and its persistence in the colony environment, and (iii) geographical and seasonal distribution and impact of CBPV infections.

  9. Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.

    PubMed

    Colias, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats.

  10. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  11. Shared Governance of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

  12. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  13. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... communicate openly and build a relationship of trust. Alternative Names Patient-centered care References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The SHARE Approach. Updated September 2016. www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/shareddecisionmaking/index.html . Accessed October 19, ...

  14. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  15. Share the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Site-based management cannot work without the school board's active involvement and determined support. Suggestions are offered from School District 12, Adams County, Colorado, which has been moving away from a centralized administrative system to shared decision-making. (MLF)

  16. Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1997-01-01

    In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…

  17. Predicting the antigenic structure of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from "classical swine H1N1" virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s-1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population.

  18. Predicting the Antigenic Structure of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from “classical swine H1N1” virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s–1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population. PMID:20049332

  19. How to Spot a Common, Potentially Dangerous, Childhood Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162997.html How to Spot a Common, Potentially Dangerous, Childhood Illness Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... age 2. But just because the infection is common doesn't mean it should be taken lightly, ...

  20. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Husemann, Martin; Japoshvili, George; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Zhusupbaeva, Aigul; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-04-06

    The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives. We screened members of pollinator communities (honey bees, bumble bees and other wild bees belonging to four families) collected from apple orchards in Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan for six common honey bee-associated RNA virus complexes encompassing nine virus targets. The Deformed wing virus complex (DWV genotypes A and B) had the highest prevalence across all localities and host species and was the only virus complex found in wild bee species belonging to all four studied families. Based on amplification of negative-strand viral RNA, we found evidence for viral replication in wild bee species of DWV-A/DWV-B (hosts: Andrena haemorrhoa and several Bombus spp.) and Black queen cell virus (hosts: Anthophora plumipes, several Bombus spp., Osmia bicornis and Xylocopa spp.). Viral amplicon sequences revealed that DWV-A and DWV-B are regionally distinct but identical in two or more bee species at any one site, suggesting virus is shared amongst sympatric bee taxa. This study demonstrates that honey bee associated RNA viruses are geographically and taxonomically widespread, likely infective in wild bee species, and shared across bee taxa.

  2. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased.

  3. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  4. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Share this page: Was this ... EA-D IgG Ab Formal name: Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM, IgG; Epstein- ...

  6. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Computer viruses and methods of combatting them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, G. L.

    1991-02-01

    This article examines the current virus situation for personal computers and time-sharing computers. Basic methods of combatting viruses are presented. Specific recommendations are given to eliminate the most widespread viruses. A short description is given of a universal antiviral system, PHENIX, which has been developed.

  7. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  8. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  9. Sharing our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-25

    There are more than 70,000 nurse prescribers in the UK, many of whom have years of experience that should be shared with trainee prescribers. In November, the General Pharmaceutical Council launched a consultation on whether pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) should be able to mentor trainee PIPs. This discussion, which closes on 1 February, should be expanded to our own and other professional groups, because we could all gain so much from each other.

  10. Intelligence Sharing in Counterproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Routledge, 2004), 75. 3 Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, Redefining transatlantic security relations: The Challenge of Change...Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations, by Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, it is argued that these differences coupled with...Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction” by U.S. Senators Laurence Silbermann and Charles Robb, “the information sharing problem manifested itself in

  11. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  12. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  13. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.

  14. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  15. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  16. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  17. The Evolution of the Shared Services Business Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forst, Leland

    2000-01-01

    Explains shared services, where common business practices are applied by a staff unit focused entirely on delivering needed services at the highest value and lowest cost to internal customers. Highlights include accountability; examples of pioneering shared services organizations; customer focus transition; relationship management; expertise…

  18. Sharing Assessment Data: An Example from a National Professional Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jama L.; And Others

    Alexander Astin, a pioneer in assessment research, has argued persuasively for building national databases that would permit programs and institutions to share common data and thus compare themselves with peers (1987, 1991). Others have suggested that certain process and outcome data should be collected and shared by disciplinary associations and…

  19. Phyloepidemiological Analysis Reveals that Viral Divergence Led to the Paucity of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmus/gsn/mon Infections in Wild Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liegeois, Florian; Greenwood, Edward J. D.; LeBreton, Matthew; Lester, James; Deleplancque, Luc; Peeters, Martine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Tamoufe, Ubald; Diffo, Joseph L. D.; Takuo, Jean M.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Leroy, Eric; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn, respectively, also have low rates of SIV infections in their populations. Compared to that for other monkeys, including red-capped mangabeys and closely related guenon species, such an epidemiology is unusual. By intensifying sampling of geographically distinct populations of mustached and greater spot-nosed guenons in Gabon and including large sample sets of mona guenons from Cameroon, we add strong support to the hypothesis that the paucity of SIV infections in wild populations is a general feature of this monophyletic group of viruses. Furthermore, comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals that this phenotype is a feature of this group of viruses infecting phylogenetically disparate hosts, suggesting that this epidemiological phenotype results from infection with these HIV-1-related viruses rather than from a common host factor. Thus, these HIV-1-related viruses, i.e., SIVcpz and the guenon viruses which share an ancestor with part of the SIVcpz genome, have an epidemiology distinct from that found for SIVs in other African primate species. IMPORTANCE Stable virus-host relationships are established over multiple generations. The prevalence of viral infections in any given host is determined by various factors. Stable virus-host relationships of viruses that are able to cause persistent infections and exist with high incidences of infection are generally characterized by a lack of

  20. Phyloepidemiological Analysis Reveals that Viral Divergence Led to the Paucity of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmus/gsn/mon Infections in Wild Populations.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fabian; Liegeois, Florian; Greenwood, Edward J D; LeBreton, Matthew; Lester, James; Deleplancque, Luc; Peeters, Martine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Tamoufe, Ubald; Diffo, Joseph L D; Takuo, Jean M; Wolfe, Nathan D; Leroy, Eric; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2017-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn, respectively, also have low rates of SIV infections in their populations. Compared to that for other monkeys, including red-capped mangabeys and closely related guenon species, such an epidemiology is unusual. By intensifying sampling of geographically distinct populations of mustached and greater spot-nosed guenons in Gabon and including large sample sets of mona guenons from Cameroon, we add strong support to the hypothesis that the paucity of SIV infections in wild populations is a general feature of this monophyletic group of viruses. Furthermore, comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals that this phenotype is a feature of this group of viruses infecting phylogenetically disparate hosts, suggesting that this epidemiological phenotype results from infection with these HIV-1-related viruses rather than from a common host factor. Thus, these HIV-1-related viruses, i.e., SIVcpz and the guenon viruses which share an ancestor with part of the SIVcpz genome, have an epidemiology distinct from that found for SIVs in other African primate species.IMPORTANCE Stable virus-host relationships are established over multiple generations. The prevalence of viral infections in any given host is determined by various factors. Stable virus-host relationships of viruses that are able to cause persistent infections and exist with high incidences of infection are generally characterized by a lack of morbidity prior

  1. 47 CFR 27.1310 - Network sharing agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....1310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1310 Network sharing... Commission for prior approval. All other modifications must be submitted to the Chiefs of the...

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  3. Maize dwarf mosaic disease in different regions of China is caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J X; Zhou, X P

    2002-12-01

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was detected in all 62 maize samples collected from eight maize-growing provinces in China showing dwarf mosaic symptoms by immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), however, were not detected in any of the samples by RT-PCR. Eleven cDNA fragments of approximately 0.8 kilobases covering most of the coat protein (CP) gene of SCMV were sequenced and sequence analysis indicates that these eleven isolates share 98.1 to 100 % identity at the amino acid level. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the CP genes from the eleven Chinese isolates as well as 21 SCMV subgroup virus isolates indicate that the eleven Chinese virus isolates were closely related to SCMV with 97.0 to 98.1 % sequence identity at the amino acid level, while relatively lower sequence identity was found with MDWV, SrMV or JGMV. The results indicate that the Chinese isolates are members of the SCMV species, and thus, SCMV can be considered as the most common and important potyvirus infecting maize in China.

  4. Full genome sequences of two reticuloendotheliosis viruses contaminating commercial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinfang; Zhao, Jixun; Su, Jingliang; Pu, Juan; Zhang, Guozhong; Liu, Jinhua

    2009-09-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) fragments are a common contaminant in some commercial vaccines such as fowl poxvirus (FPV) and Marek's disease virus. However, only those strains integrating or containing a near-intact REV provirus are more likely to cause problems in the field. We confirm here, by PCR assays and animal experiments, that vaccines against FPV and herpes virus of turkeys were contaminated with full genome sequences of REV. Further, we determined the complete proviral sequence of two REV isolates from contaminated vaccines. Two REV isolates (REV-99 and REV-06) present in the vaccines were both replication competent, and their proviral genome was 8286 nucleotides in length with two identical long terminal repeats (LTR). The complete genome in these two REV isolates shared 99.8% identity to APC-566 and fowl poxvirus REV proviral inserts (FPV-REV). REV-99 and REV-06 LTR showed over 99% identity to chicken syncytial virus (CSV), but an identity of only 75.8% and 78.0%, respectively, to SNV. Alignments with other available REV gag, pol, and env sequences revealed high similarity at the nucleotide level. The results further indicated that the prototype CSV may be the most-important REV contaminant in the commercial vaccines, and distinct genotypes of REVs may cocirculate in chicken flocks of China at the present time.

  5. Biodiversity and distribution of polar freshwater DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; López-Bueno, Alberto; Pearce, David A.; Alcamí, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities and a large reservoir of genetic diversity on Earth. Despite the recent surge in their study, our knowledge on their actual biodiversity and distribution remains sparse. We report the first metagenomic analysis of Arctic freshwater viral DNA communities and a comparative analysis with other freshwater environments. Arctic viromes are dominated by unknown and single-stranded DNA viruses with no close relatives in the database. These unique viral DNA communities mostly relate to each other and present some minor genetic overlap with other environments studied, including an Arctic Ocean virome. Despite common environmental conditions in polar ecosystems, the Arctic and Antarctic DNA viromes differ at the fine-grain genetic level while sharing a similar taxonomic composition. The study uncovers some viral lineages with a bipolar distribution, suggesting a global dispersal capacity for viruses, and seemingly indicates that viruses do not follow the latitudinal diversity gradient known for macroorganisms. Our study sheds light into the global biogeography and connectivity of viral communities. PMID:26601189

  6. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  7. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  8. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  9. Collaborative Sharing of Multidimensional Space-time Data Using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Dash, P. K.; Idaszak, R.; Yi, H.; Blanton, B.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a collaborative environment being developed for sharing hydrological data and models. It includes capability to upload data in many formats as resources that can be shared. The HydroShare data model for resources uses a specific format for the representation of each type of data and specifies metadata common to all resource types as well as metadata unique to specific resource types. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was chosen as the format for multidimensional space-time data in HydroShare. NetCDF is widely used in hydrological and other geoscience modeling because it contains self-describing metadata and supports the creation of array-oriented datasets that may include three spatial dimensions, a time dimension and other user defined dimensions. For example, NetCDF may be used to represent precipitation or surface air temperature fields that have two dimensions in space and one dimension in time. This presentation will illustrate how NetCDF files are used in HydroShare. When a NetCDF file is loaded into HydroShare, header information is extracted using the "ncdump" utility. Python functions developed for the Django web framework on which HydroShare is based, extract science metadata present in the NetCDF file, saving the user from having to enter it. Where the file follows Climate Forecast (CF) convention and Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD) standards, metadata is thus automatically populated. Users also have the ability to add metadata to the resource that may not have been present in the original NetCDF file. HydroShare's metadata editing functionality then writes this science metadata back into the NetCDF file to maintain consistency between the science metadata in HydroShare and the metadata in the NetCDF file. This further helps researchers easily add metadata information following the CF and ACDD conventions. Additional data inspection and subsetting functions were developed, taking advantage of Python and command line

  10. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan C; Uyeki, Timothy M; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M; Swayne, David E; Huynh, Lien P T; Nghiem, Ha K; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Hoang, Long T; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2005-04-01

    Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia.

  11. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  12. Genome Analysis of the First Marseilleviridae Representative from Australia Indicates that Most of Its Genes Contribute to Virus Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Doutre, Gabriel; Philippe, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The family Marseilleviridae consists of Acanthamoeba-infecting large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles ∼0.2 μm in diameter and genome sizes in the 346- to 380-kb range. Since the isolation of Marseillevirus from a cooling tower in Paris (France) in 2009, the family Marseilleviridae has expanded rapidly, with representatives from Europe and Africa. Five members have been fully sequenced that are distributed among 3 emerging Marseilleviridae lineages. One comprises Marseillevirus and Cannes 8 virus, another one includes Insectomime virus and Tunisvirus, and the third one corresponds to the more distant Lausannevirus. We now report the genomic characterization of Melbournevirus, the first representative of the Marseilleviridae isolated from a freshwater pond in Melbourne, Australia. Despite the large distance separating this sampling point from France, Melbournevirus is remarkably similar to Cannes 8 virus and Marseillevirus, with most orthologous genes exhibiting more than 98% identical nucleotide sequences. We took advantage of this optimal evolutionary distance to evaluate the selection pressure, expressed as the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations for various categories of genes. This ratio was found to be less than 1 for all of them, including those shared solely by the closest Melbournevirus and Cannes 8 virus isolates and absent from Lausannevirus. This suggests that most of the 403 protein-coding genes composing the large Melbournevirus genome are under negative/purifying selection and must thus significantly contribute to virus fitness. This conclusion contrasts with the more common view that many of the genes of the usually more diverse large DNA viruses might be (almost) dispensable. IMPORTANCE A pervasive view is that viruses are fast-evolving parasites and carry the smallest possible amount of genomic information required to highjack the host cell machinery and perform their replication. This notion, probably inherited from the

  13. MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Connor; Rouncefield, Mark; Satchell, Christine

    This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry's new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) - blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging - and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology affords "reflexive encounters" through the description of a blogging study involving smokers trying to quit, describing important connections between mobilities - physical, object, and communicative mobility. Finally, we present some challenges for new blogging technologies, their relevance to social encounters, and possible future directions through considering the mobile self; the new digital life document; and digital content sharing practices.

  14. A Renewal Theory Approach to IBD Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Carmi, Shai; Wilton, Peter R.; Wakeley, John; Pe’er, Itsik

    2014-01-01

    A long genomic segment inherited by a pair of individuals from a single, recent common ancestor is said to be identical-by-descent (IBD). Shared IBD segments have numerous applications in genetics, from demographic inference to phasing, imputation, pedigree reconstruction, and disease mapping. Here, we provide a theoretical analysis of IBD sharing under Markovian approximations of the coalescent with recombination. We describe a general framework for the IBD process along the chromosome under the Markovian models (SMC/SMC′), as well as introduce and justify a new model, which we term the renewal approximation, under which lengths of successive segments are independent. Then, considering the infinite-chromosome limit of the IBD process, we recover previous results (for SMC) and derive new results (for SMC′) for the mean number of shared segments longer than a cutoff and the fraction of the chromosome found in such segments. We then use renewal theory to derive an expression (in Laplace space) for the distribution of the number of shared segments and demonstrate implications for demographic inference. We also compute (again, in Laplace space) the distribution of the fraction of the chromosome in shared segments, from which we obtain explicit expressions for the first two moments. Finally, we generalize all results to populations with a variable effective size. PMID:25149691

  15. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  16. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Glenn A; de Jong, Carol; Barr, Jennifer A; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  17. A Novel Mechanism Underlying the Innate Immune Response Induction upon Viral-Dependent Replication of Host Cell mRNA: A Mistake of +sRNA Viruses' Replicases

    PubMed Central

    Delgui, Laura R.; Colombo, María I.

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are lifeless particles designed for setting virus-host interactome assuring a new generation of virions for dissemination. This interactome generates a pressure on host organisms evolving mechanisms to neutralize viral infection, which places the pressure back onto virus, a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral agents illustrating this interesting phenomenon. During replication, their genomic +sRNA is employed as template for translation of viral proteins; among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA) as intermediates, which accumulate representing a potent threat for cellular dsRNA receptors to initiate an antiviral response. A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions, supporting replication efficiency increase by concentrating critical factors and protecting the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cellular dsRNA receptors and describes prototype viruses developing replication niches inside rearranged membranes. However, for several viral agents it's been observed both, a complex rearrangement of cellular membranes and a strong innate immune antiviral response induction. So, we have included recent data explaining the mechanism by, even though viruses have evolved elegant hideouts, host cells are still able to develop dsRNA receptors-dependent antiviral response. PMID:28164038

  18. A Novel Mechanism Underlying the Innate Immune Response Induction upon Viral-Dependent Replication of Host Cell mRNA: A Mistake of +sRNA Viruses' Replicases.

    PubMed

    Delgui, Laura R; Colombo, María I

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are lifeless particles designed for setting virus-host interactome assuring a new generation of virions for dissemination. This interactome generates a pressure on host organisms evolving mechanisms to neutralize viral infection, which places the pressure back onto virus, a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral agents illustrating this interesting phenomenon. During replication, their genomic +sRNA is employed as template for translation of viral proteins; among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA) as intermediates, which accumulate representing a potent threat for cellular dsRNA receptors to initiate an antiviral response. A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions, supporting replication efficiency increase by concentrating critical factors and protecting the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cellular dsRNA receptors and describes prototype viruses developing replication niches inside rearranged membranes. However, for several viral agents it's been observed both, a complex rearrangement of cellular membranes and a strong innate immune antiviral response induction. So, we have included recent data explaining the mechanism by, even though viruses have evolved elegant hideouts, host cells are still able to develop dsRNA receptors-dependent antiviral response.

  19. School Nurses Share a Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  20. Sharing Educational Services. PREP-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongeward, Ray; Heesacker, Frank

    The focus of this report is on shared services in the rural setting. The kit contains three documents of useful information for any school planning a shared service activity to improve rural education. 13-A identifies 215 shared services in 50 states along with an indexing of each service by subject area and by state. 13-B is a series of 10…

  1. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  2. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  3. Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, S M; Murphy, P C; Shields, P A; Ping, L H; Feinstone, S M; Cromeans, T; Jansen, R W

    1991-01-01

    Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including neutralization resistance to monoclonal antibody K24F2, and the other with normal antigenic characteristics. Replication of the antigenic variant was favored over that of virus with the normal antigenic phenotype during persistent infection, while virus with the normal antigenic phenotype was selected during serial passage. Viruses of each type were clonally isolated; both were cytopathic in cell cultures and displayed a rapid replication phenotype when compared with the noncytopathic passage 16 (p16) HM175 virus which was used to establish the original persistent infection. The two cytopathic virus clones contained 31 and 34 nucleotide changes from the sequence of p16 HM175. Both shared a common 5' sequence (bases 30 to 1677), as well as sequence identity in the P2-P3 region (bases 3249 to 5303 and 6462 to 6781) and 3' terminus (bases 7272 to 7478). VP3, VP1, and 3Cpro contained different mutations in the two virus clones, with amino acid substitutions at residues 70 of VP3 and 197 and 276 of VP1 of the antigenic variant. These capsid mutations did not affect virion thermal stability. A comparison of the nearly complete genomic sequences of three clonally isolated cytopathic variants was suggestive of genetic recombination between these viruses during persistent infection and indicated that mutations in both 5' and 3' nontranslated regions and in the nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3Dpol may be related to the cytopathic phenotype. Images PMID:1705995

  4. Engineering resistance to plant viruses: Present status and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses across the globe. Resistant cultivars together with pesticide application are commonly used to avoid the losses caused by plant viruses. However, very limited success has been achieved at diminishing the impact of plant viruses. Use of virus resistant plant is ...

  5. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  6. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  7. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  8. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  9. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  10. Chikungunya virus

    MedlinePlus

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  11. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's New Surveillance ... Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya ...

  12. Sharing information among existing data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  13. Structure of large dsDNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Thomas; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses (NCLDVs) encompass an ever-increasing group of large eukaryotic viruses, infecting a wide variety of organisms. The set of core genes shared by all these viruses includes a major capsid protein with a double jelly-roll fold forming an icosahedral capsid, which surrounds a double layer membrane that contains the viral genome. Furthermore, some of these viruses, such as the members of the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae have a unique vertex that is used during infection to transport DNA into the host. PMID:25003382

  14. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes an activity which introduces students to each other while introducing the concept of Cartesian coordinates. Also describes an activity for finding the least common multiple, and computer programs (with listings) for generating shapes resembling windowpanes and for determining amounts wagered in a golf game. (JN)

  15. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The first idea presented is an activity aimed at teaching students to reduce a fraction to lowest terms by looking for the greatest common factor (GCF) of the numerator and denominator. The second idea looks at ways to construct solution problems that are challenging but which do not bog pupils down. (MP)

  16. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents ideas related to: (1) graphs (considering patterns, periodic functions, and problem-solving); (2) curing common errors (such as an incorrect way of canceling); (3) the median of a trapezoid; and (4) using a telephone directory to teach probability, graphing, random-number tables, reading tables, calculating percentages, and other topics.…

  17. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region.

  18. Hepadna viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  19. Environmental Contributions to the Stability of Antisocial Behavior over Time: Are They Shared or Non-shared?

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been argued that shared environmental influences are moderate, identifiable, and persistent sources of individual differences in most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology, including antisocial behavior. Unfortunately, prior studies examining the stability of shared environmental influences over time were limited by possible passive gene-environment correlations, shared informants effects, and/or common experiences of trauma. The current study sought to address each of these limitations. We examined adolescent self-reported antisocial behavior in a 3.5 year longitudinal sample of 610 biological and adoptive sibling pairs from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results revealed that 74–81% of shared environmental influences present at time 1 were also present at time 2, whereas most non-shared environmental influences (88–89%) were specific to a particular assessment period. Such results provide an important constructive replication of prior research, strongly suggesting that shared environmental contributions to antisocial behavior are systematic in nature. PMID:19904602

  20. Alterations in potential sites for glycosylation predominate during evolution of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope gene in macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Overbaugh, J; Rudensey, L M

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a hallmark of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome, but the role of distinct HIV variants in the development of AIDS is unclear. Envelope (env) is the most highly variable gene in HIV as well as in other retroviruses. We have previously demonstrated that variation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env is primarily localized in two regions (V1 and V4) during progression to simian AIDS. To determine whether there is a common genotype that evolves as AIDS develops, a total of 160 SIV env genes isolated directly from the tissue DNAs of four macaques infected with cloned virus were compared. Common amino acid sequence changes were identified within V1, V4, and, in the late stages of disease, near V3. At several positions, the same amino acid change was seen frequently in the variant genomes from all four animals. As AIDS developed, the majority of viruses evolved an extended sequence in V1 that was rich in serine and threonine residues and shared similarity with proteins modified by O-linked glycosylation. Several of the predominant common sequence changes in V1 and V4 created new sites for N-linked glycosylation. Thus, common features of the SIV variants that evolve during progression to AIDS are motifs that potentially allow for structural and functional changes in the env protein as a result of carbohydrate addition. PMID:1527847

  1. Bacteriophage P23-77 capsid protein structures reveal the archetype of an ancient branch from a major virus lineage.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Ilona; Grimes, Jonathan M; Pawlowski, Alice; Mäntynen, Sari; Harlos, Karl; Bamford, Jaana K H; Stuart, David I

    2013-05-07

    It has proved difficult to classify viruses unless they are closely related since their rapid evolution hinders detection of remote evolutionary relationships in their genetic sequences. However, structure varies more slowly than sequence, allowing deeper evolutionary relationships to be detected. Bacteriophage P23-77 is an example of a newly identified viral lineage, with members inhabiting extreme environments. We have solved multiple crystal structures of the major capsid proteins VP16 and VP17 of bacteriophage P23-77. They fit the 14 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire virus exquisitely well, allowing us to propose a model for both the capsid architecture and viral assembly, quite different from previously published models. The structures of the capsid proteins and their mode of association to form the viral capsid suggest that the P23-77-like and adeno-PRD1 lineages of viruses share an extremely ancient common ancestor.

  2. The science of sharing and the sharing of science

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah

    2014-01-01

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360

  3. Several Human Liver Cell Expressed Apolipoproteins Complement HCV Virus Production with Varying Efficacy Conferring Differential Specific Infectivity to Released Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Doepke, Mandy; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Todt, Daniel; Wölk, Benno; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Geffers, Robert; Lauber, Chris; Kaderali, Lars; Penin, François; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production of infectious HCV progeny is incompletely defined. Therefore, we quantified mRNA expression of human apolipoproteins in primary human hepatocytes. Subsequently, cDNAs encoding apolipoproteins were expressed in 293T/miR-122 cells to explore if they complement HCV virus production in cells that are non-permissive due to limiting endogenous levels of human apolipoproteins. Primary human hepatocytes expressed high mRNA levels of ApoA1, A2, C1, C3, E, and H. ApoA4, A5, B, D, F, J, L1, L2, L3, L4, L6, M, and O were expressed at intermediate levels, and C2, C4, and L5 were not detected. All members of the ApoA and ApoC family of lipoproteins complemented HCV virus production in HCV transfected 293T/miR-122 cells, albeit with significantly lower efficacy compared with ApoE. In contrast, ApoD expression did not support production of infectious HCV. Specific infectivity of released particles complemented with ApoA family members was significantly lower compared with ApoE. Moreover, the ratio of extracellular to intracellular infectious virus was significantly higher for ApoE compared to ApoA2 and ApoC3. Since apolipoproteins complementing HCV virus production share amphipathic alpha helices as common structural features we altered the two alpha helices of ApoC1. Helix breaking mutations in both ApoC1 helices impaired virus assembly highlighting a critical role of alpha helices in apolipoproteins supporting HCV assembly. In summary, various liver expressed apolipoproteins with amphipathic alpha helices complement HCV virus production in human non liver cells. Differences in the efficiency of virus assembly, the specific infectivity of released particles, and the ratio between extracellular and intracellular infectivity point to

  4. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

  5. New evidence that Deformed Wing Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus are Multi-host pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens’ long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in...

  6. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  7. Calsyntenin-1 mediates hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Tay, Enoch S E; Eyre, Nicholas S; Wu, Lindsay E; Beard, Michael R; Boo, Irene; Drummer, Heidi E; George, Jacob; Douglas, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome of 9.6 kb encodes only 10 proteins, and so is highly dependent on host hepatocyte factors to facilitate replication. We aimed to identify host factors involved in the egress of viral particles. By screening the supernatant of HCV-infected Huh7 cells using SILAC-based proteomics, we identified the transmembrane protein calsyntenin-1 as a factor specifically secreted by infected cells. Calsyntenin-1 has previously been shown to mediate transport of endosomes along microtubules in neurons, through interactions with kinesin light chain-1. Here we demonstrate for the first time, we believe, a similar role for calsyntenin-1 in Huh7 cells, mediating intracellular transport of endosomes. In HCV-infected cells we show that calsyntenin-1 contributes to the early stages of the viral replication cycle and the formation of the replication complex. Importantly, we demonstrate in our model that silencing calsyntenin-1 disrupts the viral replication cycle, confirming the reliance of HCV on this protein as a host factor. Characterizing the function of calsyntenin-1 will increase our understanding of the HCV replication cycle and pathogenesis, with potential application to other viruses sharing common pathways.

  8. Proteins of Rous-associated virus 61, an avian retrovirus: common precursor for glycoproteins gp85 and gp35 and use of pactamycin to map translational order of proteins in the gag, pol, and env genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shealy, D J; Rueckert, R R

    1978-01-01

    Cells infected by Rous-associated virus 61 (RAV-61) contained a precursor-like protein, pr90, that was specifically precipitated by antiserum directed against envelope glycoproteins, gp85 and gp35. Tryptic peptide mapping showed that pr90 contained tryptic sequences of both gp85 and gp35. Pactamycin mapping experiments indicated that the two glycoproteins are translated from the env-mRNA in the order (5') gp85--gp35. The pactamycin mapping experiments also indicated a translational order of p10--(p27, p12)--p15 for the gag proteins; this agreement with the order previously reported from tryptic mapping studies on precursor pr76 of avian myeloblastosis virus implied that the stoichiometry of the core proteins was unchanged when virions were assembled in the presence of pactamycin. The reverse transcriptase proteins, unlike those of the env and gag genes, fell on the right side of the pactamycin map. This result is in accord with the idea that most, if not all, of the reverse transcriptase protein is translated by read-through of the gag(pol) message rather than by translation of a hypothetical pol-mRNA devoted solely to synthesis of that protein. Images PMID:77910

  9. Advancing Collaboration through Hydrologic Data and Model Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Hooper, R. P.; Maidment, D. R.; Dash, P. K.; Stealey, M.; Yi, H.; Gan, T.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Li, Z.; Morsy, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system for open sharing of hydrologic data, analytical tools, and models. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are defined primarily by standardized metadata, content data models for each resource type, and an overarching resource data model based on the Open Archives Initiative's Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) standard and a hierarchical file packaging system called "BagIt". HydroShare expands the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated to include geospatial and multidimensional space-time datasets commonly used in hydrology. HydroShare also includes new capability for sharing models, model components, and analytical tools and will take advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. It also supports web services and server/cloud based computation operating on resources for the execution of hydrologic models and analysis and visualization of hydrologic data. HydroShare uses iRODS as a network file system for underlying storage of datasets and models. Collaboration is enabled by casting datasets and models as "social objects". Social functions include both private and public sharing, formation of collaborative groups of users, and value-added annotation of shared datasets and models. The HydroShare web interface and social media functions were developed using the Django web application framework coupled to iRODS. Data visualization and analysis is supported through the Tethys Platform web GIS software stack. Links to external systems are supported by RESTful web service interfaces to HydroShare's content. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date and describe ongoing development of functionality to support collaboration and integration of data and models.

  10. Sharing Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, Bryan L.

    2004-09-01

    Workplace safety is inextricably tied to the culture – the leadership, management and organization – of the entire company. Nor is a safety lesson fundamentally different from any other business lesson. With these points in mind, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recast its lessons learned program in 2000. The laboratory retained elements of a traditional lessons learned program, such as tracking and trending safety metrics, and added a best practices element to increase staff involvement in creating a safer, healthier work environment. Today, the Lessons Learned/Best Practices program offers the latest business thinking summarized from current external publications and shares better ways PNNL staff have discovered for doing things. According to PNNL strategic planning director Marilyn Quadrel, the goal is to sharpen the business acumen, project management ability and leadership skills of all staff and to capture the benefits of practices that emerge from lessons learned. A key tool in the PNNL effort to accelerate learning from past mistakes is one that can be easily implemented by other firms and tailored to their specific needs. It is the weekly placement of Lessons Learned/Best Practices articles in the lab’s internal electronic newsletter. The program is equally applicable in highly regulated environments, such as the national laboratories, and in enterprises that may have fewer external requirements imposed on their operations. And it is cost effective, using less than the equivalent of one fulltime person to administer.

  11. Ethical Dimensions of Shared Ethnicity, Language, and Immigration Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria, Mabelle P.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I illustrate how some commonalities that I share with my participants--ethnic background, native language, and immigration experience--create unexpected ethical concerns. I explore how these commonalities facilitate the establishment of rapid intimacy, at the same time creating the temptations of over-identification and blurring…

  12. Genome project: An experiment in sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-05-25

    The Human Genome Project is in many respects a gigantic experiment in data sharing. Around the world, investigators are working on pieces of the same puzzle. And whether the project succeeds will depend in large measure on these investigators making available their data and materials - cell lines, probes, and clones - to their colleagues and competitors. While sharing may be the norm in, say, immunology or bacterial genetics, human genetics has always been intensely competitive. So should the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, which both fund the genome project, promulgate rules to govern access to data and sharing of materials A DOE committee has drafted some guidelines, which have yet to be formally endorsed. They stipulate that data and materials must be publicly available 6 months after they are generated or characterized. But at NIH, James Watson, who heads the genome project, is shying away from setting rules. He points to the new collaborative plans to map chromosome 21 as evidence that the community will develop its own ways of sharing data. Because of its known role in Down syndrome and its suspected role in Alzheimer's disease, chromosome 21 has generated a vast amount of interest. Lots of groups are already hard at work constructing maps of the chromosome - first developing a series of landmarks spaced along the chromosome, and then a collection of ordered DNA fragments. But the maps all these groups generate will be essentially useless unless they pool their data and adopt a common language.

  13. Nucleotide Sequence of the Hantaan Virus S RNA Segment and Expression of Encoded Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-03

    stomatitis virus and influenza virus) has been shown to be important in generating cytotoxic T cells in response to viral infection (Townsend et al...termination-polyadenylation signal common to other negative-strand RNA viruses (Sendai virus: 5’-TAAGAAAA and vesicular stomatitis virus: TATGAAAA...codon also occurs in the two retroviruses, murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus, to produce a precursor polyprotein larger than normal 191

  14. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  15. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  16. Nuclear Proteins Hijacked by Mammalian Cytoplasmic Plus Strand RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. PMID:25818028

  17. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2015-05-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups.

  18. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions.

  19. Data sharing in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, Catherine A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Ramoni, Rachel; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), builds on the successes of the Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the National Institutes of Health (NIH UDP). Through support from the NIH Common Fund, a coordinating center, six additional clinical sites, and two sequencing cores comprise the UDN. The objectives of the UDN are to: (1) improve the level of diagnosis and care for patients with undiagnosed diseases through the development of common protocols designed by an enlarged community of investigators across the Network; (2) facilitate research into the etiology of undiagnosed diseases, by collecting and sharing standardized, high-quality clinical and laboratory data including genotyping, phenotyping, and environmental exposure data; and (3) create an integrated and collaborative research community across multiple clinical sites, and among laboratory and clinical investigators, to investigate the pathophysiology of these rare diseases and to identify options for patient management. Broad-based data sharing is at the core of achieving these objectives, and the UDN is establishing the policies and governance structure to support broad data sharing. PMID:26220576

  20. Registration of PR0633-10 and PR0737-1 red mottled dry bean germplasm lines with resistance to BGYMB, BCMV, BCMNV, and common bacterial blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) pose a threat to common bean production throughout the world. The development an...

  1. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  2. Dengue and Zika viruses: lessons learned from the similarities between these Aedes mosquito-vectored arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Suwanmanee, San; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-02-01

    The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. ZIKV, which was discovered in 1952, is another important arthropod-borne flavivirus. The neurotropic role of ZIKV has been reported in infected newborns with microcephaly and in adults with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite DENV and ZIKV sharing the same viral vector, their complex pathogenic natures are poorly understood, and the infections they cause do not have specific treatments or effective vaccines. Therefore, this review will describe what is currently known about the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis mechanisms, and transmission of these two viruses. Better understanding of the interrelationships between DENV and ZIKV will provide a useful perspective for developing an effective strategy for controlling both viruses in the future.

  3. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate.

  4. Comparative Phylodynamics of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Kovaliski, John; Duckworth, Janine A.; Swain, Grace; Mahar, Jackie E.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand during the 1990s as a means of controlling feral rabbits is an important case study in viral emergence. Both epidemics are exceptional in that the founder viruses share an origin and the timing of their release is known, providing a unique opportunity to compare the evolution of a single virus in distinct naive populations. We examined the evolution and spread of RHDV in Australia and New Zealand through a genome-wide evolutionary analysis, including data from 28 newly sequenced RHDV field isolates. Following the release of the Australian inoculum strain into New Zealand, no subsequent mixing of the populations occurred, with viruses from both countries forming distinct groups. Strikingly, the rate of evolution in the capsid gene was higher in the Australian viruses than in those from New Zealand, most likely due to the presence of transient deleterious mutations in the former. However, estimates of both substitution rates and population dynamics were strongly sample dependent, such that small changes in sample composition had an important impact on evolutionary parameters. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a clear spatial structure in the Australian RHDV strains, with a major division between those viruses from western and eastern states. Importantly, RHDV sequences from the state where the virus was first released, South Australia, had the greatest diversity and were diffuse throughout both geographic lineages, such that this region was likely a source population for the subsequent spread of the virus across the country. IMPORTANCE Most studies of viral emergence lack detailed knowledge about which strains were founders for the outbreak or when these events occurred. Hence, the human-mediated introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand from known starting stocks provides a unique opportunity to understand viral evolution

  5. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  6. Common structure and toxic function of amyloid oligomers implies a common mechanism of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glabe, Charles G; Kayed, Rakez

    2006-01-24

    Recent findings indicate that soluble amyloid oligomers may represent the primary pathologic species in degenerative diseases. These amyloid oligomers share common structural features and the ability to permeabilize membranes, suggesting that they also share a common primary mechanism of pathogenesis. Membrane permeabilization by amyloid oligomers may initiate a common group of downstream pathologic processes, including intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species, altered signaling pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunction that represent key effectors of cellular dysfunction and cell death in amyloid-associated degenerative disease, such as sporadic inclusion-body myositis.

  7. Nerve growth factor antibody stimulates reactivation of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 in latently infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hill, J M; Garza, H H; Helmy, M F; Cook, S D; Osborne, P A; Johnson, E M; Thompson, H W; Green, L C; O'Callaghan, R J; Gebhardt, B M

    1997-06-01

    Anti-nerve growth factor (anti-NGF) antibody has been shown to induce reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. We found that systemically administered anti-NGF induces ocular shedding of HSV-1 in vivo in rabbits harboring latent virus. Rabbits in which HSV-1 latency had been established were given intravenous injections of goat anti-NGF serum daily for 10 days beginning 42 days after primary viral infection. Tears were assayed for virus for 12 days beginning on the day of the first injection. All eight rabbits given high titer anti-NGF had infectious virus in their tears at least once during the 12-day period. Fifteen of 16 eyes were positive and the average duration of viral shedding for these eyes was 4.0 days. Latently infected rabbits receiving daily injections of nonimmune goat serum or saline for 10 consecutive days were controls. Only six of the 16 (38%) eyes from rabbits receiving nonimmune goat serum shed virus. Only one of 12 eyes from untreated rabbits shed virus. Sera from control rabbits had no detectable anti-NGF activity; titers in anti-NGF-treated rabbits ranged between 1:1000 and 1:10,000. NGF deprivation may act as a neuronal stressor and may share a common second messenger pathway with heat- or cold-stress induced reactivation of latent HSV-1.

  8. Autoimmunity in Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Díaz, Carlos A; Rodríguez, Yhojan; Monsalve, Diana M; Acosta-Ampudia, Yeny; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities among them as well as their familial clustering. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an autoimmune peripheral neuropathy, has been recently associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Based on a series of cases, this review article provides a comparative analysis of GBS associated with ZIKV infection, contrasted with the general characteristics of GBS in light of the autoimmune tautology, including gender differences in prevalence, subphenotypes, polyautoimmunity, familial autoimmunity, age at onset, pathophysiology, ecology, genetics, ancestry, and treatment.

  9. The Visioning Virus History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Carolyn

    Rural areas of the world share many common problems, such as a lack of diverse educational and economic development opportunities. This paper argues that only when rural areas develop strong partnerships among organizations with diverse strengths, and these organizations bring some measure of power to these partnerships, will these rural areas be…

  10. Providing the Tools for Information Sharing: Net-Centric Enterprise Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is establishing a net-centric environment that increasingly leverages shared services and Service-Oriented...transformational program that delivers a set of shared services as part of the DoD’s common infrastructure to enable networked joint force capabilities, improved interoperability, and increased information sharing across mission area services.

  11. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  12. Open membranes are the precursors for assembly of large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Cristina; Welsch, Sonja; Chlanda, Petr; Hagen, Wim; Hoppe, Simone; Kolovou, Androniki; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate their DNA partly or entirely in the cytoplasm in association with viral factories (VFs). They share about 50 genes suggesting that they are derived from a common ancestor. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (ET) we showed that the NCLDV vaccinia virus (VACV) acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates, derived from the ER. These open membranes contribute to the formation of a single open membrane of the immature virion, shaped into a sphere by the assembly of the viral scaffold protein on its convex side. We now compare VACV with the NCLDV Mimivirus by TEM and ET and show that the latter also acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates that accumulate at the periphery of the cytoplasmic VF. In analogy to VACV this membrane is shaped by the assembly of a layer on the convex side of its membrane, likely representing the Mimivirus capsid protein. By quantitative ET we show for both viruses that the open membrane intermediates of assembly adopt an ‘open-eight’ conformation with a characteristic diameter of 90 nm for Mimi- and 50 nm for VACV. We discuss these results with respect to the common ancestry of NCLDVs and propose a hypothesis on the possible origin of this unusual membrane biogenesis. PMID:23751082

  13. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.

  14. [Norwalk virus and Noro virus].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Itaru; Yamazumi, Toshiaki; Kitahashi, Toshiaki; Yagi, Kazurou; Takemura, Tukasa

    2003-01-01

    Norwalk virus and Noro virus are members of the Caliciviridae. These viruses are morphological similarity in each other and shows small round structure. These viruses also are well known as main pathogens of acute infectious gastroenteritis. Clinical features include an incubation period of 24 of 48 hours and illness period of 18 to 72 hours with vomiting and diarrhea in most patients and high secondary attack rates. Oral transmitted infection occurs contaminated water and foods. In our country, outbreak of Noro virus-related gastroenteritis are reported sometimes in hospital and nursing home from winter to early spring seasons. This article are described to the morphlogy, physical characteristics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestation relating to Norwalk virus and Noro virus.

  15. A recombinant influenza virus vaccine expressing the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020

  16. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a dsDNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rice; L. Tang; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; E. Gillitzer; J. E. Johnson; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2004-05-01

    Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth >80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago.

  17. PNNL’s Shared Perspectives Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-25

    Shared Perspectives, one of the technologies within the PNNL-developed GridOPTICS capability suite, enables neighboring organizations, such as different electric utilities, to more effectively partner to solve outages and other grid problems. Shared Perspectives provides a means for organizations to safely stream information from different organizational service areas; the technology then combines and aligns this information into a common, global view, enhancing global situation awareness that can reduce the time it takes to talk through a problem and identify solutions. The technology potentially offers applications in other areas, such as disaster response; collaboration in the monitoring/assessment of real-time events (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes); as well as military uses.

  18. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  19. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  20. IBD Sharing between Africans, Neandertals, and Denisovans

    PubMed Central

    Povysil, Gundula

    2016-01-01

    Interbreeding between ancestors of humans and other hominins outside of Africa has been studied intensively, while their common history within Africa still lacks proper attention. However, shedding light on human evolution in this time period about which little is known, is essential for understanding subsequent events outside of Africa. We investigate the genetic relationships of humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans by identifying very short DNA segments in the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 data that these hominins share identical by descent (IBD). By focusing on low frequency and rare variants, we identify very short IBD segments with high confidence. These segments reveal events from a very distant past because shorter IBD segments are presumably older than longer ones. We extracted two types of very old IBD segments that are not only shared among humans, but also with Neandertals and/or Denisovans. The first type contains longer segments that are found primarily in Asians and Europeans where more segments are found in South Asians than in East Asians for both Neandertal and Denisovan. These longer segments indicate complex admixture events outside of Africa. The second type consists of shorter segments that are shared mainly by Africans and therefore may indicate events involving ancestors of humans and other ancient hominins within Africa. Our results from the autosomes are further supported by an analysis of chromosome X, on which segments that are shared by Africans and match the Neandertal and/or Denisovan genome were even more prominent. Our results indicate that interbreeding with other hominins was a common feature of human evolution starting already long before ancestors of modern humans left Africa. PMID:28158547