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Sample records for vitamin k2 supplementation

  1. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), P<0.001) and vitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  2. [Vitamin K2 influences several diseases].

    PubMed

    Hey, Henrik; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2015-08-03

    In this paper we discuss the evidence of vitamin K2 deficiency which is a factor in several chronic diseases like diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. This deficiency is very common in the mentioned diseases although it is rarely treated by clinicians. Randomized clinical trials have shown that patients with osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer can benefit from vitamin K2 supplement. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effect of vitamin K2 supplement in patients with diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Vitamin K2 supplementation and arterial stiffness among renal transplant recipients-a single-arm, single-center clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anthony G; Hariri, Essa; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; El Alam, Andrew; Protogerou, Athanase D; Kilany, Hala; Karam, Albert; Stephan, Antoine; Bahous, Sola Aoun

    2017-09-01

    Subclinical vitamin K deficiency is prevalent among renal transplant recipients and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between vitamin K supplementation and improvement of arterial stiffness has not been explored in the renal transplant population. The KING trial (vitamin K2 In reNal Graft) is a single-arm study that evaluated the association between the change in vitamin K status and indices of arterial stiffness following 8 weeks of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation (360 μg once daily) among renal transplant recipients (n = 60). Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Subclinical vitamin K deficiency was defined as plasma concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) >500 pmol/L.At baseline, 53.3% of the study subjects had subclinical vitamin K deficiency. Supplementation was associated with a 14.2% reduction in mean cfPWV at 8 weeks (cfPWV pre-vitamin K2 = 9.8 ± 2.2 m/s vs. cfPWV post-vitamin K2 = 8.4 ± 1.5 m/s; P < .001). Mean dp-ucMGP concentrations were also significantly reduced by 55.1% following menaquinone-7 supplementation with a reduction in the prevalence of subclinical deficiency by 40% (P = .001). When controlled for age, durations of hemodialysis and transplantation, and the change in 24-hour mean arterial pressure, the improvement in arterial stiffness was independently associated with the reduction in dp-ucMGP concentration (P = .014).Among renal transplant recipients with stable graft function, vitamin K2 supplementation was associated with improvement in subclinical vitamin K deficiency and arterial stiffness. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02517580). Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone-4) supplementation improves bone formation in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2013-09-01

    Several reports suggest that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in improving bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 supplementation on the biochemical markers of bone turnover and morphological microstructure of the bones by using an obese mouse model. Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 10% fat normal diet group or a 45% kcal high-fat diet group, with or without 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K1 (Normal diet + K1, high-fat diet + K1) and 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K2 (Normal diet + K2, high-fat diet + K2) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in the high-fat diet + K2 group than in the high-fat diet group. Serum OPG level of the high-fat diet group, high-fat diet + K1 group, and high-fat diet + K2 group was 2.31 ± 0.31 ng/ml, 2.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, and 2.90 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Serum level of RANKL in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the high-fat diet + K1 group and high-fat diet + K2 group (p<0.05). Vitamin K supplementation seems to tend to prevent bone loss in high-fat diet induced obese state. These findings suggest that vitamin K supplementation reversed the high fat diet induced bone deterioration by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities and prevent bone loss in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

  5. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry Kurt

    2017-01-01

    To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  6. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. Quality of Evidence PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Main Message Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Conclusion Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health. PMID:28698808

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of vitamin K2: Implications for bone health.

    PubMed

    Myneni, V D; Mezey, E

    2018-03-01

    In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, vitamin K2 appears to decrease the incidence of hip, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have more circulating activated T cells compared with healthy postmenopausal and premenopausal women, but the effects of vitamin K2 on T cells have not been studied. In this study, we have looked at T-cell suppression by vitamin K2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy donors were used. The PBMCs were stimulated with the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A, and T-cell proliferation was analyzed using flow cytometry based on carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CSFE) dye dilution. Vitamin K2 (60 and 100 μM) inhibited T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K1 at the same concentrations did not inhibit T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K2 has immunomodulatory activities. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in human health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe convened experts in vitamin K selected from academia and industry to review the need for specific dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K2, also known as menaquinones. This review describes the literature based on the following items required...

  9. Comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on experimental arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Takegami, H; Usami, E

    1999-01-01

    The comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on aortic calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) levels in the aorta and the elastin fraction (fr.) were investigated in male rats after experimental arteriosclerosis was induced by vitamin D2 with atherogenic diet. Both vitamin K2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (40 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited the increase of Ca and P in the aorta and the elastin fr. from the arteriosclerotic rats. Vitamin K2 (50 mg/kg b.w.) also suppressed the deposition of Ca and P in the aorta, but there was no change due to vitamin K3 or geranylgeraniol (side chain of vitamin K2) administration. Both vitamin K2 and vitamin E showed lipid radical scavenging activity in the in vitro experiment. However, neither vitamin K3 nor geranylgeraniol exhibited anti-arteriosclerotic or radical scavenging activity under the above experimental conditions. It is suggested that vitamin K2 and vitamin E promoted an antiarteriosclerotic effect by radical scavenging activity. These actions of vitamin K2 are required in the structure of 2-methylnaphtoquinone and its side chain (geranylgeraniol).

  10. Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Jie Peng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continue to be a major public health problem around the world that frequently presents with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Individuals with T2DM are not only suffering from significant emotional and physical misery, but also at increased risk of dying from severe complications. In recent years, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has shown T2DM risk reduction with vitamin K2 supplementation. We thus did an overview of currently available studies to assess the effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glycaemic control and reviewed the underlying mechanisms. We proposed that vitamin K2 improved insulin sensitivity through involvement of vitamin K-dependent-protein osteocalcin, anti-inflammatory properties, and lipid-lowering effects. Vitamin K2 had a better effect than vitamin K1 on T2DM. The interpretation of this review will increase comprehension of the development of a therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls. Vitamin K, particularly as vitamin K2, is nearly nonexistent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet. Vitamin K deficiency results in inadequate activation of MGP, which greatly impairs the process of calcium removal and increases the risk of calcification of the blood vessels. An increased intake of vitamin K2 could be a means of lowering calcium-associated health risks.

  12. Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale

    2011-01-01

    Several bone protective factors are reported to exhibit stimulatory activities on bone formation coupled with inhibitory effects on bone resorption; one such factor is vitamin K2. Vitamin K species [K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone)] have long been associated with bone protective activities and are receiving intense interest as nutritional supplements for the prevention or amelioration of bone disease in humans. However, the mechanisms of vitamin K action on the skeleton are poorly defined. Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway is essential for osteoclast formation and resorption. By contrast, NF-κB signaling potently antagonizes osteoblast differentiation and function, prompting us to speculate that NF-κB antagonists may represent a novel class of dual anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic agents. We now show that vitamin K2 action on osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity is accomplished by down-regulating basal and cytokine-induced NF-κB activation, by increasing IκB mRNA, in a γ-carboxylation-independent manner. Furthermore, vitamin K2 prevented repression by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) of SMAD signaling induced by either transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Vitamin K2 further antagonized receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB activation in osteoclast precursors. Our data provide a novel mechanism to explain the dual pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic activities of vitamin K2, and may further support the concept that pharmacological modulation of NF-κB signal transduction may constitute an effective mechanism for ameliorating pathological bone loss and for promoting bone health.

  13. Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2.

    PubMed

    Myneni, V D; Mezey, E

    2017-11-01

    All living tissues require essential nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water. The skeleton requires nutrients for development, maintaining bone mass and density. If the skeletal nutritional requirements are not met, the consequences can be quite severe. In recent years, there has been growing interest in promotion of bone health and inhibition of vascular calcification by vitamin K2. This vitamin regulates bone remodeling, an important process necessary to maintain adult bone. Bone remodeling involves removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts and its replacement by new bone formed by osteoblasts. The remodeling process is tightly regulated, when the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts to a net bone loss results in the development of osteoporosis in both men and women. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the effects of vitamin K2 on bone cells and its role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Vitamin K2 for the reversal of warfarin-related coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Takada, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kenta; Hamaya, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Natsuyo; Abe, Yuko; Takano, Koshiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Hagiike, Masanobu; Koido, Yuichi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation recommends vitamin K1 for warfarin-related coagulopathy. In Japan, vitamin K2 is used more commonly for such purpose. The difference between vitamins K1 and K2 in reversing warfarin-related coagulopathy has not been discussed. Herein, we report a case that was reversed with vitamin K2; alterations in vitamins K1 and K2 levels and coagulation markers are also presented.

  15. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Something more to say about calcium homeostasis: the role of vitamin K2 in vascular calcification and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Flore, R; Ponziani, F R; Di Rienzo, T A; Zocco, M A; Flex, A; Gerardino, L; Lupascu, A; Santoro, L; Santoliquido, A; Di Stasio, E; Chierici, E; Lanti, A; Tondi, P; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-09-01

    Vascular calcification and osteoporosis share similar etiopathogenetic mechanisms. Vitamin K2 deficiency could be responsible of the so called "calcium paradox", that is the lack of calcium in the bone and its storage in the vessel wall. These events may have clinically relevant consequences, such as cardiovascular accidents, and bone fractures. To review the biological function of vitamin K2 metabolism, the main factors related to its deficiency and the consequent clinical significance. Vitamin K2 is essential for the function of several proteins, involved in the maintenance of the normal structure of arterial wall, osteoarticular system, teeth, and for the regulation of cell growth. It has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the inhibition of vascular foci of calcification, and in the regulation of calcium deposition in the bone. Vitamin K2 deficiency is often subclinic in a large part of healthy population. This deficiency is related to the interaction of various factors, such as the reduced dietary intake, the alteration of intestinal absorption or production, with a possible role of intestinal microbiota and the increased consumption at the vessel wall. Vitamin K2 deficiency has recently been recognized as a protagonist in the development of vascular calcification and osteoporosis. Data reported so far are promising and, dietary supplementation seems a useful tool to contrast these diseases. However, large studies or solid clinical correlations regarding vitamin K2 deficiency and its pathologic consequences are needed to confirm these preliminary experiences.

  18. The efficacy of vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination on thalassemic osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Mehmet A; Yilmaz, Kenan; Abdulrezzak, Ummuhan; Muhtaroglu, Sebahattin; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Unal, Ekrem

    2013-11-01

    Thalassemic osteopathy (TOSP) has emerged as a topic of interest, as the optimized transfusion regimens and iron chelations has markedly improved the survival of the patients suffering from thalassemia major (TM) and increased the life expectancy. The aim of this prospective monocentric pilot study was to investigate the effects of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (50 mcg menaquinone-7) and vitamin D (5 mcg calcitriol) on the patients with TOSP. Twenty children (12 girls, 8 boys; age varied from 3 to 18 y) with β TM, who underwent regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, were enrolled in this study and investigated at the initial, sixth, and 12th month of the treatment. We detected a significant improvement in the bone mineral density and Z-score at the lumbar spine area of the patients at the sixth and 12th month of the treatment, especially in the prepubertal group. We also found a decrease in the ratio of undercarboxylated osteocalcin to carboxylated osteocalcin, however, this was not found to be significant. Although the natural course of TOSP is worsening or at least stabilizing, our pilot study demonstrated that vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination clearly has a positive effect on the bone mineral density of the children with TM during a 1-year period. Supplementation of menaquinone-7 instead of drugs is an augmented physiological intake and seems a beneficial alternative for the treatment of TOSP. Further studies on a large number of participants are necessary to highlight the effect of vitamin K2 on TOSP.

  19. Distribution of vitamin K2 in subchondral bone in osteoarthritic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Junko; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Junkichi; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin K may have multiple effects on articular cartilage and subchondral bone that could modulate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of vitamin K2 in harvested bones obtained during total knee arthroplasty in knee OA patients. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure vitamin K2 in harvested bones obtained during 58 TKA procedures. Vitamin K2 levels were analysed in the medial (FM) and lateral (FL) femoral condyles and in the medial (TM) and lateral (TL) tibial condyles. There was significantly more vitamin K2 in the lateral femoral and tibial condyles than in the corresponding medial condyles (FL vs. FM, p < 0.0001; TL vs. TM, p < 0.0001). There was significantly more vitamin K2 in the FL than in the TL (p = 0.003), and in the FM, vitamin K2 levels were higher than those of the TM, although this was not significant (n.s.). There were no significant differences in vitamin K2 levels in men versus women nor was there a significant correlation with age. This study suggested that vitamin K2 might affect bone turnover since medial condyles showing advanced OA had lower vitamin K2 levels, while lateral condyles showing less advanced OA contained more vitamin K2. Gender and age were not correlated with vitamin K2 localization. All cases had Grade IV OA, and this study suggested that OA grade might be important in controlling the vitamin K2 levels in human bones.

  20. Research progress on the anticancer effects of vitamin K2.

    PubMed

    Xv, Fan; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of multiple therapeutic methods for patients with cancer, the long-term prognosis is not satisfactory in a number of different cancer types. Vitamin K2 (VK2), which exerts anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, is considered to be a prospective novel agent for the treatment of cancer. The present review aims to summarize the results of studies in which VK2 was administered either to patients with cancer or animals inoculated with cancerous cells, particularly investigating the inhibitory effects of VK2 on cancerous cells, primarily involving cell-cycle arrest, cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and invasion. The present review summarizes evidence stating that treatment with VK2 could positively inhibit the growth of cancer cells, making it a potentially useful approach for the prevention and clinical treatment of cancer. Additionally, the combination treatment of VK2 and established chemotherapeutics may achieve better results, with fewer side effects. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the effects of micronutrients on tumors.

  1. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  2. Vitamin K-induced effects on body fat and weight: results from a 3-year vitamin K2 intervention study.

    PubMed

    Knapen, M H J; Jardon, K M; Vermeer, C

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin K status has been linked to fat and glucose metabolism by several authors, but whether high vitamin K intake influences body weight or composition has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased vitamin K intake decreases body fat or fat distribution. In a randomized placebo-controlled human intervention trial, 214 postmenopausal women, 55-65 years of age, received either 180 mcg/day of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7, MK-7) or placebo for 3 years. Osteocalcin (OC) carboxylation was used as a marker for vitamin K status, and fat distribution was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry total body scan. In the total cohort, MK-7 supplementation increased circulating carboxylated OC (cOC) but had no effect on body composition. In those with an above-median response in OC carboxylation ('good responders'), MK-7 treatment resulted in a significant increase in total and human molecular weight adiponectin and a decrease in abdominal fat mass and in the estimated visceral adipose tissue area compared with the placebo group and the poor responders. The fact that changes in body composition measures or markers for fat or glucose metabolism were not associated with changes in uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) does not support the assumption that ucOC stimulates fat metabolism in humans. Instead, high vitamin K2 intake may support reducing body weight, abdominal and visceral fat, notably in subjects showing a strong increase in cOC. A causal relation between the changes in cOC and body fat or distribution cannot be concluded from these data.

  3. Oral Consumption of Vitamin K2 for 8 Weeks Associated With Increased Maximal Cardiac Output During Exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Background • Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle). Objective • The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 wk of dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 could alter cardiovascular responses to a graded cycle ergometer test. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in the Applied Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, USA). Participants • Participants were aerobically trained males and female athletes (N = 26). Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned either to a control group that received a rice flour placebo or to an intervention group that received vitamin K2. For weeks 1 to 4, participants received 300 mg/d; for weeks 5 to 8, they received 150 mg/d. Subjects assigned to the control group received similar doses to mirror the intervention group. Subjects consumed the supplements during an 8-wk period while they maintained their typical exercise habits. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, participants completed a standard, graded exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Before the test, participants were fitted with a mouth piece, and their oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory rate, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured. In addition, participants were fitted with skin-mounted electrodes that measured noninvasive cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate. To assess the cumulative exercise change, an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value was calculated

  4. Vitamin K2 promotes mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by inhibiting miR‑133a expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelei; Weng, Shiyang; Yin, Junhui; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Changqing; Gao, Youshui

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K2 has been demonstrated to promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. As microRNA (miR)‑133a has been identified as a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation, the present study hypothesized that vitamin K2 promoted osteogenesis by inhibiting miR‑133a. Using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) overexpressing miR‑133a, or a control, the expression levels of osteogenesis‑associated proteins, including runt‑related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, were analyzed. miR‑133a significantly suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. To determine the effect of vitamin K2 on miR‑133a expression and osteogenesis, hBMSCs were treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 inhibited miR‑133a expression, which was accompanied by enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the expression levels of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, the key protein in γ‑carboxylation, were downregulated by miR‑133a overexpression and upregulated by vitamin K2 treatment, indicating a positive feedback on γ‑carboxylation. The results of the present study suggested that vitamin K2 targets miR‑133a to regulate osteogenesis.

  5. Synergistic growth inhibition by sorafenib and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Anran; Zhao, Yong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Jian; Gao, Jianfei; Fang, Dianchun; Rao, Zhiguo

    2012-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, especially for patients

  6. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Alice; Middleton, Philippa; Pan, Ning; Crowther, Caroline A

    2011-01-19

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage, maternal adverse outcomes and fetal and infant adverse outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (21 June 2010). All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions, prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). At least two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We identified 28 trials assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Overall, the included trials involved 96,674 women and 98,267 pregnancies. Three trials were cluster randomised and combined contributed data for 62,669 women and 64,210 pregnancies in total. No significant differences were seen between women taking any vitamins compared with controls for total fetal loss (relative risk (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.14), early or late miscarriage (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.25) or stillbirth (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.13) and most of the other primary outcomes, using fixed-effect models. Compared with controls, women given any type of vitamin(s) pre or peri-conception were more likely to have a multiple pregnancy (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.70, three trials, 20,986 women). Taking any vitamin supplements prior to pregnancy or in early pregnancy does not prevent women experiencing miscarriage

  7. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, A; Middleton, P; Crowther, C A

    2005-04-18

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage, maternal adverse outcomes and fetal and infant adverse outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (8 September 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2003) and MEDLINE (1966 to May 2003), Current Contents (1998 to May 2003) and EMBASE (1980 to May 2003). All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions, prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We identified seventeen trials assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that were eligible for the review. Overall, the included trials involved 35,812 women and 37,353 pregnancies. Two trials were cluster randomised and contributed data for 20,758 women and 22,299 pregnancies in total. No difference was seen between women taking any vitamins compared with controls for total fetal loss (relative risk (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.15), early or late miscarriage (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.24) or stillbirth (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.14) and most of the other primary outcomes, using fixed-effect models. For the other primary outcomes, women given any type of vitamin(s) compared with controls were less likely to develop pre-eclampsia (RR 0

  8. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  9. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  10. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. CONCLUSION SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures. PMID:28275304

  11. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R 2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures.

  12. Vitamins D3 and K2 may partially counterbalance the detrimental effects of pentosidine in ex vivo human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sanguineti, R; Monacelli, F; Parodi, A; Furfaro, A L; Borghi, R; Pacini, D; Pronzato, M A; Odetti, P; Molfetta, L; Traverso, N

    2016-01-01

    interfere with the maturation of osteoblasts, leading to morphological modifications, cellular malfunctioning, and inhibition of the calcification process. However, these processes may be all partially counterbalanced by vitamins D 3 and K 2 . Therefore, detrimental AGE accumulation in bone might be attenuated and/or reversed by the presence or supplementation of vitamins D 3 and K 2 .

  13. Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natsumi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Uchino, Yuri; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Okamoto, Tadashi; Tsugawa, Naoko; Kamao, Maya; Funahashi, Nobuaki; Okano, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) is a novel vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme screened and identified from the human genome database. UBIAD1 has recently been shown to catalyse the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in zebrafish and human cells. To investigate the function of UBIAD1 in vivo, we attempted to generate mice lacking Ubiad1, a homolog of human UBIAD1, by gene targeting. Ubiad1-deficient (Ubiad1(-/-)) mouse embryos failed to survive beyond embryonic day 7.5, exhibiting small-sized body and gastrulation arrest. Ubiad1(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells failed to synthesize vitamin K2 but were able to synthesize CoQ9, similar to wild-type ES cells. Ubiad1(+/-) mice developed normally, exhibiting normal growth and fertility. Vitamin K2 tissue levels and synthesis activity were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 tissue levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Similarly, UBIAD1 expression and vitamin K2 synthesis activity of mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from Ubiad1(+/-) E15.5 embryos were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Ubiad1(-/-) mouse embryos failed to be rescued, but their embryonic lifespans were extended to term by oral administration of MK-4 or CoQ10 to pregnant Ubiad1(+/-) mice. These results suggest that UBIAD1 is responsible for vitamin K2 synthesis but may not be responsible for CoQ9 synthesis in mice. We propose that UBIAD1 plays a pivotal role in embryonic development by synthesizing vitamin K2, but may have additional functions beyond the biosynthesis of vitamin K2.

  14. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  15. Combination of micellar casein with calcium and vitamins D2 and K2 improves bone status of ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Boulier, A; Schwarz, J; Lespesailles, E; Baniel, A; Tomé, D; Blais, A

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional approaches may help to preserve bone quality. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the efficiency of an innovative bone health product (BHP) including micellar casein rich in calcium, vitamin D2 and vitamin K2, to improve bone mineral density. The aim of postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment is to decrease bone resorption and/or increase bone formation. Because of the slow bone turnover, osteoporosis prevention and therapies are long-lasting, implying great costs and poor compliance. Even if the effects of nutrition on bone are not as marked as that of pharmaceutical agents, it can be of great help. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the efficiency of an innovative bone health product (BHP) containing micellar casein rich in calcium, vitamin D2 and vitamin K2, for the improvement of bone mineral density (BMD). An ovariectomized mice model was used to study the effect of different concentrations of the ingredient on BMD and microarchitectural parameters. Blood concentrations of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagene (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and RANKL were also measured to evaluate bone remodelling, To evaluate the efficiency of the product to modulate osteoblast and osteoclast growth and differentiation, primary murine bone cells were used. In vivo studies showed that BMD and microarchitectural parameters were dose-dependently improved after ingestion of the supplement for 3 months. We also report increased osteoblast activity as shown by increased OC activity and decreased osteoclastogenesis as shown by reduced CTX activity. In vitro studies support that BHPs stimulate osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and inhibit osteoclast resorption activity. Our results show that, when chronically ingested, BHPs improve BMD of ovariectomized mice. This work supports that providing an ingredient including micellar casein rich in calcium, vitamin D2 and

  16. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  17. Effectiveness of vitamin K2 on osteoporosis in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Tomohiro; Hiroyama, Yoshifumi; Fukami, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis can lead to spontaneous fractures in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a useful marker for vitamin K insufficiency in osteoporosis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with CP and vitamin K insufficiency. Sixteen adults, median age of 56years, with CP and osteoporosis in whom the serum ucOC concentration exceeded 4.5ng/mL were included. All patients received 45mg of vitamin K2 per day. BMD was measured and presented as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM). Serum levels of ucOC and BMD were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12months. Serum levels of ucOC decreased from 7.8ng/mL (range, 4.9-32) at baseline to 3.9ng/mL (range, 1.9-6.8) after 6months (P=0.001). BMD increased from 59%YAM (range, 45-67) at baseline to 68%YAM (range, 50-79) after 12months (P=0.003). Vitamin K2 had a positive effect on BMD in osteoporotic adults with CP and high serum concentrations of ucOC, and might be useful as a first line treatment for osteoporotic adults with CP and vitamin K insufficiency. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  19. Efficacy of Vitamin K2 for Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis in Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Kotaro; Kaneko, Kaichi; Kawazoe, Mai; Kaburaki, Makoto; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) is an effective treatment for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We herein performed a subanalysis of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases undergoing glucocorticoid therapy in our previous prospective study. Methods Sixty patients were categorized into a group with vitamin K2 treatment (n=20, Group A) and a group without vitamin K2 treatment (n=40, Group B). All patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Results Serum levels of osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin decreased significantly after the start of glucocorticoid therapy in both groups, while the serum osteocalcin level was significantly higher in Group A than Group B during the third (p=0.0250) and fourth weeks (p=0.0155). The serum level of the N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen, a bone formation marker, decreased during glucocorticoid therapy, but was significantly higher in Group A than Group B during the fourth week (p=0.0400). The bone mineral density and fracture rate showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Although vitamin K2 improves bone turnover markers in patients with osteoporosis on glucocorticoid therapy, it has no significant effect on the bone mineral density and fracture rate after 1.5 years of treatment.

  20. Antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Misuzu; Yokoyama, Fumi; Kita, Yuko; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Uchida, Naohito; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that various K vitamins, specifically vitamins K2 and K3, possess antitumor activity on various types of rodent- and human-derived neoplastic cell lines. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on PLC/PRF/5 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the mechanisms of antitumor actions of these vitamins in vitro and in vivo. Although vitamin K1 did not inhibit proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells at a 90-microM concentration (the highest tested), vitamins K2 and K3 suppressed proliferation of the cells at concentrations of 90 and 9 microM, respectively. By flow cytometric analysis, it was shown that not only vitamin K1, but also vitamin K2 did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest on PLC/PRF/5 cells. In contrast, vitamin K3 induced G1 arrest, but not apoptosis on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Subsequent in vivo study using subcutaneous HCC-bearing athymic nude mice demonstrated that both vitamins K2 and K3 markedly suppressed the growth of HCC tumors to similar extent. Protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), but not p16INK4a Cdk inhibitor in the tumor was significantly reduced by vitamin K2 or K3 treatment, indicating that vitamins K2 and K3 may induce G1 arrest of cell cycle on PLC/PRF/5 cells in vivo. Taken collectively, vitamins K2 and K3 were able to induce potent antitumor effects on HCC in vitro and in vivo, at least in part, by inducing G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The results indicate that vitamins K2 and K3 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with HCC.

  1. Vitamin K2 downregulates the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Liu, Weidong; Nakamura, Hideji; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Teruhisa; Saito, Masaki; Imanishi, Hiroyasu; Shimomura, Soji; Cao, Peiguo; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2009-11-01

    Vitamin K2 exerts an antitumor activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, its inhibitory mechanism has not yet been clarified. This study was designed to identify the attractive target molecule of vitamin K2 and shed some light on its effects on fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 in HCC cells. The changes in the gene expression of HuH-7 after vitamin K2 treatment were evaluated by a DNA chip analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of FGFR were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The promoter activity of the FGFR3 gene was measured by a dual-luciferase assay. The DNA chip analysis revealed different inhibitory rates of gene expression of FGFR3 (60.6%) and FGFR1 (19.4%) after vitamin K2 treatment. Vitamin K2 suppresses the proliferation of HuH-7 in a dose-dependent manner and its inhibitory rate reached approximately 61.8% at the dose of 30 microM. FGFR3 mRNA was significantly reduced based on semiquantitative RT-PCR and decreased 61.5% by a real-time PCR method after vitamin K2 treatment, but FGFR1 mRNA was not. The level of FGFR3 protein was also reduced by vitamin K2 treatment. The luciferase assay demonstrated that vitamin K2 significantly suppressed the promoter activity of FGFR3. Furthermore, the FGFR3-ERK1/2 signaling pathway was suppressed by vitamin K2 treatment. These findings suggest that vitamin K2 may suppress the proliferation of HCC cells through the downregulation of the FGFR3 expression. The transcriptional suppression of FGFR3 may be a novel mechanism of the vitamin K2 action for HCC cells.

  2. Effects of Vitamin K2 on the Development of Osteopenia in Rats as the Models of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin K2 is widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. To understand the effects of vitamin K2 on bone mass and bone metabolism, we reviewed its effects on the development of osteopenia in rats, which characterizes models of osteoporosis. Vitamin K2 was found to attenuate the increase in bone resorption and/or maintain bone formation, reduce bone loss, protect against the loss of trabecular bone mass and its connectivity, and prevent the decrease in strength of the long bone in ovariectomized rats. However, combined treatment of bisphosphonates and vitamin K2 had an additive effect in preventing the deterioration of the trabecular bone architecture in ovariectomized rats, while the combined treatment of raloxifene and vitamin K2 improved the bone strength of the femoral neck. The use of vitamin K2 alone suppressed the increase in trabecular bone turnover and endocortical bone resorption, which attenuated the development of cancellous and cortical osteopenia in orchidectomized rats. In addition, vitamin K2 inhibited the decrease in bone formation in prednisolone-treated rats, thereby preventing cancellous and cortical osteopenia. In sciatic neurectomized rats, vitamin K2 suppressed endocortical bone resorption and stimulated bone formation, delaying the reduction of the trabecular thickness and retarding the development of cortical osteopenia. Vitamin K2 also prevented the acceleration of bone resorption and the reduction in bone formation in tail-suspended rats, which counteracted cancellous bone loss. Concomitant use of vitamin K2 with a bisphosphonate ameliorated the suppression of bone formation and more effectively prevented cancellous bone loss in tail-suspended rats. Vitamin K2 stimulated renal calcium reabsorption, retarded the increase in serum parathyroid hormone levels, and attenuated cortical bone loss primarily by suppressing bone resorption in calcium-deficient rats while maintaining the strength of the long bone in rats with magnesium

  3. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  4. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2012-08-15

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with CF: 1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders; 2. improves general and respiratory health; 3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 23 May 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of vitamin A in

  5. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  6. Cytotoxic activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 against human oral tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, H; Ishihara, M; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K1, K2 and K3 were compared for their cytotoxic activity, radical generation and O2- scavenging activity. Among these compounds, vitamin K3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSG), human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF). Vitamin K3 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells, but not in HSC-2 or HSG cells. The cytotoxic activity of vitamins K2 and K1 was one and two orders lower, respectively, than K3. Vitamin K2, but not vitamin K3, showed tumor-specific cytotoxic action. ESR spectroscopy showed that only vitamin K3 produced radical(s) under alkaline condition and most potently enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate and scavenged O2- (generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction system); vitamin K2 was much less active whereas vitamin K1 was inactive. These data suggest that the cytotoxic activity of vitamin K3 is generated by radical-mediated oxidation mechanism and that this vitamin has two opposing actions (that is, antioxidant and prooxidant), depending on the experimental conditions.

  7. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  8. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  9. Vitamin D supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Janet H; Chang, Anne B

    2012-04-18

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder with multiorgan effects. In a subgroup with pancreatic insufficiency malabsorption of the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation and may have extraskeletal effects. This review examines the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in CF. To assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory outcomes and vitamin D toxicity in the CF population. We searched the Cochrane CF and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 15 February 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo in the CF population regardless of exocrine pancreatic function. Both authors independently assessed the 'risk of bias' of each included trial and extracted outcome data (from published trial information) for assessment of bone mineralization, growth and nutritional status, frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory status, quality of life and adverse events. Three studies are included, although only data from two were available (41 adults and children with CF). One of these studies compared supplemental 800 international units (IU) vitamin D and placebo for 12 months in 30 osteopenic pancreatic insufficient adults; both groups continued 900 IU vitamin D daily. The other (abstract only) compared supplemental 1g calcium alone, 1600 IU vitamin D alone, 1600 IU vitamin D and 1g calcium and placebo in a double-blind randomised cross-over trial; only 11 children (vitamin D and placebo groups) after six-months supplementation are included; inclusion criteria, pancreatic sufficiency or disease status of participants are not defined. There were no significant differences in primary or secondary

  10. Vitamin K2 alleviates type 2 diabetes in rats by induction of osteocalcin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Atef G; Mohamed, Randa H; Shalaby, Sally M; Abd El Motteleb, Dalia M

    2018-03-01

    The biological mechanisms behind the association between vitamin K (Vit K) and glucose metabolism are uncertain. We aimed to analyze the expression of insulin 1 (Ins 1), insulin 2 (Ins 2) and cyclin D2, the expression of adiponectin and UCP-1 . In addition, we aimed to estimate the doses of Vit K2 able to affect various aspects of glucose and energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Thirty adult male rats were allocated equally into five groups: control group, diabetes mellitus group, and groups 3, 4, and 5, which received Vit K 2 at three daily dose levels (10, 15, and 30 mg/kg, respectively) for 8 wk. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify total osteocalcin, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and relevant variables. The expression of OC, Ins 1, Ins 2, cyclin D2, adiponectin, UCP-1 genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. After administration of Vit K 2 , a dose-dependent decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c and homeostatic model assessment method insulin resistance, and a dose-dependent increase in fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment method β cell function levels, when compared with diabetes mellitus rats, were detected. There was significant upregulation of OC, Ins 1, Ins 2, or cyclin D2 gene expression in the three treated groups in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the diabetic rats. However, expression of adiponectin and UCP-1 were significantly increased at the highest dose (30 mg/kg daily) only. Vit K 2 administration could improve glycemic status in type 2 diabetic rats by induction of OC gene expression. Osteocalcin could increase β-cell proliferation, energy expenditure, and adiponectin expression. Different concentrations of Vit K 2 were required to affect glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin K2 improves proliferation and migration of bovine skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Sissel Beate; Pedersen, Mona Elisabeth; Berg, Ragnhild Stenberg; Kirkhus, Bente; Rødbotten, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate, however, during ageing or disease, the proliferative capacity is reduced, leading to loss of muscle function. We have previously demonstrated the presence of vitamin K2 in bovine skeletal muscles, but whether vitamin K has a role in muscle regulation and function is unknown. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to assess a potential effect of vitamin K2 (MK-4) during myogenesis of muscle cells. Cell viability experiments demonstrate that the amount of ATP produced by the cells was unchanged when MK-4 was added, indicating viable cells. Cytotoxicity analysis show that MK-4 reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the media, suggesting that MK-4 was beneficial to the muscle cells. Cell migration, proliferation and differentiation was characterised after MK-4 incubation using wound scratch analysis, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Adding MK-4 to the cells led to an increased muscle proliferation, increased gene expression of the myogenic transcription factor myod as well as increased cell migration. In addition, we observed a reduction in the fusion index and relative gene expression of muscle differentiation markers, with fewer complex myotubes formed in MK-4 stimulated cells compared to control cells, indicating that the MK-4 plays a significant role during the early phases of muscle proliferation. Likewise, we see the same pattern for the relative gene expression of collagen 1A, showing increased gene expression in proliferating cells, and reduced expression in differentiating cells. Our results also suggest that MK-4 incubation affect low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) with a peak in gene expression after 45 min of MK-4 incubation. Altogether, our experiments show that MK-4 has a positive effect on muscle cell migration and

  12. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  13. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  14. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  16. A hypothetical role for vitamin K2 in the endocrine and exocrine aspects of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Southward, Ken

    2015-03-01

    The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The healthy tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the dentinal fluid flow, it renders the tooth vulnerable to oral bacteria, which can now attach to the tooth's surface. Acid produced by oral bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the enamel and irritate the dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in dentin breakdown from the body's own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant potential in the brain and may prove to be a potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body's inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase oral bacterial acid production but it can concurrently reduce the tooth's defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on

  17. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-18

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels to the normal range after one month of

  18. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  19. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. Objectives To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group’s Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Main results Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a crossover design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration

  20. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    PubMed

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  1. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2011-01-19

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 15 April 2010. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial; and the other had a cross-over design, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels to the normal range after one month of daily supplementation with 1 mg of vitamin K. Evidence from randomised controlled trials on the benefits of routine

  2. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2013-04-30

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 11 October 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial; and the other had a cross-over design, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels to the normal range after one month of daily supplementation with 1 mg of vitamin K. Evidence from randomised controlled trials on the benefits of routine

  3. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    consequences of this severe and rapid depletion are unknown because adipose tissue alpha- tocopherol normally takes years to deplete. Our long- term...proposal were to a) attenuate alpha- tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to prevent or reverse oxidative stress, c...hypothesis is that the administration of high doses of alpha- tocopherol will prevent or restore levels of vitamin E in adipose tissue and reverse

  4. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    The consequences of this severe and rapid depletion are unknown because adipose tissue alpha- tocopherol normally takes years to deplete. Our long...our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha- tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to prevent or reverse oxidative...central hypothesis is that the administration of high doses of alpha- tocopherol will prevent or restore levels of vitamin E in adipose tissue and

  5. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, P<0.0001). In conclusion, we established a warfarin-induced calcification model and showed vitamin K2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin K2 suppresses rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-xia; Li, Yi-pei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Qing-song; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Guang-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence has shown that environmental factors such as rotenone and paraquat induce neuroinflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression by menaquinone-4 (MK-4), a subtype of vitamin K2, of rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: A microglial cell line (BV2) was exposed to rotenone (1 μmol/L) with or without MK-4 treatment. The levels of TNF-α or IL-1β in 100 μL of cultured media of BV2 cells were measured using ELISA kits. BV2 cells treated with rotenone with or without MK4 were subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays. The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of BV2 cells that were exposed to rotenone with or without MK-4 treatment, and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. Results: In rotenone-treated BV2 cells, MK-4 (0.5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the upregulation in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the cells, as well as the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cultured media. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced p38 activation, ROS production, and caspase-1 activation in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential that had been damaged by rotenone. Exposure to CM from rotenone-treated BV2 cells markedly decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. However, this rotenone-activated microglia-mediated death of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly attenuated when the BV2 cells were co-treated with MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin K2 can directly suppress rotenone-induced activation of microglial BV2 cells in vitro by repressing ROS production and p38 activation. PMID:27498777

  7. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  8. Vitamin D supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Janet H; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder with multiorgan effects. In a subgroup with pancreatic insufficiency malabsorption of the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralisation and may have extraskeletal effects. This review examines the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in cystic fibrosis. To assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory outcomes and vitamin D toxicity in the cystic fibrosis population. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 08 July 2013. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies of vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo in the cystic fibrosis population regardless of exocrine pancreatic function. Both authors independently assessed the risk of bias of each included study and extracted outcome data (from published study information) for assessment of bone mineralization, growth and nutritional status, frequency of vitamin D deficiency, respiratory status, quality of life and adverse events. Six studies (239 participants) are included, although only three studies provided data from 69 adults and children with cystic fibrosis for analysis. One study compared a single high dose of vitamin D (250,000 IU) to placebo at the time of hospital admission with a respiratory exacerbation in 30 pancreatic insufficient adults with cystic fibrosis. The second study compared supplemental 800 international units (IU) vitamin D and placebo for 12 months in 30 osteopenic pancreatic insufficient adults; both groups continued 900 IU vitamin D daily. The third study compared supplemental 1 g calcium alone, 1600 IU vitamin D alone, 1600 IU vitamin D and 1 g calcium and placebo in a double

  9. [Synthesis of vitamin K2 by isopentenyl transferase NovA in Pichia pastoris Gpn12].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xihua; Li, Zhemin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Wang, Li; Fang, Xue; Sun, Xiaowen; Ni, Wenfeng; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Zhiming; Zhao, Genhai

    2018-01-25

    The effect of methanol addition on the heterologous expression of isoprenyl transferase NovQ was studied in Pichia pastoris Gpn12, with menadione and isopentenol as precursors to catalyze vitamin K2 (MK-3) synthesis. The expression of NovQ increased by 36% when 2% methanol was added every 24 h. The influence of initial pH, temperature, methanol addition, precursors (menadione, isopentenol) addition, catalytic time and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) addition were explored in the P. pastoris whole-cell catalytic synthesis process of MK-3 in shaking flask. Three significant factors were then studied by response surface method. The optimal catalytic conditions obtained were as follows: catalytic temperature 31.56 ℃, menadione 295.54 mg/L, catalytic time 15.87 h. Consistent with the response surface prediction results, the optimized yield of MK-3 reached 98.47 mg/L in shaking flask, 35% higher than that of the control group. On this basis, the production in a 30-L fermenter reached 189.67 mg/L when the cell catalyst of 220 g/L (dry weight) was used to catalyze the synthesis for 24 h. This method laid the foundation for the large-scale production of MK-3 by P. pastoris Gpn12.

  10. Vitamin K2 improves developmental competency and cryo-tolerance of in vitro derived ovine blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Sefid, Fatemeh; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S M; Ghazvini Zadegan, F; Pezhman, M; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (VK2), acts as an electron carrier in mitochondria and thereby effects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. This study evaluates role of VK2 on in vitro developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine embryos. Initially the optimal and beneficial concentration of VK2 on compaction and blastocyst formation rates was defined (0.1 μM). Subsequently, it was shown that 0.1 μM VK2, at blastocyst stage, reduces H2O2 production, increase the expression of mitochondrial related gene and improved embryos quality. We further assessed presence VK2 supplementation before and/or after vitrification of in vitro derived blastocysts. Our results reveal that presence of VK2 before and after vitrification improves rates of blastocysts re-expansion (88.19± 3.37% vs 73.68± 1.86%, P < 0.05) and hatching (49.55± 4.37% vs 32.7± 3.32%) compared to control group. These observation were consistent with reduction in H2O2 production and improved in expression of mitochondrial related genes. However, VK2 before or after vitrification, not only had no positive effect on these two parameters, but also significantly reduced these parameters. Therefore, in concordance with pervious report in bovine, we show that VK2 supplementation post genomic activation (Day 3-7) improved developmental competency of ovine in vitro derived embryos. We also showed that presence of VK2 after vitrification improves the cryo-survival of ovine embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin K2 Induces Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells via ROS and JNK/p38 MAPK Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fengsen; Yu, Yuejin; Guan, Rijian; Xu, Zhiliang; Liang, Huageng; Hong, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells have been well established in previous studies. However, the apoptotic effect of vitamin K2 on bladder cancer cells has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic activity of Vitamin K2 in bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. In this study, Vitamin K2 induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through mitochondria pathway including loss of mitochondria membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 cascade. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK was detected in Vitamin K2-treated cells and both SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) completely abolished the Vitamin K2-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in bladder cancer cells, upon treatment of vitamin K2 and the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) almost blocked the Vitamin K2-triggered apoptosis, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings revealed that Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via ROS-mediated JNK/p38 MAPK and Mitochondrial pathways. PMID:27570977

  12. Vitamin K2 Induces Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells via ROS and JNK/p38 MAPK Signal Pathways.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fengsen; Yu, Yuejin; Guan, Rijian; Xu, Zhiliang; Liang, Huageng; Hong, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells have been well established in previous studies. However, the apoptotic effect of vitamin K2 on bladder cancer cells has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic activity of Vitamin K2 in bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. In this study, Vitamin K2 induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through mitochondria pathway including loss of mitochondria membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 cascade. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK was detected in Vitamin K2-treated cells and both SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) completely abolished the Vitamin K2-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in bladder cancer cells, upon treatment of vitamin K2 and the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) almost blocked the Vitamin K2-triggered apoptosis, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings revealed that Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via ROS-mediated JNK/p38 MAPK and Mitochondrial pathways.

  13. Effect of vitamin K2 on progression of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowska, Ilona; Grzelak, Piotr; Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Vermeer, Cees; Maresz, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification. We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23. The increase of CCA-IMT was significantly lower in the K+D group compared with the D group: from 0.95 ±0.2 mm to 1.01 ±0.3, P = 0.003 vs from 1.02 ±0.2 mm to 1.16 ±0.3, P = 0.003 (ΔCCA-IMT, 0.06 ±0.08 vs 0.136 ±0.05 mm, P = 0.005, respectively). The increase in CACS was slightly lower in the K+D group than in the D group (ΔCACS, 58.1 ±106.5 AU vs 74.4 ±127.1 AU, P = 0.7). In the K+D group, a significant decrease in the level of dp-ucMGP and total OC was observed. A 270-day course of vitamin K2 administration in patients with CKD stages 3-5 may reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, but does not significantly affect the progression of calcification. Vitamin K2 significantly changes the levels of calcification promoters and inhibitors: dp-ucMGP, OC, and OPG.

  14. Synergistic growth inhibition by acyclic retinoid and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Toh; Shimizu, Masahito; Okuno, Masataka; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Kojima, Soichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2007-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. However, effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for this cancer have not yet been developed. In clinical trials acyclic retinoid (ACR) and vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) decreased the recurrence rate of HCC. In the present study we examined the possible combined effects of ACR or another retinoid 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) plus VK(2) in the HuH7 human HCC cell line. We found that the combination of 1.0 microM ACR or 1.0 microM 9cRA plus 10 microM VK(2) synergistically inhibited the growth of HuH7 cells without affecting the growth of Hc normal human hepatocytes. The combined treatment with ACR plus VK(2) also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis in HuH7 cells. Treatment with VK(2) alone inhibited phosphorylation of the retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha protein, which is regarded as a critical factor for liver carcinogenesis, through inhibition of Ras activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Moreover, the inhibition of RXRalpha phosphorylation by VK(2) was enhanced when the cells were cotreated with ACR. The combination of retinoids plus VK(2) markedly increased both the retinoic acid receptor responsive element and retinoid X receptor responsive element promoter activities in HuH7 cells. Our results suggest that retinoids (especially ACR) and VK(2) cooperatively inhibit activation of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the phosphorylation of RXRalpha and the growth of HCC cells. This combination might therefore be effective for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of HCC.

  15. Functional Characterization of the Vitamin K2 Biosynthetic Enzyme UBIAD1

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natsumi; Okuda, Naoko; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Uchino, Yuri; Kimoto, Takashi; Funahashi, Nobuaki; Kamao, Maya; Tsugawa, Naoko; Okano, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein 1 (UBIAD1) plays a significant role in vitamin K2 (MK-4) synthesis. We investigated the enzymological properties of UBIAD1 using microsomal fractions from Sf9 cells expressing UBIAD1 by analysing MK-4 biosynthetic activity. With regard to UBIAD1 enzyme reaction conditions, highest MK-4 synthetic activity was demonstrated under basic conditions at a pH between 8.5 and 9.0, with a DTT ≥0.1 mM. In addition, we found that geranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate were also recognized as a side-chain source and served as a substrate for prenylation. Furthermore, lipophilic statins were found to directly inhibit the enzymatic activity of UBIAD1. We analysed the aminoacid sequences homologies across the menA and UbiA families to identify conserved structural features of UBIAD1 proteins and focused on four highly conserved domains. We prepared protein mutants deficient in the four conserved domains to evaluate enzyme activity. Because no enzyme activity was detected in the mutants deficient in the UBIAD1 conserved domains, these four domains were considered to play an essential role in enzymatic activity. We also measured enzyme activities using point mutants of the highly conserved aminoacids in these domains to elucidate their respective functions. We found that the conserved domain I is a substrate recognition site that undergoes a structural change after substrate binding. The conserved domain II is a redox domain site containing a CxxC motif. The conserved domain III is a hinge region important as a catalytic site for the UBIAD1 enzyme. The conserved domain IV is a binding site for Mg2+/isoprenyl side-chain. In this study, we provide a molecular mapping of the enzymological properties of UBIAD1. PMID:25874989

  16. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marya, R K; Rathee, S; Lata, V; Mudgil, S

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium, inorganic phosphate and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP) have been estimated in maternal and cord sera of 120 pregnant women at labour. 75 women who did not take any vitamin D supplements during pregnancy showed statistically significant hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and elevation of HLAP. Hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia were present in cord blood, too. 25 women who had received 1,200 U vitamin D/day throughout the 3rd trimester, showed significantly lower HLAP levels and increased fetal birth weight but there was no other improvement in maternal or cord blood chemistry. Administration of vitamin D in two large doses of 600,000 U each in the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy in 20 women proved more efficacious. Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the three biochemical parameters in maternal as well as cord sera. Fetal birth weight was also significantly greater with this mode of therapy.

  17. Lactobacillus casei Zhang and vitamin K2 prevent intestinal tumorigenesis in mice via adiponectin-elevated different signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Ma, Chen; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Haiyan; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhang, Heping

    2017-04-11

    The incidence of colon cancer has increased considerably and the intestinal microbiota participate in the development of colon cancer. We showed that the L. casei Zhang or vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) intervention significantly alleviated intestinal tumor burden in mice. This was associated with increased serum adiponectin levels in both treatments. But osteocalcin level was only increased by L. casei Zhang. Furthermore, the anti-carcinogenic actions of L. casei Zhang were mediated by hepatic Chloride channel-3(CLCN3)/Nuclear Factor Kappa B(NF-κB) and intestinal Claudin15/Chloride intracellular channel 4(CLIC4)/Transforming Growth Factor Beta(TGF-β) signaling, while the vitamin K2 effect involved a hepatic Vitamin D Receptor(VDR)-phosphorylated AMPK signaling pathway. Fecal DNA sequencing by the Pacbio RSII method revealed there was significantly lower Helicobacter apodemus, Helicobacter mesocricetorum, Allobaculum stercoricanis and Adlercreutzia equolifaciens following both interventions compared to the model group. Moreover, different caecum acetic acid and butyric acid levels and enrichment of other specific microbes also determined the activity of the different regulatory pathways. Together these data show that L. casei Zhang and Vitamin K2 can suppress gut risk microbes and promote beneficial microbial metabolites to reduce colonic tumor development in mice.

  18. Comparison of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 effects on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oztopçu, Pinar; Kabadere, Selda; Mercangoz, Ayşe; Uyar, Ruhi

    2004-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is characterized as highly invasive and rapidly growing astrocytomas, and scientists have sought for efficient treatment against malignant gliomas for a long time. Therefore, we compared the respond of rat glioma (C6) and glioblastoma multiforme cells derived from two patients to vitamins K1, K2 and K3. The cells were exposed to 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microM of vitamins K1 and K2, and 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 microM of vitamin K3 for 24 hours in an incubator atmosphere of 5% CO2, 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Vitamin K1 showed no growth effect on all the glioma cells examined. Vitamin K2 did not cause any change in number of C6, however induced growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner on glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values of vitamin K2 were 960 microM and 970 microM for glioblastoma multiforme, respectively. Vitamin K3 had also growth inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner on both C6 and glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values were 41 microM, 24 microM and 23 microM for vitamin K3, respectively. We concluded that vitamin K3 is more effective than vitamin K2 for inhibition of cancer cell growth, and might have an alternative value as an anticancer drug against glioblastoma multiforme.

  19. Barriers to vitamin D supplementation among military physicians.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Eric M; Svec, Rita V

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed military pediatricians and family physicians about barriers to vitamin D supplementation. We obtained lists of uniformed members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Practice (AAFP). Three hundred individuals were randomly selected from each group and surveyed about: (1) practice habits; (2) vitamin D use and barriers to supplementation; (3) demographic factors. Pediatricians were 40% more likely to be aware of AAP recommendations about vitamin D (p < 0.001) and 40% more likely to prescribe vitamin D to exclusively breastfed infants (p < 0.001). The most common reason for not recommending vitamin D was the belief that breastfed infants received adequate sunlight. Most military pediatricians supplement breastfed infants with vitamin D. Military family physicians are less likely to supplement breastfed infants and are targets for educational interventions. Many physicians mistakenly believe that adequate sunlight exposure prevents vitamin D deficiency, another focus for future interventions.

  20. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert antitumor effects on established colorectal cancer in mice by inducing apoptotic death of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mutsumi; Nakai, Seiji; Deguchi, Akihiro; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Uchida, Naohito; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2007-08-01

    Although a number of studies have shown that vitamin K possesses antitumor activities on various neoplastic cell lines, there are few reports demonstrating in vivo antitumor effects of vitamin K, and the antitumor effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be examined. Therefore, antitumor effects of vitamin K on CRC were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 suppressed the proliferation of colon 26 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while vitamin K1 did not. On flow cytometry, induction of apoptosis by vitamins K2, K3 and K5 was suggested by population in sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Hoechst 33342 staining and a two-color flow cytometric assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide confirmed that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 induced apoptotic death of colon 26 cells. Enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in colon 26 cells was significantly up-regulated by vitamins K2, K3 and K5. The pan-caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, substantially prevented vitamin K-mediated apoptosis. In vivo study using syngeneic mice with subcutaneously established colon 26 tumors demonstrated that intravenous administration of vitamins K2, K3 and K5 significantly suppressed the tumor growth. The number of apoptotic tumor cells was significantly larger in the vitamin K-treated groups than in the control group. These results suggest that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exerted effective antitumor effects on CRC in vitro and in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic death of tumor cells, suggesting that these K vitamins may be promising agents for the treatment of patients with CRC.

  1. High Dephosphorylated-Uncarboxylated MGP in Hemodialysis patients: risk factors and response to vitamin K2, A pre-post intervention clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Mabel; Makki, Maha; Azar, Hiba; Matta, Hiam; Chelala, Dania Nehme

    2017-06-07

    Vascular calcifications are highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. Dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) was found to increase in vitamin K-deficient patients and may be associated with vascular calcifications. Supplementation of hemodialysis patients with vitamin K 2 (menaquinone-7) has been studied in Europe with a maximum 61% drop of dp-ucMGP levels. The aim of this study is to assess first the drop of dp-ucMGP in an Eastern Mediterranean cohort after vitamin K 2 treatment and second the correlation between baseline dp-ucMGP and vascular calcification score. This is a prospective, pre-post intervention clinical trial involving 50 hemodialysis patients who received daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7 for 4 weeks. At baseline they were assessed for plasma dp-ucMGP levels and vascular calcification scores (AC-24) as well as for other demographic, clinical and biological variables. Dp-ucMGP levels were measured a second time at 4 weeks. At baseline, dp-ucMGP levels were extremely elevated with a median of 3179.15 (1825.25; 4339.50) pM and correlated significantly with AC-24 (Spearman's rho = 0.43, P = 0.002). Using a bivariate regression analysis, the association between dp-ucMGP levels and AC-24 was most significant when comparing dp-ucMGP levels less than 1000 to those more than 1000 pM (P = 0.02). Dp-ucMGP levels higher than 5000 pM were significantly associated with females, patients with recent fracture and patients with lower serum albumin (respectively P = 0.02, 0.004 and 0.046). The average drop of dp-ucMGP at 4 weeks of treatment was found to be 86% with diabetics having the lowest drop rate (P = 0.01). Vitamin K deficiency, as assessed by high dp-ucMGP levels, is profound in hemodialysis patients from the Eastern Mediterranean region and it is significantly correlated with vascular calcifications. Daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7, given for 4 weeks, effectively reduces dp-ucMGP in this population. Future studies are needed to assess

  2. Potential health economic benefits of vitamin supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Bendich, A; Mallick, R; Leader, S

    1997-01-01

    This study used published relative risk estimates for birth defects, premature birth, and coronary heart disease associated with vitamin intake to project potential annual cost reductions in U.S. hospitalization charges. Epidemiological and intervention studies with relative risk estimates were identified via MEDLINE. Preventable fraction estimates were derived from data on the percentage of at-risk Americans with daily vitamin intake levels lower than those associated with disease risk reduction. Hospitalization rates were obtained from the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Charge data from the 1993 California Hospital Discharge Survey were adjusted to 1995 national charges using the medical component of the Consumer Price Index. Based on published risk reductions, annual hospital charges for birth defects, low-birth-weight premature births, and coronary heart disease could be reduced by about 40, 60, and 38%, respectively. For the conditions studied, nearly $20 billion in hospital charges were potentially avoidable with daily use of folic acid and zinc-containing multivitamins by all women of childbearing age and daily vitamin E supplementation by those over 50. PMID:9217432

  3. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.

  4. Role of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Murli L

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been commonly observed in patients with tuberculosis. Low serum retinol levels return to normal after antituberculosis treatment even when no supplements are provided. The deficiency of vitamin A observed in patients with tuberculosis might have contributed to the development of tuberculous disease in them. Alternatively, deficiency could be the result of loss of appetite, poor intestinal absorption, increased urinary loss of vitamin A or acute phase reaction in TB. Vitamin A deficiency lowers immunity while vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality, particularly from measles and diarrhoea. Vitamin A supplementation also decreases the mortality rate in HIV-infected children and delays the progression of HIV disease in infected subjects. A higher incidence of lung cancer and increased mortality have been observed in smokers after beta-carotene supplementation. Zinc deficiency is also common in tuberculosis, which may impose a secondary vitamin A deficiency. Clinical trials have shown conflicting results regarding the effect of supplementation of vitamin A, alone or with other micronutrients, on time taken to sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients (including zinc) rather than vitamin A alone may be more beneficial in patients with tuberculosis, but clinical trials on such a combination are lacking.

  5. Predictors of vitamin D status in subjects that consume a vitamin D supplement.

    PubMed

    Levy, M A; McKinnon, T; Barker, T; Dern, A; Helland, T; Robertson, J; Cuomo, J; Wood, T; Dixon, B M

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use has increased significantly among the general population, the interplay between vitamin D supplementation and other factors that influence vitamin D status remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify predictor variables of vitamin D status in free-living subjects to determine the extent to which vitamin D supplements and other factors influence vitamin D status. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study involving 743 volunteers. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level and the variables diet, supplement usage, latitude of residence, ethnicity, age and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict vitamin D status in a summer and winter cohort. Supplemental vitamin D3 consumption was the most significant positive predictor, whereas BMI was the most significant negative predictor, of vitamin D status in each cohort. Other positive predictors were fortified beverage and dairy consumption in the summer and winter cohort, respectively. Negative predictors were: African American, Asian and Hispanic race in the summer; latitude of residence >36°N, Asian and Hispanic ethnicity in the winter. Mean(± s.d.) 25(OH)D levels were 101.1 (± 42.1) and 92.6 (± 39.0) nmol/l in summer and winter, respectively. Comparing non-supplement vs supplement users, approximately 38 vs 2.5% in the winter and 18 vs 1.4% in the summer had vitamin D levels <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D supplementation was the most significant positive predictor of vitamin D status. Collectively, these data point to the practicality of utilizing vitamin D supplements to reduce hypovitaminosis D in adults throughout the United States.

  6. Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z-B; Wan, S-L; Lu, Y-J; Ning, L; Liu, C; Fan, S-W

    2015-03-01

    To identify the role of vitamin K2 for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, we conducted this meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials. Our results showed that vitamin K2 might play a role in maintaining the bone mineral density and in reducing the incidence of fractures for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Vitamin K2 has been revealed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, which was not confirmed in western countries. Thus, we conduct this meta-analysis to verify the hypothesis that vitamin K2 plays a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women. We searched the Cochrane Library, Pub Med, EMBASE, and ISI web of knowledge (until December 1, 2013) and reference lists of eligible articles. A meta-analysis of all-including randomized controlled trials was then performed. Nineteen randomized controlled trials encompassing 6759 participants have met the inclusion criteria. Subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis revealed a significant improvement of vertebral BMD for both medium-term and long-term results favoring vitamin K2 group (p < 0.00001 and p = 0.0005). However, no significant difference in BMD changes was revealed for the non-osteoporosis subgroup analysis. As for the incidence of fractures, pooled analysis of the seven related studies demonstrated no significant difference in the incidence of fractures favoring vitamin K2 (RR = 0.63, p = 0.08). However, sensitivity analysis by rejecting the study inducing heterogeneity demonstrated a significant difference in the incidence of fractures favoring vitamin K2 (RR = 0.50, p = 0.0005). Significant differences were found in undercarboxylated osteocalcin reduction and osteocalcin increment. The result of adverse reaction analysis showed that vitamin K2 group seemed to have a higher adverse reaction rate (RR = 1.22, p = 0.06). This meta-analysis seemed to support the hypothesis that

  7. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Kumar, L; Walia, B N S

    2002-06-01

    In a double blind design, 1520 children aged < 10 years were individually randomised in vitamin A and placebo group in slums of Chandigarh. Children > 12, 6-12 and < 6 months of age received 200,000, 100,000, 500,000 I.U. of vitamin A respectively every 4 to 6 months during 15 months trial period. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was significantly reduced in vitamin A compared to placebo group during the follow-up period. In vitamin A group, incidence of diarrhoea and measles was significantly reduced but incidence of acute respiratory infections was not significantly different compared to control group. Risk of death was also significantly less in vitamin A group. Therefore, promotion of vitamin A rich diet or supplementation with synthetic vitamin A at 4-6 month interval should be a priority in populations where risk of vitamin A deficiency is high.

  8. Daily vitamin supplementation and hypovitaminosis after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Donadelli, Simara Paganini; Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; de Mattos Donadelli, Carlos Augusto; Salgado, Wilson; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether constant daily vitamin supplementation would be sufficient to prevent possible vitamin deficiencies in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The study was conducted on 58 men and women (mean age 41 ± 10 y) who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGB and were assessed preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 mo after surgery. During the postoperative period, the patients received a multivitamin-mineral supplement on a daily basis. Serum β-carotene and vitamin C were lower starting from the third postoperative month and continued to be low after 12 mo, and vitamin A was decreased by the sixth month and increased by 12 mo. Vitamin B12 levels were stable up to 6 mo but were decreased by 12 mo. Folic acid levels increased from the third month and remained higher throughout follow-up. One year after surgery there were 19% and 21% increases in the number of patients with vitamin A and vitamin C deficiency, respectively, and a 4% decreased of patients with folic acid deficiency. Weight loss and improvement in patients' general condition followed surgery, but serum levels of some vitamins were decreased despite the use of a vitamin-mineral supplement. These patients need continuous follow-up and individualized prescription of supplementation after the surgical procedure to prevent and treat vitamin deficiencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Dual action of vitamin C versus degradation and supplementation].

    PubMed

    Kaliś, Katarzyna

    2015-11-17

    The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics. The latest research with respect to vitamin C proved that it has the ability to dissolve neurotoxic senile plaques. Equally effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is the oxidised form of vitamin C, i.e. dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C may be used in a combined vitamin E supplementation to avoid the pro-oxidative effect and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications. In the review there is a description of the types of vitamin C degradation depending on a specific factor such as pH, temperature, oxygen, enzyme and the impact of diet on the quantity of the supplied vitamin. The literature data confirmed the positive influence of vitamin C as an addition to food. The last part of the article presents the methods of vitamin C protection used in food processing technology and of determining its content in food products. Additionally, the article describes the problems related to vitamin C oxidation processes during food processing and storage. The presented research results indicate that an adequate diet contains a sufficient amount of vitamin C for healthy people. In the case of chronic patients it is better to use supplementation.

  10. Effect of vitamin K2 on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin during the perioperative period of catheter ablation: Population analysis of retrospective clinical data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Yano, Ikuko; Odaka, Sumiko; Morita, Yosuke; Shizuta, Satoshi; Hayano, Mamoru; Kimura, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Catheter ablation is a non-medication therapy for atrial fibrillation, and during the procedure, warfarin is withdrawn in the preoperative period to prevent the risk of bleeding. In case of emergency, vitamin K2 can be intravenously administered to antagonize the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. The aims of this study were to conduct population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling for retrospective clinical data and to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin in the perioperative period of catheter ablation. A total of 579 international normalized ratio (INR) values of prothrombin time from 100 patients were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling program NONMEM. A 1-compartment model was adapted to the pharmacokinetics of warfarin and vitamin K2, and the indirect response model was used to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration and the pharmacodynamic response of warfarin and vitamin K2. Since no plasma concentration data for warfarin and vitamin K2 were available, 3 literally available pharmacokinetic parameters were used to simultaneously estimate 1 pharmacokinetic parameter and 5 pharmacodynamic parameters. The population parameters obtained not only successfully explained the observed INR values, but also indicated an increase in sensitivity to warfarin in patients with reduced renal function. Simulations using these parameters indicated that vitamin K2 administration of more than 20 mg caused a slight dose-dependent decrease in INR on the day of catheter ablation and a delayed INR elevation after warfarin re-initiation. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was successfully built to explain the retrospective INR data during catheter ablation. Simulation studies suggest that vitamin K2 should be administered with care and that more than 20 mg is unnecessary in the preoperative period of catheter ablation.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation: we must not fail our children!

    PubMed

    Drury, Rosalyn; Rehm, Andreas; Johal, Simran; Nadler, Robert

    2015-05-01

    There is increasing concern that vitamin D deficiency poses a major health problem for children. Deficiency can cause hypocalcemic seizures, growth disturbances, and rickets and may influence diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Reduced vitamin D levels in children presenting to pediatric orthopedic services are common.In the United Kingdom, recommendations on vitamin D supplementation are set by the Department of Health (DoH) and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. These state that all children aged 6 months to 5 years ought to receive 7 to 8.5 μg of vitamin D daily.We carried out a survey of 203 parents attending our pediatric and pediatric orthopedic and fracture clinics to evaluate parental awareness of the DoH recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for children and to assess the extent to which children were receiving vitamin D supplements.About 85.71% of parents were not aware of the recommendations. Only 14.29% stated that they were aware of the benefits of vitamin D for their children and just 17.73% of children were receiving vitamin D supplementation; 17 via formula milk and 18 via multivitamin formulations.Parents are generally not aware about vitamin D supplementation because of a lack of information with the high rates of reported suboptimal vitamin D levels amongst children not being addressed resulting in increased health risks to our children. Major improvements are needed in the implementation of supplementation at all points of contact between parents and health-care professionals.

  12. Vitamin D Supplementation: We Must Not Fail Our Children!

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Rosalyn; Rehm, Andreas; Johal, Simran; Nadler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is increasing concern that vitamin D deficiency poses a major health problem for children. Deficiency can cause hypocalcemic seizures, growth disturbances, and rickets and may influence diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Reduced vitamin D levels in children presenting to pediatric orthopedic services are common. In the United Kingdom, recommendations on vitamin D supplementation are set by the Department of Health (DoH) and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. These state that all children aged 6 months to 5 years ought to receive 7 to 8.5 μgof vitamin D daily. We carried out a survey of 203 parents attending our pediatric and pediatric orthopedic and fracture clinics to evaluate parental awareness of the DoH recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for children and to assess the extent to which children were receiving vitamin D supplements. About 85.71% of parents were not aware of the recommendations. Only 14.29% stated that they were aware of the benefits of vitamin D for their children and just 17.73% of children were receiving vitamin D supplementation; 17 via formula milk and 18 via multivitamin formulations. Parents are generally not aware about vitamin D supplementation because of a lack of information with the high rates of reported suboptimal vitamin D levels amongst children not being addressed resulting in increased health risks to our children. Major improvements are needed in the implementation of supplementation at all points of contact between parents and health-care professionals. PMID:25950689

  13. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Dietary Supplement Terms Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) Información en español Consumer information in Spanish ... Analytical Methods and Reference Materials Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) Computer Access ...

  14. Supplemental vitamin C appears to slow racing greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rebecca J; Scott, Karen C; Hill, Richard C; Lewis, Daniel D; Sundstrom, Deborah; Jones, Galin L; Harper, Jean

    2002-06-01

    During strenuous exercise, markers of oxidation increase and antioxidant capacity decreases. Antioxidants such as vitamin C may combat this oxidation stress. The benefits of vitamin C to greyhounds undertaking intense sprint exercise has not been investigated. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a large dose (1 g or 57 mmol) of ascorbic acid influences performance and oxidative stress in greyhounds. Five adult female, trained racing greyhounds were assigned to receive each of three treatments for 4 wk per treatment: 1) no supplemental ascorbate; 2) 1 g oral ascorbate daily, administered after racing; 3) 1 g oral ascorbate daily, administered 1 h before racing. Dogs raced 500 m twice weekly. At the end of each treatment period, blood was collected before and 5 min, 60 min and 24 h after racing. Plasma ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, thiobarbituric acid-reducing substances (TBARS) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) concentrations were measured and adjusted to compensate for hemoconcentration after racing. TBARS, TEAC and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were unaffected by supplemental vitamin C. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations 60 min after racing were higher in dogs that received vitamin C before racing than in dogs that either received no vitamin C or received vitamin C after racing. The dogs ran, on average, 0.2 s slower when supplemented with 1 g of vitamin C, equivalent to a lead of 3 m at the finish of a 500-m race. Supplementation with vitamin C, therefore, appeared to slow racing greyhounds.

  15. Assessment of Vitamin D in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available in dietary supplements. It is essential for bone growth and may have other roles in human health. To estimate current levels of intake, analytical data for vitamin D in foods and...

  16. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... about taking large amounts of fat-soluble vitamin supplements. These include vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are stored in fat cells, and they can build up in your body and may cause harmful effects.

  17. [Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly: guidelines and practice].

    PubMed

    Chel, V G M; Elders, P J M; Tuijp, M L M; van den Berg, H H; van Drongelen, K I; Siedenburg, R C; Ooms, M E; Lips, P T A

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Health Council of the Netherlands published an advice on vitamin D supplementation for the elderly. Nevertheless, suspicion arose at the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport and the Netherlands Nutrition Centre that vitamin D supplementation in the elderly is still insufficient. We aimed to determine the extent to which general practitioners and elderly care physicians actually followed the advice of the Health Council. Questionnaire study. Brief questionnaires were sent to all elderly care physicians in the Netherlands. Some questions were also posed to general practitioners at a network meeting of the Academic Network of GP Practices of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam. More than two-thirds of the respondents, both elderly care physicians and general practitioners, are familiar with the guidelines of the Health Council of the Netherlands on vitamin D supplementation in the elderly, but about half do not prescribe vitamin D when the guideline advises to do so. When supplementation is prescribed, about half of the elderly care physicians and a fifth of the general practitioners uses an insufficient dose. The guidelines of the Health Council of the Netherlands on vitamin D supplementation in the elderly are not sufficiently followed by elderly care physicians and general practitioners. Awareness of and support for the vitamin D supplementation guidelines among health care providers is still limited.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This letter is written in response to an editorial by Gray and Bolland stating incorrectly that vitamin D does not reduce fracture risk and that safety of vitamin D has not been demonstrated. We and others have demonstrated that vitamin D is effective in lowering risk of fractures when given in adeq...

  19. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  20. Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Okebukola, Peter O; Kansra, Sonal; Barrett, Joanne

    2014-12-09

    People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international trial registers for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search.Date of last search of the Register: 10 February 2014. Date of last search of international trial registers: 30 August 2014. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and the other two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo.At one month, three months and six months, water-soluble vitamin E significantly improved serum vitamin E levels compared with control: at one month, two studies, mean difference 17.66 (95% confidence interval 10.59 to 24.74); at three months, one

  1. Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Okebukola, Peter O; Kansra, Sonal; Barrett, Joanne

    2017-03-06

    People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international trial registers for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search.Date of last search of the Register: 10 October 2016. Date of last search of international trial registers: 15 February 2017. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and the other two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo.At one month, three months and six months, water-soluble vitamin E significantly improved serum vitamin E levels compared with control: at one month, two studies, mean difference 17.66 (95% confidence

  2. Vitamin blood concentration and vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in European facilities.

    PubMed

    Gimmel, Angela Emilia Ricarda; Baumgartner, Katrin; Liesegang, Annette

    2016-09-05

    As fish eaters bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in human care need to receive daily vitamin supplementation, because whole thawed fish lacks certain vitamins. However, the exact concentration of supplementation has not been established and is a matter of discussion. To ensure adequate vitamin supplementation in pets, vitamin blood concentrations are measured. This is not a common practice in dolphins. The objective of the present study was to collect information about vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins and on vitamin blood concentrations of healthy animals in European facilities. In addition, these results were compared with blood levels of wild animals. Conclusions on how to provide bottlenose dolphins in human care with an effective vitamin supplementation will then be drawn. Initially, fish-handling techniques and vitamin supplementation were evaluated by questionnaire, which was sent to 25 European facilities that house bottlenose dolphins. Secondly, blood samples from 57 dolphins living in 10 facilities were taken and sent by mail to a reference laboratory. They were analysed for retinol, thiamine pyrophosphate, cobalamin, calcidiol and tocopherol. The blood concentrations were then correlated with vitamin supplementation, fish handling techniques and pre-existing blood concentrations of free-ranging dolphins. Finally, the data was subjected to a standard analysis of variance techniques (ANOVA) and a linear model analysis. Fish was mainly thawed in a refrigerator. Further, the 95 % confidence interval for retinol blood concentrations was 0.048 to 0.059 mg/l and for tocopherol 17.95 to 20.76 mg/l. These concentrations were 27 and 53 %, respectively, higher than those found in free-ranging animals. In contrast, calcidiol concentrations (143.9-174.7 ng/ml) of the dolphins in human care were lower than in blood found for free-ranging animals. Regarding thiamine pyrophosphate and cobalamin, concentrations ranged between 0.42 and 0.55

  3. Effects of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass, cortical osteocyte and lacunar system, and porosity in sciatic neurectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideo; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yeh, James K

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass, cortical osteocyte and lacunar system, and porosity in sciatic neurectomized rats. Thirty-four female Sprague-Dawley retired breeder rats were randomized into three groups: age-matched control, sciatic neurectomy (NX), and NX + vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg/day p.o., three times a week). At the end of the 8-week experiment, bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on cortical and cancellous bone of the tibial diaphysis and proximal metaphysis, respectively, and osteocyte lacunar system and porosity were evaluated on cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. NX decreased cortical and cancellous bone mass compared with age-matched controls as a result of increased endocortical and trabecular bone erosion and decreased trabecular mineral apposition rate (MAR). Vitamin K2 ameliorated the NX-induced increase in bone erosion, prevented the NX-induced decrease in MAR, and increased bone formation rate (BFR/bone surface) in cancellous bone, resulting in an attenuation of NX-induced cancellous bone loss. However, vitamin K2 did not significantly influence cortical bone mass. NX also decreased osteocyte density and lacunar occupancy and increased porosity in cortical bone compared with age-matched controls. Vitamin K2 ameliorated the NX-induced decrease in lacunar occupancy by viable osteocytes and the NX-induced increase in porosity. The present study showed the efficacy of vitamin K2 for cancellous bone mass and cortical lacunar occupancy by viable osteocytes and porosity in sciatic NX rats.

  4. Vitamin K2-enhanced liver regeneration is associated with oval cell expansion and up-regulation of matrilin-2 expression in 2-AAF/PH rat model.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Sun, P; Zhang, G; Xu, X; Liu, G; Miao, H; Yang, Y; Xu, H; Zhang, L; Wu, P; Li, M

    2014-03-01

    Normal liver has a great potential of regenerative capacity after partial hepatectomy. In clinic, however, most patients receiving partial hepatectomy are usually suffering from chronic liver diseases with severely damaged hepatocyte population. Under these conditions, activation of hepatic progenitor cell (oval cell in rodents) population might be considered as an alternative mean to enhance liver functional recovery. Vitamin K2 has been shown to promote liver functional recovery in patients with liver cirrhosis. In this study, we explored the possibility of vitamin K2 treatment in activating hepatic oval cell for liver regeneration with the classic 2-acetamido-fluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) model in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 2-AAF/PH animals, vitamin K2 treatment induced a dose-dependent increase of liver regeneration as assessed by the weight ratio of remnant liver versus whole body and by measuring serum albumin level. In parallel, a drastic expansion of oval cell population as assessed by anti-OV6 and anti-CK19 immunostaining was noticed in the periportal zone of the remnant liver. Since matrilin-2 was linked to oval cell proliferation and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, we assessed its expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results revealed a significant increase after vitamin K2 treatment in parallel with the expansion of oval cell population. Consistently, knocking down matrilin-2 expression in vivo largely reduced vitamin K2-induced liver regeneration and oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that vitamin K2 treatment enhances liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, which is associated with oval cell expansion and matrilin-2 up-regulation.

  5. The case for vitamin D supplementation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Aravind; Apel, Sabrina; Metz, Luanne; Patten, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Given that vitamin D has a role in immunomodulation, and its levels appear to correlate with the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), it is conceivable that vitamin D may also influence disease activity in MS patients. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review investigating the evidence for: (1) the role of vitamin D in disease activity in MS, and (2) the therapeutic supplementation of vitamin D in MS. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Pubmed, clinical trials registries, and conference proceedings, followed by screening and application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielded 57 studies for detailed appraisal. Following careful data extraction, studies addressing the role of vitamin D in disease activity were appraised on the basis of common epidemiological principles, while those involving vitamin D supplementation were assessed for potential bias using Cochrane guidelines. The overall evidence was interpreted in the context of the Bradford-Hill criteria of causation, and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from relapsing over a year was calculated for each supplementation study examining relapse rate. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have fairly consistently demonstrated a strong positive correlation between vitamin D deficiency and subsequent relapse and/or disability in patients with MS. As well, there appears to be a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and inflammatory markers in MS patients, suggesting that vitamin D modifies serum cytokines to a more anti-inflammatory profile. Therefore, vitamin D fulfills the Bradford-Hill criteria for strong and consistent association, biological plausibility, and coherence. However, the criteria of temporality, dose-response, and experimental evidence are yet to be adequately met, although there is preliminary evidence from longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of supplementation that vitamin D can attenuate the autoimmune response in

  6. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin A is important for the integrity and regeneration of respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia and is involved in regulating human immune function. It has been shown previously that vitamin A has a preventive effect on all-cause and disease specific mortality in children under five. The purpose of this paper was to get a point estimate of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in reducing cause specific mortality by using Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) guidelines. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases using various free and Mesh terms for vitamin A and mortality. Data were abstracted into standardized forms and quality of studies was assessed according to standardized guidelines. Pooled estimates were generated for preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation on all-cause and disease specific mortality of diarrhea, measles, pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. We did a subgroup analysis for vitamin A supplementation in neonates, infants 1-6 months and children aged 6-59 months. In this paper we have focused on estimation of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in children 6-59 months of age. Results for neonatal vitamin A supplementation have been presented, however no recommendations are made as more evidence on it would be available soon. Results There were 21 studies evaluating preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation in community settings which reported all-cause mortality. Twelve of these also reported cause specific mortality for diarrhea and pneumonia and six reported measles specific mortality. Combined results from six studies showed that neonatal vitamin A supplementation reduced all-cause mortality by 12 % [Relative risk (RR) 0.88; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.98]. There was no effect of vitamin A supplementation in reducing all-cause mortality in infants 1-6 months of age [RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.88-1.26]. Pooled results for preventive vitamin A

  7. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  8. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to

  9. Assessment of adequacy of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elżbieta; Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Tyszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Kinga; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin D in pregnancy leads to higher incidences of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis, and also affects the health of the infants. According to Polish recommendations published in 2009, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women should be provided from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy in daily dose of 800-1000 IU. The aim of the presented study is: 1) to estimate how many pregnant women comply with those recommendations and 2) to determine the 25(OH)D levels in pregnant women. The study included 88 pregnant women, aged 20-40 years, between 12-35 week of gestation. Vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] were measured by a direct electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys, Roche). 31 of 88 pregnant women (35.2%) did not use any supplementation. Mean level of 25(OH)D was 28.8 ± 14.8 ng/mL (range from 4.0 - 77.5 ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency, defined as 25(OH)D concentration below 20 ng/mL, was found in 31.8% of the women (28/88). Insufficiency of vitamin D [25(OH)D concentration between 20-30 ng/mL] was present in 26.1% of the women (23/88). Optimal level of 25(OH)D (over 30 ng/mL) was present in 37/88 (42.0% women). Hence, in 46.2% of women taking vitamin D supplementation, the levels of 25(OH)D were still below 30 ng/mL. Supplementation of vitamin D in the investigated group was inadequate. More than 35% of pregnant women did not take any supplements, while half of the subjects who had declared taking vitamin D, failed to achieve optimal serum 25(OH)D concentration.

  10. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults.

    PubMed

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Whitfield, Kate; Krstic, Goran; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2014-06-23

    The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science to February 2014. We scanned bibliographies of relevant publications and asked experts and pharmaceutical companies for additional trials. We included randomised trials that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adults who were healthy or were recruited among the general population, or diagnosed with a specific disease. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D₃ (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D₂ (ergocalciferol)), or an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D (alfacalcidol), or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol)). Two review authors extracted data independently. We conducted random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratios (RRs). We considered risk of bias in order to assess the risk of systematic errors. We conducted trial sequential analyses to assess the risk of random errors. Eighteen randomised trials with 50,623 participants provided data for the analyses. All trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested vitamin D₃, one trial tested vitamin D₂, and three trials tested calcitriol supplementation. Cancer occurrence was observed in 1927/25,275 (7.6%) recipients of vitamin D versus 1943/25,348 (7.7%) recipients of control interventions (RR 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0

  12. Synergistic growth inhibition in HL-60 cells by the combination of acyclic retinoid and vitamin K2.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Junichi; Hara, Takeshi; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Ogawa, Kengo; Adachi, Seiji; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Kasahara, Senji; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acyclic retinoid (ACR) and vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) in HL-60 cells. We used HL-60 cells, and the Trypan Blue dye exclusion method was used for cell proliferation assays. For detection of apoptosis, the Annexin V-binding capacity of treated cells was examined by flow cytometry. To evaluate the cell cycle, we used a FITC BrdU Flow KIT and flow cytometry. Total extracted and equivalent amounts of protein were examined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. ACR and VK(2) dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells. These two agents in combination synergistically inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. VK(2) inhibited activation of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, and ACR plus VK(2) cooperatively inhibited phosphorylation of RXRα and the growth of HL-60 cells. Moreover, ACR and VK(2) induced increases in G0/G1 phase HL-60 cells, alone and synergistically in combination. The synergistic effects of ACR and VK(2) on HL-60 cells may provide a novel strategy for treating leukemia.

  13. Evaluation of the antitumor effects of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Zhou, Songlei; Kang, Le; Ling, Hu; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Song, Yanzhi; Deng, Yihui

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have recently shown that vitamin K 2 (VK 2 ) has antitumor effects in a variety of tumor cells, but there are few reports demonstrating antitumor effects of VK 2 in vivo. The antitumor effects of VK 2 in nanoemulsions are currently not known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the antitumor potential of VK 2 nanoemulsions in S180 tumor cells in the present study. Furthermore, a ligand conjugate sialic acid-cholesterol, with enhanced affinity towards the membrane receptors overexpressed in tumors, was anchored on the surface of the nanoemulsions to increase VK 2 distribution to the tumor tissue. VK 2 was encapsulated in oil-in-water nanoemulsions, and the physical and chemical stability of the nanoemulsions were characterized during storage at 25 °C. At 25 °C, all nanoemulsions remained physically and chemically stable with little change in particle size. An in vivo study using syngeneic mice with subcutaneously established S180 tumors demonstrated that intravenous or intragastric administration of VK 2 nanoemulsions significantly suppressed the tumor growth. The VK 2 nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate showed higher tumor growth suppression than the VK 2 nanoemulsions, while neither of them exhibited signs of drug toxicity. In summary, VK 2 exerted effective antitumor effects in vivo, and VK 2 nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate enhanced the antitumor activity, suggesting that these VK 2 may be promising agents for the prevention or treatment of tumor in patients.

  14. Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and properties of o-succinylbenzoyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, O; Bhattacharyya, D K; Meganathan, R

    1996-01-01

    The coenzyme A (CoA)- and ATP-dependent conversion of o-succinylbenzoic acid [OSB; 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyric acid], to o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA is carried out by the enzyme o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase. o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K2) in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The enzyme has been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme was found to have a native molecular mass of 185 kDa as determined by gel filtration column chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis established a subunit molecular mass of 49 kDa. Thus, the enzyme is a homotetramer. The enzyme showed a pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.0 and a temperature optimum of 30 to 40 degrees C. The Km values for OSB, ATP, and CoA were 16, 73.5, and 360 microM, respectively. Of the various metal ions tested, Mg2+ was found to be the most effective in stimulating the enzyme activity. Studies with substrate analogs showed that neither benzoic acid nor benzoylpropionic acid (succinylbenzene) is a substrate for the enzyme. Thus, it appears that both the benzoyl carboxyl group and the succinyl side chain are required for activation of the aliphatic carboxyl group. PMID:8955296

  15. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults.

    PubMed

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Whitfield, Kate; Wetterslev, Jørn; Simonetti, Rosa G; Bjelakovic, Marija; Gluud, Christian

    2011-07-06

    The available evidence on vitamin D and mortality is inconclusive. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D for prevention of mortality in adults. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Science Citation Index Expanded, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (to January 2011). We scanned bibliographies of relevant publications and asked experts and pharmaceutical companies for additional trials. We included randomised trials that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D(2) (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D (alfacalcidol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol)). Six authors extracted data independently. Random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses were conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratios (RR). To account for trials with zero events, meta-analyses of dichotomous data were repeated using risk differences (RD) and empirical continuity corrections. Risk of bias was considered in order to minimise risk of systematic errors. Trial sequential analyses were conducted to minimise the risk of random errors. Fifty randomised trials with 94,148 participants provided data for the mortality analyses. Most trials included elderly women (older than 70 years). Vitamin D was administered for a median of two years. More than one half of the trials had a low risk of bias. Overall, vitamin D decreased mortality (RR 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.00, I(2) = 0%). When the different forms of vitamin D were assessed separately, only vitamin D(3) decreased mortality significantly (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98, I(2) = 0%; 74,789 participants, 32 trials) whereas vitamin D(2), alfacalcidol, or calcitriol did not. Trial sequential analysis supported our finding regarding vitamin D(3

  16. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on black mineworkers.

    PubMed

    Visagie, M E; Plessis, J P; Laubscher, N F

    1975-05-24

    Subclinical vitamin C deficiency frequently occurs in Black mineworkers, in spite of an apparently adequate daily intake. A study was undertaken to establish the minimum rate of supplementation that would effectively reduce the incidence of subclinical vitamin C deficiency. Two levels of supplementation were tested in relation to a control group. It was found that a supplementation rate of at least 235 mg/head/day is required to maintain reasonably adequate serum levels. It was also found that effective control measures are required to ensure that the supplement is added to the magou, the staple beverage of the miners. It is strongly recommended that the intake of every Black mineworker be supplemented at a rate of 200 - 250 mg/day.

  17. Apparent prevention of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Smithells, R W; Sheppard, S; Schorah, C J; Seller, M J; Nevin, N C; Harris, R; Read, A P; Fielding, D W

    1981-01-01

    An earlier preliminary paper is expanded. Women who had given birth to one or more infants with a neural tube defect were recruited into a trial of per conceptional vitamin supplementation. Two hundred mothers attending five centres were fully supplemented (FS), 50 were partially supplemented (PS), and 300 were unsupplemented (US). Neural tube defect recurrences in the study pregnancies were 1 (0.5%), in FS, none in PS, and 13 (4%) in US mothers. The difference in outcome between FS and US mothers is significant. The most likely explanation is that supplementation has prevented some neural tube defects, but further studies are needed. PMID:7332338

  18. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass and hepatic lipids in rats with combined methionine-choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Seki, Azusa; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, James K

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined changes of cancellous and cortical bone in rats with combined methionine-choline deficiency (MCD). In addition, the effects of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass and hepatic lipids were investigated in rats with MCD. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups of ten, including an age-matched control (standard diet) group, an MCD diet group, and an MCD diet+vitamin K2 (menatetrenone at 30mg/kg/d orally, 5 times a week) group. After the one-month experimental period, histomorphometric analysis was performed on cortical and cancellous bone from the tibial diaphysis and proximal metaphysis, respectively, while histological examination of the liver was performed after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O. MCD rats displayed weight loss, diffuse and centrilobular fatty changes of the liver, and a decrease of the cancellous bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV) and percent cortical area (Ct Ar) as a result of decreased trabecular, periosteal, and endocortical bone formation along with increased trabecular and endocortical bone resorption. Administration of vitamin K2 to rats with MCD attenuated weight loss, accelerated the decrease of cancellous BV/TV due to an increase of bone remodeling, and ameliorated the decrease of percent Ct Ar by increasing periosteal and endocortical bone formation. Vitamin K2 administration also prevented MCD-induced diffuse fatty change of the liver. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of vitamin K2 on cortical bone mass and hepatic lipid metabolism in rats with MCD. The loss of cancellous bone mass could possibly have been due to re-distribution of minerals to cortical bone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin ... supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to results from a clinical trial ...

  20. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Mary E; van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad

    2015-10-27

    The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection.   To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We reviewed 106 reports of 35 trials, published between 1931 and 2015. We included 19 trials including over 310,000 women, excluded 15 trials and one is ongoing. Overall, seven trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, three were high risk of bias and for nine it was unclear. 1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatmentOverall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby.Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98; two trials). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection

  1. Comparison of concurrent treatment with vitamin K2 and risedronate compared with treatment with risedronate alone in patients with osteoporosis: Japanese Osteoporosis Intervention Trial-03.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Miyazaki, Teruhiko; Uemura, Yukari; Miyakawa, Nobuaki; Gorai, Itsuo; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Fukunaga, Masao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ohta, Hiroaki; Mori, Satoshi; Hagino, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Itoi, Eiji; Orimo, Hajime; Shiraki, Masataka

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of concurrent treatment with vitamin K 2 and risedronate compared with treatment with risedronate alone in patients with osteoporosis and to explore subsets of patients for which concurrent treatment is particularly efficacious. Women with osteoporosis aged 65 years or older were recruited from 123 institutes in Japan and allocated to take either vitamin K 2 (45 mg/day) and risedronate (2.5 mg/day or 17.5 mg/week) or risedronate (2.5 mg/day or 17.5 mg/week) alone. The primary end point was the incidence of any fracture (vertebral and nonvertebral). The secondary end points were bone mineral density, height, undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration, quality of life, and safety. Over a 2-year follow-up, vertebral or nonvertebral fractures occurred in 117 or 22 sites respectively among 931 patients in the risedronate and vitamin K 2 group and in 104 or 26 sites respectively among 943 patients in the risedronate alone group. The rates of any incident fracture were similar between the two groups (incidence rate ratio 1.074, 95 % confidence interval 0.811-1.422, p = 0.62), implying that the primary end point was not met. There were no differences in the degree of increase in bone mineral density between the two groups. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration decreased from 5.81 ± 3.93 ng/mL to 2.59 ± 1.52 ng/mL at 6 months in the risedronate and vitamin K 2 group, whereas the change in the risedronate alone group was minimal (from 5.96 ± 4.36 ng/mL to 4.05 ± 3.40 ng/mL at 6 months) (p < 0.01). The treatment discontinuation rate was higher in the risedronate and vitamin K 2 group than in the risedronate alone group (10.0 % vs 6.7 %). No unknown adverse drug reactions were reported. In conclusion, concurrent treatment with vitamin K 2 and risedronate was not efficacious compared with monotherapy with risedronate in terms of fracture prevention.

  2. What characterizes elderly women who overuse vitamin and mineral supplements?

    PubMed

    Ranno, B S; Wardlaw, G M; Geiger, C J

    1988-03-01

    This study has identified some potentially important characteristics of elderly women who overuse vitamin and mineral supplements. These women tended to live alone and to have medical problems. The supplements were usually self-prescribed and purchased in a drugstore. The sources of information that supported supplement use were primarily the print media and family and friends rather than health professionals. Other studies have made similar findings. The degree of IHLC orientation failed to predict the amount of supplement use, although IHLC was shown to be useful in a recent study that included both young and elderly women. Thus, from our perspective, the identification of possible overusers of supplements should begin with elderly women who have health problems and live alone; point-of-purchase information should be targeted to drugstores. In this study and in other, either the actual reasons for supplement use were often inappropriate or the diets were adequate in many of the vitamins taken by supplements, such as vitamins A and C. Thus, education for elderly women that stresses the appropriate reasons for nutrient supplement use is clearly needed so that a correct link between nutrition need and use always is maintained. The high IHLC scores suggest that the majority of women in this study want to make their own decisions about their health. Given better information, overusers of supplements might instead choose a more reasonable approach for improving their diets. Dietitians/nutritionists were not usually used as a source of nutrition information by the elderly women in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide following supplementation with vitamin D or D plus B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Awwad, Hussain M; Kirsch, Susanne H; Waldura, Christiane; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Geisel, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later. TMAO declined in the vitamin D arm by 0.5 versus 2.8 μmol/L in the D + B arm (p = 0.005). Hcy decreased and betaine increased in the D + B compared to the D arm. Within-subject levels of plasma choline and dimethylglycine and urine betaine increased in both arms and changes did not differ between the arms. TMAO reduction was predicted by higher baseline TMAO and lowering Hcy in stepwise regression analysis. The test-retest variations of TMAO were greater in the D + B arm compared to vitamin D arm. B vitamins plus vitamin D lowered plasma fasting TMAO compared to vitamin D. Vitamin D caused alterations in choline metabolism, which may reflect the metabolic flexibility of C1-metabolism. The molecular mechanisms and health implications of these changes are currently unknown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Gass, Margery; Wallace, Robert B; Robbins, John; Lewis, Cora E; Bassford, Tamsen; Beresford, Shirley A A; Black, Henry R; Blanchette, Patricia; Bonds, Denise E; Brunner, Robert L; Brzyski, Robert G; Caan, Bette; Cauley, Jane A; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Cummings, Steven R; Granek, Iris; Hays, Jennifer; Heiss, Gerardo; Hendrix, Susan L; Howard, Barbara V; Hsia, Judith; Hubbell, F Allan; Johnson, Karen C; Judd, Howard; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Kuller, Lewis H; Langer, Robert D; Lasser, Norman L; Limacher, Marian C; Ludlam, Shari; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L; McGowan, Joan; Ockene, Judith K; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Phillips, Lawrence; Prentice, Ross L; Sarto, Gloria E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Van Horn, Linda; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Whitlock, Evelyn; Anderson, Garnet L; Assaf, Annlouise R; Barad, David

    2006-02-16

    The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal. We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily or placebo. Fractures were ascertained for an average follow-up period of 7.0 years. Bone density was measured at three WHI centers. Hip bone density was 1.06 percent higher in the calcium plus vitamin D group than in the placebo group (P<0.01). Intention-to-treat analysis indicated that participants receiving calcium plus vitamin D supplementation had a hazard ratio of 0.88 for hip fracture (95 percent confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.08), 0.90 for clinical spine fracture (0.74 to 1.10), and 0.96 for total fractures (0.91 to 1.02). The risk of renal calculi increased with calcium plus vitamin D (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.34). Censoring data from women when they ceased to adhere to the study medication reduced the hazard ratio for hip fracture to 0.71 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.97). Effects did not vary significantly according to prerandomization serum vitamin D levels. Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000611.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society

  5. [Vitamin D deficiency among women diagnosed with breast cancer and unclear benefits of vitamin supplementation].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Anna; Chudek, Jerzy; Karwasiecka, Dobromiła; Kubeczko, Marcin; Wojnar, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the world and also in Poland. Morbidity for breast cancer is increasing, but mortality rate is still on the same level. In Poland morbidity has increased almost two times during the last 30 years. Vitamin D deficiency in the general population is a common phenomenon, especially among obese and elder. It increases the risk of development and worsens the prognosis in breast cancer. In recent years, the role of vitamin D and its nuclear receptor (VDR) in cancer epidemiology, and its impact on the regulation of immune processes have raised interest. VDR acts as ligand-activated transcription factor. Recent studies suggest a role of vitamin D in the regulation of energy pathways in tumor cells. Another observation on vitamin D is its inhibitory effect on inflammation and regulation of glucose metabolism in neoplastic cell. This article explores the available literature on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with breast cancer, describes the potential regulatory vitamin D depend mechanisms occurring in the breast cancer. Due to the limited data on the efficacy and safety, the optimal dose of vitamin D in supplementation of patients with cancer breast has not been determined.

  6. Parenteral vitamin D supplementation is superior to oral in vitamin D insufficient patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Awanindra; Gupta, Balram; Tiwari, Shalbha; Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Oral vitamin D supplementation is better than parenteral in improving vitamin D deficiency in individuals with no systemic illness. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of oral and parenteral routes of vitamin D supplementation on circulating serum 25(OH) vitamin D level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Total 85 cases of with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for vitamin D status of which 71 patients were vitamin D insufficient/deficient. They were randomized into two intent to treat groups with different vitamin D supplementation protocols (a) Oral-60000 IU per day for 5days (group I; n=40) and (b) injectable-300000 IU intramuscularly once (group II; n=31). Baseline and one month post supplementation 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured in both the groups. Baseline clinical characteristics and 25(OH) vitamin D levels were comparable in both the groups. Post treatment 25(OH) vitamin D level in group I was 26.06±9.06ng/ml and in group II was 49.69±18.92ng/ml. After one month of vitamin D supplementation, increment in 25(OH) vitamin D level from baseline was significantly higher in group II than group I (p<0.001). Injectable method of supplementation was better than oral route in improving serum 25 (OH) vitamin D status in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study suggested impaired absorption of vitamin D from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a need for parenteral route of vitamin D supplementation in deficient patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  8. Effect of feeding Rumen-protected capsule containing niacin, K2SO4, vitamin C, and gamma-aminobutyric acid on heat stress and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guo, W J; Zhen, L; Zhang, J X; Lian, S; Si, H F; Guo, J R; Yang, H M

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental rumen-protected capsule (RPC) on animal performance, serological indicators, and serum heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of lactating Holstein cows under heat stress (HS). During summer months, 30 healthy multiparous lactating Holstein cows with a parity number of 3.1 ± 0.44, 70 ± 15 d in milk, an average body weight of 622 ± 62kg, and an average milk yield of 32.28 ± 0.96kg/d, were used. The cows were randomly allocated to two groups: a control group and an RPC-supplemented group (0.13373kg K 2 SO 4 , 0.02488kg vitamin C, 0.021148kg niacin, and 0.044784kggamma-aminobutyric acid per cow). During the 42-d experiment, ambient air temperature and relative humidity inside and outside the barn were recorded hourly every day for the determination of temperature-humidity index (THI). Milk and blood samples were collected every week, and body weight and body condition scoring were measured on day 0. Based on the THI values, the animals had moderate HS. On day 42, the RPC group had lower HSP70, adrenocorticotropic hormone (P = 0.0001), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.0338), and IL-6 (P = 0.0724) levels than the control group, with no significant differences in creatine kinase, glucocorticoid, or IL-2 levels. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and dry matter intake were higher in RPC than in the control group (P = 0.0196). There were no significant differences in milk fat or daily protein levels between the two groups; however, daily protein and milk fat levels were higher in the RPC group than in the control group (P = 0.0114 and P = 0.0665, respectively). Somatic cell counts were no different between the two groups. In conclusion, RPC may alleviate HS and improve dairy cow performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Vitamin B Supplementation: What's the Right Choice for Your Patients?

    PubMed

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-07-01

    As many patients turn to vitamins and supplements to enhance energy, relieve fatigue, or generally feel better, it is important to understand the connection between the B vitamins and psychiatric symptomatology. Vitamins B6, B8, and B12 have been shown not only to reduce psychiatric symptoms but also shorten the duration of illness. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, has also been associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, when patients lack a specific genetic enzyme, which converts folate/folic acid to its most usable form, L-methylfolate, the neuroprotective and neuropsychiatric benefits are lost. L-methylfolate allows for the synthesis of the three major neurochemicals-serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine-across the blood-brain barrier. Exploring the conversion of folate/folic acid into L-methylfolate and the various polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and examining the B vitamins associated with the treatment of psychiatric symptoms will further allow nurses to comprehensively treat their patients with the appropriate B vitamins. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(7), 7-11.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Role of vitamin K2 in preventing the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Riaz, Haris; Riaz, Talha; Rahman, Sophia; Amir, Muhammad; Badshah, Maaz B; Kazi, Abdul Nafey

    2012-11-29

    Hepatocellular cancer is notorious for recurrence even after curative therapy. High recurrence determines the long term prognosis of the patients. Vitamin K2 has been tested in trials for its effect on prevention of recurrence and improving survival. The results are inconclusive from individual trials and in our knowledge no systematic review which entirely focuses on Vitamin K2 as a chemo preventive agent is available to date. This review is an attempt to pool all the existing trials together and update the existing knowledge on the topic. Medline, Embase and Cochrane Register of Controlled trials were searched for randomized controlled trials where vitamin K2 or its analogues, in any dosage were compared to placebo or No vitamin K2, for participants of any age or sex. Reference lists and abstracts of conference proceedings were searched by hand. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. Attempt was made to contact the authors of primary studies for missing data and with the experts in the field.Trials were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Primary outcomes were recurrence rates and survival rates. There were no secondary outcomes. Data was synthesized using a random effects model and results presented as relative risk with 95% Confidence Intervals. For recurrence of hepatocellular cancer after hepatic resection or local ablative therapy, compared with controls, participants receiving Vitamin K2, pooled relative risks for hepatocellular cancer were 0.60; 95% CI: 0.28-1.28, p = 0.64) at 1 yr 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47-0.91), p = 0.01) at 2 yr; 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85, p = 0.004) at 3 yr respectively. The results were combined using the random analysis model. Five RCTs evaluated the preventive efficacy of menatetrenone on HCC recurrence after hepatic resection or local ablative therapy. The meta-analysis of all five studies, failed to confirm significantly better tumor recurrence- free survival at 1 year

  11. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; Leiva, Laura; Gattas, Vivien; de la Maza, María Pía; Avendaño, Marcelo; Hirsch, Sandra

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16 ng/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double blind fashion, vitamin D 400 IU plus 800 mg of calcium per day or calcium alone. Subjects were followed for nine months. Serum 25 OH vitamin D increased from 12.4+/-2.2 to 25.8+/-6.5 ng/ml among subjects supplemented with vitamin D. Trained subjects had significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength, the short physical performance test and timed up and go. The latter improved more in trained subjects supplemented with vitamin D. At the end of the follow up, gait speed was higher among subjects supplemented with vitamin (whether trained or not) than in non-supplemented subjects (838+/-147 and 768+/-127 m/12 min, respectively, p=0.02). Romberg ratio was lower among supplemented controls than non-supplemented trained subjects (128+/-40% and 144+/-37%, respectively, p=0.05). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation improved gait speed and body sway, and training improved muscle strength.

  12. Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation and Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Langer, Robert D.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Hsia, Judith; Hunt, Julie R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Margolis, Karen L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Thomas, Asha M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Coronary artery calcified plaque is a marker for atheromatous plaque burden and predicts future risk of cardiovascular events. The relationship between calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been previously assessed in a randomized trial setting. We compared coronary artery calcium scores among women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation versus placebo following trial completion. Methods In an ancillary substudy of women randomized to calcium carbonate (1000 mg of elemental calcium daily) plus vitamin D3 (400 IU daily) versus placebo, nested within the Women’s Health Initiative trial of estrogen among women with hysterectomy, we measured CAC with cardiac computed tomography in 754 women aged 50–59 years at randomization. Imaging for CAC was performed at 28 of 40 centers following a mean of 7 years of treatment and scans were read centrally. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured by a central reading center with masking to randomization assignments. Results Post-trial CAC measurements were similar in women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation (calcium/D) and those receiving placebo. The mean CAC score was 91.6 for calcium/D and 100.5 for placebo (rank test p-value=0.74). After adjustment for coronary risk factors, multivariate odds ratios for increasing CAC score cutpoints (CAC >0, ≥10, and ≥100) for calcium/D vs placebo were 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.34), 1.29 (0.88–1.87), and 0.90 (0.56–1.44), respectively. Corresponding odds ratios among women with >50% adherence to study pills and for higher levels of CAC (>300), were similar. Conclusions Treatment with moderate doses of calcium plus vitamin D3 did not appear to alter coronary artery calcified plaque burden among postmenopausal women. PMID:20551849

  13. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. It's a good idea to ask your health care provider first. High doses of some vitamins can cause problems.

  14. Changes in the human transcriptome upon vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pasing, Yvonne; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Jorde, Rolf; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D 3 (n=47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n=47) for a period of three to five years. For this study, blood samples for preparation of RNA were drawn from the subjects and mRNA gene expression in blood was determined using microarray analysis. The two study groups were similar regarding gender, age, BMI and duration of supplementation, whereas the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level as expected was significantly higher in the vitamin D group (119 versus 63nmol/L). When analysing all subjects, nearly no significant differences in gene expression between the two groups were found. However, when analysing men and women separately, significant effects on gene expression were observed for women. Furthermore, when only including subjects with the highest and lowest serum 25(OH)D levels, additional vitamin D regulated genes were disclosed. Thus, a total of 99 genes (p≤0.05, log2 fold change ≥|0.2|) were found to be regulated, of which 72 have not been published before as influenced by vitamin D. These genes were particularly involved in the interleukin signaling pathway, oxidative stress response, apoptosis signaling pathway and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathway. Thus, our results open the possibility for many future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults.

    PubMed

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Whitfield, Kate; Wetterslev, Jørn; Simonetti, Rosa G; Bjelakovic, Marija; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-10

    Available evidence on the effects of vitamin D on mortality has been inconclusive. In a recent systematic review, we found evidence that vitamin D3 may decrease mortality in mostly elderly women. The present systematic review updates and reassesses the benefits and harms of vitamin D supplementation used in primary and secondary prophylaxis of mortality. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in healthy adults and adults in a stable phase of disease. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Science Citation Index-Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (all up to February 2012). We checked references of included trials and pharmaceutical companies for unidentified relevant trials. Randomised trials that compared any type of vitamin D in any dose with any duration and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adult participants. Participants could have been recruited from the general population or from patients diagnosed with a disease in a stable phase. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or as an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D (alfacalcidol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol)). Six review authors extracted data independently. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratios (RRs). To account for trials with zero events, we performed meta-analyses of dichotomous data using risk differences (RDs) and empirical continuity corrections. We used published data and data obtained by contacting trial authors.To minimise the risk of systematic error, we assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. Trial sequential analyses controlled the risk of random errors possibly caused by cumulative meta-analyses. We identified 159 randomised clinical trials. Ninety-four trials

  16. Vitamin K2 Ameliorates Damage of Blood Vessels by Glucocorticoid: a Potential Mechanism for Its Protective Effects in Glucocorticoid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuelei; Yin, Junhui; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Changqing; Gao, You-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid has been reported to decrease blood vessel number and harm the blood supply in the femoral head, which is recognized to be an important mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). To prevent glucocorticoid-induced ONFH, medication that promotes both bone formation and angiogenesis would be ideal. Vitamin K2 has been revealed to play an important role in bone metabolism; however, few studies have focused on the effect of Vitamin K2 on new vascular formation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether Vitamin K2 promoted new blood vessel formation in the presence of glucocorticoids, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Vitamin K2 on viability, migration, in vitro tube formation, and VEGF, vWF, CD31, KDR, Flt and PDGFB in EAhy926 incubated with or without dexamethasone were elucidated. VEGF, TGF-β and BMP-2, angiogenesis-related proteins secreted by osteoblasts, were also detected in the osteoblast-like cell line of MG63. In addition, blood vessels of the femoral head in rats administered with or without methylprednisolone and Vitamin K2 were evaluated using angiography and CD31 staining. In vitro studies showed that Vitamin K2 significantly protected endothelial cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, promoted endothelial cell migration and in vitro tube formation. Angiogenesis-related proteins both in EAhy926 and MG63 were also upregulated by Vitamin K2 when cotreated with dexamethasone. In vivo studies showed enhanced blood vessel volume and CD31-positive staining cells in rats cotreated with VK2 and methylprednisolone compared to rats treated with methylprednisolone only. Collectively, Vitamin K2 has the ability to promote angiogenesis in vitro and to ameliorate vessels of the femoral head in glucocorticoid-treated rats in vivo, indicating that Vitamin K2 is a promising drug that may be used to prevent steroid-induced ONFH. PMID:27313492

  17. Vitamin K2 Ameliorates Damage of Blood Vessels by Glucocorticoid: a Potential Mechanism for Its Protective Effects in Glucocorticoid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelei; Yin, Junhui; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Changqing; Gao, You-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid has been reported to decrease blood vessel number and harm the blood supply in the femoral head, which is recognized to be an important mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). To prevent glucocorticoid-induced ONFH, medication that promotes both bone formation and angiogenesis would be ideal. Vitamin K2 has been revealed to play an important role in bone metabolism; however, few studies have focused on the effect of Vitamin K2 on new vascular formation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether Vitamin K2 promoted new blood vessel formation in the presence of glucocorticoids, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Vitamin K2 on viability, migration, in vitro tube formation, and VEGF, vWF, CD31, KDR, Flt and PDGFB in EAhy926 incubated with or without dexamethasone were elucidated. VEGF, TGF-β and BMP-2, angiogenesis-related proteins secreted by osteoblasts, were also detected in the osteoblast-like cell line of MG63. In addition, blood vessels of the femoral head in rats administered with or without methylprednisolone and Vitamin K2 were evaluated using angiography and CD31 staining. In vitro studies showed that Vitamin K2 significantly protected endothelial cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, promoted endothelial cell migration and in vitro tube formation. Angiogenesis-related proteins both in EAhy926 and MG63 were also upregulated by Vitamin K2 when cotreated with dexamethasone. In vivo studies showed enhanced blood vessel volume and CD31-positive staining cells in rats cotreated with VK2 and methylprednisolone compared to rats treated with methylprednisolone only. Collectively, Vitamin K2 has the ability to promote angiogenesis in vitro and to ameliorate vessels of the femoral head in glucocorticoid-treated rats in vivo, indicating that Vitamin K2 is a promising drug that may be used to prevent steroid-induced ONFH.

  18. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Amy R.; Letourneau, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6–116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding. PMID:29596362

  19. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants' Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Aghajafari, Fariba; Field, Catherine J; Weinberg, Amy R; Letourneau, Nicole

    2018-03-29

    We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants' vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants' dietary data were obtained from APrON's dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants' median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6-116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants' 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.

  20. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids: A Critical Evaluation, Part 1- Vitamins and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.; Rucker, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates vitamins/minerals, distinguishing whether studies cited used animal or human subjects. Vitamins discussed include niacin and vitamins B-12, C, A, D, E, and megavitamin supplementation (intake of vitamins at levels 10 times the recommended daily allowance). Minerals considered include dolomite/bone meal, chromium (glucose tolerance…

  1. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence of vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  2. Vitamin Supplement Use and Risk for Breast Cancer: The Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed Central

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Lu, Wei; Ruan, Zhixian; Zhen, Ying; Dai, Qi; Gu, Kai; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The influence of vitamin supplements on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Also the interactive effects of vitamins from dietary and supplemental sources are unknown. This study investigated the association between self-reported vitamin supplement use (A, B, C, E and multivitamin) and breast cancer among urban Chinese women. It also examined the combined effect of vitamin supplements in relation to particular dietary vitamin intakes on breast cancer risk. Methods: Study subjects were identified from The Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS) and was a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai in 1996-1998 (Phase I) and 2002-2004 (Phase II). Participants were aged 25 to 64 and 20 to 70 years for phase I and for phase II, respectively. The analyses included 3,454 incident breast cancer cases and 3,474 controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to determine adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer risk associated with vitamin supplement use. Results: Overall, the breast cancer risk was not related to intakes of any vitamin supplement. However, an approximately 20% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed with use of vitamin E supplement among women with low-dietary vitamin E intake (OR=0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-0.9) with a significant does-response inverse association (P trend =0.01 for duration). Modest risk reduction was observed among vitamin B supplement users with low dietary intake of the same vitamin (OR=0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0). However, vitamin B supplement was adversely associated with breast cancer risk among those with high dietary vitamin B intake with a significant dose-response effect (P trend =0.04 for duration). Conclusions: This study suggests that vitamins E and B supplement may confer a prevention of breast cancer among women who have low dietary intake of those vitamins. PMID:17917808

  3. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  4. Can adverse effects of excessive vitamin D supplementation occur without developing hypervitaminosis D?

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2017-07-19

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that has endocrine, paracrine and autocrine functions. Consumption of vitamin D-supplemented food & drugs have increased significantly in the last couple of decades due to campaign and awareness programs. Despite such wide use of artificial vitamin D supplements, serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D does not always reflect the amount of uptake. In contrast to the safe sunlight exposure, prolonged and disproportionate consumption of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, even without developing hypervitaminosis D. One of the reasons why vitamin D supplementation is believed to be safe is, it rarely raises serum vitamin D levels to the toxic range even after repeated intravenous ingestion of extremely high doses of synthetic vitamin D analogs. However, prolonged consumption of vitamin D supplementation may induce hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and hyperphosphatemia, which are considered to be the initial signs of vitamin D intoxication. It is likely that calcium and phosphorus dysregulation, induced by exogenous vitamin D supplementation, may lead to tissue and organ damages, even without developing hypervitaminosis D. It is needed to be emphasized that, because of tight homeostatic control of calcium and phosphorus, when hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia is apparent following vitamin D supplementation, the process of tissue and/or organ damage might already have been started. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  6. Menadione (vitamin K3) is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in the intestine and a circulating precursor of tissue menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yoshihisa; Tsugawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Kimie; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Uchino, Yuri; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Sawada, Natsumi; Kamao, Maya; Wada, Akimori; Okitsu, Takashi; Okano, Toshio

    2013-11-15

    Mice have the ability to convert dietary phylloquinone (vitamin K1) into menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) and store the latter in tissues. A prenyltransferase enzyme, UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing 1 (UBIAD1), is involved in this conversion. There is evidence that UBIAD1 has a weak side chain cleavage activity for phylloquinone but a strong prenylation activity for menadione (vitamin K3), which has long been postulated as an intermediate in this conversion. Further evidence indicates that when intravenously administered in mice phylloquinone can enter into tissues but is not converted further to menaquinone-4. These findings raise the question whether phylloquinone is absorbed and delivered to tissues in its original form and converted to menaquinone-4 or whether it is converted to menadione in the intestine followed by delivery of menadione to tissues and subsequent conversion to menaquinone-4. To answer this question, we conducted cannulation experiments using stable isotope tracer technology in rats. We confirmed that the second pathway is correct on the basis of structural assignments and measurements of phylloquinone-derived menadione using high resolution MS analysis and a bioassay using recombinant UBIAD1 protein. Furthermore, high resolution MS and (1)H NMR analyses of the product generated from the incubation of menadione with recombinant UBIAD1 revealed that the hydroquinone, but not the quinone form of menadione, was an intermediate of the conversion. Taken together, these results provide unequivocal evidence that menadione is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone and a major source of tissue menaquinone-4.

  7. Vitamin D Receptor Genotype, Vitamin D3 Supplementation, and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Elizabeth L.; Peacock, Janet L.; Rees, Judy R.; Bostick, Roberd M.; Robertson, Douglas J.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Baron, John A.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggesting that vitamin D and calcium inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis, daily supplementation with these nutrients for 3 to 5 years was not found to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in a recent randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether common variants in 7 vitamin D and calcium pathway genes (VDR, GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and CASR) modify the effects of vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation on colorectal adenoma recurrence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We examined 41 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2259 participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 11 clinical centers in the United States. Eligibility criteria included a recently diagnosed adenoma and no remaining colorectal polyps after complete colonoscopy. The study’s treatment phase ended on August 31, 2013, and the analysis for the present study took place from July 28, 2014, to October 19, 2016. INTERVENTIONS Daily oral supplementation with vitamin D3 (1000 IU) or calcium carbonate (1200 mg elemental calcium) or both or neither. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The outcomes assessed were the occurrence of 1 or more adenomas or advanced adenomas (estimated diameter, ≥ 1 cm; or with villous histologic findings, high-grade dysplasia, or cancer) during follow-up. Treatment effects and genotype associations and interactions were estimated as adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effective number of independent SNPs was calculated to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS Among the 2259 participants randomized, 1702 were non-Hispanic whites who completed the trial and had genotype data for analysis (1101 men; mean [SD] age 58.1 [6.8] years). The effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on advanced adenomas, but not on adenoma risk overall, significantly varied according to genotype at 2 VDR SNPs (rs7968585 and rs

  8. Effect of vitamin supplements on HIV shedding in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Koulinska, Irene N; Aboud, Said; Murrin, Clare; Bosch, Ronald J; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation in lactating HIV-1-infected women with preformed vitamin A and β-carotene (VA/BC) increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Identifying a biological mechanism to explain this unexpected finding would lend support to a causal effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of VA/BC or multivitamin (B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplementation of HIV-infected women on HIV shedding in breast milk during the first 2 y postpartum. We quantified viral (cell-free) and proviral (cell-associated) HIV loads in breast-milk samples collected ≤15 d after delivery and every 3 mo thereafter from 594 Tanzanian HIV-1-infected women who participated in a randomized trial. Women received 1 of the following 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 × 2 factorial fashion during pregnancy and throughout the first 2 y postpartum: multivitamin, VA/BC, multivitamin including VA/BC, or placebo. The proportion of breast-milk samples with detectable viral load was significantly higher in women who received VA/BC (51.3%) than in women who were not assigned to VA/BC (44.8%; P = 0.02). The effect was apparent ≥6 mo postpartum (relative risk: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.73). No associations with proviral load were observed. The multivitamin had no effects. In observational analyses, β-carotene but not retinol breast-milk concentrations were significantly associated with an increased viral load in milk. VA/BC supplementation in lactating women increases the HIV load in breast milk. This finding contributes to explaining the adverse effect of VA/BC on mother-to-child transmission. β-Carotene appears to have an effect on breast-milk viral load, independent of preformed vitamin A. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197756.

  9. Emerging Evidence of Thresholds for Beneficial Effects from Vitamin D Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Scragg, Robert

    2018-05-03

    Publications from clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have increased substantially over the last 15 years. Yet, despite the growing number of randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses of these studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions. Many meta-analyses assume that vitamin D is a pharmacological agent, and give scant consideration of it being a nutrient. This limits their potential to detect beneficial effects in participants with vitamin D deficiency. An increasing body of evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials supports the presence of thresholds in vitamin D status below which disease risk increases and vitamin supplementation has beneficial effects. Future supplementation trials which seek to replicate these findings should recruit sufficient numbers of participants with low vitamin D levels, and not give low-dose vitamin D to the placebo group. If the presence of vitamin D thresholds for beneficial effects is confirmed, this would strengthen the need for vitamin D fortification of foods.

  10. Phylogeny of the Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase (VKOR) Family and Evolutionary Relationship to the Disulfide Bond Formation Protein B (DsbB) Family

    PubMed Central

    Bevans, Carville G.; Krettler, Christoph; Reinhart, Christoph; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In humans and other vertebrate animals, vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) family enzymes are the gatekeepers between nutritionally acquired K vitamins and the vitamin K cycle responsible for posttranslational modifications that confer biological activity upon vitamin K-dependent proteins with crucial roles in hemostasis, bone development and homeostasis, hormonal carbohydrate regulation and fertility. We report a phylogenetic analysis of the VKOR family that identifies five major clades. Combined phylogenetic and site-specific conservation analyses point to clade-specific similarities and differences in structure and function. We discovered a single-site determinant uniquely identifying VKOR homologs belonging to human pathogenic, obligate intracellular prokaryotes and protists. Building on previous work by Sevier et al. (Protein Science 14:1630), we analyzed structural data from both VKOR and prokaryotic disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbB) families and hypothesize an ancient evolutionary relationship between the two families where one family arose from the other through a gene duplication/deletion event. This has resulted in circular permutation of primary sequence threading through the four-helical bundle protein folds of both families. This is the first report of circular permutation relating distant α-helical membrane protein sequences and folds. In conclusion, we suggest a chronology for the evolution of the five extant VKOR clades. PMID:26230708

  11. Phylogeny of the Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase (VKOR) Family and Evolutionary Relationship to the Disulfide Bond Formation Protein B (DsbB) Family.

    PubMed

    Bevans, Carville G; Krettler, Christoph; Reinhart, Christoph; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-07-29

    In humans and other vertebrate animals, vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) family enzymes are the gatekeepers between nutritionally acquired K vitamins and the vitamin K cycle responsible for posttranslational modifications that confer biological activity upon vitamin K-dependent proteins with crucial roles in hemostasis, bone development and homeostasis, hormonal carbohydrate regulation and fertility. We report a phylogenetic analysis of the VKOR family that identifies five major clades. Combined phylogenetic and site-specific conservation analyses point to clade-specific similarities and differences in structure and function. We discovered a single-site determinant uniquely identifying VKOR homologs belonging to human pathogenic, obligate intracellular prokaryotes and protists. Building on previous work by Sevier et al. (Protein Science 14:1630), we analyzed structural data from both VKOR and prokaryotic disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbB) families and hypothesize an ancient evolutionary relationship between the two families where one family arose from the other through a gene duplication/deletion event. This has resulted in circular permutation of primary sequence threading through the four-helical bundle protein folds of both families. This is the first report of circular permutation relating distant a-helical membrane protein sequences and folds. In conclusion, we suggest a chronology for the evolution of the five extant VKOR clades.

  12. Vitamin D in inflammatory bowel disease: more than just a supplement.

    PubMed

    Gubatan, John; Moss, Alan C

    2018-05-11

    The aim of this review is to explore the protective role of vitamin D on the gastrointestinal tract, summarize the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and highlight recent studies examining the impact of low vitamin D and vitamin D supplementation on IBD clinical outcomes. Vitamin D protects the gut barrier by regulating tight junction proteins and inhibiting intestinal apoptosis. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity by inducing antimicrobial peptides and regulates adaptive immunity by promoting anti-inflammatory T cells and cytokines. Vitamin D may also alter the gut microbiota. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in IBD is 30-40%. Predictors of vitamin D deficiency in IBD include non-white ethnicity, IBD-related surgery, BMI more than 30, female sex, and pregnancy. Low vitamin D is associated with increased disease activity, inflammation, and clinical relapse. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on IBD clinical outcomes is inconclusive. Vitamin D plays a protective role on gut health. Vitamin D deficiency in IBD is prevalent and associated with poor outcomes. The benefits of vitamin D supplementation in IBD is unclear. Measuring novel vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D absorption in IBD patients may help guide future studies.

  13. [Use of vitamin supplements among university students in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich dos; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2002-04-01

    With the purpose of determining the prevalence of vitamin consumption, a survey was conducted in a sample of 894 private university freshmen in São Paulo. It revealed that 30.4% of the students consumed vitamin supplements within the preceding 3 months -23.1% on a regular basis and 6.0% sporadically. Vitamin C and multivitamin supplements were the most consumed products. The regular consumption of vitamin supplements was related to the frequency of physical exercises. "To stay healthy" was the most cited reason for supplementation.

  14. Multi-dose vitamin d supplementation in stable very preterm infants: Prospective randomized trial response to three different vitamin D supplementation doses.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ozlem; Uras, Nurdan; Sari, Fatma Nur; Atay, Funda Yavanoglu; Sahin, Suzan; Alkan, Ayse Dogan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Oguz, Serife Suna

    2017-09-01

    Preterm newborns are born with lower vitamin D stores. Although vitamin D supplementation is recommended there is no consensus regarding the adequate dose of supplementation for preterm infants. To assess the effect of three different doses of vitamin D supplementation (400, 800 and 1000IU/d) in preterm infants ≤32weeks gestation on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and 25(OH) D levels at 36weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Prospective randomized trial. 121 preterm infants with gestational age of 24-32weeks were randomly allocated to receive 400, 800 or 1000IU/d vitamin D. Serum concentration of 25(OH) D and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at 36weeks PMA. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH) D concentrations <20ng/ml. Of the 121 infants 72% had deficient vitamin D levels before supplementation. The average 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations at 36weeks PMA were significantly higher in 800IU (40±21.4ng/ml) and 1000IU group (43±18.9ng/ml) when compared to 400IU group (29.4±13ng/ml). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (2.5 vs 22.5; RR: 0.09; CI:0.01-0.74) and insufficiency (30 vs 57.5; RR:0.32; CI:0.13-0.80) was significantly lower in 1000IU group when compared to 400IU group at 36weeks PMA. 1000IU/d of vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants ≤32weeks gestation age effectively decreases the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and leads to higher concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D at 36weeks PMA TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02941185. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  17. A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary inflammation, oxidants-antioxidants imbalance, as well as innate and adaptive immunity have been proposed as playing a key role in the development of COPD. The role of vitamins, as assessed either by food frequency questionnaires or measured in serum levels, have been reported to improve pulmonary function, reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Vitamin supplements have therefore been proposed to be a potentially useful additive to COPD therapy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed on the association of vitamins and COPD. The role of vitamin supplements in COPD was then evaluated. Conclusions The results of this review showed that various vitamins (vitamin C, D, E, A, beta and alpha carotene) are associated with improvement in features of COPD such as symptoms, exacerbations and pulmonary function. High vitamin intake would probably reduce the annual decline of FEV1. There were no studies that showed benefit from vitamin supplementation in improved symptoms, decreased hospitalization or pulmonary function. PMID:21134250

  18. A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; van der Molen, Thys

    2010-12-06

    Pulmonary inflammation, oxidants-antioxidants imbalance, as well as innate and adaptive immunity have been proposed as playing a key role in the development of COPD. The role of vitamins, as assessed either by food frequency questionnaires or measured in serum levels, have been reported to improve pulmonary function, reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Vitamin supplements have therefore been proposed to be a potentially useful additive to COPD therapy. A systematic literature review was performed on the association of vitamins and COPD. The role of vitamin supplements in COPD was then evaluated. The results of this review showed that various vitamins (vitamin C, D, E, A, beta and alpha carotene) are associated with improvement in features of COPD such as symptoms, exacerbations and pulmonary function. High vitamin intake would probably reduce the annual decline of FEV1. There were no studies that showed benefit from vitamin supplementation in improved symptoms, decreased hospitalization or pulmonary function.

  19. [Study of vitamin D supplementation in people over 65 years in primary care].

    PubMed

    Breysse, Cécile; Guillot, Pascale; Berrut, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Most of the elderly have vitamin D deficiency, which is defined as a serum level below 30 ng/mL. To identify the characteristics of patients over 65 receiving vitamin D supplements by their primary care physician. A descriptive and transverse study was performed on patients over 65 years old admitted to Care Following at the La Croix Rouge in Nantes from September 2012 to February 2013. The criteria for vitamin D supplementation, the type (vitamin D2 or D3, continuous prescription or not, route of administration) and starting date of vitamin D supplementation were identified. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured at admission. Of 163 patients included, 44% received vitamin D supplements (n=71). The patient aged over 80 benefited more often from vitamin D supplementation (p=0.019), so did women (p=0.034), patients with fractures (p=0.05), patients with osteoporosis treatments (p<0.001) and those treated with long-term corticosteroids (p<0.001). Dark skinned patients received vitamin D supplementation less often than the others (p=0.046). The dosage of the vitamin D was normal for 28% of patients (n=46). The prescription of vitamin D supplements to the elderly is still too scarce and should be encouraged, especially in non-bone indications.

  20. Quantitative measurement of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) in various fermented dairy products using a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Manoury, E; Jourdon, K; Boyaval, P; Fourcassié, P

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated menaquinone contents in a large set of 62 fermented dairy products samples by using a new liquid chromatography method for accurate quantification of lipo-soluble vitamin K(2), including distribution of individual menaquinones. The method used a simple and rapid purification step to remove matrix components in various fermented dairy products 3 times faster than a reference preparation step. Moreover, the chromatography elution time was significantly shortened and resolution and efficiency were optimized. We observed wide diversity of vitamin K(2) contents in the set of fermented dairy products, from undetectable to 1,100 ng/g of product, and a remarkable diversity of menaquinone forms among products. These observations relate to the main microorganism species currently in the different fermented product technologies. The major form in this large set of fermented dairy products was menaquinone (MK)-9, and contents of MK-9 and MK-8 forms were correlated, that of MK-9 being around 4 times that of MK-8, suggesting that microorganisms able to produce MK-9 also produce MK-8. This was not the case for the other menaquinones, which were produced independently of each other. Finally, no obvious link was established between MK-9 content and fat content or pH of the fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatoma-derived growth factor: A survival-related protein in prostate oncogenesis and a potential target for vitamin K2.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Aditya; Dasari, Subramanyam; Banerjee, Souresh; Gheewala, Taher; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Aoshuang; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Bosland, Maarten C; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar

    2016-11-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor, which has previously been shown to be expressed in a variety of cancers. HDGF overexpression has also previously been correlated with a poor prognosis in several cancers. The significance of HDGF in prostate cancer, however, has not been investigated. Here, we show that HDGF is overexpressed in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and androgen-insensitive DU145, 22RV1, and PC-3 cells. Forced overexpression enhanced cell viability of RWPE-1 cells, whereas HDGF knockdown reduced cell proliferation in human prostate cancer cells. We also show that HDGF may serve as a survival-related protein as ectopic overexpression of HDGF in RWPE cells up-regulated the expression of antiapoptosis proteins cyclin E and BCL-2, whereas simultaneously down-regulating proapoptotic protein BAX. Western blot analysis also showed that HDGF overexpression modulated the activity of phospho-AKT as well as NF-kB, and these results correlated with in vitro migration and invasion assays. We next assessed the therapeutic potential of HDGF inhibition with a HDGF monoclonal antibody and vitamin k 2 , showing reduced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of NF-kB expression in HDGF overexpressed RWPE cells treated with a HDGF monoclonal antibody and vitamin K 2 . Collectively, our results suggest that HDGF is a relevant protein in prostate oncogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholecalciferol supplementation of heifer diets increases beef vitamin D concentration and improves beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sarah K; O'Doherty, John V; Rajauria, Gaurav; Clarke, Louise C; Cashman, Kevin D; Hayes, Aoife; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joseph P; Kelly, Alan K

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet+0IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet+2000IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet+4000IU vitamin D₃] for a 30day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D 3 ) concentrations (R 2 =0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R 2 =0.78) as well as individually vitamin D₃ (R 2 =0.84) and 25-OH-D₃ (R 2 =0.75). The highest vitamin D₃ inclusion diet (T3) had a 42% increase (P<0.001) in LT vitamin D activity compared to the intermediate diet (T2) and a 145% increase over the lowest level diet (T1). Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased LT shear (P<0.05) force values after 14days chilling. Sensory parameters were not affected (P>0.05). In conclusion, through short-term vitamin D₃ supplementation of cattle diets, beef vitamin D activity can successfully be enhanced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin E and selenium supplementation and risk of prostate cancer in the Vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Littman, Alyson J; Kristal, Alan R; Patterson, Ruth E; Potter, John D; White, Emily

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin E and selenium are promising nutrients for the prevention of prostate cancer, and both are currently being tested in a large randomized trial for prostate cancer. However, results are not expected for at least 6 years. We aimed to investigate the association of vitamin E and selenium supplementation with prostate cancer in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study, a cohort study specifically designed to examine supplement use and future cancer risk. In a prospective design, 35,242 men recruited between 2000 and 2002 from western Washington State completed a questionnaire, including detailed questions about vitamin E and selenium supplement intake during the past 10 years from brand-specific multivitamins and single supplements. Using linkage to the western Washington SEER cancer registry, we documented 830 new cases of prostate cancer from baseline through December 2004. A 10-year average intake of supplemental vitamin E was not associated with a reduced prostate cancer risk overall [hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.1 for > or =400 IU/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.36]; however, risk for advanced prostate cancer (regionally invasive or distant metastatic, n = 123) decreased significantly with greater intake of supplemental vitamin E (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-1.0 for 10-year average intake > or =400 IU/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.03). There was no association between selenium supplementation and prostate cancer risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.62-1.3 for 10-year average intake >50 microg/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.97). In this prospective cohort, long-term supplemental intake of vitamin E and selenium were not associated with prostate cancer risk overall; however, risk of clinically relevant advanced disease was reduced with greater long-term vitamin E supplementation.

  4. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert in vivo antitumor effects on hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shigeki; Hitomi, Misuzu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Nonomura, Takako; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Mitoro, Akira; Akahane, Takami; Ogawa, Mutsumi; Nakai, Seiji; Deguchi, Akihiro; Masaki, Tsutomu; Uchida, Naohito

    2005-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that various vitamins K, specifically vitamin K2, possessed antitumor activity on various types of rodent- and human-derived neoplastic cell lines. However, there are only a small number of reports demonstrating in vivo antitumor effects of vitamins K. Furthermore, the mechanism of antitumor effects of vitamins K still remains to be examined. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of vitamins K2, K3 and K5 on PLC/PRF/5 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vivo. Furthermore, to examine the mechanism of antitumor actions of these vitamins K, mRNA expression levels of various G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules were evaluated by using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. HCC-bearing animals were produced by implanting PLC/PRF/5 cells subcutaneously into athymic nude mice, and drinking water containing vitamin K2, K3 or K5 was given to the animals. Treatments with vitamins K2, K3 and K5 were shown to markedly inhibit the growth of HCC tumors. To examine the mechanism of in vivo antitumor effects of vitamins K, total RNA was extracted from HCC tumors, and the expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules was quantitatively examined. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. Conversely, the expression of the cell cycle-suppressing molecules, Cdk inhibitor p16INK4a and retinoblastoma, in HCC was significantly enhanced by the treatments with vitamins K2, K3 and K5. These results indicate that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert antitumor effects on HCC by regulating the expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules. These results also indicate that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with HCC.

  5. Menadione (Vitamin K3) Is a Catabolic Product of Oral Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) in the Intestine and a Circulating Precursor of Tissue Menaquinone-4 (Vitamin K2) in Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Yoshihisa; Tsugawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Kimie; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Uchino, Yuri; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Sawada, Natsumi; Kamao, Maya; Wada, Akimori; Okitsu, Takashi; Okano, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Mice have the ability to convert dietary phylloquinone (vitamin K1) into menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) and store the latter in tissues. A prenyltransferase enzyme, UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing 1 (UBIAD1), is involved in this conversion. There is evidence that UBIAD1 has a weak side chain cleavage activity for phylloquinone but a strong prenylation activity for menadione (vitamin K3), which has long been postulated as an intermediate in this conversion. Further evidence indicates that when intravenously administered in mice phylloquinone can enter into tissues but is not converted further to menaquinone-4. These findings raise the question whether phylloquinone is absorbed and delivered to tissues in its original form and converted to menaquinone-4 or whether it is converted to menadione in the intestine followed by delivery of menadione to tissues and subsequent conversion to menaquinone-4. To answer this question, we conducted cannulation experiments using stable isotope tracer technology in rats. We confirmed that the second pathway is correct on the basis of structural assignments and measurements of phylloquinone-derived menadione using high resolution MS analysis and a bioassay using recombinant UBIAD1 protein. Furthermore, high resolution MS and 1H NMR analyses of the product generated from the incubation of menadione with recombinant UBIAD1 revealed that the hydroquinone, but not the quinone form of menadione, was an intermediate of the conversion. Taken together, these results provide unequivocal evidence that menadione is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone and a major source of tissue menaquinone-4. PMID:24085302

  6. Use of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements by Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emily; Piccio, Laura; Cross, Anne H

    2018-04-23

    Surveys of patients with multiple sclerosis report that most are interested in modifying their diet and using supplements to potentially reduce the severity and symptoms of the disease. This review provides an updated overview of the current state of evidence for the role that vitamins and dietary supplements play in multiple sclerosis and its animal models, with an emphasis on recent studies, and addresses biological plausibility and safety issues. Several vitamins and dietary supplements have been recently explored both in animal models and by patients with multiple sclerosis. Most human trials have been small or nonblinded, limiting their generalizability. Biotin and vitamin D are currently being tested in large randomized clinical trials. Smaller trials are ongoing or planned for other supplements such as lipoic acid and probiotics. The results of these studies may help guide clinical recommendations. At the present time, the only vitamin with sufficient evidence to support routine supplementation for patients with multiple sclerosis is vitamin D. Vitamin deficiencies should be avoided. It is important for clinicians to know which supplements their patients are taking and to educate patients on any known efficacy data, along with any potential medication interactions and adverse effects of individual supplements. Given that dietary supplements and vitamins are not subject to the same regulatory oversight as prescription pharmaceuticals in the United States, it is recommended that vitamins and supplements be purchased from reputable manufacturers with the United States Pharmacopeia designation.

  7. Supplementation with Vitamin E and Vitamin C inversely alters mitochondrial copy number and mitochondrial protein in obese, exercising rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...

  8. Vitamin E supplementation during the dry period in dairy cattle. Part II: oxidative stress following vitamin E supplementation may increase clinical mastitis incidence postpartum.

    PubMed

    Bouwstra, R J; Nielen, M; Newbold, J R; Jansen, E H J M; Jelinek, H F; van Werven, T

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, which physiological states influenced the effect of vitamin E supplements during the dry period on the level of oxidative stress at 2 wk antepartum. Furthermore the effect of oxidative stress at 2 wk antepartum on the risk of clinical mastitis in early lactation was investigated. Cows experience oxidative stress around calving. Vitamin E is able to decrease oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals. Normally, vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E reacts with free radicals are regenerated by a network of other antioxidants, termed the "vitamin E regeneration system" (VERS). In case of vitamin E supplementation, VERS should be sufficient to regenerate formed vitamin E radicals; if not, oxidative stress might increase instead of decrease. Additionally, the level of oxidative stress and vitamin E might be important physiological states to evaluate before supplementation. In a clinical trial, 296 cows on 5 farms were randomly divided into 2 groups, supplemented with a mineral mix between dry off and calving that supplied 3,000 or 135 IU/d, respectively. Blood samples collected at dry off and 2 wk antepartum were analyzed for vitamin E, reactive oxygen metabolites, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde. Cows were allocated retrospectively into 8 subgroups based on the level of oxidative stress, vitamin E, and VERS status at dry off. To evaluate whether differences in physiological states at dry off influenced the effect of vitamin E supplementation on the level of oxidative stress, group effects (supplemented vs. control) were studied with Student's t-test for all 8 subgroup at 2 wk antepartum. Differences in physiological states at dry off influenced the effect of vitamin E supplements. In 2 insufficient VERS subgroups, the supplemented group had higher levels of free radicals at 2 wk antepartum compared with the control group. Relative risk calculation was used to

  9. Vitamin/trace mineral supplements for the elderly.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Donald B

    2012-11-01

    The fraction of population that is elderly has been increasing, as has the consumption of vitamin/trace mineral supplements, which is now a multibillion dollar industry. Yet the rationale for such supplement intake by the majority may be questioned. Some of the current recommendations for micronutrient intake by the elderly are extrapolations from recommendations made for younger adults, whereas other recommendations are based on measurements of biochemical indices not proven to reflect a deficient level in the elderly. Suggestions that the elderly need more than the recommended daily allowances largely rest on the assumption that they should have biochemical indices similar to younger adults despite decreased energy intake with decreased physical and metabolic activities of the elderly. Although some individuals require supplementation because of problems with intake, absorption, or metabolism, there is little or no proof that boosting micronutrient intake above what can be achieved in well-balanced diets, some of which already contain fortified foods, will lead to a healthier outcome for most elderly individuals. There is not only the potential for unnecessary and occasionally harmful excess administered to some, but there is a cost that now runs in the billions of dollars and adds to the costs of covering multiple chronic disease conditions. Hence, some caution should be exercised in public health promulgations concerning routine use of supplements for those in this age group (>65 y of age) and of both sexes until more research establishes clear connections between the need for micronutrients and nutrient-related health in the elderly.

  10. Vitamin B6 intoxication after inappropriate supplementation with micronutrients following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Cupa, N; Schulte, D M; Ahrens, M; Schreiber, S; Laudes, M

    2015-07-01

    A 50-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with intermittent diarrhoea, emesis and increasingly brown-coloured skin, mainly the in light-exposed areas, after biliopancreatic diversion for obesity treatment. Differential diagnoses such as adrenal insufficiency were ruled out, but biochemical analysis demonstrated unusual high pyridoxine serum levels (vitamin B6). History revealed the intake of 300 mg of vitamin B6 per day over 6 months as described by her general practitioner. All symptoms disappeared after the discontinuation of vitamin B6 supplementation. Importantly, in contrast to many other vitamins and supplements, there is no evidence in the literature of the occurrence of vitamin B6 deficiency after bariatric surgery. Therefore, supplementation of vitamins and supplements in bariatric patients has to be carefully considered according to the existing clinical guidelines, as uncritical oversupplementation of micronutrients might result in intoxication and serious illness as presented here.

  11. Vitamin C Supplementation in the Elderly: A 17-month Trial in an Old Persons' Home

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, J.; Letcher, M.; Brook, M.

    1969-01-01

    Seventeen months' supplementation of the diet with vitamin C in elderly residents in an old persons' home failed to show any changes in sublingual lesions, which on histological examination proved to be aneurysmal dilatations of the venules. Nine months' supplementation of 40 to 80 mg. daily of vitamin C was necessary before the white-cell vitamin levels reached that found in younger people. There was a marked individual variation in response. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5781487

  12. Vitamin C supplementation in the elderly: a 17-month trial in an old persons' home.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J; Letcher, M; Brook, M

    1969-05-17

    Seventeen months' supplementation of the diet with vitamin C in elderly residents in an old persons' home failed to show any changes in sublingual lesions, which on histological examination proved to be aneurysmal dilatations of the venules. Nine months' supplementation of 40 to 80 mg. daily of vitamin C was necessary before the white-cell vitamin levels reached that found in younger people. There was a marked individual variation in response.

  13. The cryoprotective effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on bovine semen quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, J-H; Tian, W-Q; Zhao, X-L; Zan, L-S; Xin, Y-P; Li, Q-W

    2011-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin B(12) supplementation on standard bovine semen quality parameters and anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Vitamin B(12) was supplemented at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 mg/ml to bovine semen cryoprotective medium. The results indicated that the motility and straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, mean coefficient, velocity of the average path values of sperm supplemented with 2.50 mg/ml vitamin B(12) were significantly higher than that of other groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed for linearity index, lateral head displacement values and the percentage of grade A spermatozoa between the extenders containing 2.50 and 3.75 mg/ml vitamin B(12) (p>0.05). The percentages of acrosome-intact and plasma membrane-intact spermatozoa were significantly improved (p<0.05) by supplementing with 2.50 mg/ml vitamin B(12) . The results of biochemical assay revealed that vitamin B(12) supplementation did not cause significant changes in superoxide dismutase levels compared with control (p>0.05). However, the catalase levels were higher in the treatment supplemented with vitamin B(12) at 2.50 mg/ml, when compared with other groups (p<0.05). The extender supplemented with vitamin B(12) significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the control (p<0.05). The supplementation of 3.75 mg/ml vitamin B(12) caused the highest value of glutathione reductase activity, compared with other groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, the extender supplemented with vitamin B(12) could reduce the oxidative stress provoked by freezing-thawing and improve bovine semen quality. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacities of vitamin B(12) in cryopreserved bovine semen. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Vitamin D Supplementation and Depression in the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Powers, Sally I.; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L.; Millen, Amy E.; Bueche, Maria N.; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L.; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K.; Liu, Simin; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2012-01-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D3 combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995–2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression. PMID:22573431

  15. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  16. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of intermediates between vitamins K(2) and K(3) on mammalian DNA polymerase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Jun; Irino, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Masayuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Kuriyama, Isoko; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-02-10

    Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3) (VK(3)), but not VK(1) or VK(2) (=MK-4), inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK(2) and VK(3), namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK(3) was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC(50) value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK(2) and VK(3) intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.

  18. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenqiang; Malihi, Zarintaj; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene Mm; Scragg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence from previous qualitative reviews on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain. To determine with quantitative methods if vitamin D supplementation lowers pain levels. Quantitative meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This meta-analysis examined all studies involving the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain score. Electronic sources (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinical trials website, and Google scholar) were systematically searched for RCTs of vitamin D supplementation and pain from inception of each database to October 2015. Nineteen RCTs with 3,436 participants (1,780 on vitamin D supplementation and 1,656 on placebo) were included in the meta-analysis. For the primary outcome (mean change in pain score from baseline to final follow-up), 8 trials with 1,222 participants on vitamin D and 1,235 on placebo reported a significantly greater mean decrease in pain score for the vitamin D group compared to placebo (mean difference -0.57, 95% CI: -1.00 to -0.15, P = 0.007). The effect from vitamin D was greater in patients recruited with pre-existing pain (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Fourteen studies (1,548 on vitamin D, 1,430 on placebo) reported the mean pain score at final follow-up outcome, and no statistical difference was observed (mean difference -0.06, 95%CI: -0.44 to 0.33, P = 0.78). In 4 studies which reported pain improvement (209 on vitamin D, 146 on placebo), the effect size although not significant, shows participants in the vitamin D supplementation group were more likely to report pain improvement compared with the placebo group (relative risk 1.38, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.05, P = 0.11). Only a few studies reported the mean score change from baseline to final follow-up, and we do not have enough data to determine any modifying effect of baseline vitamin D status and different doses of vitamin D supplementation on pain. A significantly greater mean

  19. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita; Cuthbertson, David; Sorkio, Susa; Hyytinen, Mila; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Berseth, Carol; Salonen, Marja; Taback, Shayne; Franciscus, Margaret; González-Frutos, Teba; Korhonen, Tuuli E; Lawson, Margaret L; Becker, Dorothy J; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-04-01

    To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. Longitudinal study. Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months. Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia. Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80% of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (> 60%). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g., 71% v. 44% at 6 months of age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the U.S.A. and Australia very few were given supplementation.

  20. The association between vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use before hematopoietic stem cell transplant and outcomes to two years.

    PubMed

    Bruemmer, Barbara; Patterson, Ruth E; Cheney, Carrie; Aker, Saundra N; Witherspoon, Robert P

    2003-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of supplement use in persons before receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and the association of select supplements with outcomes. This observational cohort study included a questionnaire on supplement use before HSCT. Nonrelapse mortality, recurrence/relapse, and mortality or relapse (the inverse of disease-free survival) were followed to two years. Subjects/Setting Persons receiving HSCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between September 1994 and December 1997 were eligible (N=1,182). Statistical Analyses Performed Descriptive statistics and univariate and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-six percent of patients used supplements (31% vitamin C, 19% vitamin E, and 20% herbs or others preparations). Vitamin C at > or =500 mg/day was inversely associated with recurrence among persons with breast cancer (RR=0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.89; P=.03). However, among persons with acute leukemia, vitamin C at > or =500 mg/day was positively associated with nonrelapse mortality (RR=2.25; 95% CI, 1.33-3.83; P=.01) and mortality or relapse (RR=1.63; 95% CI, 1.09-2.44; P=.01), respectively. Vitamin E at > or =400 IU/day was positively associated with mortality or relapse (RR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.06 -2.96; P=.02). Applications/Conclusions Though this work was observational, the results suggest supplemental vitamin C before therapy may be beneficial in persons with breast cancer but both vitamin C and vitamin E may increase risk in persons with acute leukemia receiving HSCT. Practitioners should document supplement use in subjects receiving therapy for cancer.

  1. Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Flowers, Nadine; Wheelhouse, Rebecca; Ghannam, Obadah; Hartley, Louise; Stranges, Saverio; Rees, Karen

    2017-03-16

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient and powerful antioxidant. Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation as a single supplement for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases on 11 May 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase Classic and Embase (Ovid); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database in the Cochrane Library. We searched trial registers on 13 April 2016 and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of vitamin C supplementation as a single nutrient supplement lasting at least three months and involving healthy adults or adults at moderate and high risk of CVD were included. The comparison group was no intervention or placebo. The outcomes of interest were CVD clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We included eight trials with 15,445 participants randomised. The largest trial with 14,641 participants provided data on our primary outcomes. Seven trials reported on CVD risk factors. Three of the eight trials were regarded at high risk of bias for either reporting or attrition bias, most of the 'Risk of bias' domains for the remaining trials were judged as unclear, with the exception of the largest trial where most domains were judged to be at low risk of bias.The composite endpoint, major CVD events was not different between the vitamin C and placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval

  2. Vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induce monocytic differentiation and growth arrest along with the suppression of c-MYC expression and induction of cyclin G2 expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Maniwa, Yasuhisa; Kasukabe, Takashi; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2015-08-01

    Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a standard and effective drug used for differentiation therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia, ATRA-resistant leukemia cells ultimately emerge during this treatment. Therefore, the development of new drugs or effective combination therapy is urgently needed. We demonstrate that the combined treatment of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induced monocytic differentiation in HL-60 cells. This combined treatment also synergistically induced NBT-reducing activity and non-specific esterase-positive cells as well as morphological changes to monocyte/macrophage-like cells. Vitamin K2 and cotylenin A cooperatively inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in short-term and long-term cultures. This treatment also induced growth arrest at the G1 phase. Although 5 µg/ml cotylenin A or 5 µM vitamin K2 alone reduced c-MYC gene expression in HL-60 cells to approximately 45% or 80% that of control cells, respectively, the combined treatment almost completely suppressed c-MYC gene expression. We also demonstrated that the combined treatment of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induced the expression of cyclin G2, which had a positive effect on the promotion and maintenance of cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that the combination of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A has therapeutic value in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  3. Vitamin/Trace Mineral Supplements for the Elderly1

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    The fraction of population that is elderly has been increasing, as has the consumption of vitamin/trace mineral supplements, which is now a multibillion dollar industry. Yet the rationale for such supplement intake by the majority may be questioned. Some of the current recommendations for micronutrient intake by the elderly are extrapolations from recommendations made for younger adults, whereas other recommendations are based on measurements of biochemical indices not proven to reflect a deficient level in the elderly. Suggestions that the elderly need more than the recommended daily allowances largely rest on the assumption that they should have biochemical indices similar to younger adults despite decreased energy intake with decreased physical and metabolic activities of the elderly. Although some individuals require supplementation because of problems with intake, absorption, or metabolism, there is little or no proof that boosting micronutrient intake above what can be achieved in well-balanced diets, some of which already contain fortified foods, will lead to a healthier outcome for most elderly individuals. There is not only the potential for unnecessary and occasionally harmful excess administered to some, but there is a cost that now runs in the billions of dollars and adds to the costs of covering multiple chronic disease conditions. Hence, some caution should be exercised in public health promulgations concerning routine use of supplements for those in this age group (>65 y of age) and of both sexes until more research establishes clear connections between the need for micronutrients and nutrient-related health in the elderly. PMID:23153737

  4. Vitamin D supplementation in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of dosage and patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Kojecky, V; Adamikova, A; Klimek, P

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D substitution is recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Specific guidelines are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation with respect to dosage and patient compliance. A prospective cohort study of 167 Crohn disease/ulcerative colitis outpatients. Patients were screened for serum vitamin D (25OHD2+3) at the end of summer and in late winter. Demographic data, history of vitamin D supplementation were recorded and matched with prescription records. A total of 57 subjects used vitamin D supplementation (mean dose 1104 IU/day). 25OHD2+3 levels were lower (p < 0.001) in winter both in substituted and unsubstituted group, without any differences between groups within the same season. 25OHD2+3 levels did not correlate with the substitution dose. 52.1 % of subjects were fully compliant with substitution. 25OHD2+3 and prevalence of vitamin D deficit in this group were comparable with unsubstituted subjects except a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (p < 0.02). Fixed dosage of 1100 IU/day of vitamin D was insufficient to correct the deficiency. Patient compliance with vitamin D supplementation was low, however this fact did not significantly contribute to the degree of vitamin D deficiency in this dosage (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 21).

  5. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves heart rate variability in healthy elderly Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, S; Thomas, T; Antony, B; Vaz, M

    2012-05-21

    While vitamin B(12) deficiency is global, data in elderly Indians are lacking. The problem in India is likely to be higher because of vegetarianism and malabsorption related to gastro-intestinal parasites. Autonomic dysfunction is known to occur much earlier in pernicious anemia. However, what is not known is whether these changes are reflected in healthy elderly individuals. This study assessed cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy elderly individuals of low and high vitamin B(12) status and evaluated the effect of vitamin B(12) supplementation in those with low vitamin B(12) status. 140 elderly subjects aged ≥60 years were screened; 47 healthy subjects were assessed. They underwent blood sampling, anthropometry, HRV and nerve conduction assessment. Subjects were classified based on vitamin B(12) level (148 pmol/L) into deplete vitamin B(12) and replete vitamin B(12) groups. Elderly subjects with low vitamin B(12) status underwent cyanocobalamin supplementation (100 μg) for 3 months. Low frequency (LF) HRV in absolute units was significantly lower in the low vitamin B(12) group. Following supplementation, LF HRV in absolute units and total power rose significantly as compared to pre-supplementation values for the entire supplemented group. In conclusion, elderly with lower vitamin B(12) status have reduced low frequency HRV suggestive of sympathetic involvement. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) for 3 months results in a significant increase in low frequency HRV to values comparable with unsupplemented, but vitamin B(12) replete elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D supplementation, bone turnover, and inflammation in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Benguella, L; Arbault, A; Fillion, A; Blot, M; Piroth, C; Denimal, D; Duvillard, L; Ornetti, P; Chavanet, P; Maillefert, J-F; Piroth, L

    2018-04-13

    To assess whether vitamin D supplementation could be associated with a modification of inflammatory markers and bone turnover in HIV-1-infected patients. Patients who participated in an initial survey in 2010 and who were followed in the same department were included in a new study in 2012. Between 2010 and 2012, vitamin D supplementation was offered to patients presenting with hypovitaminosis D as per appropriate guidelines. Clinical examinations were performed, and fasting blood samples were taken for inflammation and bone marker evaluations. Of the 263 patients who participated in the 2010 study, 198 were included in the 2012 study. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 47% (36/77) of participants supplemented as per appropriate guidelines, in 78% (75/97) of transiently or incompletely supplemented participants, and in 71% (17/24) of non-supplemented participants (mainly because vitamin D levels in 2010 were normal). No significant correlation between vitamin D supplementation and the 2-year inflammation outcome (IL-6 and hsCRP) or C-terminal telopeptide levels was observed. However, a decrease in IL6 levels over the 2 years significantly correlated with reaching a normal vitamin D level (OR=0.89 per+1pg/mL IL6 increase, 95% CI=0.81-0.97, P=0.015). Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of hypovitaminosis D but does not decrease the risk of inflammation nor bone turnover, unless normal 25-OH vitamin D levels are reached. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The vitamin B6 paradox: Supplementation with high concentrations of pyridoxine leads to decreased vitamin B6 function.

    PubMed

    Vrolijk, Misha F; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Hageman, Geja J; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in many reactions involved in amino acid, carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Since 2014, >50 cases of sensory neuronal pain due to vitamin B6 supplementation were reported. Up to now, the mechanism of this toxicity is enigmatic and the contribution of the various B6 vitamers to this toxicity is largely unknown. In the present study, the neurotoxicity of the different forms of vitamin B6 is tested on SHSY5Y and CaCo-2 cells. Cells were exposed to pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, pyridoxal-5-phosphate or pyridoxamine-5-phosphate for 24h, after which cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. The expression of Bax and caspase-8 was tested after the 24h exposure. The effect of the vitamers on two pyridoxal-5-phosphate dependent enzymes was also tested. Pyridoxine induced cell death in a concentration-dependent way in SHSY5Y cells. The other vitamers did not affect cell viability. Pyridoxine significantly increased the expression of Bax and caspase-8. Moreover, both pyridoxal-5-phosphate dependent enzymes were inhibited by pyridoxine. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the neuropathy observed after taking a relatively high dose of vitamin B6 supplements is due to pyridoxine. The inactive form pyridoxine competitively inhibits the active pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Consequently, symptoms of vitamin B6 supplementation are similar to those of vitamin B6 deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Vitamin D levels and Vitamin D supplementation do not correlate with the severity of chronic eczema in children.

    PubMed

    Galli, E; Rocchi, L; Carello, R; Giampietro, P G; Panei, P; Meglio, P

    2015-03-01

    Eczema is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, affecting about 20% of children. The pathogenic mechanisms of eczema are still not fully understood, and current treatment of moderate-severe eczema is often difficult. Recently, it has been suggested that Vitamin D plays a key role in this disease, even if mechanisms are only partially known. The purpose of our study was to assess the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a pediatric population suffering from chronic eczema (IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated), and to correlate these phenotypes with the SCORAD severity and selected clinical and biological parameters. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate whether a supplementation of Vitamin D3 could affect the same clinical and laboratory parameters. 89 children with chronic eczema were enrolled in the study. Severity of eczema was assessed with the SCORAD index. Past and present history was taken, and patients were divided into two groups according to the state of sensitization. According to a randomization schedule, the enrolled children were assigned to the following groups: supplementation group, which received a daily oral Vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IUs) for 3 months; control group which received no supplementation. Vitamin D concentrations in patients with moderate and severe eczema were not statistically different from Vitamin D concentration detected in the serum of patients with mild eczema. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between Vitamin D levels, total IgEs and SCORAD index, both in the Sensitized and in the Not-Sensitized group. The Vitamin D3 supplementation did not influence the SCORAD severity or the total IgEs concentration. To our knowledge, our study is the first one that shows no correlation between serum levels of Vitamin D, eczema severity and IgE sensitization in a pediatric population suffering from chronic eczema.

  9. Prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use among Jordan University students.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahmad A; Alboqai, Omar K; Yasein, Nada; Al-Essa, Mohamed K; El Masri, Khader

    2008-09-01

    To determine the prevalence, reasons, source of information of vitamin-mineral supplement uses, and their relationship with selected demographic and lifestyle characteristics among Jordan University students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out at Jordan University, Amman, Jordan from March to September 2005. The survey included 1,187 students aged 17-28 years. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to recruit the participants from different majors at Jordan University. A self-administered questionnaire containing questions on use of vitamin-mineral supplement during the last year, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics was completed. The overall prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use during the last year reported by students was 27.4% (males 22%, and females 30.2%). Vitamin-mineral supplement use among university students was significantly (p<0.05) associated with age, gender, family monthly income, smoking status, physical activity, vegetarian status, and body mass index. The most frequently used supplements were multivitamins (10.4%) and multivitamins-multi minerals (10%). The most frequently given reason for supplement use was for treatment. The main frequently reported source of information was a physician (45.8%). The overall prevalence rate of vitamin-mineral supplement use is very low. Supplement users are more likely to be: females, nonsmokers, of higher income, physically active, vegetarians, and of normal body mass index. The main reason for supplement use is for treatment, and the major source of information on supplements is by physicians and pharmacists.

  10. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    PubMed

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  11. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Cihan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Yavuz, Dilek Gogas

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Sixty-seven vitamin-D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL) PCOS patients and 54 vitamin-D-deficient non-PCOS volunteer subjects matched for age and body mass index were enrolled to this prospective study. All participants were given 50 000 IU/week cholecalciferol orally for 8 weeks and 1500 IU/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI) based on an oral glucose tolerance test. Matsuda ISI, gonadal hormones (estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione), and 25(OH)D levels were studied before and at the end of the 12th week of vitamin D load. After vitamin D supplementation, serum androstenedione levels had decreased significantly (P = 0.007) and Matsuda ISI values had increased significantly (P = 0.001) in the PCOS group but no significant changes were seen in those parameters in controls. We observed positive correlations between 25(OH)D levels and Matsuda ISI (r = 0.307; P < 0.01), and negative correlations between 25(OH)D levels and total testosterone (r = -0.306; P < 0.01) and androstenedione (r = -0.275; P < 0.01) levels in the PCOS group. Vitamin D supplementation increased insulin sensitivity and decreased androgen levels in vitamin-D-deficient women with PCOS but did not have any effect in vitamin-D-deficient non-PCOS women. These results may indicate the possible role of vitamin D in the complex pathogenesis of PCOS. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Correction of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of newborn infants using daily 200 IU vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Onwuneme, C; Diya, B; Uduma, O; McCarthy, R A; Murphy, N; Kilbane, M T; McKenna, M J; Molloy, E J

    2016-08-01

    Although the role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets has long been well established, controversies still exist on the ideal dose of vitamin D supplementation in infants. We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status simultaneously in maternal and cord samples and the response to vitamin D3 supplementation in neonates. Serum 25OHD levels were evaluated from maternal, and umbilical cord samples from term normal pregnancies. Repeat 25OHD levels were assessed in neonates with 25OHD below 30 nmol/L following vitamin D3 200 IU daily after 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken including 57 cord samples and 16 follow-up neonatal samples. Maternal and cord serum 25OHD were 43 ± 21 and 29 ± 15 nmol/L, respectively. Infants with 25OHD < 30 nmol/L (19.8 ± 4.7 nmol/L) had a significant increase in serum 25OHD (63.3 ± 14.5 nmol/L) following vitamin D3 200 IU daily after 6 weeks. Healthy Irish infants born at term are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency, but vitamin D3 200 IU daily, rapidly corrects poor vitamin D status.

  13. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12 Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    PubMed

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B 12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from <0.1 μg to approximately 415 μg per 100 g of dry weight. Subsequent liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses showed the presence of inactive corrinoid compounds, a cobalt-free corrinoid, and 5-methoxybenzimidazolyl cyanocobamide (factor IIIm) in four and three high vitamin B 12 -containing Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B 12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B 12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B 12 for growth despite vitamin B 12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B 12 -dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B 12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B 12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B 12 -generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B 12 -synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  14. Vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and response to moderate vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomised controlled trial in East African and Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Öhman, Taina; Skaffari, Essi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Insufficient vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D)0·05 for differences between ethnic groups). In conclusion, high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency existed among East African women living in Finland, despite higher vitamin D intake than their Finnish peers. Moderate vitamin D3 supplementation was effective in increasing S-25(OH)D in both groups of women, and no ethnic differences existed in the response to supplementation.

  15. The role of vitamin supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag K; Huang, Jennifer; Lokhandwala, Adil; Fernandez, Aaron; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Alpert, Joseph S

    2014-09-01

    The production, sale, and consumption of multiple vitamins is a multibillion-dollar industry. Most Americans take some form of supplement ostensibly for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It has been claimed that vitamin A retards atherogenesis. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is thought to possibly decrease free radical-induced endothelial injury, which can lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Vitamin E has been extensively studied for its possible effects on platelet function as well as inhibition of foam-cell formation. Low levels of vitamin D have been thought to negatively impact myocardial structure and increase the risk for cardiovascular events. Increased intake of vitamin B6, B12, and folate has been associated with reduction of homocysteine levels; elevated homocysteine blood levels have been associated with the occurrence of stroke, heart attack, and cardiovascular death. The purpose of this study was to review the currently available literature for vitamin supplementation with respect to prevention of cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the current evidence suggests no benefit exists with vitamin supplementation in the general US population. Further research is needed to evaluate whether there are specific populations that might benefit from vitamin supplementation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation and growth in urban Mongol school children: Results from two randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Stuart, Jennifer J.; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Giovannucci, Edward; Kleinman, Ken; Holick, Michael F.; Willett, Walter C.; Frazier, Lindsay A.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Symptomatic vitamin D deficiency is associated with slowed growth in children. It is unknown whether vitamin D repletion in children with asymptomatic serum vitamin D deficiency can restore normal growth. Objective We tested the impact of vitamin D-supplementation on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and short-term growth in Mongol children, with very low serum vitamin D levels in winter. Design We conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in urban school age children without clinical signs of rickets. The Supplementation Study was a 6-month intervention with an 800 IU vitamin D3 supplement daily, compared with placebo, in 113 children aged 12–15 years. A second study, the Fortification Study, was a 7-week intervention with 710 ml of whole milk fortified with 300 IU vitamin D3 daily, compared with unfortified milk, in 235 children aged 9–11 years. Results At winter baseline, children had low vitamin D levels, with a mean (±SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration of 7.3 (±3.9) ng/ml in the Supplementation Study and 7.5 (±3.8) ng/ml in the Fortification Study. The serum levels increased in both vitamin D groups—by 19.8 (±5.1) ng/ml in the Supplementation Study, and 19.7 (±6.1) ng/ml in the Fortification Study. Multivariable analysis showed a 0.9 (±0.3 SE) cm greater increase in height in the vitamin-D treated children, compared to placebo treated children, in the 6-month Supplementation Study (p = 0.003). Although the children in the 7-week Fortification Study intervention arm grew 0.2 (±0.1) cm more, on average, than placebo children this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2). There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplements on differences in changes in weight or body mass index in either trial. For the Fortification Study, girls gained more weight than boys while taking vitamin D 3 (p-value for interaction = 0.03), but sex was not an effect modifier of the

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency, Its Role in Health and Disease, and Current Supplementation Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pfotenhauer, Kim M; Shubrook, Jay H

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a common metabolic/endocrine abnormality. Despite known dietary sources of vitamin D and the role of sunlight in its production, much of the US population may have inadequate levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Deficiency of vitamin D can be caused by a variety of health conditions, but studies on the effects of vitamin D supplements have had mixed results. This evidence-based clinical review discusses what is currently known about vitamin D and what areas need further research to clarify its role in health and disease.

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Have a Nutritionally Significant Impact on Micronutrient Intakes of Older Adults Attending Senior Centers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, though the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. Despite possible improvements in dietary intake, concern remains over potential excessive nutrient consumption from VM supplement us...

  19. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodda, C P; Benson, J E; Vincent, A J; Whitehead, C L; Polykov, A; Vollenhoven, B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin D supplementation, in the vitamin D deficient mother, prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Open-label randomized controlled trial. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, tertiary hospital routine antenatal outpatient clinic. Seventy-eight women with singleton pregnancies with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (serum 25-OH Vit D < 75 nmol/l) at their first antenatal appointment at 12-16-week gestation were recruited. Participants were randomized to vitamin D supplementation (2000-4000 IU cholecalciferol) orally daily until delivery or no supplementation. The primary outcome was neonatal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. The secondary outcome was maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. Baseline mean maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentrations were similar (P = 0·9) between treatment (32 nmol/l, 95% confidence interval 26-39 nmol/l) and control groups (33 nmol/l, 95% CI 26-39 nmol/l). Umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in neonates of treatment group mothers (81 nmol/l, 95% CI; 70-91 nmol/l) compared with neonates of control group mothers (42 nmol/l, 95% CI; 34-50 nmol/l) with a strongly positive correlation between maternal serum 25-OH Vit D and umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0·88; P < 0·0001). Mean maternal serum 25-OH Vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in the treatment group (71 nmol/l, 95% CI; 62-81 nmol/l) compared with the control group (36 nmol/l, 95% CI; 29-42 nmol/l). Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D deficient pregnant women prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Factors influencing on the Silesian University students' decisions concerning purchasing of vitamin and mineral food supplements].

    PubMed

    Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.

  1. Efficacy of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases: meta-analysis of three randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideo; Takeda, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Patients with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke and Parkinson's disease have been reported to have vitamin K deficiency secondary to malnutrition, which increases the risk of non-vertebral and hip fractures. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of menatetrenone (vitamin K(2)) against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases. A literature search was conducted on PubMed from January 1995 to July 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of use of menatetrenone against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases. A meta-analysis of all RCTs meeting these criteria was then performed. Three RCTs of patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 178, mean age 78 years), stroke (n = 99, mean age 66 years) and Parkinson's disease (n = 110, mean age 72 years) met the criteria for meta-analysis. These RCTs did not include placebo controls but did have non-treatment controls. According to the meta-analysis, the overall relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for non-vertebral and hip fractures with menatetrenone treatment compared with non-treatment were 0.13 (0.05, 0.35) and 0.14 (0.05, 0.43), respectively, in patients with neurological diseases. No severe adverse events were reported with menatetrenone treatment. The present meta-analysis of three RCTs suggests that there is efficacy for menatetrenone treatment against non-vertebral and hip fractures among patients with neurological diseases. Further larger placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the results of the present study.

  2. Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis and the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Calcification Using 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance: The BASIK2 Rationale and Trial Design.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Mourik, Manouk J W; Meex, Steven J R; Bucerius, Jan; Schalla, Simon M; Gerretsen, Suzanne C; Mihl, Casper; Dweck, Marc R; Schurgers, Leon J; Wildberger, Joachim E; Crijns, Harry J G M; Kietselaer, Bas L J H

    2018-03-21

    BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression. Being a vitamin K dependent protein, supplementation with MK7 is a pharmacological option for activating MGP and intervening in the progression of CAVS. Forty-four subjects with BAV and mild-moderate CAVS will be included in the study, and baseline 18 F-sodiumfluoride ( 18 F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET)/ magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) assessments will be performed. Thereafter, subjects will be randomized (1:1) to MK7 (360 mcg/day) or placebo. During an 18-month follow-up period, subjects will visit the hospital every 6 months, undergoing a second 18 F-NaF PET/MR after 6 months and CT after 6 and 18 months. The primary endpoint is the change in PET/MR 18 F-NaF uptake (6 months minus baseline) compared to this delta change in the placebo arm. The main secondary endpoints are changes in calcium score (CT), progression of the left ventricularremodeling response and CAVS severity (echocardiography). We will also examine the association between early calcification activity (PET) and later changes in calcium score (CT).

  3. Relationship between megadose vitamin supplementation and immunological function in a healthy elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J S; Garry, P J

    1983-01-01

    We studied the immunological effects of 'megadose' vitamin or mineral supplementation by comparing the immunological functions of healthy elderly subjects taking large amounts of specific nutrients to similar subjects not on supplements. There was a non-significant trend for those subjects taking megadoses of vitamin C to have increased cell-mediated immune responses as measured in vivo by skin test reactivity but not by in vitro mitogen responses. In addition, subjects taking megadoses of vitamin E or any of several B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, folate and niacin) had lower absolute circulating lymphocyte counts than did the rest of the population. The relative lack of effect of megadose vitamins on immunological function in this population compared to reports of short term trials of mega nutrients raises the possibility that some of the previously reported immuno-enhancing properties of megadose vitamins may be due to a non-specific adjuvant effect that disappears with time. PMID:6851251

  4. Vitamin D: Are We Ready to Supplement for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Crew, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Preclinical studies support various antitumor effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Numerous observational studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin D status, including circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and breast cancer risk. The relationship between vitamin D and mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remains unclear. Studies analyzing the link between genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes and breast cancer incidence and prognosis have yielded inconsistent results. Vitamin D deficiency among breast cancer patients has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes and increased mortality. Despite a number of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, the efficacy, optimal dosage of vitamin D, and target blood level of 25(OH)D for breast cancer prevention have yet to be determined. Even with substantial literature on vitamin D and breast cancer, future studies need to focus on gaining a better understanding of the biologic effects of vitamin D in breast tissue. Despite compelling data from experimental and observational studies, there is still insufficient data from clinical trials to make recommendations for vitamin D supplementation for breast cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23533810

  5. Exploring knowledge and attitudes towards counselling about vitamin supplements in Jordanian community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Shilbayeh, Sireen A.

    The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate. Objective This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordanian community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire. Setting: Community pharmacies in Amman with target sample of 400 pharmacists. Results A total of 388 pharmacists participated in this study. The majority (77.8%) of pharmacists believed that a balanced diet is more achievable by eating healthily than by vitamins supplements. 78.1% of participants believed that vitamins deficiency would not shorten life spans, while 80.7% agreed that vitamin supplements could be toxic or might contain unlabelled harmful ingredients. Less than half of pharmacists were aware that some antioxidant vitamins have been verified to be of unproven value, or may even cause cancer. While over 80% of pharmacists would recommend vitamins on a regular basis without prescription, the majority agreed that counselling on vitamin supplements is part of their role in pharmaceutical care (93.3%), in addition to providing relevant information to other healthcare professionals (78.4%). Moreover, responses to specific knowledge questions, such as the interactions of vitamins with drugs or the recommended dietary allowance of vitamins for infants, children, and pregnant women, were negative. Furthermore, only a minority of pharmacists would recheck the accuracy of dose regimens in prescriptions and symptoms of true vitamins deficiency or would follow up patients to record any consequences of vitamins consumption. Conclusions The questionnaire revealed satisfactory awareness of community pharmacists about their role in counselling; however, further

  6. "Test me and treat me"--attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-07-14

    Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Qualitative focus group study. 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. A large general practice in east London. Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of "doses", "side effects" and "regular testing." Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  8. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g), their vitamin A status does not improve substantially. Unknown is the impact of urinary retinol excretion on the serum retinol concentration in these infants. Therefore, the effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P < 0.01) under vitamin A supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P < 0.01), but not in the control group (P = 0.570). High urinary retinol excretion may limit the vitamin A supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  9. Vitamin D Supplementation, Glycemic Control, and Insulin Resistance in Prediabetics: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Mazidi, Mohsen; Kimball, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes prevention is a public health priority. Vitamin D supplementation may help prevent the development of diabetes in persons at increased risk. We performed a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials that assessed glycemic outcome measures among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes, including prediabetes, overweight, or obesity. We searched PUBMED/ MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases for trials published prior to April 2017. Placebo-controlled clinical trials with random allocation to vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation were selected. Data collection included country, study design, inclusion criteria, sample size, form, and dose of vitamin D, supplementation interval, control group, duration, participant characteristics, comorbidities, baseline and follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, and available outcome measures [glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, plasma glucose after 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Data synthesis was conducted using random-effect models (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017055326). Twenty-eight trials, representing 3848 participants, met the eligibility criteria. Compared with the control group, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c level by –0.48% (95% CI, –0.79 to –0.18), fasting plasma glucose level by –0.46 mmol/L (95% CI, –0.74 to –0.19), and HOMA-IR level by –0.39 (95% CI, –0.68 to –0.11). Subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of vitamin D supplementation on different glycemic measures were influenced by age, calcium coadministration, vitamin D deficiency, serum 25(OH)D level after supplementation, and duration of supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation and improved vitamin D status improved glycemic measures and insulin sensitivity and may be useful as part of a preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes.

  10. The Canadian Home Total Parenteral Nutrition (HTPN) Registry: vitamin K supplementation and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Aljarallah, Badr; Fernandes, Gail; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N; Gramlich, Leah M; Whittaker, J S; Armstrong, David; Duerksen, Don R; Allard, Johane P

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin K supplementation improves bone health, and its absence might be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The authors aim to assess vitamin K supplementation practices in Canadian home parenteral nutrition (HPN) programs and their relationship with BMD. This is a cross-sectional study of 189 patients from the Canadian HPN registry. All 189 patients studied received M.V.I.-12, which does not contain vitamin K. Of those, 41.3% were supplemented with 10 mg of intravenous vitamin K (VK+) weekly, whereas the others did not receive vitamin K except via lipid emulsion (VK-). Short bowel syndrome accounted for 69% of VK+ and 46% of VK- patients. On univariate analysis, VK+ patients had substantially lower body mass index (BMI) and received lower bisphosphonate infusion than did VK-patients. There were no statistically significant differences in HPN calcium or lipid content, liver function test results, age, sex, or reason for HPN between the 2 groups. Patients who were VK+ had higher lumbar spine T scores and hip T scores than did VK-patients. General linear modeling analysis, adjusted for BMI, age, PN magnesium, PN phosphate, PN calcium, and bisphosphonate as possible predictors of BMD, showed a trend toward better hip T scores (P = .063) for VK+ patients compared with VK- patients. In HPN patients supplemented with vitamin K, the trend toward a better hip BMD compared with no supplementation suggests a role for vitamin K in preserving BMD. This requires further study.

  11. Amelioration of carcinogenesis and tumor growth in the rat liver by combination of vitamin K2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor via anti-angiogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Junichi; Ikenaka, Yasuhide; Yanase, Koji; Namisaki, Tadashi; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Yamazaki, Masaharu; Akahane, Takemi; Asada, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhito; Uemura, Masahito; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and tumor growth. We previously reported that the clinically used vitamin K(2) (VK) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) exerted potent anti-angiogenic activities. The aim of our current study was to examine the combination effect of VK and ACE-I on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethyl-nitrosamine, and orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth in rats. When used individually, both VK and ACE-I at clinically comparable low doses exerted significant inhibitory effects on tumor development in the liver. A combination treatment of VK and ACE-I showed a more potent suppressive effect against hepatocarcinogenesis. Neovascularization increased during hepatocarcinogenesis, and VK and ACE-I significantly attenuated angiogenesis in the tumor. In orthotopic HCC transplantation, VK and ACE-I also showed marked suppressive effects against HCC development similar to those against hepatocarcinogenesis. In both experiments, the suppressive effects of VK and ACE-I against angiogenesis were similar in magnitude to their inhibitory effects against hepatocarcinogenesis and orthotopic HCC development. In the orthotopic model, VK and ACE-I treatment resulted in a marked increase of apoptosis in the tumor, whereas tumor cell proliferation itself was not altered. Since both VK and ACE-I are widely used in clinical practice without serious side effects, this combination therapy may be an effective new therapeutic strategy against hepatocarcinogenesis and HCC growth in the future.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma Smmc-7721 cells by vitamin K(2) is associated with p53 and independent of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Qi, Zhiling; Qian, Jin; Bi, Fuyong; Lv, Jun; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hongyu; Jia, Renbing

    2010-09-01

    Vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) can exert cell growth inhibitory effects in various human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the cell growth inhibitory effects of VK(2) in hepatocellular carcinoma Smmc-7721 cells and the mechanisms involved. We found that VK(2)-inhibited cell proliferation in Smmc-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of VK(2) in Smmc-7721 cells was 9.73 microM at 24 h. The data from flow cytometric analyses, DNA fragmentation assays, and caspase 3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was the determining factor in VK(2) activity. Furthermore, a significant increase in p53 phosphorylation and protein level was exhibited in apoptotic cells treated with VK(2), although there were no changes in p53 mRNA expression. Bax expression was unaffected by VK(2) in Smmc-7721 cells. In addition, our study showed that caspase 3 was activated by caspase 8, not caspase 9, in Smmc-7721 cells treated with VK(2). In summary, these data suggested that VK(2) can inhibit the growth of Smmc-7721 cells by induction of apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation and p53. This apoptotic process was not mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  13. Vitamin K2, a menaquinone present in dairy products targets castration-resistant prostate cancer cell-line by activating apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Subramanyam; Samy, Angela Lincy Prem Antony; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Bosland, Maarten C; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vitamin K2 (VK2) on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and its anti-cancer mechanisms in a pre-clinical study using a VCaP cell line (ATCC ® CRL-2876™) which was established from a vertebral bone metastasis from a patient with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Our data showed that VK2 significantly inhibited CRPC VCaP cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h treatment in vitro. In addition, VK2 reduced the migration potential of VCaP cells and inhibited anchorage-independent growth of these cells. Our results also showed that VK2 induces apoptosis in VCaP cells. Furthermore, VK2 enforced growth arrest in VCaP cells by activating cellular senescence. Notably, VK2 treatment elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species in VCaP cells. Western blot analysis revealed that VK2 downregulated the expression of androgen receptor, BiP, survivin, while activating caspase-3 and -7, PARP-1 cleavage, p21 and DNA damage response marker, phospho-H2AX in VCaP cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that VK2 might be a potential anti-cancer agent for CRPC by specifically targeting key anti-apoptotic, cell cycle progression and metastasis-promoting signaling molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin C and E chronic supplementation differentially affect hepatic insulin signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mennatallah A; Eid, Rania M H M; Hanafi, Mervat Y

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin C and vitamin E supplementations and their beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been subjected to countless controversial data. Hence, our aim is to investigate the hepatic molecular mechanisms of any diabetic predisposing risk of the chronic administration of different doses of vitamin E or vitamin C in rats. The rats were supplemented with different doses of vitamin C or vitamin E for eight months. Vitamin C and vitamin E increased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA). Vitamin C disrupted glucose tolerance by attenuating upstream hepatic insulin action through impairing the phosphorylation and activation of insulin receptor and its subsequent substrates; however, vitamin E showed its effect downstream insulin receptor in the insulin signaling pathway, reducing hepatic glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylated protein kinase (p-Akt). Moreover, both vitamins showed their antioxidant capabilities [nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), total and reduced glutathione] and their negative effect on Wnt pathway [phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β)], by altering the previously mentioned parameters, inevitably leading to severe reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) below the physiological levels. In conclusion, a detrimental effect of chronic antioxidant vitamins supplementation was detected; leading to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance obviously through different mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that the conventional view that vitamins promote health benefits and delay chronic illnesses and aging should be modified or applied with caution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Determinants of vitamin D status in adult Crohn's disease patients, with particular emphasis on supplemental vitamin D use.

    PubMed

    Gilman, J; Shanahan, F; Cashman, K D

    2006-07-01

    To investigate determinants (pathophysiologic and physiologic, behavioural and lifestyle) of vitamin D status in Irish Crohn's disease (CD) patients. A cross-sectional observational study. Cork City, Ireland (52 degrees N). Crohn's Disease patients (n=58; mean age 38.1 years) were recruited from Cork University Hospital. Fifty and nineteen percent of Irish CD patients were vitamin D deficient (defined by serum 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH) D levels <50 nmol/l) during winter and summer, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that summer-time serum 25 (OH) D levels were positively associated with use of vitamin D supplements (P=0.033) and negatively associated with smoking (P=0.006) and being male (P=0.063). During winter-time, use of vitamin D supplements (P=0.041) and sun habits (P=0.066) were positively associated, whereas small intestinal involvement (P=0.005) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.083) were negatively associated with serum 25 (OH) D levels. There was no significant association between other non-pathophysiologic (age, dietary calcium or vitamin D) or pathophysiologic factors (steroid use, resection), and serum 25 (OH) D levels, at either season. Approximately 41 and 60% of the total variation in summer- and winter-time serum 25 (OH) D, respectively, was explained by this model. A high proportion of Irish CD patents had some level of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l) during late-wintertime. Use of regular low-dose supplemental vitamin D, particularly by patients with small intestinal involvement, cessation of smoking and adequate, but responsible, exposure to summer sunlight as well as maintaining BMI in the normal range could help maintain adequate vitamin D levels during wintertime.

  16. Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Laxmi Madhikarmi, Nirjala; Rudraiah Siddalinga Murthy, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved. PMID:24518548

  17. Impact of iron and vitamin C-containing supplements on preterm human milk: in vitro.

    PubMed

    Friel, James K; Diehl-Jones, William L; Suh, Miyoung; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Shirwadkar, Vaibhav P

    2007-05-15

    Stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to neonatal diseases, such as necrotizing enterocolitis and respiratory distress. Enteral supplements for premature infants (PREM) added to human milk (HM) to increase nutrient content may induce lipid oxidation due to free radical formation via Fenton chemistry. We hypothesized that ferrous iron and vitamin C-containing supplements added to HM in vitro cause oxidation of milk fats, affect intracellular redox balance, and induce DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation in HM was measured by FOX-2 and TBARS assays; fatty acid composition of supplemented HM was measured by gas chromatography. Two cell culture bioassays were used for assessing either intracellular oxidative stress or DNA damage: the former involved Caco-2BBe cells, a secondary differentiated cell line, and the latter utilized FHS-74 Int cells, a primary fetal small intestinal culture. Lipid oxidation products of HM increased after the addition of iron alone, iron and vitamin C, or iron and a vitamin C-containing supplement (Trivisol, TVS). A reduced content of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in HM was also observed. Iron, not iron+vitamin C, but iron+TVS induced significant intracellular oxidative stress in FHS-74 Int cells. In contrast, iron, either alone or in combination with TVS or vitamin C, increased DNA damage in Caco-2BBE cells. Iron supplementation may increase oxidative stress in PREM infants and should be given separately from vitamin C-containing supplements.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation increases calcium absorption without a threshold effect

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The maximal calcium absorption in response to vitamin D has been proposed as a biomarker for vitamin D sufficiency. Our objective was to determine whether there is a threshold beyond which increasing doses of vitamin D, or concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], no longer increase cal...

  19. Vitamin D status in autism spectrum disorders and the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed A; Elserogy, Yasser M; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman A; Cannell, John J; Bjørklund, Geir; Abdel-Reheim, Mohamed K; Othman, Hisham A K; El-Houfey, Amira A; Abd El-Aziz, Nafisa H R; Abd El-Baseer, Khaled A; Ahmed, Ahmed E; Ali, Ahmed M

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. Vitamin-D deficiency was previously reported in autistic children. However, the data on the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of autism are limited. We performed a case-controlled cross-sectional analysis conducted on 122 ASD children, to assess their vitamin D status compared to controls and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of autism. We also conducted an open trial of vitamin D supplementation in ASD children. Fifty-seven percent of the patients in the present study had vitamin D deficiency, and 30% had vitamin D insufficiency. The mean 25-OHD levels in patients with severe autism were significantly lower than those in patients with mild/moderate autism. Serum 25-OHD levels had significant negative correlations with Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. Of the ASD group, 106 patients with low-serum 25-OHD levels (<30 ng/ml) participated in the open label trial. They received vitamin D3 (300 IU/kg/day not to exceed 5000 IU/day) for 3 months. Eighty-three subjects completed 3 months of daily vitamin D treatment. Collectively, 80.72% (67/83) of subjects who received vitamin D3 treatment had significantly improved outcome, which was mainly in the sections of the CARS and aberrant behavior checklist subscales that measure behavior, stereotypy, eye contact, and attention span. Vitamin D is inexpensive, readily available and safe. It may have beneficial effects in ASD subjects, especially when the final serum level is more than 40 ng/ml. UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial Number: R000016846.

  20. Effect of additional vitamin E and zinc supplementation on immunological changes in peripartum Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Chandra, G; Aggarwal, A; Kumar, M; Singh, A K; Sharma, V K; Upadhyay, R C

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to exploit ameliorative effect of additional vitamin E and/or zinc supplementation on immune response of peripartum Sahiwal cows. Thirty-two pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were blocked into four treatment groups (n = 8), namely control, zinc (Zn), vitamin E (Vit E) and zinc + vitamin E (Zn + Vit E). Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that the Sahiwal cows in the zinc-, vitamin E- and zinc + vitamin E-fed groups were additionally supplemented with 60 mg Zn/kg DM, 1000 IU vitamin E and 60 mg/kg + 1000 IU Zn + vitamin E, respectively, from day 60 pre-partum to day 90 post-partum. Blood samples were collected on days -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, -3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 with respect to day of parturition and analysed for total immunoglobulin (TIG), immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-2 (IL-2), vitamin E (Vit E) and zinc (Zn) status. Before calving, cows showed a decrease in plasma TIG, IgG, IL-2, Vit E and Zn levels. However, increased levels of plasma TIG, IgG, IL-2, Vit E and Zn were observed after calving. After calving, Sahiwal cows supplemented with Zn + Vit E had higher plasma TIG, IgG and IL-2 in comparison with cows of control and Zn + Vit E-fed groups. In the present study, plasma vitamin E level was higher in Vit E-fed and Zn + Vit E-fed cows; however, zinc level was higher in Zn- and Zn + Vit E-supplemented cows. In conclusion, a reduced immune response during peripartum period in Sahiwal cows was ameliorated by dietary vitamin E and zinc supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. B vitamin supplementation improves cognitive function in the middle aged and elderly with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daomei; Kong, Haiyan; Pang, Wei; Yang, Hongpeng; Lu, Hao; Huang, Chengyu; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-12-01

    An intervention study was performed to determine if supplement containing folic acid, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 could improve cognitive function and lower homocysteine in middle-aged and elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. One hundred and four participants with hyperhomocysteinemia were recruited in Tianjin, China, aged 55-94 years old. Fifty-seven individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia were included in the intervention group (vitamin B group, which received 800 µg/day of folate, with 10 mg of vitamin B 6 and 25 µg of vitamin B 12 ) and 47 patients in the placebo group. The endpoint was the improvement in cognitive function as evaluated by Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests (BCATs). All parameters were measured before and after the treatment period of 14 weeks. The BCAT total score and four sub-tests scores (digit copy, Chinese character rotation, digital working memory, and recognition of meaningless figure) of BCAT at 14 weeks significantly increased only for the vitamin B group. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels significantly decreased in the intervention group, while serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 significantly increased in the intervention group. The results demonstrated that supplement containing folate, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 in middle-aged and elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia could improve their cognitive function partly and reduce serum tHcy levels.

  2. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Dustin, Laurie; Mahrer, Peter R; Azen, Stanley P; Detrano, Robert; Selhub, Jacob; Alaupovic, Petar; Liu, Chao-ran; Liu, Ci-hua; Hwang, Juliana; Wilcox, Alison G; Selzer, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    Although plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, it remains unclear whether homocysteine is a cause or a marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. We determined whether reduction of tHcy levels with B vitamin supplementation reduces subclinical atherosclerosis progression. In this double-blind clinical trial, 506 participants 40 to 89 years of age with an initial tHcy >8.5 micromol/L without diabetes and cardiovascular disease were randomized to high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B(12)+50 mg vitamin B(6)) or matching placebo for 3.1 years. Subclinical atherosclerosis progression across 3 vascular beds was assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to measure carotid artery intima media thickness (primary outcome) and multidetector spiral CT to measure aortic and coronary artery calcium (secondary outcome). Although the overall carotid artery intima media thickness progression rate was lower with B vitamin supplementation than with placebo, statistically significant between-group differences were not found (P=0.31). However, among subjects with baseline tHcy >or=9.1 micromol/L, those randomized to B vitamin supplementation had a statistically significant lower average rate of carotid artery intima media thickness progression compared with placebo (P=0.02); among subjects with a baseline tHcy <9.1 micromol/L, there was no significant treatment effect (probability value for treatment interaction=0.02). B vitamin supplementation had no effect on progression of aortic or coronary artery calcification overall or within subgroups. High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >or=9.1 micromol/L.

  3. Supplementation with multivitamins and vitamin A and incidence of malaria among HIV-infected Tanzanian women.

    PubMed

    Olofin, Ibironke O; Spiegelman, Donna; Aboud, Said; Duggan, Christopher; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2014-12-01

    HIV and malaria infections occur in the same individuals, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether daily multivitamin supplementation (vitamins B complex, C, and E) or vitamin A supplementation altered malaria incidence in HIV-infected women of reproductive age. HIV-infected pregnant Tanzanian women recruited into the study were randomly assigned to daily multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), vitamin A alone, both multivitamins and vitamin A, or placebo. Women received malaria prophylaxis during pregnancy and were followed monthly during the prenatal and postpartum periods. Malaria was defined in 2 ways: presumptive diagnosis based on a physician's or nurse's clinical judgment, which in many cases led to laboratory investigations, and periodic examination of blood smears for malaria parasites. Multivitamin supplementation compared with no multivitamins significantly lowered women's risk of presumptively diagnosed clinical malaria (relative risk: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.67 to 0.92), although multivitamins increased their risk of any malaria parasitemia (relative risk: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 1.50). Vitamin A supplementation did not change malaria incidence during the study. Multivitamin supplements have been previously shown to reduce HIV disease progression among HIV-infected women, and consistent with that, these supplements protected against development of symptomatic malaria. The clinical significance of increased risk of malaria parasitemia among supplemented women deserves further research, however. Preventive measures for malaria are warranted as part of an integrated approach to the care of HIV-infected individuals exposed to malaria.

  4. Vitamin D3 supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-03-01

    The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

  5. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  6. Factors Associated with Vitamin D Testing, Deficiency, Intake, and Supplementation in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Manasi; Vanlint, Simon; Moseley, G Lorimer; Mittinty, Murthy N; Stocks, Nigel

    2017-11-02

    Vitamin D deficiency is a public health issue, with reports of six- to twenty-five-fold rise in vitamin D testing. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, depression, and chronic pain. Identifying factors associated with risk of deficiency in individuals with chronic pain will help minimize time and cost. This study aims to examine the factors associated with vitamin D testing, intake, and physician-advised supplementation in individuals with chronic pain. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 465 individuals with chronic pain. These data were analyzed using penalized logistic regression with the LASSO technique. Fifty-seven percent reported being tested for vitamin D, about 40% reported being diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency, and of those who had been tested, 60% reported taking vitamin D supplementation. The findings suggest older age (OR 3.12, CI [1.02, 9.50]) and higher mean pain intensity score (OR 2.02, CI [1.13, 3.59]) increased an individual's chance of being vitamin D deficient. Unemployment or on leave due to pain (OR 1.79, [CI 1.03, 3.11]), part-time employment (OR 1.86, CI [1.02, 3.39]), and being a resident of Australia (OR 2.32, CI [1.13, 4.72]) increased chances of being tested for vitamin D. Being diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency (OR 6.67, CI [2.75, 16.19]), unemployed or on leave due to pain (OR 3.71, CI [1.25, 11.00]), and in part-time employment (OR 2.69, CI [0.86, 8.38]) were associated with physician-advised vitamin D supplementation. Our results may have practical implications, as identifying pretest risk factors may assist in identifying who is at risk of vitamin D deficiency, whom to test, and when to treat.

  7. Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OH)D and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. We measured cord serum 25(OH)D levels, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and their changes o...

  8. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  9. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on the growth of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Ibiyo, Lenient M O; Madu, Chuka T; Eze, Stanley S

    2006-08-01

    A 12-week growth experiment was conducted to establish the necessity of vitamin C in the nutrition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Vitamin C was supplemented at levels of 0 and 50 mg x kg(-1) to a basal diet (42.5% CP), which was fed to triplicate groups of H. longifilis fingerlings. Fish receiving the vitamin C-supplemented diet had significantly improved weight gain (20.7 vs. 16.7 g per fish), feed efficiency ratio (1.03 vs. 1.42), specific growth rate (3.00 vs. 2.74%), protein efficiency ratio (2.26 vs. 1.64), and survival rate (90% vs. 50%). There was a significant decrease in haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of fish fed no supplemental vitamin C. Furthermore, this group exhibited retarded growth and pathological changes such as vertebral curvature, condensation associated with fragility of the spinal bones. Supplementation of 50 mg vitamin C per kg diet was adequate to prevent the occurrence of vitamin C deficiency in H. longifilis and it was concluded that vitamin C is essential in the nutrition of these fishes.

  10. Vitamin E and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in schizophrenia patients treated with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Bošković, Marija; Vovk, Tomaž; Koprivšek, Jure; Plesničar, Blanka Kores; Grabnar, Iztok

    2016-05-01

    Previously, oxidative damage has been associated with severity of clinical symptoms and supplementation with antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) was proposed to have beneficial effects in schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of supplementation with EPUFAs and vitamin E in patients treated with haloperidol depot injection. This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study with four arms (Placebo, vitamin E, EPUFAs, and vitamin E + EPUFAs). Biomarkers of oxidative stress, neurochemistry, psychopathology, and extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 4 months. In EPUFAs group of patients, reduced glutathione concentration was increased compared to placebo. Concentration of oxidized glutathione was decreased in patients receiving vitamin E. In addition, compared to placebo a non-significant trend of increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in all three treatment groups. Patients receiving vitamin E experienced less motor retardation. No difference in extrapyramidal symptoms was found. Our study indicates that supplementation with vitamin E and EPUFAs may improve the antioxidative defense, especially glutathione system, while there is no major effect on symptoms severity. Supplemental treatment with EPUFAs and vitamin E in schizophrenia patients treated with haloperidol is potentially beneficial and a larger independent study appears warranted.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation for osteoporosis in older adults: can we make it help better?

    PubMed

    Dong, C-H; Gao, Q-M; Wang, Z-M; Wang, A-M; Zhen, P

    2016-11-01

    With the increase of the average age of our population, the incidence of diseases specific for older adults has been increasing. One of such diseases is osteoporosis. The true incidence of osteoporosis is unknown. But the estimates indicate that this disease affects wide proportions of the population, ranging in millions or even ten millions in large countries like the United States. As this poses a significant burden on the health care system, interventions that could prevent or treat this condition are in the focus of clinical research. Vitamin D, the determinant of bone health, has been tested in clinical studies as the agent to treat osteoporosis. Despite the progress, there is still some controversy about the targeted blood levels of vitamin D, most efficient way to supplement this vitamin, and clinical efficacy of this supplementation in the elderly.In the present review, we will highlight the metabolism of vitamin D and the aforementioned unresolved issues, as well as review the recent interventional studies on vitamin D supplementation. In the present review, we will highlight the metabolism of vitamin D and the aforementioned unresolved issues, as well as review the recent interventional studies on vitamin D supplementation.

  12. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  13. The early anaemia of the premature infant: is there a place for vitamin E supplementation?

    PubMed

    Conway, S P; Rawson, I; Dear, P R; Shires, S E; Kelleher, J

    1986-07-01

    1. The efficacy of oral vitamin E supplementation in preventing the early anaemia of the premature infant was assessed in a 10-week double-blind trial. Forty-two babies received either a placebo or 5 or 15 mg supplementary vitamin E/d with oral feeding. No infant received less than the recommended vitamin E:polyunsaturated fatty acid (E:PUFA) value of 0.6. No iron supplement was given. 2. Weekly full blood counts were taken, and plasma vitamin E assay and in vitro haemolysis tests performed on blood sampled on day 1, and also at 6 and 10 weeks of age. All blood withdrawn and transfused and all feeds were documented. 3. Thirty-six (86%) of the babies had a plasma vitamin E level at birth below the accepted adult norm, i.e. less than 5200 micrograms/l. At 6 weeks of age thirty-three (79%) and at 10 weeks thirty-five (83%) of the babies had levels within the normal adult range. No baby showed either clinical or haematological evidence of a vitamin E deficiency state during the trial. 4. It is concluded that in the absence of Fe supplementation and observing the minimum recommended E:PUFA value, contemporary feeding practices allow for the absorption of sufficient vitamin E by the premature baby to prevent the development of an early haemolytic anaemia. 5. No significant relation was found between plasma vitamin E levels and the degree of peroxide haemolysis.

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joyce Ramalho; Rosa, Érica Patrícia Cunha; Nunes, Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa; Carvalho, Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de

    The objective of this systematic review was to analyze clinical trials carried out for the investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on systemic lupus erythematosus. The research was performed from August to September 2016, without limits regarding year of publication, restriction of gender, age, and ethnicity. For the guiding question, the PICO strategy was employed. To evaluate the quality of the publications the PRISMA protocol and Jadad scale were used. The risk of bias analysis of the clinical trials was performed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. After the process of article selection and removal of duplicates, four articles were identified as eligible. The results of three studies showed a positive effect of supplementation on disease activity reduction and significant improvement in levels of inflammatory markers, fatigue, and endothelial function. Only one study showed no improvement in disease activity after supplementation. Moreover, all studies showed an increase in serum vitamin D levels. The data from this review provide evidence on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients with lupus and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, it is still necessary to elucidate whether vitamin D acts in the protection against this metabolic disorder, as well as the standardization of the type, dose and time of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Vitamin supplement use and its correlates among elderly Japanese men residing on Oahu, HI.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, I; Nomura, A M; Stemmermann, G N; Chyou, P H

    1992-01-01

    Use of vitamin supplements and the association with personal characteristics were investigated among 4,654 American men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. A total of 58 percent of the subjects who were ages 68 to 90 took vitamin supplements. Among supplement users, multivitamins were most commonly used (77 percent), followed by vitamin C (53 percent), E (43 percent), and A (10 percent). Ninety-two percent of users took at least seven pills per week when all types of pills were combined. Vitamin supplement users were more educated, more physically active, more likely to be married, and less obese than nonusers. They also slept less, smoked less, and drank less alcohol and caffeine. They took more analgesics and stomach medication and had fewer days of hospitalization in the previous 10 years compared with nonusers. Except for physical activity, use of stomach medicines, and hospitalization, the other characteristics were also positively correlated with the amount of vitamin pill intake. These findings indicate that vitamin supplement users have different health patterns compared with nonusers. PMID:1454984

  16. High-dose Vitamin D Supplementation Precipitating Hypercalcemic Crisis in Granulomatous Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Karethimmaiah, Hareeshababu; Goel, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis is often the first manifestation in patients with granulomatous disorders. We report our experience on patients presenting with hypercalcemic crisis due to granulomatous disorder and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the precipitation of hypercalcemic crisis in them. The study included five patients with granulomatous disorders who presented with hypercalcemic crisis. All patients initially presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms to other health-care centers to receive high-dose Vitamin D supplementation (60,000 U/week or 600,000 U intramuscular single dose). All of these patients presented with hypercalcemic crisis (serum calcium: 16.04 ± 0.3 mg/dl) to our centers after a period of 32.8 ± 9.62 days. Three patients were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis, and two were diagnosed to have tuberculosis. All five patients had parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcemia with elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated in all the three patients with sarcoidosis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in two patients with sarcoidosis which demonstrated diffusely increased tracer uptake in liver. In these two patients, liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. High-dose Vitamin D supplementation is most often the underlying cause of hypercalcemic crisis in patients with granulomatous disorders. Hence, high-dose Vitamin D supplementation should be used judiciously.

  17. A randomized study on the effect of Vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and Vitamin D receptor concentration in older women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies examining whether vitamin D supplementation increases muscle mass or muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR) concentration are lacking. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D3 4000 IU/d alters muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramyonuclear VDR concentration over 4 mo...

  18. Marginal Ascorbate Status (Hypovitaminosis C) Results in an Attenuated Response to Vitamin C Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Carr, Anitra C; Pullar, Juliet M; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2016-06-03

    Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin C results in hypovitaminosis C, defined as a plasma ascorbate concentration ≤23 μmol/L. Our objective was to carry out a retrospective analysis of two vitamin C supplementation studies to determine whether supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C is sufficient to restore adequate ascorbate status (≥50 μmol/L) in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Plasma ascorbate data from 70 young adult males, supplemented with 50 or 200 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, was analyzed. Hypovitaminosis C status was identified based on plasma ascorbate being ≤23 μmol/L and the response of these individuals to vitamin C supplementation was examined. Of the participants consuming 50 mg/day vitamin C for up to six weeks, those with hypovitaminosis C at baseline achieved plasma concentrations of only ~30 μmol/L, whereas the remainder reached ~50 μmol/L. Participants who consumed 200 mg/day vitamin C typically reached saturating concentrations (>65 μmol/L) within one week, while those with hypovitaminosis C required two weeks to reach saturation. Regression modelling indicated that the participants' initial ascorbate status and body weight explained ~30% of the variability in the final ascorbate concentration. Overall, our analysis revealed that supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C, which resulted in a total dietary vitamin C intake of 75 mg/day, was insufficient to achieve adequate plasma ascorbate concentrations in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Furthermore, increased body weight had a negative impact on ascorbate status.

  19. Vitamin supplementation of HIV-infected women improves postnatal child growth.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Saathoff, Elmar; Bosch, Ronald J; Hertzmark, Ellen; Baylin, Ana; Manji, Karim; Msamanga, Gernard; Hunter, David J; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2005-04-01

    Linear growth retardation and wasting are common in children born to HIV-infected women. Inexpensive interventions that could improve the postnatal growth pattern of such children are needed. The objective was to examine the effect of supplementing HIV-infected women with multivitamins or vitamin A and beta-carotene, during and after pregnancy, on the growth of their children during the first 2 y of life. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 886 mother-infant pairs in Tanzania. At the first prenatal visit, HIV-infected women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 x 2 factorial fashion: multivitamins (MV: thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, niacin, vitamin B-12, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid), preformed vitamin A + beta-carotene (VA/BC), MV including VA/BC, or placebo. Supplementation continued during the first 2 y postpartum and thereafter. Children were weighed and measured monthly, and all received vitamin A supplements after 6 mo of age per the standard of care. Multivitamins had a significant positive effect on attained weight (459 g; 95% CI: 35, 882; P = 0.03) and on weight-for-age (0.42; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.77; P = 0.02) and weight-for-length (0.38; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.68; P = 0.01) z scores at 24 mo. VA/BC seemed to reduce the benefits of MV on these outcomes. No significant effects were observed on length, midupper arm circumference, or head circumference. Supplementation of HIV-infected women with multivitamins (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) during pregnancy and lactation is an effective intervention for improving ponderal growth in children.

  20. Microbial-derived lithocholic acid and vitamin K2 drive the metabolic maturation of pluripotent stem cells-derived and fetal hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Avior, Yishai; Levy, Gahl; Zimerman, Michal; Kitsberg, Daniel; Schwartz, Robert; Sadeh, Ronen; Moussaieff, Arieh; Cohen, Merav; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-07-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the modification, clearance, and transformational toxicity of most xenobiotics owing to its abundance in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. However, the scarcity and variability of primary hepatocytes currently limits their utility. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent an excellent source of differentiated hepatocytes; however, current protocols still produce fetal-like hepatocytes with limited mature function. Interestingly, fetal hepatocytes acquire mature CYP450 expression only postpartum, suggesting that nutritional cues may drive hepatic maturation. We show that vitamin K2 and lithocholic acid, a by-product of intestinal flora, activate pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequent CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 expression in hPSC-derived and isolated fetal hepatocytes. Differentiated cells produce albumin and apolipoprotein B100 at levels equivalent to primary human hepatocytes, while demonstrating an 8-fold induction of CYP450 activity in response to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist omeprazole and a 10-fold induction in response to PXR agonist rifampicin. Flow cytometry showed that over 83% of cells were albumin and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) positive, permitting high-content screening in a 96-well plate format. Analysis of 12 compounds showed an R(2) correlation of 0.94 between TC50 values obtained in stem cell-derived hepatocytes and primary cells, compared to 0.62 for HepG2 cells. Finally, stem cell-derived hepatocytes demonstrate all toxicological endpoints examined, including steatosis, apoptosis, and cholestasis, when exposed to nine known hepatotoxins. Our work provides fresh insights into liver development, suggesting that microbial-derived cues may drive the maturation of CYP450 enzymes postpartum. Addition of these cues results in the first functional, inducible, hPSC-derived hepatocyte for predictive toxicology. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Effects of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and alendronate on bone mineral density and bone strength in rats fed a low-magnesium diet.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Hara, K; Akiyama, Y

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we examined changes in bone parameters and bone strength in rats fed low-Mg diets (experiment 1) and the effects of vitamin K2 (MK-4, experiment 3) and alendronate (ALN, experiment 2) in this model. In experiment 1, 5-week-old male Wistar rats were fed three low-Mg diets (Mg 9, 6, 3 mg/100 g diet) for 4 weeks. Although the cortical bone mineral content (CtBMC) and cortical thickness (CtTh) of the femoral diaphysis in all low-Mg-diet groups were the same as or greater than those in the intact group (Mg: 90 mg/100 g diet), the maximum load and elastic modulus were significantly reduced in the 3-mg-Mg group. In experiment 2, 4-week-old Wistar rats were fed a 6-mg-Mg diet for 8 weeks, and the effect of ALN (2, 20, and 200 microg/kg twice a week) was evaluated. The administration of ALN at 200 microg/kg increased the cortical bone mineral content (CtBMC), CtTh, and maximum load, but had no effect on the elastic modulus, as compared with the low-Mg-control group. In experiment 3, the effect of MK-4 was evaluated under the same conditions as in experiment 2. The administration of MK-4 had no effect on CtBMC, CtTh, or bone components of the femoral diaphysis. However, MK-4 inhibited the decreases in maximum load and elastic modulus due to the low-Mg diet. Since there is no other experimental model in which there is a decrease in bone mechanical properties without a decrease in bone mineral content, the low-Mg diet model is considered to be an excellent model for examining bone quality. Our results from this model suggest that MK-4 and ALN affect bone mechanical properties by different mechanisms.

  2. Vitamin A supplementation for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Wiysonge, C S; Shey, M S; Sterne, J A C; Brocklehurst, P

    2005-10-19

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is the dominant mode of acquisition of HIV infection for children, currently resulting in more than 2000 new paediatric HIV infections each day worldwide. To assess the effects of antenatal and intrapartum vitamin A supplementation on the risk of MTCT of HIV infection and infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, and the tolerability of vitamin A supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSLINE, LILACS, AIDSTRIALS, and AIDSDRUGS, using standardised methodological filters for identifying trials. We also searched reference lists of identified articles, relevant editorials, expert opinions and letters to journal editors, and abstracts or proceedings of relevant conferences; and contacted subject experts, agencies, organisations, academic centres, and pharmaceutical companies. There were no language restrictions. Randomised trials comparing vitamin A supplementation with no vitamin A supplementation in known HIV infected pregnant women. Trials had to include an estimate of the effect of vitamin A supplementation on MTCT of HIV and or any other adverse pregnancy outcome to be included. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. Effect measures (odds ratio [OR] for binary variables and weighted mean difference [WMD] for continuous variables) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each study and combined using the fixed effect (Mantel-Haenszel) method, by intention to treat. Heterogeneity between studies was examined by graphical inspection of results followed by a chi-square test of homogeneity. Four trials, which enrolled 3,033 HIV-infected pregnant women, are included in this review. There was no evidence of an effect of vitamin A supplementation on MTCT of HIV infection (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.38). There was evidence of heterogeneity between the three trials with information on MTCT of HIV (I(2) =75

  3. Use of vitamin-mineral supplements by AFDC children.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, T R; Smith, M C

    1985-01-01

    Slightly more than 11 percent of the 1,616 children in Northern Mississippi households receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children regularly used vitamins, according to the 540 personal interviews conducted in this study. Of the vitamins used, about 20 percent were obtained by prescription. Participation in Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) was found not to be related to vitamin use. The pharmacy was the main source of vitamins, which most frequently were those widely advertised on television. It is suggested that pharmacists, physicians, and EPSDT personnel might take a more active role in nutrition counseling. The population is poor by definition and rural by study design. In the face of these facts, it was interesting to find that the most often used vitamin was Flintstones, one of the more expensive brands of children's vitamins. Some other vitamin products used, in descending order of frequency were One-A-Day vitamins, generic prenatal vitamins, and Neo-Vadrin with Iron. Data on shopping behavior and sources of products indicate that the population may not be making the best use of products or funds. Informal counseling by pharmacists at the point of sale has the potential to reduce these problems.

  4. Analytical procedures for water-soluble vitamins in foods and dietary supplements: a review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Christopher J

    2007-09-01

    Water-soluble vitamins include the B-group vitamins and vitamin C. In order to correctly monitor water-soluble vitamin content in fortified foods for compliance monitoring as well as to establish accurate data banks, an accurate and precise analytical method is a prerequisite. For many years microbiological assays have been used for analysis of B vitamins. However they are no longer considered to be the gold standard in vitamins analysis as many studies have shown up their deficiencies. This review describes the current status of analytical methods, including microbiological assays and spectrophotometric, biosensor and chromatographic techniques. In particular it describes the current status of the official methods and highlights some new developments in chromatographic procedures and detection methods. An overview is made of multivitamin extractions and analyses for foods and supplements.

  5. [Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly patients with hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Salamon, Antal; Toldy, Erzsébet; Biró, Csaba; Mátrai, Ákos; Balassa, Tibor; Lőcsei, Zoltán

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining calcium and bone metabolism, a risk factor of osteoporosis, fall and fracture in old age. Reduction in D-vitamin levels associated with compensatory increased level of parathyroid hormone causes significant loss of bone matrix, so substitutions of vitamin D and calcium are very important. Many authors publish their recommended doses used for prevention of hip fracture during the last years. Some authors are satisfied only with vitamin D supplementation while others have better experiences with vitamin D and calcium substitution. On the other hand, some metaanalyses give contradictory results and propose further investigations. It is important to consider the patients' eating habits and lifestyle as well as the risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Further trials should be done in different age groups in order to examine the effects of different doses of vitamin D without and with calcium to make a final decision. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(43): 1699-1707.

  6. Vitamin and mineral supplements: friend or foe when combined with medications?

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Mark; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2014-11-01

    Given the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplement use among consumers and the potential for vitamin- and mineral-drug interactions, as well as oral and systemic adverse effects of excess consumption, oral health care providers (OHCPs) should ask all patients about their use. The challenges for OHCPs are how to recognize oral and systemic manifestations of these interactions and how to safely manage the care of these patients while avoiding potential interactions. The authors reviewed the literature regarding interactions between popular vitamin and mineral supplements and medications used commonly in dentistry. They used clinical databases and decision support tools to classify interactions according to their level of patient risk. They address interactions of greatest clinical concern with a high-quality evidence-based foundation in either randomized controlled clinical trials or meta-analyses. Most medications used commonly in dentistry can be prescribed safely without regard to vitamin- and mineral-drug interactions. However, patients taking anticoagulants or cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates (such as clarithromycin, erythromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, midazolam and triazolam) in addition to specific vitamin or mineral supplements (vitamins D, E, K, calcium, fluoride, iron, magnesium, selenium or zinc) may face additional challenges. OHCPs need to recognize these potential interactions and know how to manage the care of patients who may be receiving treatment with these combination therapies. Recognition and avoidance of potential vitamin- and mineral-drug interactions will help clinicians optimize patient treatment while emphasizing patient safety.

  7. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Mazahery, Hajar; von Hurst, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OH)D concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OH)D concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OH)D, aging, body mass index(BMI)/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation) and environment (season) are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OH)D, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined. PMID:26121531

  8. Polio as a platform: using national immunization days to deliver vitamin A supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, T.; Dalmiya, N.; de Benoist, B.; Schultink, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1988 the 41st World Health Assembly committed WHO to the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis by 2000 "in ways which strengthen national immunization programmes and health infrastructure". The successful use of polio National Immunization Days (NIDs) to deliver vitamin A is an example of how polio eradication can serve as a platform to address other problems of child health. Importantly, this integration is helping to achieve the World Summit for Children goal of eliminating vitamin A deficiency by the year 2000. It is estimated that between 140 million and 250 million preschool children are at risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. In 1998 more than 60 million children at risk received vitamin A supplements during polio national immunization days (NIDs). While food fortification and dietary approaches are fundamental to combating vitamin A deficiency, the administration of vitamin A supplements during NIDs helps raise awareness, enhance technical capacity, improve assessment and establish a reporting system. Moreover, polio NIDs provide an entry point for the sustainable provision of vitamin A supplements with routine immunization services and demonstrate how immunization campaigns can be used for the delivery of other preventive health services. PMID:10812726

  9. Socioeconomic differentials in supplementation of vitamin A: evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Bishai, David; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of supplementation of vitamin A in child survival has been well-demonstrated. However, the effectiveness of a programme of vitamin A supplementation at the population level has been rarely examined. Understanding how programmes reach disadvantaged children can help improve the design of initiatives of vitamin A supplementation. The differentials in receipt of vitamin A by socioeconomic status were assessed using data from the Philippines. Factors associated with receipt of vitamin A during the last six months were examined using the Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993 and 1998. In total, 6,970 and 6,118 children aged 12-59 months were included in 1993 and 1998 respectively. Logistic regression was used for identifying associations between the outcome and the household socioeconomic variables. The coverage of national-level vitamin A supplementation increased from 27% in 1993 to 79% in 1998. However, children whose mothers did not complete primary education and children living in poor households were less likely to receive supplementation. This disparity increased between the surveys: the adjusted odds of vitamin A intake by poor households compared to middle-class households declined from 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.87) in 1993 to 0.52 (95% CI 0.42-0.63)] in 1998, resulting in an increased health inequity. The vitamin A programme in the Philippines was not uniformly successful in reaching the most vulnerable children. Approaches targeting vulnerable households or approaches not requiring mothers to travel to distribution centres may be more promising.

  10. Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Louise J; Allan, Damon A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Tiidus, Peter M; Phillips, Stuart M

    2002-05-01

    Vitamin E supplementation may confer a protective effect against eccentrically biased exercise-induced muscle damage through stabilization of the cell membrane and possibly via inhibition of free radical formation. Evidence supporting a protective role of vitamin E after contraction-induced muscle injury in humans is, however, inconsistent. The present study sought to determine the effect of vitamin E supplementation on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage and the postexercise inflammatory response after performance of repeated eccentric muscle contractions. Young healthy men performed a bout of 240 maximal isokinetic eccentric muscle contractions (0.52 rad.s-1) after being supplemented for 30 d with either vitamin E (N = 9; 1200 IU.d-1) or placebo (N = 7; safflower oil). Measurements of torque (isometric and concentric) decreased (P < 0.05) below preexercise values immediately post- and at 48 h post-exercise. Biopsies taken 24 h postexercise showed a significant increase in the amount of extensive Z-band disruption (P < 0.01); however, neither the torque deficit nor the extent of Z-band disruption were affected by vitamin E. Exercise resulted in increased macrophage cell infiltration (P = 0.05) into muscle, which was also unaffected by vitamin E. Serum CK also increased as a result of the exercise (P < 0.05) with no effect of vitamin E. We conclude that vitamin E supplementation (30 d at 1200 IU.d-1), which resulted in a 2.8-fold higher serum vitamin E concentration (P < 0.01), had no affect on indices of contraction-induced muscle damage nor inflammation (macrophage infiltration) as a result of eccentrically biased muscle contractions.

  11. Vitamin A supplementation during war-emergency in Guinea-Bissau 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine S; Balé, Carlitos; Martins, Cesario; Aaby, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is recommended by WHO in emergency situations. To evaluate the impact of Vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality in an emergency situation. Since this was not a randomised study, we evaluated the impact in different ways; we used the variation in the delay of provision of Vitamin A in a step-wedged design, compared wartime with pre-wartime mortality and examined whether Vitamin A as a free commodity reduced cultural and social-economic inequalities in childhood mortality. 5926 children 6 months to 5 years of age, resident in four suburbs in the capital of Guinea-Bissau between October 1, 1998 and March 31, 1999. From October 1, 1998 until the end of the war in 1999 all children present in the study area were offered Vitamin A at regular three-monthly visits to their homes. Using the variation in the provision of Vitamin A, we found a slight non-significant reduction in mortality for children between 6 months and 5 years of age (mortality ratio (MR) 0.49; 95% CI 0.09-2.70). Comparing with a three-year period before the war, children offered Vitamin A at home during the war had a 12% reduction in mortality (MR 0.88; 0.41-1.87), whereas the overall impact of the war was an 89% increase in mortality (MR 1.89; 1.32-2.71). Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a reduction in cultural and socio-economic inequalities. Vitamin A supplementation may have a beneficial impact on childhood mortality in an emergency situation.

  12. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2012-06-13

    There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To examine the evidence as to whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements prevents the development of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 26 January 2012. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin and/or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5 and the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We included four RCTs in this review; 62,520 people were included in the analyses. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland and the USA and investigated vitamin E and beta-carotene supplements. Overall the quality of the evidence was high. People who took these supplements were not at decreased (or increased) risk of developing AMD. The pooled risk ratio for any antioxidant supplement in the prevention of any AMD was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.08) and for advanced AMD was 1.05 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.39). Similar results were seen when the analyses were

  13. Vitamin D—Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented. PMID:23306192

  14. Evaluation of the new restandardized Abbott Architect 25-OH Vitamin D assay in vitamin D-insufficient and vitamin D-supplemented individuals.

    PubMed

    Annema, Wijtske; Nowak, Albina; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Saleh, Lanja

    2017-09-19

    Recently, Abbott Diagnostics has restandardized the Architect 25(OH)D assay against the NIST SRM 2972. We have evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D assay and compared its performance with a NIST-traceable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and the Roche total 25(OH)D assay in vitamin D-insufficient individuals before and after vitamin D 3 supplementation. Frozen serum samples were obtained from 88 healthy subjects with self-perceived fatigue and vitamin D-insufficiency <50 nmol L -1 who were randomized to receive a single 100 000 IU dose of vitamin D 3 (n = 48) or placebo (n = 40). Total 25(OH)D concentrations were measured before and 4 weeks after supplementation by the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D assay, LC-MS/MS, and Roche assay. The Architect 25(OH)D assay showed an intra- and inter-assay imprecision of <5%. Comparison of the Architect assay with the LC-MS/MS method showed a good correlation in both vitamin D-insufficient and vitamin D-supplemented subjects, however, with a negative mean bias of 17.4% and 8.9%, respectively. As compared to the Roche assay, the Abbott assay underestimated 25(OH)D results in insufficient subjects (<50 nmol L -1 ) with a mean negative bias of 17.1%, this negative bias turned into a positive bias in supplemented subjects. Overall there was a moderate agreement in classification of vitamin D-insufficient and -supplemented individuals into different vitamin D states between the Architect 25(OH)D method and LC-MS/MS. The routine use of the restandardized Architect 25(OH)D results in a slight underestimation of circulating total 25(OH)D levels at lower concentrations and thus potential misclassification of vitamin D status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Long-term compliance with a novel vitamin and mineral supplement in older people with PKU.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A; Lee, P; Davies, P; Daly, A; Lilburn, M; Gokmen Ozel, H; Preece, M A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani, A

    2008-12-01

    The long-term efficacy of vitamin and mineral preparations in dietary-treated adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) is unreported. In an open, intervention trial, the acceptability, safety and impact on biochemical and haematological micronutrient status of a new vitamin and mineral tablet (Phlexy Vits, SHS International) was investigated. Fifteen subjects with PKU (median age 21 years, range 8-33 years) on low-phenylalanine diet from two PKU centres were recruited. No vitamins or minerals were added to their protein substitute and for 12 months they took their full daily requirements of vitamin and minerals from Phlexy Vits (5 tablets/daily). All but two subjects had taken alternative vitamin and mineral supplements before the trial. Fasting bloods were taken at baseline (week -2 and at week 0), 4 and 12 months for a range of biochemical and nutritional measurements. By 4 months, serum vitamin B(12) (p = 0.003), serum manganese (p=0.03) and plasma (p=0.03) and red blood cell (p=0.004) glutathionine peroxidase (GSHPx) all significantly increased but remained within normal reference ranges. By 12 months, serum vitamin B(12) (p<0.05) and plasma GSHPx (p<0.05) remained increased. The Phlexy Vits tablets scored better than conventional vitamin and mineral supplements for overall acceptability (p<0.05), and ease of swallowing (p=0.1) at 4 months, although swallowing score deteriorated by 12 months (p<0.05). There was a small but significant deterioration in compliance with taking the vitamin and mineral supplements between 4 and 12 months (p<0.05). In the long term, these comprehensive vitamin and mineral tablets appeared acceptable and improved biochemical nutritional status, although there were long-term compliance and swallowing issues.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation of initially vitamin D-deficient mice diminishes lung inflammation with limited effects on pulmonary epithelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Buckley, Alysia G; Ling, Kak-Ming; Berry, Luke J; Fear, Vanessa S; Stick, Stephen M; Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Hart, Prue H

    2017-08-01

    In disease settings, vitamin D may be important for maintaining optimal lung epithelial integrity and suppressing inflammation, but less is known of its effects prior to disease onset. Female BALB/c dams were fed a vitamin D 3 -supplemented (2280 IU/kg, VitD + ) or nonsupplemented (0 IU/kg, VitD - ) diet from 3 weeks of age, and mated at 8 weeks of age. Male offspring were fed the same diet as their mother. Some offspring initially fed the VitD - diet were switched to a VitD + diet from 8 weeks of age (VitD -/+ ). At 12 weeks of age, signs of low-level inflammation were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of VitD - mice (more macrophages and neutrophils), which were suppressed by subsequent supplementation with vitamin D 3 There was no difference in the level of expression of the tight junction proteins occludin or claudin-1 in lung epithelial cells of VitD + mice compared to VitD - mice; however, claudin-1 levels were reduced when initially vitamin D-deficient mice were fed the vitamin D 3 -containing diet (VitD -/+ ). Reduced total IgM levels were detected in BALF and serum of VitD -/+ mice compared to VitD + mice. Lung mRNA levels of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were greatest in VitD -/+ mice. Total IgG levels in BALF were greater in mice fed the vitamin D 3 -containing diet, which may be explained by increased activation of B cells in airway-draining lymph nodes. These findings suggest that supplementation of initially vitamin D-deficient mice with vitamin D 3 suppresses signs of lung inflammation but has limited effects on the epithelial integrity of the lungs. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Vitamin E Supplementation with Rauwolfia Vomitoria Root Bark Extract Improves Hematological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754

  18. Vitamin e supplementation with rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract improves hematological indices.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.

  19. Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Travis Y; Bolin, Jeremy T; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria R; Stephens, Mark B; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Effects of β-glucan and Vitamin D Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Richter, Josef; Závorková, Martina; Vetvicka, Vaclav; Liehneová, Ivana; Kral, Vlastimil; Rajnohova Dobiasova, Lucie

    2018-06-19

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential effects of beta-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated the levels of several parameters of inflammatory reactions (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A [SAA], and interleukin- [IL-] 6), leptin, and vitamin D. Using a 3-month interval, we divided the patients into three groups: (1) supplemented with beta-glucan and vitamin D, (2) supplemented with vitamin D and placebo, and (3) supplemented with vitamin D alone. By this division, we aim not only to observe whether beta-glucan can increase the effects of vitamin D, but also to eliminate the potential effects of placebo. The doses of vitamin D corresponded to phototype, weight, age, and sex of the individual. Fifty-two diabetic retinopathy patients were selected for our study. We found significant vitamin D deficits in all cases, even after three months of supplementation with vitamin D. Significant changes in levels of CRP were observed in the beta-glucan-supplemented group; levels of SAA and IL-6 were not changed. Leptin levels were significantly lowered in the beta-glucan-supplemented group and increased in the other groups. More detailed studies and/or longer supplementation is necessary.

  1. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-04-07

    proper supplementation of milk with vitamin D is an attractive chance and a challenge for Public Health of Spain and the European Union. It has provided excellent results in the US, Canada, Northern Europe Countries, etc. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin E Supplementation Reduces Cellular Loss in the Brain of a Premature Aging Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    La Fata, G; van Vliet, N; Barnhoorn, S; Brandt, R M C; Etheve, S; Chenal, E; Grunenwald, C; Seifert, N; Weber, P; Hoeijmakers, J H J; Mohajeri, M H; Vermeij, W P

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a highly complex biological process driven by multiple factors. Its progression can partially be influenced by nutritional interventions. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that is investigated as nutritional supplement for its ability to prevent or delay the onset of specific aging pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed here to investigate the effect of vitamin E during aging progression in a well characterized mouse model for premature aging. Xpg-/- animals received diets with low (~2.5 mg/kg feed), medium (75 mg/kg feed) or high (375 mg/kg feed) vitamin E concentration and their phenotype was monitored during aging progression. Vitamin E content was analyzed in the feed, for stability reasons, and in mouse plasma, brain, and liver, for effectiveness of the treatment. Subsequent age-related changes were monitored for improvement by increased vitamin E or worsening by depletion in both liver and nervous system, organs sensitive to oxidative stress. Mice supplemented with high levels of vitamin E showed a delayed onset of age-related body weight decline and appearance of tremors when compared to mice with a low dietary vitamin E intake. DNA damage resulting in liver abnormalities such as changes in polyploidy, was considerably prevented by elevated amounts of vitamin E. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that high intake of vitamin E, when compared with low and medium levels of vitamin E in the diet, reduces the number of p53-positive cells throughout the brain, indicative of a lower number of cells dying due to DNA damage accumulated over time. Our data underline a neuroprotective role of vitamin E in the premature aging animal model used in this study, likely via a reduction of oxidative stress, and implies the importance of improved nutrition to sustain health.

  3. Effect of vitamin E supplement in diet on antioxidant ability of testis in Boer goat.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhu; Hailing, Luo; Hui, Meng; Guijie, Zhang; Leyan, Yan; Dubing, Yue

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin E in diet on the antioxidant capacity of testis in Boer goat. Twenty-four healthy, Boer male kids of similar body weight (BW) were selected at 3 months of age from the kid flock. Kids were born from does treated with simultaneous flushing and artificial insemination technology. The Boer kids were divided into four groups randomly, supplemented with 0, 80, 320 and 880 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E, which were labeled as Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for 150 days (5 months). Blood samples were collected at the 15th-, 30th-, 60th-, 90th-, 120th-, and 150th-day during the experimental period, and the serums were used to determine Vitamin E content. Three Boer goats in each group were slaughtered at the age of eight months at the end of the experiment. Liver and testis were collected to test the Vitamin E content and the antioxidant capacity of testis. Results showed that the content of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis increased with the increasing addition of Vitamin E. However, the content of Vitamin E in the serum, liver and testis, in the control, was significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3, respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control Group and Group 4. When high levels of Vitamin E (880 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) were added, contents of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis were decreased and compared with the controls. Adding a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E can increase activity of total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and decrease content of nitric oxide (NO) in testis. MDA (malondialdehyde) content was decreased significantly in Group 3 (P<0.05). Supplementing a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) and middle level (320 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E decreased activity of nitric oxide syntha (NOS) in testis (P<0.05). Vitamin E can increase activity of GSH-PX (glutathione peroxidase). These results indicate that supplementing

  4. Vitamin K and bone health.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposed Criteria for the Use of Low-Dose Vitamin K Supplementation in Patients Using Vitamin K Antagonists: A Literature Review of a Clinical Controversy.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christy E; Getchell, Katerine E; Ivy, Delaney R

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been used for decades to prevent thromboembolic events, but can be burdensome to patients based on numerous factors impacting anticoagulation control. Low-dose vitamin K supplementation has been theorized to improve anticoagulation control in patients on VKAs that may be vitamin K deficient. The objective of this literature review is to propose criteria for implementing low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. The CHEST 2012 antithrombotic guidelines recommended against routine use of vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs. An observational study and three randomized controlled trials pertaining to this recommendation were evaluated. A literature review was also performed on other studies looking at the impact of low-dose vitamin K supplementation on anticoagulation control through a search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. One retrospective and two prospective studies were reviewed. Six of the seven studies demonstrated a non-statistically significant trend in data supporting improvement in anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation. While many of the studies did not achieve significant results, the majority demonstrated a trend in support of the improvement of anticoagulation control with low-dose vitamin K supplementation in patients on VKAs.

  6. Vitamin K2 inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by restoring the Gas6/Axl/Akt anti-apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cuiting; Zheng, Haijun; Tao, Huiren; Yu, Wenjun; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Aiqin; Jin, Hui; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Vitamin K2 (VK2) delays vascular calcification by an unclear mechanism. Moreover, apoptosis modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. This paper aimed to study VK2-modified VSMC calcification and survival cell signaling mediated by growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. Primary-cultured VSMCs were dose-dependently treated with VK2 in the presence of calcification medium for 8 days, or pre-treated for 1 h with/without the Axl inhibitor R428 (2 μmol/L) or the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (20 μmol/L) followed by treatment with VK2 (10 μmol/L) or rmGas6 (200 nmol/L) in calcification medium for 8 days. Calcium deposition was determined by the o-cresolphthalein complexone assay and Alizarin Red S staining. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blotting detected the expressions of Axl, Gas6, p-Akt, Akt, and Bcl2. VK2 significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis, which was dependent on restored Gas6 expression and activated downstream signaling by Axl, p-Akt, and Bcl2. Z-VAD-fmk significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Augmented recombinant mouse Gas6 protein (rmGas6) expression significantly reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Furthermore, the Gas6/Axl interaction was inhibited by R428, which abolished the preventive effect of VK2 on CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced apoptosis and calcification. These results suggest that Gas6 is critical in VK2-mediated functions that attenuate CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification by blocking apoptosis.

  7. Improved vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized breastfed infants through electronic order modification and targeted provider education.

    PubMed

    Watnick, Caroline S; Binns, Helen J; Greenberg, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    To examine effectiveness of an intervention promoting vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized breastfed infants. Our urban tertiary care hospital instituted a 2-part intervention: brief education for providers on vitamin D guidelines and insertion of an opt-in order for vitamin D supplements into electronic admission order sets. Data downloads on admissions of patients aged <1 year were obtained. We excluded those not breastfed, with a dietary restriction, or admitted to intensive care. Intervention effects were compared from 6 months postintervention to the 6 same months 1 year earlier. We applied χ2 and logistic regression, including the patient as a random effect to adjust for repeated admissions. Data on 471 exclusively or partially breastfed admissions (441 infants) were analyzed (221 preintervention, 250 postintervention). Admission characteristics did not differ by period: 55.0% boys; 40.6% Medicaid; 63.7% hospitalized ≤2 days; 72.0% on a general medical service; 16.6% received nutritionist consultation. In-hospital vitamin D prescribing rates significantly increased postintervention (19.5% vs 44.4%; P<.001). Postintervention admissions were more than twice as likely to receive vitamin D supplementation (adjusted odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.6-3.2). Other associated factors included vitamin D as a medication used before admission (adjusted odds ratio 14.3, 95% confidence interval 4.9-41.6), nutritionist consultation during admission, hospitalization≥3 days, and admission to a general medical service. Prescribing of vitamin D at discharge increased significantly (9.0% vs 19.6%; P<.001). Medical provider education and modification of electronic ordering templates significantly increased use of vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized breastfed infants. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Safety and T Cell Modulating Effects of High Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Menheere, Paul; Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background A poor vitamin D status has been associated with a high disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, we described associations between vitamin D status and peripheral T cell characteristics in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients. In the present study, we studied the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on safety and T cell related outcome measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifteen RRMS patients were supplemented with 20 000 IU/d vitamin D3 for 12 weeks. Vitamin D and calcium metabolism were carefully monitored, and T cell characteristics were studied by flowcytometry. All patients finished the protocol without side-effects, hypercalcaemia, or hypercalciuria. The median vitamin D status increased from 50 nmol/L (31–175) at week 0 to 380 nmol/L (151–535) at week 12 (P<0.001). During the study, 1 patient experienced an exacerbation of MS and was censored from the T cell analysis. The proportions of (naïve and memory) CD4+ Tregs remained unaffected. Although Treg suppressive function improved in several subjects, this effect was not significant in the total cohort (P = 0.143). An increased proportion of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells was found after supplementation (P = 0.021). Additionally, a decrease of the ratio between IFN-γ+ and IL-4+ CD4+ T cells was observed (P = 0.035). Conclusion/Significance Twelve week supplementation of high dose vitamin D3 in RRMS patients was well tolerated and did not induce decompensation of calcium metabolism. The skewing towards an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile supports the evidence on vitamin D as an immune-modulator, and may be used as outcome measure for upcoming randomized placebo-controlled trials. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00940719 PMID:21179201

  9. Global Health in Conflict Understanding Opposition to Vitamin A Supplementation in India

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts. PMID:22594752

  10. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  11. Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Use among High School Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery; Marquart, Leonard F.

    1994-01-01

    Examined supplement use among 742 athletes. Thirty-eight percent used supplements with usage not differing by gender or grade in school. Those wishing to participate in college sports more often consumed supplements. Healthy growth, illness, and sports performance given as reasons for use. Parents, doctors, and coaches influenced usage. (RJM)

  12. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  13. A randomized trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation in children: dose-response effects on vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R D; Laing, E M; Hill Gallant, K M; Hall, D B; McCabe, G P; Hausman, D B; Martin, B R; Warden, S J; Peacock, M; Weaver, C M

    2013-12-01

    Changes in serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption with varying doses of oral vitamin D₃ in healthy children are unknown. Our objective was to examine the dose-response effects of supplemental vitamin D₃ on serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in children living at two U.S. latitudes. Black and white children (n = 323) participated in a multisite (U.S. latitudes 34° N and 40° N), triple-masked trial. Children were randomized to receive oral vitamin D₃ (0, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 IU/d) and were sampled over 12 weeks in winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)₂D) were measured using RIA and intact PTH (iPTH) by immunoradiometric assay. Fractional calcium absorption was determined from an oral stable isotope ⁴⁴Ca (5 mg) in a 150-mg calcium meal. Nonlinear and linear regression models were fit for vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, and calcium absorption. The mean baseline 25(OH)D value for the entire sample was 70.0 nmol/L. Increases in 25(OH)D depended on dose with 12-week changes ranging from -10 nmol/L for placebo to 76 nmol/L for 4000 IU. Larger 25(OH)D gains were observed for whites vs blacks at the highest dose (P < .01). Gains for 1,25(OH)₂D were not significant (P = .07), and decreases in iPTH were not dose-dependent. There was no dose effect of vitamin D on fractional calcium absorption when adjusted for pill compliance, race, sex, or baseline 25(OH)D. Large increases in serum 25(OH)D with vitamin D₃ supplementation did not increase calcium absorption in healthy children living at 2 different latitudes. Supplementation with 400 IU/d was sufficient to maintain wintertime 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy black, but not white, children.

  14. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Delayed Hyperphosphatemia in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients During Induction Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony W; Romanowski, Gale L; Proudfoot, James A; Kuo, Dennis J

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in maintaining bone health and calcium metabolism, but recent studies cast doubt on vitamin D supplementation's benefits in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Vitamin D supplementation could increase serum phosphate through increased intestinal absorption of phosphate and suppression of parathyroid hormone, which would lead to decreased renal phosphate excretion. Because of the potential for renal injury during induction chemotherapy for ALL, Vitamin D supplementation's potential for increasing hyperphosphatemia could outweigh its suggested but unproven benefits. To measure the interaction between vitamin D supplementation and phosphate during chemotherapy induction, a retrospective study was done. Demographic data; clinical information about the diagnosis; laboratory data regarding calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D concentrations; and medication histories were reviewed. A retrospective study of 41 children with ALL showed no statistically significant difference in the final phosphate concentrations that were obtained (4.41 mg/dL vs. 4.53 mg/dL, p = 0.635) with regard to their vitamin D supplementation status. Longitudinal effects with vitamin D and phosphate showed a trend toward increasing phosphate concentrations in patients who received supplemental vitamin D (0.035 vs. 0.010 mg/dL per day; p = 0.102). Vitamin D potentially poses a risk of hyperphosphatemia in children undergoing induction chemotherapy for ALL.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed A; Elserogy, Yasser M; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman A; El-Houfey, Amira A; Othman, Hisham A-K; Bjørklund, Geir; Jia, Feiyong; Urbina, Mauricio A; Abo-Elela, Mohamed Gamil M; Ahmad, Faisal-Alkhateeb; Abd El-Baseer, Khaled A; Ahmed, Ahmed E; Abdel-Salam, Ahmad M

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. It has been previously reported that there is vitamin D deficiency in autistic children; however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in ASD children. This study is a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that was conducted on 109 children with ASD (85 boys and 24 girls; aged 3-10 years). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the core symptoms of autism in children. ASD patients were randomized to receive vitamin D3 or placebo for 4 months. The serum levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25 (OH)D) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. The autism severity and social maturity of the children were assessed by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial number: UMIN000020281. Supplementation of vitamin D was well tolerated by the ASD children. The daily doses used in the therapy group was 300 IU vitamin D3/kg/day, not to exceed 5,000 IU/day. The autism symptoms of the children improved significantly, following 4-month vitamin D3 supplementation, but not in the placebo group. This study demonstrates the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of vitamin D3 in children with ASD. This study is the first double-blinded RCT proving the efficacy of vitamin D3 in ASD patients. Depending on the parameters measured in the study, oral vitamin D supplementation may safely improve signs and symptoms of ASD and could be recommended for children with ASD. At this stage, this study is a single RCT with a small number of patients, and a great deal of additional wide-scale studies are needed to

  16. Nordic Walking Training Causes a Decrease in Blood Cholesterol in Elderly Women Supplemented with Vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Prusik, Krzysztof; Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Mieszkowski, Jan; Jaworska, Joanna; Skrobot, Wojciech; Lipinski, Marcin; Ziemann, Ewa; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2018-01-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic Walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D. A total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old) took part in the study. First group [experimental group (EG): 35 women] underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW) training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4,000 IU/day), second group [supplementation group (SG): 48 women] was only supplemented with vitamin D (4,000 IU/day), and third group [control group (CG): 31 women] was not subject to any interventions. Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and 25-OH-D 3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of NW training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG 6 months after the main experiment. After 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C, and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the HDL-C level was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG. Our obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induces positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.

  17. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C and vitamin E and their combination on growth performance, some biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress induced by copper toxicity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Miyase; Yildirim, Ebru; Yigit, A Arzu; Yalcinkaya, Ilkay; Duru, Ozkan; Kisa, Uçler; Atmaca, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E on performance, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress induced by copper toxicity in broilers. A total of 240, 1-day-old, broilers were assigned to eight groups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. The groups were fed on the following diets: control (basal diet), vitamin C (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin E (250 mg/kg diet), vitamin C + vitamin E (250 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg diet), and copper (300 mg/kg diet) alone or in combination with the corresponding vitamins. At the 6th week, the body weights of broilers were decreased in copper, copper + vitamin E, and copper + vitamin C + vitamin E groups compared to control. The feed conversion ratio was poor in copper group. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, iron, copper concentrations, and erythrocyte malondialdehyde were increased; plasma vitamin A and C concentrations and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were decreased in copper group compared to control. Glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, and iron levels were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and copper levels were decreased in copper + vitamin C group, while superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and vitamin E concentrations were increased; aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased in copper with vitamin E group compared to copper group. The vitamin C concentrations were increased; copper, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde were decreased in copper + vitamin C + vitamin E group compared to copper group. To conclude, copper caused oxidative stress in broilers. The combination of vitamin C and vitamin E addition might alleviate the harmful effects of copper as demonstrated by decreased lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes.

  19. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Cristina; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse gestational outcomes. To update a previous meta-analysis on the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy on maternal 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, impaired glucose tolerance, caesarean section, gestational hypertension and other adverse conditions. We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized trials through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and direct communications with relevant organizations. Assessments of inclusion criteria, extraction of data from included studies, and risk of bias' assessments of the included studies were done independently by two review authors. We included 15 trials, excluded 27 trials and 23 trials are still ongoing/unpublished. Data from seven trials with 868 women suggest that pregnant women supplemented with vitamin D had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (mean difference: 54.7nmol/L; 95% CI 36.6, 72.9). Two trials found a lower risk of preeclampsia (8.9% versus 15.5%; average risk ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.25, 1.05) and two other trials found no difference in the risk of gestational diabetes with vitamin D supplementation. Also, three trials found that supplementation with vitamin D plus calcium reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (5% versus 9%; average risk ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.80). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D led to significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D at term compared to placebo/control but results were inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, may be related to lower risk of preeclampsia but more studies are needed to confirm this

  20. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited. Method This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted. Results The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004), ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most

  1. A Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Vascular Function in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Kumar, Vinod; Singhal, Manphool; Billot, Laurent; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Banerjee, Debasish; Jha, Vivekanand

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency associates with mortality in patients with CKD, and vitamin D supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in 120 patients of either sex, aged 18-70 years, with nondiabetic CKD stage 3-4 and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤20 ng/ml). We randomized patients using a 1:1 ratio to receive either two directly observed oral doses of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating biomarkers. Cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increased endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks, whereas placebo did not (between-group difference in mean change: 5.49%; 95% confidence interval, 4.34% to 6.64%; P <0.001). Intervention also led to significant favorable changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating IL-6 levels. Thus, in nondiabetic patients with stage 3-4 CKD and vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation may improve vascular function. This study is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (no.: CTRI/2013/05/003648). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Osteoporosis--Part II: Dietary and/or supplemental calcium and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2002-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant problem in women and men. As osteoporosis has garnered more attention there seems to be more attention than ever placed on the potential benefits of calcium and vitamin D. Health professionals need to inform patients that there are numerous healthy dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D. Several forms of calcium supplements are commercially available today and health professionals need to understand the similarities and differences between them. Calcium and vitamin D in moderation also have an excellent safety profile and may actually have benefits far beyond osteoporosis therapy.

  3. Vitamin C supplementation improve the sputum conversion culture rate in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment while rifampicin susceptible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, L.; Siregar, Y.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    The failure of first-line tuberculosis treatment greatly affects multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro study of vitamin C induces the death of M. tuberculosis bacteria and accelerates healing of tuberculosis, so the multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided. This research aimed to identify the effect of vitamin C as a supportive treatment on the sputum conversion rate. The randomizedand double group with a parallel design by matching pair method was used to collect samples. The first group was treated with standard tuberculosis treatment, and the other was given vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C plasma level analyzation was performed before and after two months of treatment. Sputum conversion was evaluated every week for eight weeks. The comparison of vitamin C plasma level in pre and post-treatment group was significant (p=0.03) but not in the other group. There was no significant difference in vitamin C plasma level between two groups (p=0.21). The proportion of sputum conversion rate in both group in the first week was 0% vs. 9.6% (p=0.83) and the last week of study was 83.9% vs. 100% (p=0.02). In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation has effects in improving the healing process of tuberculosis patients as indicated by higher in sputum conversion rate.

  4. Vitamin B6 in Health Supplements and Neuropathy: Case Series Assessment of Spontaneously Reported Cases.

    PubMed

    van Hunsel, Florence; van de Koppel, Sonja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Kant, Agnes

    2018-05-08

    In the literature, vitamin B 6 has been linked to the development of polyneuropathy. Most often, these complaints were seen when taking high doses of vitamin B 6 for a long time. Evidence as to whether a lower dosage range of vitamin B 6 (< 50 mg/day) can also induce neuropathy is scarce. We aim to comprehensively describe the cases of neuropathy associated with vitamin B 6 received by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb and to assess the case series concerning the use of vitamin B 6 and neuropathic complaints. We describe the number and nature of the reported cases, including suspect product, dosage, duration of use, and vitamin B 6 serum levels. In addition, we describe the causality for the individual cases (Naranjo Probability Scale) and for the entire case series (Bradford Hill criteria). In total, 90 reports on products containing vitamin B 6 included at least one adverse drug reaction in the standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA ® ) query (SMQ; broad) 'peripheral neuropathy'. The amount of vitamin B 6 in the products varied between 1.4 and 100 mg per tablet. The serum vitamin B 6 level was known in 36 cases (88-4338 nmol/l), and the mean serum vitamin B 6 level was 907 nmol/l. However, no statistical correlation between dosage and vitamin B 6 blood levels was found. Causality assessment of the case series of 90 reports to Lareb shows it is plausible for the vitamin B 6 supplements to have caused complaints such as neuropathies. This is especially the case with higher dosages and prolonged use, but dosages < 50 mg/day also cannot be excluded.

  5. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

    PubMed

    Garriguet, Didier

    2010-12-01

    To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation. Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4). Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4. Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.

  6. Vitamin E supplementation inhibits muscle damage and inflammation after moderate exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos, S A; Silva, E T; Caris, A V; Lira, F S; Tufik, S; Dos Santos, R V T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise under hypoxic conditions represents an additional stress in relation to exercise in normoxia. Hypoxia induces oxidative stress and inflammation as mediated through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release that might be exacerbated through exercise. In addition, vitamin E supplementation might attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from hypoxia during exercise. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation (250 mg) on inflammatory parameters and cellular damage after exercise under hypoxia simulating an altitude of 4200 m. Nine volunteers performed three sessions of 60 min of exercise (70% maximal oxygen uptake) interspersed for 1 week under normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia after vitamin E supplementation 1 h before exercise. Blood was collected before, immediately after and at 1 h after exercise to measure inflammatory parameters and cell damage. Percentage oxygen saturation of haemoglobin decreased after exercise and recovered 1 h later in the hypoxia + vitamin condition (P < 0.05). Supplementation decreased creatine kinase (CK)-TOTAL, CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The exercise in hypoxia increased interleukin (IL)-6, TNF-α, IL-1ra and IL-10 immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Supplementation reversed the changes observed after exercise in hypoxia without supplementation (P < 0.05). We conclude that 250 mg of vitamin E supplementation at 1 h before exercise reduces cell damage markers after exercise in hypoxia and changes the concentration of cytokines, suggesting a possible protective effect against inflammation induced by hypoxia during exercise. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Increased lipid peroxidation in pregnant women after iron and vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lachili, B; Hininger, I; Faure, H; Arnaud, J; Richard, M J; Favier, A; Roussel, A M

    2001-11-01

    Iron overload could promote the generation of free radicals and result in deleterious cellular damages. A physiological increase of oxidative stress has been observed in pregnancy. A routine iron supplement, especially a combined iron and vitamin C supplementation, without biological justifications (low hemoglobin [Hb] and iron stores) could therefore aggravate this oxidative risk. We investigated the effect of a daily combined iron supplementation (100 mg/d as fumarate) and vitamin C (500 mg/d as ascorbate) for the third trimester of pregnancy on lipid peroxidation (plasma TBARS), antioxidant micronutriments (Zn, Se, retinol, vitamin E, (beta-carotene) and antioxidant metalloenzymes (RBC Cu-Zn SOD and Se-GPX). The iron-supplemented group (n = 27) was compared to a control group (n = 27), age and number of pregnancies matched. At delivery, all the women exhibited normal Hb and ferritin values. In the supplemented group, plasma iron level was higher than in the control group (26.90 +/- 5.52 mmol/L) and TBARs plasma levels were significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) (3.62 +/- 0.36 vs 3.01 +/- 0.37 mmol/L). No significant changes were observed in plasma trace elements and red blood cell antioxidant metalloenzymes. Furthermore, the alpha-tocopherol plasma level was lowered in the iron-supplemented groups, suggesting an increased utilization of vitamin E. These data show that pharmalogical doses of iron, associated with high vitamin C intakes, can result in uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. This is predictive of adverse effects for the mother and the fetus. This study illustrates the potential harmful effects of iron supplementation when prescribed only on the assumption of anemia and not on the bases of biological criteria.

  8. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. Selection criteria We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data

  9. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M

    2012-06-13

    Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Nine trials involving 117

  10. Vitamin, mineral, and specialty supplements and risk of hematologic malignancies in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Roland B.; Brasky, Theodore M.; Milano, Filippo; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that nutrients from fruits and vegetables have chemoprotective properties on various cancers including hematologic malignancies, but the effects of nutritional supplements are poorly examined. Methods Herein, we prospectively evaluated the association of vitamin, mineral, and specialty supplements with incident hematologic malignancies in 66,227 men and women aged 50 to 76 years from Washington State recruited from 2000–2002 to the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study. Hematologic malignancies cases (n=588) were identified through December 2008 by linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with supplement use were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. Results After adjustment, high use of garlic supplements (≥4 days/week for ≥3 years; HR=0.55 [95% confidence interval: 0.34–0.87]; p=0.028 for trend) and ever use of grape seed supplements (HR=0.57 [0.37–0.88]) were inversely associated with hematologic malignancies in our models. In addition, high use (8–10 pill-years) of multivitamins was suggestive of an inverse association (HR)=0.80 [0.64–1.01]). In contrast, no associations were observed for the remaining supplements. Conclusions These data indicate that use of garlic and grape seed may be associated with reduced risk of hematologic malignancies. Impact This is the first cohort study to suggest a possible role of these supplements in the chemoprevention of hematologic malignancies. PMID:21803844

  11. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage.

    PubMed

    Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mshinda, Hassan M; Shekar, Meera; Mugyabuso, Joseph K L; Ndossi, Godwin D; de Savigny, Don

    2006-11-01

    Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1-2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10-18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72-81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health

  12. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM) with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex) and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog), and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS). The change in TFIM (20 +/- 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 +/- 6, p = 0.20), FIM-Cog (3 +/- 3 SD vs. 4 +/- 5, p = 0.41), FIM-Motor (15 +/- 11 SD vs. 20 +/- 13, p = 0.21) sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 +/- 9 SD vs. 23 +/- 9, p = 0.59), and discharge disposition (home/institution) (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60) between the vitamin C and the control groups. This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients.

  13. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM) with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex) and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog), and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS). Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20), FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41), FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21) sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59), and discharge disposition (home/institution) (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60) between the vitamin C and the control groups. Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients. PMID:18044087

  14. Current Recommended Vitamin D Prenatal Supplementation and Fetal Growth: Results From the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rui-Xue; Meng, Deng-Hon; Li, Jing-Jing; Tong, Shi-Lu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. However, the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal growth has not been confirmed. To assess the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) during pregnancy on the neonatal vitamin D status and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort study, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, food intake, lifestyle, information on vitamin D supplementation, and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For participants, 600 IU/d of vitamin D3 was routinely advised to take during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and phosphorus were measured in 1491 neonates who were divided into three groups based on the duration of maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Mean cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were 3.5 nmol/L higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8, 6.2] in neonates (median, 37.9 nmol/L) whose mother took vitamin D supplementation for >2 months during pregnancy compared with those (median, 34.3 nmol/L) whose mother did not take any supplement. These significant differences on cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D occurred regardless of the season of birth. The adjusted risk of SGA in pregnant women with vitamin D supplementation for >2 months was significantly decreased than that in women without any vitamin D supplementation (11.8% vs 6.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32, 0.87). The findings from China suggest that maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the IOM results in a slight but significantly higher fetal level of 25(OH)D and improves fetal growth. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations <20 μg/dL (<0.70 μmol/L) in serum and <60 μg/dL (2.10 μmol/L) in colostrum were considered indicative of vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P < 0.05). The use of multivitamin supplements containing vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Ceglia, Lisa; Palermo, Nancy J

    2014-04-01

    Serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be inversely associated with serum 25OHD levels, but the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on serum sclerostin levels is unknown. This study was carried out to determine whether vitamin D and calcium supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured serum sclerostin levels at baseline and after 2 years in 279 men and women who participated in a placebo-controlled vitamin D (700 IU/day) and calcium (500 mg/day) intervention trial carried out in men and women aged ≥65 years. Serum sclerostin levels were measured using the MesoScale Discovery chemiluminescence assay. In the men, sclerostin levels increased over 2 years by 4.11±1.81 ng/l (13.1%) in the vitamin D plus calcium-supplemented group and decreased by 3.16±1.78 ng/l (10.9%) in the placebo group (P=0.005 for difference in change). Adjustments for the season of measurement, baseline physical activity levels, baseline serum sclerostin levels, and total body bone mineral content did not substantially alter the changes. In the women, there was no significant group difference in change in serum sclerostin levels either before or after the above-mentioned adjustments. In both the sexes, vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased serum ionized calcium levels and decreased parathyroid hormone levels. Men and women appear to have different serum sclerostin responses to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. The reason for this difference remains to be determined.

  17. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU) for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg) strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D and interleukin (IL)-5 decreased (P < 0.05) across time in the placebo group. Supplemental vitamin D at 200 IU maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increased IL-5 (P < 0.05). Supplemental vitamin D at 4000 IU increased (P < 0.05) serum 25(OH)D without altering IL-5 concentrations. Although serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated (P < 0.05) with muscle strength, muscle strength was not changed by supplemental vitamin D. Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OH)D and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OH)D increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection

  18. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2012-11-14

    It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation on the progression of AMD in people with AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to August 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 20 August 2012. We searched the reference lists of identified reports and the Science Citation Index. We contacted investigators and experts in the field for details of unpublished studies. We also searched for systematic reviews of harms of vitamin supplements. We included randomised trials comparing antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation (alone or in combination) to placebo or no intervention in people with AMD. Two authors assessed risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. Where appropriate, we pooled data using a random-effects model unless three or fewer trials were available in which case we used a fixed-effect model. Thirteen trials (6150 participants) were included in this review. Over

  19. Open-label pilot study on vitamin D₃ supplementation for antipsychotic-associated metabolic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Thakurathi, Neelam; Stock, Shannon; Oppenheim, Claire E; Borba, Christina P C; Vincenzi, Brenda; Seidman, Larry J; Stone, William S; Henderson, David C

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of vitamin D₃ supplementation on weight and glucose and lipid metabolism in antipsychotic-treated patients. A total of 19 schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients (BMI>27 kg/m²) taking atypical antipsychotics were recruited and dispensed a 2000 IU daily dose of vitamin D₃. On comparing baseline with week 8 (study end) results, we found a statistically significant increase in vitamin D₃ and total vitamin D levels but no statistically significant changes in weight, glucose, or lipids measurements. Patients whose vitamin D₃ level at week 8 was 30 ng/ml or more achieved a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol levels compared with those whose week 8 vitamin D₃ measurement was less than 30 ng/ml. These results suggest that a randomized trial with a longer follow-up period would be helpful in further evaluating the effects of vitamin D₃ on weight, lipid metabolism, and on components of metabolic syndrome in antipsychotic-treated patients.

  20. Randomized controlled trial using vitamins E and D supplementation in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Djalali, Mahmoud; Siassi, Fereydoun; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Firooz, Alireza; Seirafi, Hassan; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Chamari, Maryam; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2011-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing, highly pruritic and inflammatory skin disease. This study was done to assess the effects of vitamins D and E supplementation on the clinical manifestation of atopic dermatitis. Forty-five atopic dermatitis patients were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They were randomly divided into four groups and treated for 60 days: group P (n = 11), vitamins D and E placebos; group D (n = 12), 1600 IU vitamin D(3) plus vitamin E placebo; group E (n = 11), 600 IU synthetic all-rac-α-tocopherol plus vitamin D placebo; and group DE (n = 11), 1600 IU vitamin D(3) plus 600 IU synthetic all-rac-α-tocopherol. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D and plasma α-tocopherol were determined before and after the trial. The clinical improvement was evaluated with SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests. SCORAD was reduced after 60 days in groups D, E and DE by 34.8%, 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively (p = 0.004). Objective SCORAD also showed significant improvement. There was a positive correlation between SCORAD and intensity, objective, subjective and extent (p < 0.001). We found a significant negative association between plasma α-tocopherol and SCORAD, intensity, objective and extent (p = 0.02). This study supports the contributing and beneficial effects of vitamins D and E in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation Increases the Attractiveness of Males' Scent for Female European Green Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Kopena, Renáta; Martín, José; López, Pilar; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E) in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males' secretions were larger. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males' femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals. PMID:21552540

  2. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Ren; Chen, Ye-Shuai; Deng, Wei

    2017-10-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of symptom and structural progression of knee OA. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, stiffness, tibial cartilage volume, and serum vitamin D3 levels, and adverse events. Results were expressed as weight mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI), and risk ratio (RR) with 95%CI. Four RCTs involving 1136 patients were included in this study. Pooled estimates suggested that vitamin D supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in WOMAC pain, and WOMAC function, but not in WOMAC stiffness. Vitamin D supplementation increased the serum vitamin D3 level, but had no effect on tibial cartilage volume. Subgroup analysis showed that, a daily supplement of more than 2000 IU vitamin D significantly decreased the WOMAC pain and WOMAC function. There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events between the vitamin D and placebo groups. Vitamin D supplementation was effective in improving the WOMAC pain and function in patients with knee OA. However, it had no beneficial effect on the prevention of tibial cartilage loss. Therefore, there is currently a lack of evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplementation in preventing the progression of knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of vitamin D supplementation in type 2 diabetes patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva Krishna; Tripathy, Prabhas Ranjan; Panda, Sandip; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes and vitamin D deficiency are widely prevalent in India. Studies have proven correlation between low vitamin D levels and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and low vitamin D levels and insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Forty-five subjects (M:F=34:11) were screened. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, newly diagnosed PTB cases with uncontrolled diabetes, serum vitamin D<20 ng/ml. The patients with vitamin D level<20 ng/ml were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 subjects received oral cholecalceferol (60,000 units/week) and calcium carbonate (1g/day) along with anti tubercular treatment (ATT), while group 2 subjects did not. Sputum was checked at interval of 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Primary end point was time to achieve sputum smear conversion. Fifteen patients having vitamin D>20 ng/ml were excluded. Age of the patients was 42.9±13.2 years and serum vitamin D levels were 18.4±15.3 ng/ml. Sputum smear conversion was 6 weeks in group 1 versus 8 weeks in group 2 (p=0.067). Glycated hemoglobin levels reduced from 11.1±1.3 to 7.7±0.9 in group 1 versus 10.3±1.2 to 7.8±1.1 (p>0.1). Vitamin D can serve as adjuvant treatment of tuberculosis in diabetics with vitamin D deficiency. Further studies are required to validate this observation and define a cut off for vitamin D level to prevent immunological alterations. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multivitamins, Individual Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, and Risk of Diabetes Among Older U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yiqing; Xu, Qun; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding the relationship between multivitamin use and diabetes risk is important given the wide use of multivitamin supplements among U.S. adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively examined supplemental use of multivitamins and individual vitamins and minerals assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported diabetes diagnosed after 2000 among 232,007 participants in the National Institutes of Health–American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Multivitamin use was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In total, 14,130 cases of diabetes diagnosed after 2000 were included in the analysis. RESULTS Frequent use of any multivitamins was not associated with risk of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders and uses of individual supplements. Compared with nonusers of any multivitamins, the multivariate ORs among users were 1.07 (95% CI 0.94–1.21) for taking vitamins less than once per week, 0.97 (0.88–1.06) for one to three times per week, 0.92 (0.84–1.00) for four to six times per week, and 1.02 (0.98–1.06) for seven or more times per week (P for trend = 0.64). Significantly lower risk of diabetes was associated with the use of vitamin C or calcium supplements. The multivariate ORs comparing daily users with nonusers were 0.91 (0.86–0.97) for vitamin C supplements and 0.85 (0.80–0.90) for calcium supplements. Use of vitamin E or other individual vitamin and mineral supplements were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS In this large cohort of U.S. older adults, multivitamin use was not associated with diabetes risk. The findings of lower diabetes risk among frequent users of vitamin C or calcium supplements warrant further evaluations. PMID:20978095

  5. Arterial stiffness parameters associated with vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in patients with normal cardiac functions.

    PubMed

    Sünbül, Murat; Çinçin, Altuğ; Bozbay, Mehmet; Mammadov, Ceyhun; Ataş, Halil; Özşenel, Ekmel Burak; Sarı, İbrahim; Başaran, Yelda

    2016-06-01

    Arterial stiffness parameters including pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A close relationship has been demonstrated between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on arterial stiffness parameters in patients with normal cardiac functions. Study population consisted of 45 patients with vitamin D deficiency and normal cardiac functions. Median age (interquartile range) was 45.0 (12.00) years, and 33 patients were female. Patients were treated with oral administration of vitamin D3. Arterial stiffness parameters were evaluated using Mobil-O-Graph arteriograph system, which detected signals from the brachial artery before and after treatment. Vitamin D levels significantly increased after treatment (9.0 [6.00] nmol/L vs 29.0 [11.50] nmol/L, p<0.001). No significant difference was observed among conventional echocardiographic parameters before or after treatment. Post-treatment PVW and AIx were significantly lower than baseline measurements (6.8 [1.55] m/s vs 6.4 [1.30] m/s, p<0.001 and 23.0 [22.00]% vs 31.0 [14.50]%, p<0.001, respectively). Baseline vitamin D levels significantly correlated with PWV (r=-0.352, p=0.018). Post-treatment vitamin D levels also significantly correlated with post-treatment PWV (r=-0.442, p=0.002) and AIx (r=-0.419, p=0.004). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed no independent predictor of baseline log-transformed PWV. Vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness parameters may aid in the assessment of cardiovascular risk in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

  6. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to improve the vitamin D status of breast-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oberhelman, Sara S; Meekins, Michael E; Fischer, Philip R; Lee, Bernard R; Singh, Ravinder J; Cha, Stephen S; Gardner, Brian M; Pettifor, John M; Croghan, Ivana T; Thacher, Tom D

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether a single monthly supplement is as effective as a daily maternal supplement in increasing breast milk vitamin D to achieve vitamin D sufficiency in their infants. Forty mothers with exclusively breast-fed infants were randomized to receive oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 5000 IU/d for 28 days or 150,000 IU once. Maternal serum, breast milk, and urine were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28; infant serum was obtained on days 0 and 28. Enrollment occurred between January 7, 2011, and July 29, 2011. In mothers given daily cholecalciferol, concentrations of serum and breast milk cholecalciferol attained steady levels of 18 and 8 ng/mL, respectively, from day 3 through 28. In mothers given the single dose, serum and breast milk cholecalciferol peaked at 160 and 40 ng/mL, respectively, at day 1 before rapidly declining. Maternal milk and serum cholecalciferol concentrations were related (r=0.87). Infant mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration increased from 17±13 to 39±6 ng/mL in the single-dose group and from 16±12 to 39±12 ng/mL in the daily-dose group (P=.88). All infants achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of more than 20 ng/mL. Either single-dose or daily-dose cholecalciferol supplementation of mothers provided breast milk concentrations that result in vitamin D sufficiency in breast-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01240265. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplemental vitamin A prevents the acute radiation-induced defect in wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, S.M.; Gruber, C.A.; Rettura, G.

    Acute radiation injury leads to thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, and impaired wound healing. The authors hypothesized that supplemental vitamin A would mitigate these adverse effects in rats exposed to acute whole-body radiation. To test their hypothesis, dorsal skin incisions and subcutaneous implantation of polyvinyl alcohol sponges were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at varying times following sham radiation or varying doses of whole-body radiation (175-850 rad). In each experiment, the control diet (which contains about 18,000 IU vit. A/kg chow (3 X the NRC RDA for normal rats)) was supplemented with 150,000 IU vit. A/kg dietmore » beginning at, before, or after sham radiation and wounding or radiation and wounding. The supplemental vitamin A prevented the impaired wound healing and lessened the weight loss, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, decrease in splenic weight, and gastric ulceration of the radiated (750-850 rad) wounded rats. This was true whether the supplemental vitamin A was begun before (2 or 4 days) or after (1-2 hours to 4 days) radiation and wounding; the supplemental vitamin A was more effective when started before or up to 2 days after radiation and wounding. The authors believe that prevention of the impaired wound healing following radiation by supplemental vitamin A is due to its enhancing the early inflammatory reaction to wounding, including increasing the number of monocytes and macrophages at the wound site; possible effect on modulating collagenase activity; effect on epithelial cell (and possible mesenchymal cell) differentiation; stimulation of immune responsiveness; and lessening of the adverse effects of radiation.« less

  8. Effects of Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation in Bladder Function and Spasticity during Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Kathia; Coronel, Gemma G.; Serrano-Illán, Miguel; Cruz-Bracero, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks. The rats were subsequently exposed either to a contusive SCI or sham operation, and evaluated using standard functional behavior analysis. We report that the rats that consumed the vitamin E-enriched diet showed an accelerated bladder recovery and significant improvements in locomotor function relative to controls, as determined by residual volumes and Basso, Beatie, and Bresnaham BBB scores, respectively. Interestingly, the prophylactic dietary intervention did not preserve neurons in the ventral horn of injured rats, but it significantly increased the numbers of oligodendrocytes. Vitamin E supplementation attenuated the depression of the H-reflex (a typical functional consequence of SCI) while increasing the levels of supraspinal serotonin immunoreactivity. Our findings support the potential complementary use of vitamin E to ameliorate sensory and autonomic dysfunctions associated with spinal cord injury, and identified promising new cellular and functional targets of its neuroprotective effects. PMID:29495419

  9. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial and inflammatory markers in adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agbalalah, Tari; Hughes, Stephen F; Freeborn, Ellen J; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of guava and vitamin C supplementation on experimental gingivitis A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Amaliya, Amaliya; Risdiana, Ajeng S; der Velden, Ubele Van

    2018-05-14

    To study the effect of guava and synthetic vitamin C on the development of gingival inflammation during experimental gingivitis. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups supplemented daily with either 200g guava, 200mg synthetic vitamin C or water. The study included a 14 days pre-experimental period with oral hygiene instructions, scaling, prophylaxis and supplementation. Thereafter, experiment gingivitis was initiated, while continuing supplementation. At baseline, day 7 and day 14 of experimental gingivitis, Plaque Index (PlI) and Gingival Index (GI) were assessed. During the entire study, dietary fruit/vegetables intake was minimal. PlI increased in guava-, vitamin C- and control group (ΔPlI: 1.30, 1.61 and 1.79 respectively). However, the guava group developed significantly less plaque compared to the control group. The GI increase of both guava- and vitamin C group was significantly less than the increase of the control group (ΔGI: 0.10, 0.24 and 0.87 respectively). in a population of young non-smoking adults, consumption of either 200g guava/day or 200mg synthetic vitamin C/day, prior to and during the oral hygiene abstention period, has a preventive effect on the development of experimental gingivitis as compared to the control group that developed the usual amount of experimental gingivitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Supplemental Vitamin E for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shekelle, Paul G; Morton, Sally C; Jungvig, Lara K; Udani, Jay; Spar, Myles; Tu, Wenli; Suttorp, Marika J; Coulter, Ian; Newberry, Sydne J; Hardy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of supplements of vitamin E on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN Systematic review of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis where justified. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Eighty-four eligible trials were identified. For the outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and blood lipids, neither supplements of vitamin E alone nor vitamin E given with other agents yielded a statistically significant beneficial or adverse pooled relative risk (for example, pooled relative risk of vitamin E alone = 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84 to 1.10]; 0.97 [95% CI, 0.80 to 1.90]; and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.02] for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and nonfatal myocardial infarction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is good evidence that vitamin E supplementation does not beneficially or adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:15061748

  12. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and risk of kidney stone formation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Anousheh; Samimagham, Hamidreza; Gohardehi, Golnar

    2013-05-21

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential structural components of the skeletal system, which prevent osteoporosis after menopause. However, there is a controversial debate on the association between the intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the increased risk of formation of kidney calculi in postmenopausal women. which yet have to be confirmed. This study aimed to compare the metabolic changes after supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and examine the risk of stone formation. Fifty-three postmenopausal women referred to rheumatology clinic who had no history of kidney calculi, bone diseases (apart from osteoporosis), metabolic, and rheumatic disorders and had not been receiving calcium, diuretics and calcitonin were investigated. Renal ultrasonography and blood tests were performed and the urine calcium levels were measured for a period of 24 hours for all patients. The examinations were repeated after a 1- year period of treatment with supplemental calcium (100 mg/d) and vitamin D (400 IU/d) and compared with the data before the treatment. After 1 year, asymptomatic lithiasis was confirmed in 1 of 53 patients (1.9%) using ultrasonographic examination. No significant differences were found between the 24-hour urine and blood calcium levels before and after the treatment. Our findings showed that oral intake of calcium and vitamin D after 1 year has no effect on the urinary calcium excretion rate and the formation of kidney calculi in postmenopausal women.

  13. Long-term use of supplemental vitamins and minerals does not reduce the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Wright, Jonathan L; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P; White, Emily

    2011-04-01

    Urothelial carcinoma has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer, making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of urothelial carcinoma. We used the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident urothelial carcinoma in a United States population. A total of 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. After 6 years of followup 330 incident urothelial carcinoma cases in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound SEER cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, and vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and selenium) and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw palmetto, ginkgo biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for urothelial carcinoma comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% CIs, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for potential confounders. None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with urothelial carcinoma risk in age adjusted or multivariate models. The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for the chemoprevention of urothelial carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  15. One-year Effects of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M. Nathalia; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Miley, D. Douglas; Dixon, Debra A.; Couture, Rex A.; Spearie, Catherine L. Anderson; Langenwalter, Eric M.; Shannon, William D.; Deych, Elena; Mueller, Cheryl; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously reported in a cross-sectional study that patients who were in periodontal maintenance programs and were taking vitamin D and calcium supplementation had a trend for better periodontal health compared with patients not taking supplementation. The objective of the present study was to determine, for the same group of subjects, whether there was a difference in periodontal health over a one–year period. Methods Fifty-one patients enrolled in maintenance programs from two dental clinics were recruited. Twenty-three were taking vitamin D (≥400 international units/day) and calcium (≥1000mg/day) supplementation, and twenty-eight were not taking supplementation. All subjects had ≥2 interproximal sites with ≥3 mm clinical attachment loss. For mandibular-posterior teeth, these clinical parameters were recorded: gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding upon probing, calculus index and furcation involvement. Photostimulable-phosphor, posterior bitewing radiographs were taken to assess alveolar bone. Daily vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by nutritional analysis. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results Clinical parameters improved with time in both groups (p<0.01). When clinical measures were considered collectively, the results were borderline significant at baseline (p=0.061), significant at 6 months (p=0.049) but not significant at 12 months (p=0.114). After adjusting for covariates, the effect of supplements was significant at baseline (p=0.037), borderline at 6 months (p=0.058) and not significant at 12 months (p=0.142) Conclusion Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has a modest positive effect on periodontal health, and consistent dental care improves clinical parameters of periodontal disease regardless of such supplements. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has a modest positive effect on periodontal health, and consistent dental care improves clinical parameters

  16. The potential benefits of dietary and/or supplemental calcium and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant problem in women and men. In addition, as osteoporosis has garnered more attention there should be more attention than ever placed on the potential benefits of calcium and vitamin D. Clinicians need to inform patients that there are numerous healthy dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D. Calcium and vitamin D supplements seem to act synergistically to reduce fracture risk in men and women; therefore, they need to be taken together to impact fracture risk. In addition, almost every randomized trial of an effective osteoporosis drug therapy has utilized calcium and vitamin D to enhance the efficacy of the drug itself. Several forms of calcium supplements are commercially available today and clinicians need to understand the similarities and differences between them. Calcium and vitamin D in moderation also have a good safety profile and may actually have benefits far beyond osteoporosis therapy. For example, calcium may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), prevent colon polyps, reduce blood pressure, reduce kidney stone recurrence, and may promote weight loss. Vitamin D may reduce the risk of some cancers, provide an enhanced response to some chemotherapeutic agents, prevent type I diabetes, and may reduce tooth loss along with calcium. Clinicians need to encourage individuals to receive the recommended daily allowance of these two agents because they seem to have an impact on numerous health conditions besides osteoporosis.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation and antibacterial immune responses in adolescents and young adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chun, Rene F; Liu, Nancy Q; Lee, T; Schall, Joan I; Denburg, Michelle R; Rutstein, Richard M; Adams, John S; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Human monocytes activated by toll-like receptor 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) show enhanced expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The resulting intracrine conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) can stimulate expression of antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP). To determine whether this response is functional in HIV-infected subjects (HIV+ ), serum from HIV+ subjects pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation was utilized in monocyte cultures with or without TLR2/1L. Expression of CYP27B1 and VDR was enhanced following treatment with TLR2/1L, although this effect was lower in HIV+ vs HIV- serum (p<0.05). CAMP was also lower in TLR2/1L-treated monocytes cultured in HIV+ serum (p<0.01). In a dose study, supplementation of HIV+ subjects with 4000IU or 7000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 17.3±8.0 and 20.6±6.2ng/ml (43nM and 51nM) at baseline to 41.1±12.0 and 51.9±23.1ng/ml (103nM and 130nM) after 12 weeks (both p<0.001). Greater percent change from baseline 25OHD was significantly associated with enhanced TLR2/1L-induced monocyte CAMP adjusted for baseline expression (p=0.009). In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, 7000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 18.0±8.6 to 32.7±13.8ng/ml (45nM and 82nM) after 12 weeks. Expression of CAMP increased significantly from baseline after 52 weeks of vitamin D-supplementation. At this time point, TLR2/1L-induced CAMP was positively associated with percent change from baseline in 25OHD (p=0.029 overall and 0.002 within vitamin D-supplemented only). These data indicate that vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected subjects can promote improved antibacterial immunity, but also suggest that longer periods of supplementation are required to achieve this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation and antibacterial immune responses in adolescents and young adults with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Lee, T; Schall, Joan I.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Adams, John S.; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Hewison, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human monocytes activated by toll-like receptor 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) show enhanced expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The resulting intracrine conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) can stimulate expression of antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP). To determine whether this response is functional in HIV-infected subjects (HIV+), serum from HIV+ subjects pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation was utilized in monocyte cultures with or without TLR2/1L. Expression of CYP27B1 and VDR was enhanced following treatment with TLR2/1L, although this effect was lower in HIV+ vs HIV- serum (p<0.05). CAMP was also lower in TLR2/1L-treated monocytes cultured in HIV+ serum (p<0.01). In a dose study, supplementation of HIV+ subjects with 4,000IU or 7,000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 17.3±8.0 and 20.6±6.2 ng/ml (43 nM and 51 nM) at baseline to 41.1±12.0 and 51.9±23.1 ng/ml (103 nM and 130 nM) after 12 wks (both p<0.001). Greater percent change from baseline 25OHD was significantly associated with enhanced TLR2/1L-induced monocyte CAMP adjusted for baseline expression (p = 0.009). In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, 7,000IU vitamin D/day increased serum 25OHD from 18.0±8.6 to 32.7±13.8 ng/ml (45 nM and 82 nM) after 12 wks. Expression of CAMP increased significantly from baseline after 52 wks of vitamin D-supplementation. At this time point, TLR2/1L-induced CAMP was positively associated with percent change from baseline in 25OHD (p = 0.029 overall and 0.002 within vitamin D-supplemented only). These data indicate that vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected subjects can promote improved antibacterial immunity, but also suggest that longer periods of supplementation are required to achieve this. PMID:25092518

  19. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on side effects profile in patients of breast cancer treated with letrozole.

    PubMed

    Arul Vijaya Vani, S; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Kadambari, D; Harichandrakumar, K T; Niranjjan, R; Nandeesha, H

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/mL) and insufficiency (10-30ng/mL) may contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms observed in patients taking letrozole. This study was undertaken to assess the vitamin D status in breast cancer patients who received letrozole for >2months and to see the effects of vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on them. Eighty-two breast cancer patients were included. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were assayed and standard questionnaire was completed. They were given vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation (2000IU/1000 mg and 4000IU/1000mg) based on their baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration for 12weeks. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations showed that 13.4% of patients were deficient and 73.2% of patients were insufficient in 25-hydroxy vitamin D. There was an increase in the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and decrease in the concentrations of parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase as the concentration of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D increases. Patients who received letrozole for a longer duration had a low concentration of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D. Vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation increased the concentrations of calcium, phosphorous and decreased the concentrations of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Patients who had low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations had more musculoskeletal symptoms which was improved following supplementation (9.14 vs 8.10 p=0.000). Vitamin D3 supplementation significantly improved serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations and decreased letrozole-induced arthralgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kellie A.

    This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0

  1. Neonatal hypocalcemia and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Elsary, Asmaa Y.; Elgameel, Alkassem A.; Mohammed, Wael S.; Zaki, Osman M.; Taha, Shaimaa A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level. Results: The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 76%, late hypocalcemia represent 52% of hypocalcemic neonates. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 38%. Hypocalcemia was found more prevalent among neonates with no history of vitamin D supplementation (98.7%), no history of maternal calcium supplementation (57.9%), while they had a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy (46.1%) which increased to 53.8% with late hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Neonatal hypocalcemia is widely prevalent in Fayoum governorate with significant association with a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy, not receiving maternal calcium or neonatal vitamin D supplementation. PMID:29543302

  2. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  3. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  4. Vitamin C and E Supplementation Effects in Professional Soccer Players Under Regular Training

    PubMed Central

    Zoppi, Claudio C; Hohl, Rodrigo; Silva, Fernando C; Lazarim, Fernanda L; Neto, Joaquim MF Antunes; Stancanneli, Mirtes; Macedo, Denise V

    2006-01-01

    Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5) received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group), while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5) received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p < 0.05) compared to PL group at the final phase of pre-competitive season. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that vitamin C and E supplementation in soccer players may reduce lipid peroxidation and muscle damage during high intensity efforts, but did not enhance performance. PMID:18500971

  5. High-Dose B-Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although plasma homocysteine levels (tHcy) are clearly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), it remains unclear whether tHcy is a cause or a marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To determine whether reduction of tHcy with B-vitamin supplementation reduces the progression of subclinica...

  6. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-07-13

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  7. Re: errors in the NOF meta-analysis of calcium and vitamin D supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The manuscript entitled "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation" sought to update a former AHRQ evidence report. The study was commissioned by the NOF to inform the organization, since a significant controversy...

  8. Yellow corneal ring associated with vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Andrew W; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mayercik, Vera A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the first described cases of peripheral yellow corneal rings secondary to vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design Retrospective single-center case series. Participants The eyes of four patients taking vitamin supplementation for ARMD were examined at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Department of Ophthalmology between January 2010 and April 2011. Methods We reviewed the medical records of four patients with peripheral corneal rings receiving vitamin supplementation for ARMD. Main Outcome Measures the presence of peripheral yellow corneal rings, skin findings, and serum carotene levels. Results Each patient had circumferential yellow peripheral corneal rings and exhibited subtle yellowing of the skin most notable on the palms. Serum carotene levels were normal in two of the three cases and markedly elevated in the last case in which it was measured. Conclusion It is unclear at this time how to counsel patients with this ocular finding. We suspect that these rings are more common than generally appreciated as they can have a subtle appearance or may be misdiagnosed as arcus senilis. We suggest that a formal study be performed on a cohort of patients taking macular degeneration vitamin supplementation that specifically screens for yellow rings and measures serum carotene levels when they are identified. PMID:22330962

  9. Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: Evaluation in Animal and Clinical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-25

    Variation Group (Wolf JM, SVG group member). Variation in recommendation for surgical treatment for compressive neuropathy. J Hand Surg Am. 38(5):856...Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation/ Goldberg Arthritis Grant Animal Model of Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Osteoarthritis This

  10. Pharmacokinetics of inorganic cobalt and a vitamin B12 supplement in the Thoroughbred horse: Differentiating cobalt abuse from supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, L L; Ridd, Z; Fenwick, S; Hincks, P; Paine, S W

    2018-05-01

    While cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B 12 synthesis in the horse, at supraphysiological concentrations, it has been shown to enhance performance in human subjects and rats, and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations. To devise a scientific basis for differentiation between presence of cobalt from bona fide supplementation and cobalt doping through the use of ratios. Six Thoroughbred horses were given 10 mL vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement (Hemo-15 ® ; Vetoquinol, Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, UK., 1.5 mg B 12 , 7 mg cobalt gluconate = 983 μg total Co) as an i.v. bolus then an i.v. infusion (15 min) of 100 mg cobalt chloride (45.39 mg Co) 6 weeks later. Pre-and post-administration plasma and urine samples were analysed for cobalt and vitamin B 12 . Urine and plasma samples were analysed for vitamin B 12 using an immunoassay and cobalt concentrations were measured via ICP-MS. Baseline concentrations of cobalt in urine and plasma for each horse were subtracted from their cobalt concentrations post-administration for the PK analysis. Compartmental analysis was used for the determination of plasma PK parameters for cobalt using commercially available software. On administration of a vitamin B 12 /cobalt supplement, the ratio of cobalt to vitamin B 12 in plasma rapidly increased to approximately 3 and then rapidly declined below a ratio of 1 and then back to near baseline over the next week. On administration of 100 mg cobalt chloride, the ratio initially exceeded 10 in plasma and then declined with the lower 95% confidence interval remaining above a ratio of 1 for 7 days. For two horses with extended sampling, the plasma ratio remained above one for

  11. Total Duration of Breastfeeding, Vitamin D Supplementation, and Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Birken, Catherine S.; Parkin, Patricia C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the association between total breastfeeding duration and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and to explore whether vitamin D supplementation influences this association. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children between September 2011 and August 2013 through the TARGet Kids! primary health care research network. Of the 4533 eligible children, we included only the 2508 who had 25-OHD measured. We assessed adjusted associations of total breastfeeding duration (in months) with serum 25-OHD and in supplemented versus nonsupplemented children, with the odds of 25-OHD less than 20 nanograms per milliliter. Results. Each 1-month increase in total breastfeeding duration was associated with a 0.12 nanograms per milliliter lower median serum 25-OHD (95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.21 ng/mL, –0.02 ng/mL) among children who were not supplemented. The odds of serum 25-OHD less than 20 nanograms per milliliter increased by 6% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.10) for every 1-month increase in total breastfeeding duration among nonsupplemented children. The interaction between vitamin D supplementation, duration of breastfeeding, and median serum 25-OHD was statistically significant (P = .04). Conclusions. Breastfed children who were not supplemented, particularly those breastfed more than 1 year, appear to have lower vitamin D status. Vitamin D supplementation may mitigate this risk. These findings support recommendations for supplementation during breastfeeding of any duration. PMID:26890167

  12. Vitamin D3 supplementation in adults with bronchiectasis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Jim; Garrett, Jeff; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Vandal, Alain; Sisk, Rose; Milne, David; Tai, Ray; Jeon, Gene; Cursons, Ray; Wong, Conroy

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation prevents acute respiratory infections and, through modulating innate and adaptive immunity, could have a potential role in bronchiectasis management. The primary aims of this pilot study were to assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in New Zealand adults with bronchiectasis, and their 25(OH)D levels after vitamin D 3 supplementation. Adults with bronchiectasis received an initial 2.5 mg vitamin D 3 oral loading dose and 0.625 mg vitamin D 3 weekly for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was serum 25(OH)D levels before and after vitamin D 3 supplementation. Secondary outcomes (time to first infective exacerbation, exacerbation frequency, spirometry, health-related quality of life measures, sputum bacteriology and cell counts and chronic rhinosinusitis) were also assessed. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12612001222831). The initial, average 25(OH)D level was 71 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI): [58, 84]), rising to 218 nmol/L (95% CI: [199, 237]) at 12 weeks and 205 nmol/L (95% CI: [186, 224]) at 24 weeks. The initial serum cathelicidin level was 25 nmol/L (95% CI: [17, 33]), rising to 102 nmol/L (95% CI: [48, 156]) at 12 weeks and 151 nmol/L (95% CI: [97, 205]) at 24 weeks. Over the 24-week study period, we observed statistically significant changes of 1.11 (95% CI: [0.08, 2.14]) in the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and -1.97 (95% CI: [-3.71, -0.23]) in the Dartmouth COOP charts score. No significant adverse effects were recorded. Many New Zealand adults with bronchiectasis have adequate 25(OH)D levels. Weekly vitamin D 3 supplementation significantly improved 25(OH)D levels.

  13. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about interventions for vitamin D supplementation?

    PubMed

    Mateussi, Mariana Vendramin; Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Daou, Júlia Pozetti; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Riera, Rachel; Pacheco, Rafael Leite; Pachito, Daniela Vianna

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of vitamin D supplementation, its use remains controversial. The objective of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding vitamin D supplementation for preventing ortreating any clinical condition. Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A search was conducted to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors. We included 27 Cochrane systematic reviews: 10 assessing use of vitamin D for prevention and 17 for treatment. The reviews found moderate to high quality of evidence regarding the benefit of vitamin D for pregnant women (prevention of adverse events: preterm birth risk [rate ratio, RR 0.36; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.14 to 0.93] and low birthweight risk [RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67]) and for asthma patients (reduction of severe exacerbations [RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88]). No benefit was found regarding vitamin D supplementation alone (without calcium) for preventing hip or any new fracture. For all other outcomes assessed under various conditions, the current quality of evidence is low or unknown, and therefore insufficient for any recommendation. Based on moderate to high quality of evidence, the Cochrane systematic reviews included here showed that there were some benefits from vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women and asthma patients and no benefits for preventing fractures.

  14. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  15. Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Msamanga, Gernard; Saathoff, Elmar; Fataki, Maulidi; Manji, Karim; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2007-06-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are frequent in children suffering from malaria. The effects of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the risk of malaria in children are unknown. We examined the impact of providing multivitamins or vitamin A/beta-carotene supplements during pregnancy and lactation to HIV-infected women on their children's risk of malaria up to 2 years of age, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Tanzanian women (N = 829) received one of four daily oral regimens during pregnancy and after delivery: 1) vitamins B, C, and E (multivitamins); 2) vitamin A and beta-carotene (VA/BC); 3) multivitamins including VA/BC; or 4) placebo. After 6 months of age, all children received 6-monthly oral vitamin A supplements irrespective of treatment arm. The incidence of childhood malaria was assessed through three-monthly blood smears and at monthly and interim clinic visits from birth to 24 months of age. Compared with placebo, multivitamins excluding VA/BC reduced the incidence of clinical malaria by 71% (95% CI = 11-91%; P = 0.02), whereas VA/BC alone resulted in a nonsignificant 63% reduction (95% CI = -4% to 87%; P = 0.06). Multivitamins including VA/BC significantly reduced the incidence of high parasitemia by 43% (95% CI = 2-67%; P = 0.04). The effects did not vary according to the children's HIV status. Supplementation of pregnant and lactating HIV-infected women with vitamins B, C, and E might be a useful, inexpensive intervention to decrease the burden of malaria in children born to HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sin, Helena P Y; Liu, David T L; Lam, Dennis S C

    2013-02-01

    To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded. Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye. Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Vitamin supplement use during breast cancer treatment and survival: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Ying; Gu, Kai; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidants may protect normal cells from the oxidative damage that occurs during radiotherapy and certain chemotherapy regimens, however, the same mechanism could protect tumor cells and potentially reduce effectiveness of cancer treatments. We evaluated the association of vitamin supplement use in the first six-months after breast cancer diagnosis and during cancer treatment with total mortality and recurrence. Methods We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study of 4,877 women aged 20–75 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Shanghai, China between March 2002 and April 2006. Women were interviewed approximately six-months after diagnosis and followed-up by in-person interviews and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 444 deaths and 532 recurrences occurred. Vitamin use shortly after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality and recurrence risk, adjusted for multiple lifestyle factors, sociodemographics, and known clinical prognostic factors. Women who used antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, multivitamins) had 18% reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–1.02) and 22% reduced recurrence risk (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95). The inverse association was found regardless of whether vitamin use was concurrent or non-concurrent with chemotherapy, but was only present among patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusions Vitamin supplement use in the first six months after breast cancer diagnosis may be associated with reduced risk of mortality and recurrence. Impact Our results do not support the current recommendation that breast cancer patients should avoid use of vitamin supplements. PMID:21177425

  18. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis123

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Helen; Hart, Kathryn; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline; Vieth, Reinhold; Lanham-New, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge (January 1966 to July 2011) database was searched electronically for all relevant studies in adults that directly compared vitamin D3 with vitamin D2. The Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number register, and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for any unpublished trials. Results: A meta-analysis of RCTs indicated that supplementation with vitamin D3 had a significant and positive effect in the raising of serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the effect of vitamin D2 (P = 0.001). When the frequency of dosage administration was compared, there was a significant response for vitamin D3 when given as a bolus dose (P = 0.0002) compared with administration of vitamin D2, but the effect was lost with daily supplementation. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3 could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify. PMID:22552031

  19. Vitamin A supplementation in early life affects later response to an obesogenic diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Granados, N; Amengual, J; Ribot, J; Musinovic, H; Ceresi, E; von Lintig, J; Palou, A; Bonet, M L

    2013-09-01

    To assess the influence of supplementation with a moderate dose of vitamin A in early life on adipose tissue development and the response to an obesogenic diet later in life. During the suckling period, rat pups received a daily oral dose of retinyl palmitate corresponding to three times the vitamin A ingested daily from maternal milk. Control rats received the vehicle (olive oil). Short-term effects of treatment on gene expression and morphology of white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed in animals on the day after weaning (day 21). To study long-term effects, control and vitamin A-treated rats were fed, after weaning, a normal fat or a high-fat (HF) diet for 16 weeks. WAT of vitamin A-treated young rats (day 21) was enriched in small adipocytes with a reduced expression of adipogenic markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and lipoprotein lipase) and an increased cell proliferation potential as indicated by increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Increased retinoic acid (RA)-induced transcriptional responses were present in the tissues of vitamin A-treated young rats (day 21) including WAT. Vitamin A-treated rats developed higher adiposity than control rats on a HF diet as indicated by body composition analysis and increased WAT depot mass, adipocyte diameter, WAT DNA content, leptinemia and adipose leptin gene expression. Excess adiposity gain in vitamin A-treated rats developed in the absence of changes in body weight and was attributable to excess adipocyte hyperplasia. No differences in adiposity were observed between vitamin A-treated rats and control rats on a normal fat diet. Total retinol levels in WAT of vitamin A-treated rats were elevated at weaning (day 21) and normalized by day 135 of age. Vitamin A intake in the early stages of postnatal life favors subsequent HF diet-induced adiposity gain through mechanisms that may relate to changes in adipose tissue development, likely mediated by RA.

  20. A vitamin, mineral, herb dietary supplement effect on blood glucose in uncontrolled type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    González, Michael J; Ricart, Carlos M; Miranda-Massari, Jorge

    2004-06-01

    We tested a dietary supplement formulated with a synergistic combination of vitamins, minerals, herbals in a group of 15 patients with uncontrolled diabetes type II. The supplement was given for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose was measured prior to the supplementation and at the end of the 30 days treatment period. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in all patients with no adverse effects. This orthomolecular correction of faulty glucose metabolism with a combination of nontoxic, safe and fairly inexpensive nutraceuticals needs to be further substantiated. Nervertheless the idea of correcting metabolism with micronutrients is a new concept of genetic nutritioneering that seems appealing and cost effective.

  1. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age

    PubMed Central

    Yakoob, Mohammad Y; Salam, Rehana A; Khan, Farhan R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. Objectives To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age. This includes high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; http://www.who.int/ictrp/en/), ClinicalTrials.gov and the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/) up to 16 June 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated preventive supplementation of vitamin D (versus placebo or no intervention) in children under five years of age. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included trials. Main results Four trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 3198 children under five years of age, and were conducted in Afghanistan, Spain, and the USA. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied widely in these populations (range: 73.1% in Afghanistan, 10 to 12% in USA, and 6.2% in Spain). The included trials evaluated mortality (two trials), pneumonia incidence (two trials), diarrhoea incidence (two trials), hospitalization (two trials), and mean serum vitamin D concentrations (four trials). We do not know whether vitamin D supplementation impacts on all-cause mortality because this outcome was underpowered due to few events (risk ratio (RR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 3.74; one trial, 3046

  2. Vitamin A supplementation increases ratios of proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, S E; Arthur, P; Kirkwood, B R; Yeboah-Antwi, K; Riley, E M

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality in populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency and may also reduce maternal mortality. One possible explanation for this is that vitamin A deficiency is associated with altered immune function and cytokine dysregulation. Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may thus compound the pregnancy-associated bias of cellular immune responses towards Th-2-like responses and exacerbate susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. We assessed mitogen and antigen-induced cytokine responses during pregnancy and lactation in Ghanaian primigravidae receiving either vitamin A supplementation or placebo. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of weekly vitamin A supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. Pregnancy compared to postpartum was associated with a suppression of cytokine responses, in particular of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Mitogen-induced TNF-α responses were associated with a decreased risk of peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy. Furthermore, vitamin A supplementation was significantly associated with an increased ratio of mitogen-induced proinflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The results of this study indicate that suppression of proinflammatory type 1 immune responses and hence immunity to intracellular infections, resulting from the combined effects of pregnancy and vitamin A deficiency, might be ameliorated by vitamin A supplementation. PMID:16734607

  3. Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Childhood Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maroof, Zabihullah; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bruce, Jane; Mughal, M. Zulf; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Walraven, Gijs; Masher, Mohammad I.; Ensink, Jeroen H.J.; Manaseki-Holland, Semira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the incidence and risk for first and recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan. METHODS: This double-blind placebo-controlled trial randomized 3046 high-risk 1- to 11-month-old infants to receive 6 quarterly doses of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol 100 000 IU) or placebo in inner city Kabul. Data on diarrheal episodes (≥3 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was gathered through active and passive surveillance over 18 months of follow-up. Time to first diarrheal illness was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier plots. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by using recurrent event Poisson regression models. RESULTS: No significant difference existed in survival time to first diarrheal illness (log rank P = .55). The incidences of diarrheal episodes were 3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28–3.59) and 3.59 per child-year (95% CI, 3.44–3.76) in the placebo and intervention arms, respectively. Vitamin D3 supplementation was found to have no effect on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in either intention-to-treat (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98–1.17; P = .15) or per protocol (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98–1.12; P = .14) analyses. The lack of preventive benefit remained when the randomized population was stratified by age groups, nutritional status, and seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Quarterly supplementation with vitamin D3 conferred no reduction on time to first illness or on the risk for recurrent diarrheal disease in this study. Similar supplementation to comparable populations is not recommended. Additional research in alternative settings may be helpful in elucidating the role of vitamin D3 supplementation for prevention of diarrheal diseases. PMID:24019420

  4. Type of dietary fat is associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increment in response to vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Harris, Susan S; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2011-10-01

    Mono- and polyunsaturated fats may have opposing effects on vitamin D absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intakes of different dietary fats are associated with the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) after supplementation with vitamin D(3). This analysis was conducted in the active treatment arm of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent bone loss and fracture. Subjects included 152 healthy men and women age 65 and older who were assigned to 700 IU/d vitamin D(3) and 500 mg/d calcium. Intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were estimated by food frequency questionnaire. The change in plasma 25OHD during 2 yr vitamin D and calcium supplementation was assessed. The change in plasma 25OHD (nanograms per milliliter) during vitamin D supplementation was positively associated with MUFA, (β = 0.94; P = 0.016), negatively associated with PUFA, (β = -0.93; P = 0.038), and positively associated with the MUFA/PUFA ratio (β = 6.46; P = 0.014). The fat composition of the diet may influence the 25OHD response to supplemental vitamin D(3). Diets rich in MUFA may improve and those rich in PUFA may reduce the effectiveness of vitamin D(3) supplements in healthy older adults. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Vitamin C and E Supplements Enhance the Antioxidant Capacity of Erythrocytes Obtained from Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Sun, Yanan; Zhao, Yuqi; Ren, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yingfang; Zhang, Naili

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplements on the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes obtained from young and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 and 24 months were used. Vitamins C and E were injected at doses of 200 mg/kg (day) intraperitoneally in young and aged groups. The antioxidant capacity, oxidant stress parameters, and deformability of red blood cells collected from different age stages were evaluated. An in vitro oxidation system was constructed to explore the mechanisms of antioxidant capacity change in the vitamin treatment groups. Treatment with vitamins C and E can effectively restore the antioxidant capacity and deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) in aged rats. Under in vitro oxidative conditions, an age-dependent decline in the influx rate of L-cysteine was observed. This was significantly improved following treatment with vitamins C and E. We present evidence of an improvement in the antioxidant capacity of RBCs by treatment with vitamins C and E in aged rats. These observations also suggest that treatment with vitamins C and E improves glutathione synthesis by enhancing the influx rate of L-cysteine through the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  6. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra vitamin E. Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for people who take blood thinners and other medicines. Check with your health care provider before taking the supplements. NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements

  7. [The vitamin status of pregnant women in Moscow: effect of multivitamin-mineral supplements].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Sokolnikov, A A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Gmoshinskaya, M V

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the vitamin status of 102 pregnant women (19-41 years old) from Moscow (gestational age 6-38 weeks) in winter and spring 2015 has been conducted. The lack of vitamin B2 (blood serum level of riboflavin <5 ng/ml), D (25(OH)D level <30 ng/ml) and β-carotene (<20 mg/dL) occurred in 49-66% of pregnant women. The percentage of persons with reduced serum levels of vitamin B6 (<4.8 mg/l), folic acid (<3 mg/l), vitamin A (<30 mg/dL), and E (<0.8 mg/dl) was insignificant and amounted 6-8%. All of the women had an adequate supply with vitamins C (>0.4 mg/dL) and B12 (>150 ng/L). The frequency of the combined deficiency of two vitamins was 29%, of three vitamins - 21%, four - 10%, five - 5%. Only 8% of women were sufficiently supplied with all 8 studied vitamins and β-carotene. A positive correlation (p<0.001) between the concentration of vitamin E and gestation term occurred. β-Carotene blood serum level raised with increasing gestation term in women receiving multivitamin-mineral supplements (VMS) and directly correlated (p<0.05) with vitamin E serum level. In 63 women who were not taking VMS, blood serum level of vitamins A, D, C, B2, B6, B12, folic acid and β-carotene was lower, and the frequency of inadequate supply, on the contrary, was significantly higher, compared to 39 women receiving VMS. Blood serum concentration of vitamins C, A, D, B6 and folic acid in women who were not taking VMS was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing gestation term, whereas in women consuming VMS vitamin blood serum level was maintained at a constant level. The data obtained demonstrate advisability of VMS intake during pregnancy to maintain vitamin status of pregnant women at a satisfactory level and to reduce the risk of birth defects in infants.

  8. Vitamin D Supplementation Enhances C18(dihydro)ceramide Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Alexander; Grammatikos, Georgios; Trautmann, Sandra; Schreiber, Yannick; Bruns, Franziska; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Badenhoop, Klaus; Penna-Martinez, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are characterized by a broad range of bioactive properties. Particularly, the development of insulin resistance, a major pathophysiological hallmark of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D), has been linked to ceramide signaling. Since vitamin D supplementation may slow down T2D progression by improving glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity, we investigated whether vitamin D supplementation impacts on plasma sphingolipid levels in T2D patients. Thus, plasma samples of 59 patients with non-insulin-requiring T2D from a placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blind study were retrospectively analyzed. Once per week, patients received either 20 drops of Vigantol oil, corresponding to a daily dose of 1904 IU/d vitamin D (verum: n = 31), or a placebo oil consisting of medium chain triglycerides (placebo: n = 28). Blood samples were taken from all of the participants at three different time points: 1) at the beginning of the study (baseline), 2) after 6 months supplementation, and 3) after an additional 6 months of follow-up. Plasma sphingolipids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. At baseline and 6 months follow-up, no significant differences in plasma sphingolipid species were detected between the placebo and verum groups. After 6 months, vitamin D supplementation significantly enhanced plasma C18dihydroceramide (dhCer; N-stearoyl-sphinganine (d18:0/18:0)) and C18ceramide (Cer; N-stearoyl-sphingosine (d18:1/18:0)) levels were observed in the verum group compared to the placebo group. This was accompanied by significantly higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) blood levels in patients receiving vitamin D compared to the placebo group. Taken together, vitamin D supplementation induced changes of the C18 chain-length-specific dhCer and Cer plasma levels in patients with T2D. The regulation of sphingolipid signaling by vitamin D may thus unravel a novel mechanism by which vitamin D can influence glucose

  9. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Study Design Prospective cohort analysis. Setting & Participants 156,735 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Predictor Total, dietary and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, BMI, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Outcomes Incident kidney stones Results During median follow-up of 11.3–11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (<90 [reference], 90–249, 250–499, 500–999 and ≥1,000 mg/d) was not significantly associated with the risk of kidney stones among women, but was among men (HRs of 1.00 [reference], 1.19 [95% CI, 0.99–1.46], 1.15 [95% CI, 0.93–1.42], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04–1.60] and 1.43 [95% CI, 1.15–1.79], respectively; p for trend = 0.005). Median total vitamin C intake for the 500–999 mg/d category was about 700 mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], <500, 500–999, and ≥1,000 mg/d) was not significantly associated with the risk of kidney stones among women, but was among men (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.01–1.40] for ≥1,000 mg/d; p for trend = 0.001). Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes >700 mg/d. Limitations Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all the cases. Conclusions Total and supplemental intake of vitamin C was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident kidney stones in men, but not among women. PMID:26463139

  10. Vitamin E supplement improves erythrocyte membrane fluidity of thalassemia: an ESR spin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Sutipornpalangkul, Werasak; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Unchern, Supeenun; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Chantharaksri, Udom; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2012-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia/Hemoglobin E (beta-thal/Hb E) is prevalent in Thailand. The imbalance of globin chains in red blood cells is the primary cause of this anemic disease. The excess alpha-globin in beta-thal/Hb E causes typical damage(s) to membrane of erythroblasts and erythrocytes. By using three paramagnetic labeled compounds (5-, 12-, and 16-spin labeled stearic acids, SLS), the changes of the molecular motion in the lipid bilayer of thalassemic RBCs that have structural modification can be detected. to investigate erythrocyte membrane fluidity and the effect of vitamin E treatment in beta-thalassemia/Hemoglobin E patients by using spin labeling techniques. The erythrocyte membrane fluidity was investigated in nine splenectomized and five non-splenectomized beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (beta-thal/Hb E) patients using EPR spin labeling techniques. To determine the effect of vitamin E on erythrocyte membrane fluidity, only the splenectomized patients were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group received 350 mg vitamin E daily for a period of 1 month (n = 5) and the second group received placebo for an equal period (n = 4). Three paramagnetic fatty acid, 5-, 12-, and 16-doxyl stearic acids, (5-, 12- and 16-DS) were used to label phospholipids layer near both the surface (5-DS) and the deeper hydrophobic region of membrane (12-and 16-DS). Lipid peroxidation (TBARs) was measured using a colorimetric method. Vitamin E was measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Significantly higher values of erythrocyte membrane fluidity were revealed with 12-, 16-DS in splenectomized patients, as compared with non-splenectomized patients and normal subjects. In 3-thal/Hb E patients, fluidity values, both outer hyperfine splitting (2T(//)) and order parameter (S) of 12-DS showed inverse correlation with serum TBARs. There was no significant difference between the fluidity values measured with 5-DS. After vitamin E supplementation, the

  11. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (<90 [reference], 90-249, 250-499, 500-999, and ≥1,000mg/d) was not significantly associated with risk for kidney stones among women, but was among men (HRs of 1.00 [reference], 1.19 [95% CI, 0.99-1.46], 1.15 [95% CI, 0.93-1.42], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04-1.60], and 1.43 [95% CI, 1.15-1.79], respectively; P for trend = 0.005). Median total vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], <500, 500-999, and ≥1,000mg/d) was not significantly associated with risk for kidney stones among women, but was among men (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.01-1.40] for ≥1,000mg/d; P for trend = 0.001). Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  13. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  14. Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on the ocular surface in people with dry eye and/or low serum vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Huang; Albietz, Julie; Harkin, Damien G; Kimlin, Michael G; Schmid, Katrina L

    2018-02-01

    To determine the possible association between serum vitamin D levels and dry eye symptoms, and the impact of an oral vitamin D supplement. Three linked studies were performed. (i) 29 older adult participants, (ii) 29 dry eyed participants, and (iii) 2-month vitamin D supplementation for 32 dry eyed/low serum vitamin D levelled participants. All participants were assessed by the Ocular Surface Diseases Index (OSDI) to determine dry eye symptoms, and the phenol red thread test (PRT) and/or Schirmer's tear test, tear meniscus height, non-invasive tear break up time, grading ocular surface redness and fluorescein staining of the cornea to detect the tear quality and ocular surface conditions. Blood samples were collected for serum vitamin D analysis and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Among older adult participants, vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with dry eye symptoms, the severity of dry eye, and associated with tired eye symptom. Vitamin D levels of people with dry eye diagnosis were not correlated with OSDI scores and IL-6 levels; while IL-6 levels showed correlation with tear production. In supplement study, vitamin D levels increased by 29mol/l, while dry eye symptoms and grading of corneal staining appeared significant reductions. No significant changes in IL-6 levels. Low vitamin D levels (<50nmol/l) were associated with dry eye symptoms in older individuals but not those diagnosed with dry eye. Vitamin D supplement increased the vitamin D levels, and improved dry eye symptoms, the tear quality and ocular surface conditions. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-10-01

    A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.

  16. Effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum.

    PubMed

    Melo, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; Ramalho, Héryka Myrna Maia; Dimenstein, Roberto

    To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5mL of blood and 2mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0h milk), the supplemented group received 400IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24h after supplementation (24h milk). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4mg/day). The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3±793.7μg/dL in the control group and 1452.9±808.6μg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6±968.7μg/dL in the control group (p>0.05) and 2346.9±1203.2μg/dL in the supplemented group (p<0.001), increasing the vitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and height loss: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Aragaki, Aaron K; LeBoff, Meryl S; Li, Wenjun; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Cauley, Jane A; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between calcium + vitamin D supplementation (vs placebo) and height loss in 36,282 participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial. Post hoc analysis of data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of 1,000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily (CaD) or placebo in postmenopausal women at 40 US clinical centers. Height was measured annually (mean follow-up 5.9 y) with a stadiometer. Average height loss was 1.28 mm/y among participants assigned to CaD versus 1.26 mm/y for women assigned to placebo (P = 0.35). Effect modification of the CaD intervention was not observed by age, race/ethnicity, or baseline intake of calcium or vitamin D. Randomization to the CaD group did not reduce the risk of clinical height loss (loss of ≥1.5 inches [3.8 cm]: hazard ratio (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.81, 1.23). A strong association (P < 0.001) was observed between age group and height loss. When we censored follow-up data in participants who became nonadherent to study pills, the results were similar to those of our primary analysis. Compared with placebo, the CaD supplement used in this trial did not prevent height loss in healthy postmenopausal women.

  18. Improved bone metabolism in female elite athletes after vitamin K supplementation.

    PubMed

    Craciun, A M; Wolf, J; Knapen, M H; Brouns, F; Vermeer, C

    1998-10-01

    In female elite athletes strenuous exercise may result in hypoestrogenism and amenorrhoea. As a consequence a low peak bone mass and rapid bone loss are often seen in relatively young athletes. In postmenopausal women, increased intake of vitamin K may result in an increase of serum markers for bone formation, a decrease of urinary markers for bone resorption, and a decrease in urinary calcium loss. In the present paper we report an intervention study among eight female athletes, four of whom had been amenorrhoeic for more than one year, whereas the others had been using oral contraceptives. All participants received vitamin K supplementation (10 mg/day) during one month, and various bone markers were measured before and after treatment. At baseline the athletes not using oral contraceptives were biochemically vitamin K-deficient as deduced from the calcium binding capacity of the circulating bone protein osteocalcin. In all subjects increased vitamin K was associated with an increased calcium-binding capacity of osteocalcin. In the low-estrogen group vitamin K supplementation induced a 15-20% increase of bone formation markers and a parallel 20-25% decrease of bone resorption markers. This shift is suggestive for an improved balance between bone formation and resorption.

  19. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S.; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists. PMID:25339726

  20. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System.

    PubMed

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0-12 months who visited any branch of the Ochsner hospital system. Our results indicate that the rate of initiation of breast-feeding for children followed at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation is 66.3%. However, as breast-feeding rates rise, there is concern that there may be a resurgence of rickets, a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin D. Currently the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that exclusively breast-fed infants receive vitamin D supplementation starting within the first 2 months of life. We have therefore initiated a clinical trial to determine whether vitamin D supplementation is required to prevent rickets in breast-fed children. In the course of conducting this study, we have gathered additional data regarding the patterns of breast-feeding and of vitamin D supplementation for babies born at Ochsner.

  1. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    PubMed Central

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of the Ochsner hospital system. Our results indicate that the rate of initiation of breast-feeding for children followed at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation is 66.3%. However, as breast-feeding rates rise, there is concern that there may be a resurgence of rickets, a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin D. Currently the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that exclusively breast-fed infants receive vitamin D supplementation starting within the first 2 months of life. We have therefore initiated a clinical trial to determine whether vitamin D supplementation is required to prevent rickets in breast-fed children. In the course of conducting this study, we have gathered additional data regarding the patterns of breast-feeding and of vitamin D supplementation for babies born at Ochsner. PMID:21603467

  2. Measles related complications and the role of vitamin A supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashok; Mishra, Subodh; Jain, Pankaj; Bhadoriya, Rahul Singh; Mishra, Rakesh; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2008-09-01

    Measles is associated with high rate of complications and contributes to a major proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. The role of vit A supplementation (VAS) in the case management of measles and prevention of complications is partially understood and not sufficiently supported by epidemiological data. This paper analyses the possible role of vit A supplementation in prevention of measles related complications and associated fatality. A cross sectional study was carried out during an outbreak of measles in Shivpuri, India. A total population of 193,000 was covered by house to house visit and, the caregivers of total 1204 measles cases, including 214 cases with complications, were interviewed using a semi structured interview schedule. The analysis of data was done using Epi Info. The attack rate of 6.7% and rate of complications at 17.8% were found in this investigation. The coverage with routine measles vaccine and the vit A supplementation was 18.3% and 28.9% respectively. The management of measles cases was poor with only 15.8% cases receiving therapeutic doses of vit A. Both complications and case fatality rate was higher amongst children who had not received vit A supplementation in previous 6 months (p<0.05). Measles vaccine also found to have preventive effect on development of complications (p<0.05). Routine vit A supplementation and measles vaccination reduce the chances of complications amongst cases of measles. The role of VAS becomes more important when the case management is poor. While, measles is frequently associated with complications in the Indian setting, there is a need of enhancing the efforts to improve the delivery of vit A supplementation and measles vaccine to the children in rural areas.

  3. Vitamin D supplementation: Hypothetical effect on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Pouso, Alejandro I; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García, Abel; Carballo, Javier

    2018-07-01

    Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone health and skeleton growth. Few foods are natural sources of this secosteroid; this is the reason why the consumption of vitamin D as a dietary supplement is becoming common in developed countries. For many years vitamin D has been considered crucial in the treatment and prevention of the Global Burden of Disease and in a reduction in mortality among elder people. Many health care providers prescribe these supplements in the management of osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases; specifically in the primary prevention of fractures. Recently medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has been reported as severe late sequelae of antiresorptive therapies (i.e., bisphosphonates and some monoclonal antibodies). Although MRONJ-related pathophysiology is not fully understood, there are three fundamental theories to explain it: (1) the inhibition of osteoclasts, (2) the inhibition of angiogenesis and (3) the processes of inflammation-infection. Recent advances in Vitamin D research have shown that this secosteroid can play a potential pivotal role in many of the different etiological pathways of MRONJ. Furthermore, there are a large number of co-morbidities between the deficit of this vitamin and other MRONJ concomitant outcomes. Our hypothesis argues that the low-risk and low-cost vitamin D dietary supplementation may prove to be suitable for use as a practical MRONJ prevention strategy. The described framework gives more insight into the study of disease mechanisms, search of potential biomarkers, and therapeutic targets in MRONJ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance in Black and White Children.

    PubMed

    Ferira, Ashley J; Laing, Emma M; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hall, Daniel B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9–13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = −0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P < .003) over the 12 weeks, despite vitamin D dose-dependent increases in serum 25(OH)D. Despite significant baseline inverse relationships between serum 25(OH)D and measures of insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.

  5. Vitamin D supplementation and lipid profile: what does the best available evidence show?

    PubMed

    Challoumas, Dimitrios

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D supplements have increasingly been used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Historically, effects of the vitamin on the cardiovascular (CV) system have been proposed and demonstrated in the literature, including benefits on serum lipids. Although observational studies support an association between increased serum vitamin D levels and a favorable lipid profile, interventional studies have shown no effects. This review presents and analyzes all the related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in the literature from 1987 to present. A systematic literature search was conducted via MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and, out of 19 relevant RCTs identified, only one reported benefits of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile parameters, while the rest showed no effects or even adverse outcomes, which are highlighted by the only meta-analysis in the field. Attempts to explain the paradox of beneficial findings of observational studies versus discouraging results of interventional studies have been made and the most popular suggests that high serum vitamin D concentrations may not be the cause of good health but its outcome instead, as healthy people are more likely to stay outdoors longer and have better eating habits. For definitive answers to be given, large, well-designed RCTs need to be conducted that will take into account and adjust for dietary consumption as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, both of which have been shown to be associated with the CV system. Until then, recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should not change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (p<0.001) serum concentrations for at least 90 days, with peak concentrations of 323 (SE 23) (Experiment I) and 520 (SE 22) (Experiment II) pmol/L reached 28-35 days after each injection. Liveweight gain was not increased by supplementation and there was no difference in final liveweight between groups. Concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of unsupplemented calves prior to weaning indicated their vitamin B12 status was adequate due to the vitamin B12 and Co content of the milk replacer, and calf meal. Concentrations decreased

  7. Vitamin A supplements for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Ndze, Valantine N; Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Shey, Muki S

    2017-01-01

    Background Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable. Vitamin A, which plays a role in immune function, is one low-cost intervention that has been suggested in such settings. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving vitamin A supplements to HIV-positive women during pregnancy and after delivery. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to 25 August 2017, and checked the reference lists of relevant articles for eligible studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials conducted in any setting that compared vitamin A supplements to placebo or no intervention among HIV-positive women during pregnancy or after delivery, or both. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) as appropriate, with their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and conducted random-effects meta-analyses. This is an update of a review last published in 2011. Main results Five trials met the inclusion criteria. These were conducted in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe between 1995 and 2005 and none of the participants received ART. Women allocated to intervention arms received

  8. The Effects of Season-Long Vitamin D Supplementation on Collegiate Swimmers and Divers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Regina M.; Redzic, Maja; Thomas, D. Travis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of season-long (September–March) vitamin D supplementation on changes in vitamin D status, which is measured as 25(OH) D, body composition, inflammation, and frequency of illness and injury. Forty-five male and female athletes were randomized to 4,000 IU vitamin D (n = 23) or placebo (n = 22). Bone turnover markers (NTx and BS AP), 25(OH)D, and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and ILl-β) were measured at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint. Body composition was assessed by DXA and injury and illness data were collected. All athletes had sufficient 25(OH)D (> 32 ng/ml) at baseline (mean: 57 ng/ml). At midpoint and endpoint, 13% and 16% of the total sample had 25(OH)D < 32 ng/ml, respectively. 25(OH)D was not positively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in the total body, proximal dual femur, or lumbar spine. In men, total body (p = .04) and trunk (p = .04) mineral-free lean mass (MFL) were positively correlated with 25(OH)D. In women, right femoral neck BMD (p = .02) was positively correlated with 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D did not correlate with changes in bone turnover markers or inflammatory cytokines. Illness (n = 1) and injury (n = 13) were not related to 25(OH)D; however, 77% of injuries coincided with decreases in 25(OH)D. Our data suggests that 4,000 IU vitamin D supplementation is an inexpensive intervention that effectively increased 25(OH)D, which was positively correlated to bone measures in the proximal dual femur and MFL. Future studies with larger sample sizes and improved supplement compliance are needed to expand our understanding of the effects of vitamin D supplementation in athletes. PMID:23475128

  9. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on cellular α-tocopherol concentrations of neutrophils in Holstein calves

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Ito, Erina; Iwano, Hidetoma; Oikawa, Shin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The effects of vitamin E supplementation on cellular α-tocopherol concentrations of neutrophils from Holstein calves and the mechanism of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated uptake of α-tocopherol were examined. Cellular α-tocopherol concentrations in vitamin E-treated calves increased from 3.5 ± 0.38 to 7.2 ± 0.84 μg/107 cells, respectively, within 14 d after vitamin E supplementation; these concentrations were significantly higher than those of control calves (P < 0.01). The expression indices of SR-BI [a major receptor that recognizes high-density lipoprotein (HDL)] mRNA in neutrophils were two to five times higher (P < 0.01) in neutrophils obtained from vitamin E-supplemented calves compared with those from control calves, and anti-SR-B1 antibody, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 μg/mL, significantly (P < 0.01) decreased cellular α-tocopherol concentrations of neutrophils. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, major inhibitors of actin polymerization of neutrophils, significantly decreased cellular α-tocopherol concentrations of neutrophils (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that in vitamin E-supplemented calves: 1) α-tocopherol is mainly distributed with HDL, 2) α-tocopherol within HDL is recognized by SR-BI on the surface of neutrophils, and 3) rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a crucial step for the uptake of α-tocopherol by neutrophils. PMID:24082403

  10. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on knee osteoarthritis, the VIDEO study: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arden, N K; Cro, S; Sheard, S; Doré, C J; Bara, A; Tebbs, S A; Hunter, D J; James, S; Cooper, C; O'Neill, T W; Macgregor, A; Birrell, F; Keen, R

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological data suggest low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25-OH-D 3 ) levels are associated with radiological progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can slow the rate of progression. A 3-year, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 474 patients aged over 50 with radiographically evident knee OA comparing 800 IU cholecalciferol daily with placebo. Primary outcome was difference in rate of medial joint space narrowing (JSN). Secondary outcomes included lateral JSN, Kellgren & Lawrence grade, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, stiffness and the Get up and Go test. Vitamin D supplementation increased 25-OH-D 3 from an average of 20.7 (standard deviation (SD) 8.9) μg/L to 30.4 (SD 7.7) μg/L, compared to 20.7 (SD 8.1) μg/L and 20.3 (SD 8.1) μg/L in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the rate of JSN over 3 years in the medial compartment of the index knee between the treatment group (average -0.01 mm/year) and placebo group (-0.08 mm/year), average difference 0.08 mm/year (95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.14-0.29], P = 0.49). No significant interaction was found between baseline vitamin D levels and treatment effect. There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcome measures. Vitamin D supplementation did not slow the rate of JSN or lead to reduced pain, stiffness or functional loss over a 3-year period. On the basis of these findings we consider that vitamin D supplementation has no role in the management of knee OA. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response in acute and regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Ljiljana M; Mitic, Nebojsa R; Miric, Dijana; Bisevac, Boban; Miric, Mirjana; Popovic, Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP)) and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group) and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group.

  12. Relationship Between Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation and Blood Concentrations in Adolescent and Adult Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Siwamogsatham, Oranan; Dong, Wei; Binongo, Jose N; Chowdhury, Ritam; Alvarez, Jessica A; Feinman, Shawna J; Enders, Jessica; Tangpricha, Vin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Pancreatic insufficiency is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and leads to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Multivitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K, are routinely prescribed to patients with CF to prevent vitamin deficiencies. Our objective was to examine the relationship between fat-soluble vitamin supplements and their impact on blood concentrations. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients with CF who were treated at Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital during 2008-2012. The amount of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation, serum markers of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations, CF transmembrane conductance regulator genotype, and other demographic information were recorded from electronic medical records. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the trends over time of fat-soluble vitamin supplements and serum vitamin concentrations. Results: In total, 177 charts were eligible. Mean (SD) age was 26.1 (10.2) years. Ninety-two percent of patients had pancreatic insufficiency and 52% had the homozygous ΔF508 mutation. Recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation increased in the past 5 years (P < .001 for all). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased slightly (3% increase; P < .01); however, there were no changes in the blood concentrations of vitamins A, E, and K (P = .26-.96). Conclusions: Despite a near doubling of recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation over the past 5 years, there was no parallel increase in blood concentrations of these vitamins. Potential reasons include suboptimal dosages, low adherence, or ongoing issues with malabsorption. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Efficacy and safety outcomes in vitamin D supplement users in the fingolimod phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    Hongell, Kira; Silva, Diego G; Ritter, Shannon; Meier, Daniela Piani; Soilu-Hänninen, Merja

    2018-02-01

    Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with worse outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta. Association of vitamin D nutrition on the outcomes of other MS therapies has been studied less. Whether patients in the phase 3 fingolimod trials using vitamin D supplements have better clinical, MRI and safety outcomes than non-users. Pooled data from phase 3 FREEDOMS trials was analyzed post hoc. Vitamin D use was defined as 'non-users' (n = 562), 'casual users' (n = 157) and 'daily users' (usage 100% time in the study, n = 110). Expanded Disability Status Scale change from baseline to month 24, and annual relapse rate and proportion of patients with relapses were similar across the vitamin D user groups. Proportion of patients free of new/enlarging T2 lesions significantly favored vitamin D 'daily users' versus 'non-users'. Mean number of lesions were lower and proportion of patients free of gadolinium-enhanced T1-lesions were higher in the 'daily users'. At month 12, percent brain volume change was significantly lower in the 'daily users' versus 'non-users' and remained low at month 24 (non-significant). Incidence of depression was lower for vitamin D 'daily users' (non-significant). We observed improved MRI outcomes on percent brain volume change and proportion of patients free of new/enlarging T2 lesions, and a trend of less depression in the 'daily users' of vitamin D supplement in patients in the FREEDOMS trials.

  14. Healing of Saccular Aneurysms Following Platinum Coil Embolization: Lack of Improved Efficacy with Vitamin C Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Daying; Ding, Yong-Hong; Rezek, Issa; Lewis, Debra A.; Kallmes, David F.; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that systemic administration of vitamin C, through its action of stimulating collagen synthesis and cross-linking, would decrease the recurrence and improve the occlusion experimental aneurysms treated with platinum coil embolization. METHODS Nineteen experimental aneurysms in female rabbits were embolized with platinum coils (>30% packing density). The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n=6) rabbits served as controls, Group 2 (n=5) rabbits were fed with a vitamin C-supplemented feed and Group 3 (n=8) rabbits were medicated with vitamin C pills. Digital subtraction angiography was used to evaluate stability after embolization. Subjects were euthanized at 12 weeks after coil implantation, and serum vitamin C levels were then measured. Histological samples were examined with a grading system (range, 0-12) based on the neck and dome features. Masson Trichrome staining was employed to evaluate collagen deposition. Parametric data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and non-parametric data were examined using a Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS There were no significant differences between groups in mean aneurysm size. Mean serum vitamin C concentration was significantly higher in Group 3 and Group 2 compared to Group 1, while vitamin C levels between Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically comparable. Coil compaction was noted in one of six subjects in Group 1 and three of eight subjects in Group 3. All the remaining aneurysms in the test and control groups showed stable occlusion. There were no significant differences in histological scores or collagen deposition among groups. CONCLUSION Vitamin C supplementation following platinum coil embolization does not demonstrate improvement of long-term occlusion rates of aneurysms. PMID:22914744

  15. Healing of saccular aneurysms following platinum coil embolization: lack of improved efficacy with vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daying; Yong-Hong, Ding; Rezek, Issa; Lewis, Debra A; Kallmes, David F; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2013-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that systemic administration of vitamin C, through its action of stimulating collagen synthesis and crosslinking, would decrease the recurrence and improve the occlusion of experimental aneurysms treated with platinum coils. Experimental aneurysms were created in female rabbits and were embolized with platinum coils (>30% packing density). The animals were divided into three groups: group 1 (n=6) rabbits served as controls, group 2 (n=5) rabbits were fed with a vitamin C supplemented feed and group 3 (n=8) rabbits were medicated with vitamin C pills. Digital subtraction angiography was used to evaluate stability after embolization. Subjects were euthanized at 12 weeks after coil implantation, and serum vitamin C levels were then measured. Histological samples were examined with a grading system (range 0-12) based on the neck and dome features. Masson Trichrome staining was used to evaluate collagen deposition. Parametric data were analyzed with one way analysis of variance and non-parametric data were examined using a Kruskal-Wallis test. There were no significant differences between groups in mean aneurysm size. Mean serum vitamin C concentration was significantly higher in group 3 and group 2 compared with group 1, while vitamin C levels between group 2 and group 3 were statistically comparable. Coil compaction was noted in one of six subjects in group 1 and in three of eight subjects in group 3. All of the remaining aneurysms in the test and control groups showed stable occlusion. There were no significant differences in histological scores or collagen deposition among groups. Vitamin C supplementation following platinum coil embolization does not demonstrate improvement of long term occlusion rates of aneurysms.

  16. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Johnson, Karen C; Kooperberg, Charles; Pettinger, Mary; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Rohan, Tom; Rossouw, Jacques; Lane, Dorothy; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Hiatt, Robert A; Shikany, James M; Vitolins, Mara; Khandekar, Janu; Hubbell, F Allan

    2008-11-19

    Although some observational studies have associated higher calcium intake and especially higher vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with lower breast cancer risk, no randomized trial has evaluated these relationships. Postmenopausal women (N = 36 282) who were enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative clinical trial were randomly assigned to 1000 mg of elemental calcium with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) daily or placebo for a mean of 7.0 years to determine the effects of supplement use on incidence of hip fracture. Mammograms and breast exams were serially conducted. Invasive breast cancer was a secondary outcome. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were assessed in a nested case-control study of 1067 case patients and 1067 control subjects. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with random assignment to calcium with vitamin D(3). Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels and total vitamin D intake, body mass index (BMI), recreational physical activity, and breast cancer risks were evaluated using logistic regression models. Statistical tests were two-sided. Invasive breast cancer incidence was similar in the two groups (528 supplement vs 546 placebo; hazard ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 1.09). In the nested case-control study, no effect of supplement group assignment on breast cancer risk was seen. Baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were modestly correlated with total vitamin D intake (diet and supplements) (r = 0.19, P < .001) and were higher among women with lower BMI and higher recreational physical activity (both P < .001). Baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in analyses that were adjusted for BMI and physical activity (P(trend) = .20). Calcium and vitamin D supplementation did not reduce invasive breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. In addition, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not associated with subsequent

  17. Effect of the dietary supplementation with Vitamin E on colour stability of packaged, sliced pasteurized ham.

    PubMed

    Houben, J H; Gerris, C V

    1998-12-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (200IU kg(-1) feed) on the colour stability of pasteurized ham was studied. Pigs were fed on control and enriched diets for the last 12 weeks before slaughter. Pasteurized ham was manufactured from the hams from 6 barrows and 6 gilts per dietary group. Half of the samples of sliced ham from control and supplemented pigs were packaged under vacuum (VAC) and half in low-oxygen modified atmosphere packs (FOG, gas mixture: CO(2)/N(2)=60/40). Half the packages were kept under constant illumination and the other half in the dark, both for 22 days at 7°C. The redness component of the VAC-packaged ham prepared from vitamin E-supplemented pigs was slightly more stable than that of comparably packaged ham prepared from control pigs. The opposite was observed for the FOG-packaged products. Overall, colour changes were greater in the ham in FOG-packs than in the ham in VAC-packs. In addition, the colour of the FOG-packaged ham was clearly affected by illumination, whereas the colour of the VAC-packaged ham appeared more stable. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of pigs with vitamin E does not appear to offer significant advantages over currently used feeding regimens with regard to the quality of the ham produced.

  18. Effect of vitamin supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant women on the micronutrient status of their infants.

    PubMed

    Baylin, A; Villamor, E; Rifai, N; Msamanga, G; Fawzi, W W

    2005-08-01

    We examined whether supplementation with vitamin A and/or vitamins B, C, and E to HIV-infected women during pregnancy and lactation is related to increased concentrations of vitamins A, B12, and E in their infants during the first 6 months of life. We carried out a randomized clinical trial among 716 mother-infant pairs in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Women were randomly allocated to receive a daily oral dose of one of four regimens: vitamin A, multivitamins (B, C, and E), multivitamins including A, or placebo. Supplementation started at first prenatal visit and continued after delivery throughout the breastfeeding period. The serum concentration of vitamins A, E and B12 was measured in infants at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Maternal vitamin A supplementation increased serum retinol in the infants at 6 weeks (mean difference=0.09 micromol/l, P<0.0001) and 6 months (mean difference=0.06 micromol/l, P=0.0002), and decreased the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, but had no impact on serum vitamins E or B12. Multivitamins increased serum vitamin B12 at 6 weeks and 6 months (mean differences=176 pmol/l, P<0.0001 and 127 pmol/l, P<0.0001, respectively) and vitamin E (mean differences=1.8 micromol/l, P=0.0008 and 1.1 micromol/l, P=0.004, respectively) and decreased the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin supplementation to HIV-1-infected women is effective in improving the vitamin status of infants during the first 6 months of age.

  19. Low-dose cholecalciferol supplementation and dual vitamin D therapy in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Dusilová-Sulková, Sylvie; Šafránek, Roman; Vávrová, Jaroslava; Horáček, Jiří; Pavlíková, Ladislava; Palička, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to low calcitriol synthesis in failing kidneys has been treated with synthetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) activators. Recently, also the importance of low native vitamin D status beyond the issue of SHPT has been recognized in these patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation in haemodialysis patients with low vitamin D serum levels. Another aim was to evaluate dual vitamin D therapy (cholecalciferol supplementation plus paricalcitol) in haemodialysis patients with vitamin D deficiency and concomitant SHPT. Ninety clinically stable maintenance haemodialysis patients were included. Supervised cholecalciferol supplementation was administered due to low vitamin D status. Patients with SHPT were also treated with synthetic VDR activator. Two pre hoc subgroups for statistical analysis were formed: patients treated solely with cholecalciferol (N=34; 5,000 IU once weekly) and patients treated with a combination of cholecalciferol (identical dose, i.e. 5,000 IU/week) plus paricalcitol (N=34, median dose 10 μg/week). Follow-up visit was scheduled 15 weeks later. Serum concentrations of calcidiol (25-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and beta-cross laps (CTX) were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were monitored monthly. Only non-calcium gastrointestinal phosphate binders were administered. Dialysate calcium was 1.5 mmol/L in all patients, and no oral calcium-containing preparations were prescribed. Depending on data distribution, parametric or nonparametric statistical methods were used for comparison within each group (i.e. baseline vs. follow-up data) as well as between groups. In the whole group of 90 patients, mean baseline 25-D serum level was 20.3 (standard deviation 8.7) nmol/L, and it increased to 66.8 (19) nmol/L (p<0.0001) after supplementation. In both preformed subgroups, the effect of vitamin D

  20. The effects of multi mineral-vitamin D and vitamins (C+E) supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia: An RCT.

    PubMed

    Azami, Milad; Azadi, Tayebe; Farhang, Sepidezahra; Rahmati, Shoobo; Pourtaghi, Khadijeh

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals and vitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia. The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitamin D supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D) and vitamins (C+ E) in the prevention of preeclampsia. In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + one tablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mg magnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controls received only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily. The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference between group B and controls (p=0.50), as well as groups A and B (p=0.063). The incidence of neonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.01), while there was no significant difference between group B and control (p=0.48). According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplements have a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescription of multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable way to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk of preeclampsia.

  1. Vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation alleviates oxidative stress induced by dexamethasone and improves fertility of breeder roosters.

    PubMed

    Min, Yuna; Sun, Tongtong; Niu, Zhuye; Liu, Fuzhu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on improving semen quality and antioxidative status in breeder roosters challenged with dexamethasone (DEX). 120 45-week-old Lveyang black-boned breeder roosters were divided into 5 experimental treatments, including negative group, positive group, and three trial groups, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 300mg/kg VC, 200mg/kg VE, or 300mg/kg VC and 200mg/kg VE (VC+VE). At 49 weeks of age, the positive control and trial groups were subcutaneously injected 3 times every other day with DEX 4 mg/kg body weight, the negative control group was sham injected with saline. At 50 weeks of age, average daily feed intake of birds challenged with DEX significantly increased (P<0.05), however, serum testosterone significantly decreased (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation of VC+VE enhanced serum testosterone and sperm motility remarkably (P<0.05). There were no differences in sperm viability between the DEX-treated groups. During the post-stress recovery period (52 weeks of age), dietary supplementation of VE and VC+VE significantly increased the body weight of birds under oxidative stress (P<0.01). VC, VE, and VC+VE groups had greater sperm viability than control group (P<0.01). Additionally, there was a decrease in the semen plasma malondialdehyde content (P<0.05) of the VC and VC+VE groups, and in the testicular malondialdehyde content (P<0.01) of the VE and VC+VE groups. In summary, VC, VE, especially their combination alleviate the oxidative stress induced by DEX and are favorable for the fertility of breeder roosters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of alkali supplementation and vitamin D insufficiency on rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, Lisa; Rivas, Donato A; Pojednic, Rachele M; Price, Lori Lyn; Harris, Susan S; Smith, Donald; Fielding, Roger A; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2013-10-01

    Data on the independent and potential combined effects of acid-base balance and vitamin D status on muscle mass and metabolism are lacking. We investigated whether alkali supplementation with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), with or without vitamin D3 (± VD3), alters urinary nitrogen (indicator of muscle proteolysis), muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), fiber number (FN), and anabolic (IGF-1, Akt, p70s6k) and catabolic (FOXO3a, MURF1, MAFbx) signaling pathways regulating muscle mass. Thirty-six, 20-month-old, Fischer 344/Brown-Norway rats were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of two KHCO3-supplemented diets (± VD3) or diets without KHCO3 (± VD3) for 12 weeks. Soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and plantaris muscles were harvested at 12 weeks. Independent of VD3 group, KHCO3 supplementation resulted in 35 % lower mean urinary nitrogen to creatinine ratio, 10 % higher mean type I FCSA (adjusted to muscle weight), but no statistically different mean type II FCSA (adjusted to muscle weight) or FN compared to no KHCO3. Among VD3-replete rats, phosphorylated-Akt protein expression was twofold higher in the KHCO3 compared to no KHCO3 groups, but this effect was blunted in rats on VD3-deficient diets. Neither intervention significantly affected serum or intramuscular IGF-1 expression, p70s6k or FOXO3a activation, or MURF1 and MAFbx gene expression. These findings provide support for alkali supplementation as a promising intervention to promote preservation of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the setting of higher vitamin D status. Additional research is needed in defining the muscle biological pathways that are being targeted by alkali and vitamin D supplementation.

  3. Effects of alkali supplementation and vitamin D insufficiency on rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ceglia, Lisa; Rivas, Donato A.; Pojednic, Rachele M.; Price, Lori Lyn; Harris, Susan S.; Smith, Donald; Fielding, Roger A.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2015-01-01

    Data on the independent and potential combined effects of acid–base balance and vitamin D status on muscle mass and metabolism are lacking. We investigated whether alkali supplementation with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), with or without vitamin D3 (±VD3), alters urinary nitrogen (indicator of muscle proteolysis), muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), fiber number (FN), and anabolic (IGF-1, Akt, p70s6k) and catabolic (FOXO3a, MURF1, MAFbx) signaling pathways regulating muscle mass. Thirty-six, 20-month-old, Fischer 344/Brown-Norway rats were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of two KHCO3-supplemented diets (±VD3) or diets without KHCO3 (±VD3) for 12 weeks. Soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and plantaris muscles were harvested at 12 weeks. Independent of VD3 group, KHCO3 supplementation resulted in 35 % lower mean urinary nitrogen to creatinine ratio, 10 % higher mean type I FCSA (adjusted to muscle weight), but no statistically different mean type II FCSA (adjusted to muscle weight) or FN compared to no KHCO3. Among VD3-replete rats, phosphorylated-Akt protein expression was twofold higher in the KHCO3 compared to no KHCO3 groups, but this effect was blunted in rats on VD3-deficient diets. Neither intervention significantly affected serum or intramuscular IGF-1 expression, p70s6k or FOXO3a activation, or MURF1 and MAFbx gene expression. These findings provide support for alkali supplementation as a promising intervention to promote preservation of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the setting of higher vitamin D status. Additional research is needed in defining the muscle biological pathways that are being targeted by alkali and vitamin D supplementation. PMID:23666769

  4. Using cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate targeting strategies: the case of vitamin A supplementation.

    PubMed

    Loevinsohn, B P; Sutter, R W; Costales, M O

    1997-03-01

    Given the demonstrated efficacy of vitamin A supplements in reducing childhood mortality, health officials now have to decide whether it would be efficient to target the supplements to high risk children. Decisions about targeting are complex because they depend on a number of factors; the degree of clustering of preventable deaths, the cost of the intervention, the side-effects of the intervention, the cost of identifying the high risk group, and the accuracy of the 'diagnosis' of risk. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used in the Philippines to examine whether vitamin A supplements should be given universally to all children 6-59 months, targeted broadly to children suffering from mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition, or targeted narrowly to pre-schoolers with moderate and severe malnutrition. The first year average cost of the universal approach was US$67.21 per death averted compared to $144.12 and $257.20 for the broad and narrow targeting approaches respectively. When subjected to sensitivity analysis the conclusion about the most cost-effective strategy was robust to changes in underlying assumptions such as the efficacy of supplements, clustering of deaths, and toxicity. Targeting vitamin A supplements to high risk children is not an efficient use of resources. Based on the results of this cost-effectiveness analysis and a consideration of alternate strategies, it is apparent that vitamin A, like immunization, should be provided to all pre-schoolers in the developing world. Issues about targeting public health interventions can usefully be addressed by cost-effectiveness analysis.

  5. Effect of dietary vitamin E and prey supplementation on semen quality in male black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Santymire, Rachel M; Lavin, Shana R; Branvold-Faber, Heather; Kreeger, Julie; Marinari, Paul

    2015-07-15

    Over the recent years, the captive population of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes; ferret) has experienced a decline in normal sperm (NS) morphology (from 50% to 16%), which may be linked to inbreeding depression or it may have been a dietary change. We examined the role of dietary vitamin E, selenium (SE), and vitamin A on serum levels of vitamin E, SE, and vitamin A and semen quality. Ferrets (n = 55 males) were randomly assigned to one of five diet treatments (n = 11 per treatment): (1) horsemeat diet (control); (2) horsemeat diet + vitamin E (400 IU/kg Dry Matter) daily; (3) horsemeat diet + whole prey; (4) horsemeat diet + vitamin E daily + whole prey; and (5) beef diet. Both blood (prediet and postdiet change) and diets were analyzed for vitamin E, vitamin A, and SE concentrations. Electroejaculates were collected monthly and evaluated for sperm concentration, sperm motility index (includes percent motile and forward progression), and percent NS. Results reveal that the beef and horsemeat diets had comparable (P = 0.05) vitamin E and SE concentrations and all diets met most nutrient requirements for small carnivores; however, the horsemeat diet was excessive in vitamin A and the beef diet was deficient in vitamin A. Vitamin E supplementation increased (χ1(2)=25.83; P < 0.001) serum vitamin E. Ferrets fed the beef diet or prey had improved (H4 = 15.596; P = 0.004) sperm motility index than the horsemeat control group, and ferrets fed the horsemeat diet supplemented with vitamin E had the lowest (H4 = 18.408; P = 0.001) NS. In conclusion, the high levels of vitamin A in the horsemeat diet could compete with vitamin E as evidence by serum levels, which may reduce reproductive success in this endangered species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Dose Daily Intake of Vitamin K(2) (Menaquinone-7) Improves Osteocalcin γ-Carboxylation: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Naoko; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for bone health, but the effects of low-dose vitamin K intake in Japanese subjects remain unclear. We investigated the effective minimum daily menaquinone-7 dose for improving osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-finding trial; 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 y were allocated to one of four dosage group and consumed 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 4 wk, respectively, with a controlled diet in accordance with recommended daily intakes for 2010 in Japan. Study 2 was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial based on the results of Study 1; 120 subjects aged 20-69 y were allocated to the placebo or MK-7 group and consumed 0 or 100 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 12 wk, respectively. In both studies, circulating carboxylated osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured. The carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio decreased significantly from baseline in the 0 μg menaquinone-7 group, in which subjects consumed the recommended daily intake of vitamin K with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 (Study 1). Menaquinone-7 increased the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio dose dependently, and significant effects were observed in both the 100 and 200 μg groups compared with the 0 μg group. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations decreased significantly, and the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio increased significantly in the 100 μg menaquinone-7 group compared with the placebo group (Study 2). Daily menaquinone-7 intake ≥100 μg was suggested to improve osteocalcin γ-carboxylation.

  7. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, H A; Dawson-Hughes, B; Staehelin, H B; Orav, J E; Stuck, A E; Theiler, R; Wong, J B; Egli, A; Kiel, D P; Henschkowski, J

    2009-10-01

    To test the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and active forms of vitamin D with or without calcium in preventing falls among older individuals. We searched Medline, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, BIOSIS, and Embase up to August 2008 for relevant articles. Further studies were identified by consulting clinical experts, bibliographies, and abstracts. We contacted authors for additional data when necessary. Review methods Only double blind randomised controlled trials of older individuals (mean age 65 years or older) receiving a defined oral dose of supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D(2) (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha-hydroxycalciferol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)) and with sufficiently specified fall assessment were considered for inclusion. Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity among trials was observed for dose of vitamin D (700-1000 IU/day v 200-600 IU/day; P=0.02) and achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentration (25(OH)D concentration: <60 nmol/l v >or=60 nmol/l; P=0.005). High dose supplemental vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; n=1921 from seven trials), whereas achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 60 nmol/l or more resulted in a 23% fall reduction (pooled RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Falls were not notably reduced by low dose supplemental vitamin D (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.35; n=505 from two trials) or by achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l (pooled RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.84). Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94). Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of

  8. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, B; Staehelin, H B; Orav, J E; Stuck, A E; Theiler, R; Wong, J B; Egli, A; Kiel, D P; Henschkowski, J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and active forms of vitamin D with or without calcium in preventing falls among older individuals. Data sources We searched Medline, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, BIOSIS, and Embase up to August 2008 for relevant articles. Further studies were identified by consulting clinical experts, bibliographies, and abstracts. We contacted authors for additional data when necessary. Review methods Only double blind randomised controlled trials of older individuals (mean age 65 years or older) receiving a defined oral dose of supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α-hydroxycalciferol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)) and with sufficiently specified fall assessment were considered for inclusion. Results Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity among trials was observed for dose of vitamin D (700-1000 IU/day v 200-600 IU/day; P=0.02) and achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (25(OH)D concentration: <60 nmol/l v ≥60 nmol/l; P=0.005). High dose supplemental vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; n=1921 from seven trials), whereas achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 60 nmol/l or more resulted in a 23% fall reduction (pooled RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Falls were not notably reduced by low dose supplemental vitamin D (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.35; n=505 from two trials) or by achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l (pooled RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.84). Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94). Conclusions Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day

  9. Vitamin B12 supplement alleviates N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Areeba; Afroz, Nishat; Gupta, Umesh D; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-01-10

    Abstract Context: Altered vitamin B 12 levels have been correlated with hepatotoxicity; however, further evidence is required to establish its protective role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of vitamin B 12 supplement in protecting N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering NDMA in doses of 10 mg/kg body weight thrice a week for 21 days. Another group received equal doses (10 mg/kg body weight) of vitamin B 12 subsequent to NDMA treatment. Animals from either group were sacrificed weekly from the start of the treatment along with their respective controls. Progression of hepatic fibrosis, in addition to the effect of vitamin B 12 , was assessed biochemically for liver function biomarkers, liver glycogen, hydroxyproline (HP) and B 12 reserves along with histopathologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) as well immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Results and discussion: Elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, SALP, total bilirubin and HP was observed in NDMA treated rats, which was concomitant with remarkable depletion in liver glycogen and B 12 reserves (p < 0.05). Liver biopsies also demonstrated disrupted lobular architecture, collagen amassing and intense fibrosis by NDMA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of activated stellate cells that was dramatically increased up to day 21 in fibrotic rats. Following vitamin B 12 treatment, liver function biomarkers, glycogen contents and hepatic vitamin B 12 reserves were restored in fibrotic rats, significantly. Vitamin B 12 administration also facilitated restoration of normal liver architecture. Conclusion: These findings provide interesting new evidence in favor of protective role for vitamin B 12 against NDMA-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

  10. [Fat-soluble vitamins supplementation in patients with cystic fibrosis: is enough Aquadek's®?].

    PubMed

    González Jiménez, David; Bousoño García, Carlos; Díaz Martin, Juan Jose; Jiménez Treviño, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel polyvitaminic (Aquadek's®) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Prospective, longitudinal and non-randomized study. CF patients with pancreatic insufficiency and clinically stable were given Aquadek's® (two chewable tablets) daily for 12 months. Serum levels of retinol, beta-carotene, 25 OH vitamin D and α-tocopherol were evaluated twelve months before, at baseline and 12 months after. paired t tests. 28 patients aged 6 to 39 years (median 18.5 years) were included. Aquadek's® supplementation led to an increase in vitamin A dose and a decrease in the number of tablets administered. At baseline, 89% had at least one vitamin deficiency (61% pro-Vitamin A and 54% vitamin D). After one year, serum beta-carotene levels were increases 160 (95% CI 98-222) mcg/l (p <0.001) and decreased the percentage of patients with pro-vitamin A deficiency 46% (95% CI 22-64) (p <0.001). The proportion of patients with vitamin D insuficiency increased 18%(95% CI 2-32) (p =0.025). In any case serum levels exceeded the upper limits used to assess the risk of toxicity.Conclusions: Two daily Aquadek's® chewable tablets are safe and effective for maintaining vitamin A and E status of CF patients older than 6 years, although it is insufficient to normalize serum 25OHvitaminD according to the current recommendations for this disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation in young children: associations with Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, descriptive norms, moral norms and habits.

    PubMed

    de Nooijer, Jascha; Onnink, Monique; van Assema, Patricia

    2010-08-01

    In the Netherlands, a supplementation of 10 microg vitamin D is recommended for children (aged 0-4 years), given that vitamin D contributes to the development of healthy bones and deficiency during childhood is a risk factor for osteoporosis at a later age. However, only 60 % of the Dutch children receive sufficient vitamin D supplementation a day. In order to develop interventions to improve supplementation intake, it is necessary to gain insight into the behaviour of parents in giving their children vitamin D supplementation and its association with variables of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, moral and descriptive norms and habits. A cross-sectional survey to assess present supplementation-related behaviour, knowledge, received information, intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, moral norm, descriptive norm and habit. Data obtained from a representative Internet Panel by means of electronic questionnaires. Parents (n 270) of children aged 0-4 years. Half of the parents (48.9 %) gave their child sufficient vitamin D supplementation. Giving the supplement at a fixed time, a positive intention and habit were significantly associated with actual behaviour. The higher age of the child, first-born status, a fixed time for taking vitamin supplementation, descriptive norm and moral obligation were significantly associated with intention. These results indicate that because many parents do not give their children adequate vitamin D supplementation, the promotion of supplementation during the first years of life is a necessity. Effective yet simple strategies should be developed, focused on improving moral obligation, descriptive norms and habit formation.

  12. Vitamin D as Supplemental Therapy for Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lei, Guang-Sheng; Zhang, Chen; Zimmerman, Michelle K; Lee, Chao-Hung

    2015-12-14

    The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and primaquine (PMQ) has been shown to be effective for therapy of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Since a high concentration of ATRA has significant adverse effects, the possibility that vitamin D can be used to replace ATRA for PCP therapy was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were immunosuppressed by depleting CD4(+) cells and infected with Pneumocystis murina 1 week after initiation of immunosuppression. Three weeks after infection, the mice were treated orally for 3 weeks with vitamin D3 (VitD3) alone, PMQ alone, a combination of VitD3 and PMQ (VitD3-PMQ), or a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Results showed that VitD3 (300 IU/kg/day) had a synergistic effect with PMQ (5 mg/kg/day) for therapy of PCP. Flow cytometric studies showed that this VitD3-PMQ combination recovered the CD11b(low) CD11c(high) alveolar macrophage population in mice with PCP as effectively as TMP-SMX. The VitD3-PMQ combination also reduced the massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs and the severity of lung damage. VitD3 was also shown to reduce the dose of TMP-SMX required for effective treatment of PCP. Taken together, results of this study suggest that a VitD3-PMQ combination can be used as an alternative therapy for PCP. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The impact of exercise and vitamin D supplementation on physical function in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kana; Sakuma, Mayumi; Endo, Naoto

    2018-04-25

    We investigated the impact of exercise and vitamin D supplementation on physical function and locomotor dysfunction in community-dwelling elderly individuals. In total, 148 community-dwelling elderly individuals (aged ≥60 years) who were not taking osteoporosis medications participated in a 24-week intervention. The participants were randomly divided into an exercise group, vitamin D group, and exercise and vitamin D group. The participants and outcome-assessing staff were not blinded to group assignment. Exercise comprised three daily sets each of single-leg standing (1 min/leg/set) and squatting (5-6 repetitions/set); vitamin D supplementation was 1000 IU/day. Participants were contacted every 2 weeks to check on their condition and encourage continued participation. The primary outcome was lower limb muscle strength and mass; secondary outcomes were several physical function measurements, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and results of a self-assessment questionnaire completed pre- and post-intervention. We analyzed data from 45, 42, and 43 participants in the exercise, vitamin D, and exercise and vitamin D groups, respectively, who completed the intervention. Locomotive syndrome, which involves reduced mobility due to locomotive organ impairment, was diagnosed in 99 participants (76.2%). Many physical function measurements improved in all groups. Lower limb muscle mass increased significantly in all three groups, with no significant differences between the groups in the degree of change. The average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of all vitamin D-supplemented participants increased from 28.1 ng/ml to 47.3 ng/ml after vitamin D supplementation. Both exercise and vitamin D supplementation independently improved physical function and increased muscle mass in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Moreover, the combination of exercise and vitamin D supplementation might further enhance these positive effects. UMIN Clinical Trial, UMIN000028229. Copyright © 2018

  14. Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Angela M; Tile, Lianne; Lee, Yuna; Tomlinson, George; Hawker, Gillian; Scher, Judy; Hu, Hanxian; Vieth, Reinhold; Thompson, Lilian; Jamal, Sophie; Josse, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures. Methods and Findings This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by −1.28% and −1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of −0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and −0.69% and −0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI −0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0

  15. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  16. Vitamin D supplementation in bipolar depression: A double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Wendy K; Penny, Jessica L; Rothschild, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar depression is difficult to treat. Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated and may improve mood via its neurotransmitter synthesis regulation, nerve growth factor enhancement and antioxidant properties. Vitamin D adjunct reduces unipolar depression, but has not been tried in bipolar depression. 18-70yos with DSM IV bipolar depression and Vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) were randomized in a controlled double blind trial of 5000IU Vitamin D 3 po qday supplementation versus placebo for twelve weeks. Change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), medication, and tolerance were assessed q2weeks. 16 VitD vs 17 placebo subjects did not differ in baseline characteristics (mean = 44 yo, SD = 13), VitD level (19.2 ± 65.8  g/ml vs 19.3 ± 5.5 ng/ml respectively) or mood ratings (MADRS 21.3 ± 6.4 vs 22.8 ± 6.9 respectively). At 12wks, the placebo group VitD levels remained unchanged, while the VitD group levels increased to 28 ng/ml. MADRS score decreased significantly in both placebo (mean = 6.42 (95% CI [2.28 to 10.56]) and VitD groups (mean = 9.54 (95% CI[3.51 to 15.56]) (p = 0.031), but there were no differences between treatment groups (time by treatment interaction estimate: 0.29, t (23)  = 0.14, p = 0.89); VitD and placebo groups had similar reductions in YMRS and HAM-A. Vitamin D 3 was well tolerated. In this small study, despite a greater rise in Vitamin D levels in the VitD supplementation group, there was no significant difference reduction in depressive symptoms. However both groups' VitD levels remained deficient. Vitamin D 3 supplementation vs placebo did not improve reduction in mood elevation or anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A review of the effects of vitamins and other dietary supplements on seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susan W; Chung, Steve S

    2010-07-01

    The role of pharmacological and surgical management of epilepsy continues to expand, but these treatments are often associated with significant side effects and morbidity. As a result, many patients with epilepsy and their physicians alike have gained interest in the role of vitamins and other dietary supplements for seizure management. In this review, we examine the potential anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of commonly used dietary supplements, as well as their potential effects on cognition or behavior. Our review was conducted through a literature search focusing on clinical trials involving patients with epilepsy and their seizure response to dietary supplementation. We summarize findings from previous clinical studies and comment on practical considerations regarding dietary supplementation for patients with epilepsy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin D Supplementation in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Clozapine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Krivoy, Amir; Onn, Roy; Vilner, Yael; Hochman, Eldar; Weizman, Shira; Paz, Amir; Hess, Shmuel; Sagy, Roi; Kimhi-Nesher, Shiri; Kalter, Ehud; Friedman, Tal; Friedman, Zvi; Bormant, Gil; Trommer, Sharon; Valevski, Avi; Weizman, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    While accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the risk to develop schizophrenia and its outcome, there are no studies on vitamin D supplementation in this context. We sought to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychiatric, cognitive and metabolic parameters in chronic clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. This eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, recruited schizophrenia patients who had been maintained on clozapine treatment for at least 18weeks and had low levels of vitamin D (<75nmol/l) and total PANSS scores >70 (to ascertain the presence of residual symptoms). Patients were randomly allocated to either weekly oral drops of vitamin D (14,000IU) or placebo and subsequently assessed at two-week intervals for psychosis severity, mood, cognition and metabolic profile. Twenty four patients were randomly assigned to vitamin D (aged 39.4±9.6years, 75% males) and the other 23 patients to the placebo arm (aged 42.5±11.2years, 60.9% males). After eight weeks, the vitamin D group exhibited a significant increase in vitamin D levels (31.4 vs -0.4nmol/l, p<0.0001). There was no significant effect of vitamin D on psychotic, depressive or metabolic parameters. However, in the vitamin D group, there was a trend towards improved cognition (effect size=0.17, significance lost following Bonferroni correction). Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a trend towards improved cognition, but did not affect psychosis, mood or metabolic status. It is possible that the robust decrease in the PANSS scores in both groups may have obscured an effect of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D status and its predictors in New Zealand aged-care residents eligible for a government-funded universal vitamin D supplementation programme.

    PubMed

    MacDonell, Sue O; Miller, Jody C; Harper, Michelle J; Waters, Debra L; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    The provision of prescribed vitamin D to all aged-care residents has been implemented in New Zealand as part of a government-led falls prevention programme. To our knowledge, there has been no evaluation of this universal programme on vitamin D status and functional and health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and their predictors in aged-care residents across the country and to investigate whether the government-funded programme was associated with adequate vitamin D status. Cross-sectional survey of sociodemographic, biochemical, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics. Blood samples were analysed for serum 25(OH)D and other biochemical measures. Multiple regression was used to examine predictors of vitamin D status. Sixteen residential aged-care facilities throughout New Zealand. Residents aged ≥60 years with residency duration >12 weeks (n 309). Mean serum 25(OH)D was 89·9 (95 % CI 85·2, 94·5) nmol/l and monthly supplements (1250 µg (50 000 IU)) were taken by 75 % of all residents. Of those not taking a funded supplement, 65·3 % had serum 25(OH)D 125 nmol/l. Residents taking supplemental vitamin D had adequate vitamin D status; however monitoring of long-term supplementation should be considered, due to the high proportion of participants with high serum 25(OH)D levels.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with functional decline and falls in frail elderly women despite supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kotlarczyk, M P; Perera, S; Ferchak, M A; Nace, D A; Resnick, N M; Greenspan, S L

    2017-04-01

    We examined the impact of daily supplementation on vitamin D deficiency, function, and falls in female long-term care residents. Initial vitamin D deficiency was associated with greater functional decline and increased fall risk despite guideline-recommended supplementation, highlighting the importance of preventing vitamin D deficiency in frail elderly. Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines recommend 800 IU vitamin D daily for older adults and maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] above 20 ng/ml for optimal skeletal health. The adequacy of IOM guidelines for sustaining function and reducing falls in frail elderly is unknown. Female long-term care residents aged ≥65 enrolled in an osteoporosis clinical trial were included in this analysis (n = 137). Participants were classified based on baseline 25(OH) D levels as deficient (<20 ng/ml, n = 26), insufficient (20-30 ng/ml, n = 40), or sufficient (>30 ng/ml, n = 71). Deficient women were provided initial vitamin D repletion (50,000 IU D 3 weekly for 8 weeks). All were supplemented with 800 IU vitamin D 3 daily for 24 months. Annual functional assessments included Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), Instrumental ADL (IADL), physical performance test (PPT), gait speed, cognition (SPMSQ), and mental health (PHQ-9). We used linear mixed models for analysis of functional measures and logistic regression for falls. Daily supplementation maintained 25(OH) D levels above 20 ng/ml in 95% of particip